4,971 results match your criteria Bacterial Vaginosis


Sex Transm Dis 2021 Mar 16. Epub 2021 Mar 16.

1Departments of Internal Medicine 2Biochemistry, Microbiology and Immunology Wayne State University School of Medicine Detroit, Michigan.

Background: Recurrence of bacterial vaginosis (RBV) is a major challenge to effective therapy. Women suffering from intractable and frequent recurrences are ill-served by available treatment options both antimicrobial and use of probiotics.

Methods: One hundred and five women with RBV failing all recommended regimens seen in clinic were prescribed combination oral nitroimidazole 500mg bid for 7 days and simultaneous boric acid 600mg daily per vagina therapy for 30 days, there after by twice weekly vaginal metronidazole gel for five months in attempt to prevent recurrence and followed by a 6-month observation period. Read More

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The impact of the female genital tract microbiome in women health and reproduction: a review.

J Assist Reprod Genet 2021 Jun 10. Epub 2021 Jun 10.

IVIRMA Valencia, Plaza de la Policía Local, 3, 46015, Valencia, Spain.

Purpose: The aim of this review is to gather the available research focusing on female genital tract (FGT) microbiome. Research question focuses in decipher which is the role of FGT microbiota in eubiosis, assisted reproduction techniques (ARTs), and gynaecological disorders, and how microbiome could be utilised to improve reproduction outcomes and to treat fertility issues.

Methods: PubMed was searched for articles in English from January 2004 to April 2021 for "genital tract microbiota and reproduction", "endometrial microbiome", "microbiome and reproduction" and "microbiota and infertility". Read More

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Chlorhexidine, clotrimazole, metronidazole and combination therapy in the treatment of vaginal infections.

J Med Life 2021 Mar-Apr;14(2):250-256

Clinical Research Development Centre, Imam Reza Hospital, Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences, Kermanshah, Iran.

This was a clinical trial study that aimed to investigate the efficacy of vaginal chlorhexidine gel in the treatment of vulvovaginal candidiasis, bacterial vaginosis, and nonspecific vaginitis. The study population included patients who complained of vaginal discharge and presented to our University Gynecology Clinic. The data were analyzed using the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) software. Read More

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Chronic recurrent vulvovaginitis is not only due to Candida.

Rev Iberoam Micol 2021 Jun 3. Epub 2021 Jun 3.

Centro de Estudios Micológicos, Ciudad Autónoma de Buenos Aires, Argentina.

Background: Recurrent vulvovaginitis is a growing problem that affects millions of women worldwide. In many cases it is treated as vulvovaginal candidiasis, but there is not always microbiological confirmation.

Aims: To determine the etiology of vulvovaginitis in a group of patients. Read More

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Bacterial Vaginosis: Effects on Reproduction and Its Therapeutics.

J Gynecol Obstet Hum Reprod 2021 Jun 1:102174. Epub 2021 Jun 1.

Clinical and Translational Research Center, Shanghai First Maternity and Infant Hospital, Tongji University School of Medicine, Shanghai, China; Department of Reproductive Immunology, Shanghai First Maternity and Infant Hospital, Tongji University School of Medicine, Shanghai, China. Electronic address:

Bacterial Vaginosis (BV) is the most common vaginal infection. A large amount of evidence shows that the anatomical scope of BV's pathogenic effect is far beyond the lower reproductive tract. BV is closely related to adverse reproductive outcomes, which may be due to the infection of the vaginal flora ascending to the upper genital tract. Read More

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Bacterial vaginosis in pregnancy: prevalence and outcomes in a tertiary care hospital.

Afr J Reprod Health 2021 Feb;25(1):49-55

Department of Medical Laboratories, College of Applied Medical Sciences, Qassim University, Buraydah, Saudi Arabia.

Bacterial Vaginosis (BV) has recently emerged as a global health issue especially in pregnant women because of its adverse outcomes. Various studies have shown the impact of BV on both mother and baby as well as overall reproductive health of women. The study intended to assess the prevalence of BV in pregnant women visiting our hospital and estimate the risk of associated complications. Read More

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February 2021

Screening Pregnant Women for Bacterial Vaginosis Using a Point-of-Care Test: A Prospective Validation Study.

J Clin Med 2021 May 24;10(11). Epub 2021 May 24.

Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Division of Obstetrics and Feto-Maternal Medicine, Medical University of Vienna, A-1090 Vienna, Austria.

