45,634 results match your criteria Bacterial Pneumonia


Tocilizumab for treatment of mechanically ventilated patients with COVID-19.

Clin Infect Dis 2020 Jul 11. Epub 2020 Jul 11.

University of Michigan, Department of Clinical Pharmacy, College of Pharmacy, Ann Arbor, MI USA.

Background: Severe COVID-19 can manifest in rapid decompensation and respiratory failure with elevated inflammatory markers, consistent with cytokine release syndrome for which IL-6 blockade is approved treatment.

Methods: We assessed effectiveness and safety of IL-6 blockade with tocilizumab in a single-center cohort of patients with COVID-19 requiring mechanical ventilation. The primary endpoint was survival probability post-intubation; secondary analyses included an ordinal illness severity scale integrating superinfections. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/cid/ciaa954DOI Listing

The Role of Delafloxacin in Patients with Community-Acquired Bacterial Pneumonia in the Outpatient Setting: A Budget Impact Model.

Clin Drug Investig 2020 Jul 10. Epub 2020 Jul 10.

Melinta Therapeutics, Inc., Morristown, NJ, USA.

Background And Objective: Community-acquired bacterial pneumonia (CABP) affects millions of people each year in the USA. The majority of patients with CABP are treated in the community setting with empirical antimicrobial therapy. Delafloxacin is an anionic fluoroquinolone approved for the treatment of adult patients with CABP. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s40261-020-00938-yDOI Listing

Common Bacterial Infections and Risk of Dementia or Cognitive Decline: A Systematic Review.

J Alzheimers Dis 2020 Jul 7. Epub 2020 Jul 7.

Faculty of Epidemiology and Population Health, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, London, UK.

Background: Bacterial infections may be associated with dementia, but the temporality of any relationship remains unclear.

Objectives: To summarize existing literature on the association between common bacterial infections and the risk of dementia and cognitive decline in longitudinal studies.

Methods: We performed a comprehensive search of 10 databases of published and grey literature from inception to 18 March 2019 using search terms for common bacterial infections, dementia, cognitive decline, and longitudinal study designs. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3233/JAD-200303DOI Listing

Risk factors for mortality from severe community-acquired pneumonia in hospitalized children transferred to the pediatric intensive care unit.

Pediatr Neonatol 2020 Jun 21. Epub 2020 Jun 21.

Department of Respiratory, Guangzhou Women and Children's Medical Center, Guangzhou Medical University, Guangzhou 510120, China. Electronic address:

Background: Some children hospitalized due to severe community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) require to the pediatric intensive care unit (PICU) because of severe complications. The purpose of this study was to identify the risk factors for mortality in this patient population.

Methods: This study evaluated the medical records of 113 hospitalized children with severe CAP, who were transferred to the PICU within 48 h of admission at the Guangzhou Women and Children's Medical Center between 2013 and 2017. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.pedneo.2020.06.005DOI Listing

Myeloid Liver Kinase B1 depletion is associated with a reduction in alveolar macrophage numbers and an impaired host defense during gram-negative pneumonia.

J Infect Dis 2020 Jul 10. Epub 2020 Jul 10.

Center for Experimental and Molecular Medicine Amsterdam University Medical Centers, University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.

Background: Liver kinase B1 (LKB1) has been studied extensively as a tumor suppressor gene (Stk11) in the context of cancer. We hypothesized that myeloid LKB1 plays a role in innate immunity during pneumonia.

Methods: Mice deficient for LKB1 in myeloid cells (LysM-cre x Stk11fl/fl ) or neutrophils (Mrp8-cre x Stk11fl/fl) were infected with Klebsiellapneumoniae via the airways. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/infdis/jiaa416DOI Listing

Predictors of early postoperative pneumonia after oncologic surgery with the patients receiving professional oral health care: A prospective, multicentre, cohort study.

J Perioper Pract 2020 Jul 10:1750458920939775. Epub 2020 Jul 10.

Department of Dentomaxillofacial Diagnosis and Treatment, Division of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Graduate School of Kanagawa Dental University, Yokosuka, Japan.

This study was a prospective, multicentre, cohort study on 685 patients who had undergone oncologic surgery. The patients were divided into two groups according to the presence or absence of postoperative pneumonia. The two groups were compared with respect to their background, index operation, food eaten, oral condition, contents of oral care and dental treatment, laboratory data, and bacterial flora. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1750458920939775DOI Listing

Influenza sequelae: from immune modulation to persistent alveolitis.