Bacterial vaginosis in early pregnancy is associated with an increased risk of preterm birth. The introduction of a simple screen-and-treat program into antenatal care was shown to significantly reduce the rate of preterm birth. The gold standard for diagnosing bacterial vaginosis is Gram staining, which is, however, time-consuming and requires laboratory facilities. Read More

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Intricate Connections between the Microbiota and Endometriosis.

Int J Mol Sci 2021 May 26;22(11). Epub 2021 May 26.

Division of Reproductive Endocrinology and Infertility, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of British Columbia, D415A-4500 Oak Street, Vancouver, BC V6H 3N1, Canada.

Imbalances in gut and reproductive tract microbiota composition, known as dysbiosis, disrupt normal immune function, leading to the elevation of proinflammatory cytokines, compromised immunosurveillance and altered immune cell profiles, all of which may contribute to the pathogenesis of endometriosis. Over time, this immune dysregulation can progress into a chronic state of inflammation, creating an environment conducive to increased adhesion and angiogenesis, which may drive the vicious cycle of endometriosis onset and progression. Recent studies have demonstrated both the ability of endometriosis to induce microbiota changes, and the ability of antibiotics to treat endometriosis. Read More

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Bioinformatics Analysis of Oral, Vaginal, and Rectal Microbial Profiles during Pregnancy: A Pilot Study on the Bacterial Co-Residence in Pregnant Women.

Microorganisms 2021 May 11;9(5). Epub 2021 May 11.

Department of Pathophysiology, Graduate School of Medicine, Osaka City University, Osaka 545-8585, Japan.

Preterm birth (PTB) and threatened preterm labor (TPL), an important pre-PTB state, are major obstetric complications during pregnancy. However, their triggers have not been fully elucidated. The vagina is dominated by species (categorized as community state types; CSTs I, II, III, and V) or by mixed anaerobes (CST IV). Read More

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Gut and vaginal microbiomes on steroids: implications for women's health.

Trends Endocrinol Metab 2021 May 25. Epub 2021 May 25.

Neuroscience Department, Wellesley College, Wellesley, MA 02481, USA. Electronic address:

This review discusses the interactions of steroids with the gut and vaginal microbiomes within each life phase of adult women and the implications for women's health. Each phase of a woman's life is characterized by distinct hormonal states which drive overall physiology of both host and commensal microbes. These host-microbiome interactions underlie disease pathology in disorders that affect women across their lifetime, including bacterial vaginosis, gestational diabetes, polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), anxiety, depression, and obesity. Read More

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Perinatal Infections With Ureaplasma.

Pediatr Infect Dis J 2021 May;40(5S):S26-S30

From the Division of Pediatric Infectious Diseases, Immunology and Rheumatology, Department of Pediatrics.

Ureaplasma species are increasingly recognized as relevant pathogens in prenatal, perinatal and postnatal morbidity. They are commonly found as commensals on the mucous membranes of the lower urogenital tract of pregnant women, but when ascending, they can cause bacterial vaginosis, chorioamnionitis, premature birth and postnatal morbidities such as bronchopulmonary dysplasia, and early-onset neonatal sepsis and meningitis. The detection of Ureaplasma species is challenging and is not covered by routine diagnostics, and current empiric antibiotic treatment in neonates suspected of infection is not directed against Ureaplasma species. Read More

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Chlamydia, gonorrhea, and incident HIV infection during pregnancy predict preterm birth despite treatment.

J Infect Dis 2021 May 23. Epub 2021 May 23.

Department of Pediatrics, University of Washington, Seattle, WA, USA.

Background: Identifying predictors of preterm birth (PTB) in high burden regions is important as PTB is the leading cause of global child mortality.

Methods: This analysis was nested in a longitudinal study of peripartum HIV incidence in Kenya. HIV-seronegative women enrolled in pregnancy were screened with nucleic acid amplification tests (chlamydia and gonorrhea), RPR (syphilis), wet mount microscopy (Trichomonas and yeast), and Gram stain (bacterial vaginosis); sexually transmitted infection (STI) treatment was provided. Read More

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Alteration of vaginal microbiota in patients with recurrent miscarriage.

J Obstet Gynaecol 2021 May 21:1-8. Epub 2021 May 21.

Gynaecology and obstetrics, First Affiliated Hospital of Bengbu Medical College, Bengbu City, China.

The aim of this study was to characterise the structure of vaginal microbiota in unexplained recurrent miscarriage (RM). The vaginal bacterial communities of 16 patients with RM and 20 healthy volunteers were sampled. Then, the microbiomes of bacterial profiles of RM patients and healthy volunteers were compared by sequencing the V3-V4 regions of the bacterial 16S ribosomal RNA gene using the Illumina MiSeq platform (Illumina, San Diego, CA). Read More

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pelvic peritonitis and bacteremia mimicking intestinal necrosis.

IDCases 2021 30;24:e01134. Epub 2021 Apr 30.

Division of General Internal Medicine, Tokai University School of Medicine, 143 Shimokasuya, Isehara, Kanagawa, 259-1193, Japan.

infection is known to cause Lemierre's syndrome, not pelvic peritonitis. Herein, we report a case of pelvic peritonitis and bacteremia, without Lemierre's syndrome, mimicking intestinal necrosis. A 28-year-old woman with peritoneal irritation and shock was suspected of having intestinal necrosis due to the presence of hepatoportal venous gas and pneumatosis intestinalis. Read More

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Insights on the Critical Parameters Affecting the Probiotic Viability During Stabilization Process and Formulation Development.

AAPS PharmSciTech 2021 May 18;22(5):156. Epub 2021 May 18.

Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences and Technology, Institute of Chemical Technology, Matunga, 400019, India.

Probiotics have gained a lot of interest in recent years as an alternative as well as adjuvant therapy for several conditions owing to their health benefits. These live microorganisms have proven efficacy for treating gut disorders, inflammation, bacterial vaginosis, hepatic and depressive disorders, and many more. There are conventional as well as non-conventional formulations available for the delivery of probiotics with the latter having fewer regulatory guidelines. Read More

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Perceived Stress and Molecular-BV in the NIH Longitudinal Study of Vaginal Flora.

Am J Epidemiol 2021 May 19. Epub 2021 May 19.

Department of Microbiology and Immunology, University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland.

Vaginal microbiota provide the first line of defense against urogenital infections primarily through protective actions of Lactobacillus spp. Perceived stress increases susceptibility to infection through several mechanisms, including suppression of immune function. We investigated if stress was associated with deleterious changes to vaginal bacterial composition in a subsample of 572 women in the Longitudinal Study of Vaginal Flora, sampled from 1999 through 2002. Read More

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Differences in vaginal microbiota, host transcriptome and proteins in women with bacterial vaginosis are associated with metronidazole treatment response.

J Infect Dis 2021 May 18. Epub 2021 May 18.

Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, NY, USA.

Background: Bacterial vaginosis (BV) treatment failures and recurrences are common. To identify features associated with treatment response, we compared vaginal microbiota and host ectocervical transcriptome before and after oral metronidazole therapy.

Methods: Women with BV (Bronx, NY and Thika, Kenya) received 7 days of oral metronidazole at enrollment (Day 0) and underwent genital tract sampling of microbiome (16S rRNA gene sequencing), transcriptome (RNAseq), and immune mediator concentrations on Day 0, 15 and 35. Read More

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Nugent score, Amsel's criteria, and a point-of-care rapid test for diagnosis of bacterial vaginosis: performance in a cohort of Kenyan women.

Sex Transm Dis 2021 May 14. Epub 2021 May 14.

Department of Global Health, University of Washington, Seattle, WA Department of Epidemiology, University of Washington, Seattle, WA Research and Programs, Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi, Kenya Department of Medical Microbiology, University of Nairobi, Nairobi, Kenya Obstetrics & Gynaecology, Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi, Kenya Pathcare, Mombasa, Kenya Department of Medicine, University of Washington, Seattle, WA.

Abstract: There are minimal data on the BVBlue test for diagnosis of bacterial vaginosis (BV) in Africa. Among 701 Kenyan women, compared to Nugent score ≥7, the BVBlue test had moderate sensitivity (81.9%, 95%CI 76. Read More

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Bacterial Vaginosis-Associated Bacteria and Uterine Fibroids: A Nested Case-Control Study.

Sex Transm Dis 2021 May 14. Epub 2021 May 14.