Clin Sci (Lond) 2020 Jul;134(13):1697-1714

Department of Pediatrics, UPMC Children's Hospital of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA, U.S.A.

Acute influenza virus infections are a global public health concern accounting for millions of illnesses worldwide ranging from mild to severe with, at time, severe complications. Once an individual is infected, the immune system is triggered in response to the pathogen. This immune response can be beneficial ultimately leading to the clearance of the viral infection and establishment of immune memory mechanisms. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1042/CS20200050DOI Listing

Feasibility and prognostic benefit of induction chemoradiotherapy followed by surgery in patients with locally advanced non-small cell lung cancer.

J Thorac Dis 2020 May;12(5):2644-2653

Division of Thoracic Surgery, Respiratory Disease Center, Seirei Mikatahara General Hospital, Hamamatsu, Japan.

Background: The optimal treatment for patients with resectable non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) involving adjacent organs (T3 or T4) and/or cN2 remains unclear. We investigated whether or not induction chemoradiotherapy (ICRT) followed by surgery improves the survival.

Methods: We retrospectively analyzed 84 patients with NSCLC involving the adjacent organs and/or cN2 who underwent ICRT followed by surgery at our hospital from 2006 to 2018. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.21037/jtd.2020.03.17DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7330299PMC

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2(SARS-CoV-2) infection during late pregnancy: a report of 18 patients from Wuhan, China.

BMC Pregnancy Childbirth 2020 Jul 8;20(1):394. Epub 2020 Jul 8.

Department Of Reproductive Medicine Center, Hubei Clinic Research Center for Assisted Reproductive Technology and Embryonic Development, Renmin Hospital Of Wuhan University, Wuhan, 430060, China.

Background: Compared with Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS) and Middle East Respiratory Syndrome (MERS), Corona Virus Disease 2019(COVID-19) spread more rapidly and widely. The population was generally susceptible. However, reports on pregnant women infected with SARS-CoV-2 were very limited. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12884-020-03026-3DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7341473PMC

The mechanism and treatment of gastrointestinal symptoms in patients with COVID-19.

Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol 2020 Jul 8. Epub 2020 Jul 8.

National Clinical Research Center for Child Health, Zhejiang University School of Children's Hospital, China.

In addition to the typical respiratory response, new coronavirus pneumonia (COVID-19) is also associated with very common gastrointestinal symptoms. Cases with gastrointestinal symptoms are more likely to be complicated by liver injury and acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), and diarrhea can also lead to electrolyte disturbances, causing nausea and vomiting, headache, fatigue, etc. If not treated in time, coma and circulatory failure may ensue. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1152/ajpgi.00148.2020DOI Listing

Enrichment of the airway microbiome in people living with HIV with potential pathogenic bacteria despite antiretroviral therapy.

EClinicalMedicine 2020 Jul 27;24:100427. Epub 2020 Jun 27.

UCL Centre for Clinical Microbiology, Division of Infection & Immunity, University College London, Rowland Hill Street, London, NW3 2PF UK.

Background: Long-term antiretroviral therapy (ART) enables people living with HIV (PLW-HIV) to be healthier and live longer; though they remain at greater risk of pneumonia and chronic lung disease than the general population. Lung microbial dysbiosis has been shown to contribute to respiratory disease.

Methods: 16S-rRNA gene sequencing on the Miseq-platform and qPCR for typical respiratory pathogens were performed on sputum samples collected from 64 PLW-HIV (median blood CD4 count 676 cells/μL) and 38 HIV-negative participants. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.eclinm.2020.100427DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7327893PMC

Effect of Haemophilus influenzae type b and 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccines on childhood pneumonia hospitalizations and deaths in Botswana.

Clin Infect Dis 2020 Jul 8. Epub 2020 Jul 8.

Division of Pediatric Infectious Diseases, Duke University, Durham, NC.

Background: Globally, pneumonia is the leading cause of death among children. Few data exist regarding the effect of Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) vaccine and 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV-13) on the burden of childhood pneumonia in African settings.

Methods: We collected data on children 1 to 59 months of age at three hospitals in Botswana. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/cid/ciaa919DOI Listing

Risk Factors of In-Hospital Mortality in Patients Treated for Pneumonia at a Tertiary Care Centre in Switzerland.

Respiration 2020 Jul 7:1-9. Epub 2020 Jul 7.