Epidemiology Branch A3-05, National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, Research Triangle Park, NC 27709, USA Femeris Women's Health Research Center, Medical Diagnostic Laboratories, A Division of Genesis Biotechnology Group, Hamilton, New Jersey, USA Biostatics and Computational Biology Branch A3-05, National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, Research Triangle Park, NC 27709, USA Current address: Department of Medical Laboratory Sciences and Biotechnology, Jefferson College of Health Professions, Thomas Jefferson University, 130 S. 9 St., Philadelphia, PA 19017, USA Current address: Merck, 770 Sumneytown Pike, West Point, PA 19486.

Background: Reproductive tract infections are hypothesized to influence uterine fibroid development, yet few studies have investigated the common condition of bacterial vaginosis (BV). Literature is currently limited to data using self-report of BV.

Methods: We conducted a nested case-control study of 200 women (100 cases and 100 controls) from a large study of 23-35 year-old African-American women 1,310 of whom were fibroid free and prospectively followed for 5 years to identify incident fibroids with standardized ultrasound examinations. Read More

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Effect of vaginal estrogen in postmenopausal women using vaginal pessary for pelvic organ prolapse treatment: a randomized controlled trial.

Int Urogynecol J 2021 May 15. Epub 2021 May 15.

Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Faculty of Medicine, Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok, Thailand.

Introduction And Hypothesis: Evidence and recommendations for the use of intravaginal estrogen for prevention of bacterial vaginosis and pessary-related complications are limited and controversial. We hypothesized that adding intravaginal estrogen to pessary use would decrease the incidence of bacterial vaginosis and other pessary-related complications.

Methods: A single-center, open-label, randomized, parallel study was conducted between April 2018 and August 2020. Read More

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Genome Investigation of Urinary Strains and Their Relationship to Isolates of the Vaginal Microbiota.

mSphere 2021 May 12;6(3). Epub 2021 May 12.

Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Stritch School of Medicine, Loyola University Chicago, Maywood, Illinois, USA.

is a frequent member of the urogenital microbiota. Given the association between and bacterial vaginosis (BV), significant efforts have been focused on characterizing this species in the vaginal microbiota. However, also is a frequent member of the urinary microbiota. Read More

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Perspectives on Existing and Novel Alternative Intravaginal Probiotic Delivery Methods in the Context of Bacterial Vaginosis Infection.

AAPS J 2021 05 10;23(3):66. Epub 2021 May 10.

Center for Predictive Medicine, University of Louisville, Louisville, Kentucky, USA.

Bacterial vaginosis (BV) is one of the most common vaginal infections that affects hundreds of millions of women of reproductive age, worldwide. Traditional treatment strategies, such as oral and topical antibiotics, have shown efficacy against BV, but frequent recurrence of infection and the development of antibiotic-resistant bacteria remain as significant challenges. Alternatively, recent progress in understanding immune, microbiological, and metabolic interactions in the vaginal microbiota has prompted the consideration of administering probiotic organisms to restore and maintain vaginal health within the context of BV prevention and treatment. Read More

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Georgian Med News 2021 Mar(312):114-118

1Asfendiyarov Kazakh National Medical University, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Almaty, Kazakhstan.

The purpose of our study was to determine the prevalence of urogenital mixed infections and the sensitivity of mycoplasmas and ureaplasmas to antibiotics in reproductive aged women with pelvic inflammatory disease. 4720 samples of biomaterial were obtained by urethral and cervical canal scrapings in 2360 women of reproductive age with pelvic inflammatory disease (2 samples from each woman). In 2360 samples, Chlamydia trachomatis, Trichomonas vaginalis and Gardnerella vaginalis were determined by multiplex PCR. Read More

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A MicroRNA Gene Panel Predicts the Vaginal Microbiota Composition.

mSystems 2021 May 4;6(3). Epub 2021 May 4.

Department of Microbiology, Tumor and Cell Biology, Centre for Translational Microbiome Research (CTMR), Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden

The vaginal microbiota plays an essential role in vaginal health. The vaginas of many reproductive-age women are dominated by one of the species. However, the vaginas of a large number of women are characterized by the colonization of several other anaerobes. Read More

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Identifying Risk Factors for Lower Reproductive Tract Infections among Women Using Reusable Absorbents in Odisha, India.

Int J Environ Res Public Health 2021 04 29;18(9). Epub 2021 Apr 29.

London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, London WC1E 7HT, UK.

A large proportion of women in Odisha, India, use reusable absorbents to manage their menstruation. Yet, the risk factors for lower reproductive tract infections (RTIs) related to menstrual hygiene management (MHM) have not been studied among reusable absorbent users. Women of reproductive age attending one of two hospitals from two different cities in Odisha during two separate study intervals were recruited for the study. Read More

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Bacterial agents in vulvovaginitis and vaginal discharge: a 10-year retrospective study in the Netherlands.

Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis 2021 May 3. Epub 2021 May 3.

Laboratory of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases, Isala Hospital, Dr. van Heesweg 2, 8025 AB, Zwolle, The Netherlands.

Vulvovaginitis is a common problem in the GP's practice. Causes are bacterial vaginosis (BV), Candida infection and sexually transmitted infections (STIs). Only if empirical treatment fails, a vaginal swab is sent in for culture and BV detection. Read More

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Vaginal Probiotics for Reproductive Health and Related Dysbiosis: Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

J Clin Med 2021 Apr 2;10(7). Epub 2021 Apr 2.

Department of Microbiology, Faculty of Pharmacy, Campus of Cartuja, University of Granada, 18071 Granada, Spain.

The use of probiotics in reproductive-related dysbiosis is an area of continuous progress due to the growing interest from clinicians and patients suffering from recurrent reproductive microbiota disorders. An imbalance in the natural colonization sites related to reproductive health-vaginal, cervicovaginal, endometrial, and pregnancy-related altered microbiota-could play a decisive role in reproductive outcomes. Oral and vaginal administrations are in continuous discussion regarding the clinical effects pursued, but the oral route is used and studied more often despite the need for further transference to the colonization site. Read More

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Differences in the Genital Microbiota in Women Who Naturally Clear Infection Compared to Women Who Do Not Clear; A Pilot Study.

Front Cell Infect Microbiol 2021 12;11:615770. Epub 2021 Apr 12.

Department of Microbiology, Immunology and Parasitology, Louisiana State University Health Sciences Center, New Orleans, LA, United States.

studies indicate IFNγ is central to (Ct) eradication, but its function may be compromised by anaerobes typically associated with bacterial vaginosis (BV), a frequent co-morbidity in women with Ct. Here we investigated the associations between natural clearance of cervical Ct infection, the vaginal microbiome, and the requirements for IFNγ by evaluating the vaginal microbial and cytokine composition of Ct treatment visit samples from women who cleared Ct infection in the interim between their Ct screening and Ct treatment visit. The pilot cohort was young, predominantly African American, and characterized by a high rate of BV that was treated with metronidazole at the Ct screening visit. Read More

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Development and evaluation of a Point-of-Care Test (POCT) in a low resource setting with high rates of urogenital infections in Fiji.

J Clin Microbiol 2021 Apr 28. Epub 2021 Apr 28.

Lucira Health, Emeryville, CA, USA

Rapid and precise detection of -the leading global cause of sexually transmitted infections (STI)-at the point-of-care (POC) is required for treatment decisions to prevent transmission and sequelae including pelvic inflammatory disease, ectopic pregnancy, tubal-factor infertility and preterm birth. We developed a rapid POC test (POCT), termed LH-POCT, which uses Loop-mediated AMPlification (LAMP) of nucleic acids, and performed a head-to-head comparison with the Cepheid Xpert® CT/NG assay using clinician-collected de-identified paired vaginal samples from a parent study that consecutively enrolled symptomatic and asymptomatic females over age 18 years from the Ministry of Health and Medical Services Health Centers in Fiji. Samples were processed by the Xpert® CT/NG assay and LH-POCT, blinded to the comparator. Read More

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Developing and validating a risk algorithm to diagnose Neisseria gonorrhoeae and Chlamydia trachomatis in symptomatic Rwandan women.

BMC Infect Dis 2021 Apr 28;21(1):392. Epub 2021 Apr 28.

Projet San Francisco, Rwanda Zambia HIV Research Group, Kigali, Rwanda.

Background: Algorithms that bridge the gap between syndromic sexually transmitted infection (STI) management and treatment based in realistic diagnostic options and local epidemiology are urgently needed across Africa. Our objective was to develop and validate a risk algorithm for Neisseria gonorrhoeae (NG) and Chlamydia trachomatis (CT) diagnosis among symptomatic Rwandan women and to compare risk algorithm performance to the current Rwandan National Criteria for NG/CT diagnosis.

Methods: The risk algorithm was derived in a cohort (n = 468) comprised of symptomatic women in Kigali who sought free screening and treatment for sexually transmitted infections and vaginal dysbioses at our research site. Read More

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