Department of Internal Medicine, University Hospital Zurich, University of Zurich, Zurich, Switzerland.

Background: Little is known about risk factors upon hospital admission that are associated with in-hospital death of patients hospitalized for bacterial pneumonia. Identifying such factors may help to optimize the treatment and lower the mortality of these patients.

Objectives: The aim of the study was to characterize baseline characteristics of patients hospitalized for bacterial pneumonia in Switzerland and to identify risk factors associated with all-cause in-hospital mortality. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1159/000508666DOI Listing

COVID-19 Treatment: Close to a Cure? - A Rapid Review of Pharmacotherapies for the Novel Coronavirus.

Int J Antimicrob Agents 2020 Jul 4:106080. Epub 2020 Jul 4.

University of Minnesota, Department of Pharmacy Services, Hennepin County Medical Center, Minneapolis, MN 55415.

Currently, there is no approved therapy for COVID-19. The World Health Organization therefore endorse supportive care only. However, frontline clinicians and researchers have been experimenting with several virus-based and host-based therapeutics since the outbreak in China. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijantimicag.2020.106080DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7334905PMC

Dynamics of the lung microbiome in intensive care patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and community-acquired pneumonia.

Sci Rep 2020 Jul 6;10(1):11046. Epub 2020 Jul 6.

Department of Life Sciences, National Chung Hsing University, 145 Xingda Rd., South Dist., Taichung, 402, Taiwan.

Little is known about the composition and clinical implications of lung microbiome in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and community-acquired pneumonia requiring invasive mechanical ventilation and intensive care unit admission. Therefore, this study aimed to explore the longitudinal changes in microbial airway composition and its variations between COPD patients with different weaning outcomes. Fifty-one endotracheal aspirate samples from 21 participants and 5 saline samples were collected as the patient and control group, respectively. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-020-68100-4DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7338533PMC

Endemic Fungi Presenting as Community-Acquired Pneumonia: A Review.

Semin Respir Crit Care Med 2020 Aug 6;41(4):522-537. Epub 2020 Jul 6.

Indiana University, School of Medicine, Pulmonary Critical Care Medicine, Thoracic Transplantation Program, Indianapolis, Indiana.

In endemic areas, dimorphic fungal infections due to , and account for up to 30% of cases of community-acquired pneumonia. Because respiratory manifestations are often indistinguishable from common bacterial causes of pneumonia, the diagnosis of pulmonary histoplasmosis, blastomycosis, and coccidioidomycosis is often delayed and associated with antibiotics overuse. In addition to being highly endemic to certain regions of North America, dimorphic fungi have global significance due to established areas of endemicity in all six inhabited continents, an increasingly interconnected world of travelers and transported goods, and a changing epidemiology as a result of global heating and anthropomorphic land utilization. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1055/s-0040-1702194DOI Listing

The Role of Streptococcus pneumoniae in Community-Acquired Pneumonia.

Semin Respir Crit Care Med 2020 Aug 13;41(4):455-469. Epub 2020 Jun 13.

Department of Immunology and Institute of Cellular and Molecular Medicine, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Pretoria, Pretoria, South Africa.

With the notable exceptions of the United States and Canada in particular, the global burden of disease in adults due to invasive infection with the dangerous respiratory, bacterial pathogen, (pneumococcus) remains. This situation prevails despite the major successes of inclusion of polysaccharide conjugate vaccines (PCVs) in many national childhood immunization programs and associated herd protection in adults, as well as the availability of effective antimicrobial agents. Accurate assessment of the geographic variations in the prevalence of invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) has, however, been somewhat impeded by the limitations imposed on the acquisition of reliable epidemiological data due to reliance on often insensitive, laboratory-based, pathogen identification procedures. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1055/s-0040-1702193DOI Listing

Relationship Between Clozapine Levels and Acute Inflammatory Stress.

Prim Care Companion CNS Disord 2020 Jul 2;22(4). Epub 2020 Jul 2.

Napa State Hospital, 2100 Napa Vallejo Hwy, Napa, CA 94558.

Stress-induced changes in pharmacokinetics can significantly alter the plasma levels of some drugs such as clozapine. This report describes the case of a middle-aged man with schizoaffective disorder, bipolar type who showed sustained elevation in clozapine levels 3 days after discontinuation. Before the clozapine levels were drawn, he had developed acute bacterial pneumonia and signs of acute bacterial meningitis followed by neuroleptic malignant syndrome after he received multiple doses of intravenous haloperidol for worsening psychosis and aggressive behavior. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.4088/PCC.19br02586DOI Listing

Anemoside B4 protects against - and influenza virus FM1-induced pneumonia via the TLR4/Myd88 signaling pathway in mice.

Chin Med 2020 2;15:68. Epub 2020 Jul 2.

College of Pharmacy, Guangxi University of Chinese Medicine, Nanning, 530000 China.

Background: Pneumonia refers to the inflammation of the terminal airway, alveoli and pulmonary interstitium, which can be caused by pathogenic microorganisms, physical and chemical factors, immune damage, and drugs. Anemoside B4, the major ingredient of (Bunge) Regel, exhibited anti-inflammatory activity. However, the therapeutic effect of anemoside B4 on pneumonia has not been unraveled. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13020-020-00350-wDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7330533PMC

Activity of ceftolozane-tazobactam and comparators when tested against bacterial surveillance isolates collected from patients at risk of infections caused by resistant gram-negative pathogens.

Diagn Microbiol Infect Dis 2020 Jun 6;98(1):115101. Epub 2020 Jun 6.

JMI Laboratories, North Liberty, Iowa, USA.

Ceftolozane-tazobactam is an antipseudomonal cephalosporin combined with a β-lactamase inhibitor. Ceftolozane-tazobactam has been approved for treatment of complicated urinary tract infections and acute pyelonephritis, for complicated intra-abdominal infections (with metronidazole) in adults, and for hospital-acquired bacterial pneumonia including ventilator-associated bacterial pneumonia. This study analyzed gram-negative pathogen susceptibility in US and European patients who are considered at risk for infections caused by pathogens resistant to commonly used antimicrobials: patients in the intensive care unit (ICU), patients on the hematology/oncology or transplant service who may be immunocompromised, and patients >65 years old (yo). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.diagmicrobio.2020.115101DOI Listing

Moving away from traditional antibiotic treatment: can macrocyclic lactones from marine macroalga-associated heterotroph be the alternatives?

Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 2020 Jul 3. Epub 2020 Jul 3.

Crustacean Fisheries Division, Central Marine Fisheries Research Institute, Ernakulam North, P.B. No. 1603, Cochin, India.

Intertidal red algae Hypnea valentiae associated Bacillus amyloliquefaciens MTCC 12716 revealed potential inhibitory effects on the growth of drug-resistant pathogens. In the genome of B. amyloliquefaciens MTCC 12716, biosynthetic gene clusters encoding antibacterial metabolites were predicted, which might be expressed and contributed to the broad-spectrum anti-infective activity. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00253-020-10658-0DOI Listing

Autophagy suppression plays a role in parenteral nutrition-associated lung injury.

Clin Nutr 2020 Jun 15. Epub 2020 Jun 15.

Department of General Surgery, Jinling Hospital, Medical School of Nanjing University, Nanjing, 210002, PR China. Electronic address:

Background & Aims: The long-term usage of parenteral nutrition (PN) is associated with the increased incidence of pneumonia. Few studies have focused on the pathogenesis of PN-associated lung injury (PNLI). Previous studies have found that autophagy suppression may be an important mechanism for PN-associated complications. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.clnu.2020.06.002DOI Listing

Fecal Microbiota Transplantation for Recurrent Clostridioides difficile infection: The COVID-19 Era.

Am J Gastroenterol 2020 07;115(7):971-974

C. difficile clinic and Microbial Replacement Therapy program, Division of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota, USA.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.14309/ajg.0000000000000689DOI Listing

Health-Related Quality of Life as Measured by the 12-Item Short-Form Survey Among Adults With Community-Acquired Bacterial Pneumonia who Received Either Lefamulin or Moxifloxacin in 2 Phase III Randomized, Double-Blind, Double-Dummy Clinical Trials.

Open Forum Infect Dis 2020 Jun 3;7(6):ofaa209. Epub 2020 Jun 3.

Nabriva Therapeutics US, Inc., King of Prussia, Pennsylvania, USA.

Background: Interest in patient-reported outcomes (PROs) as part of benefit-risk assessment for new drug approvals is increasing. Lefamulin is the first intravenous (IV) and oral pleuromutilin antibiotic for treatment of adults with community-acquired bacterial pneumonia (CABP). Assessment of health-related quality of life (HRQoL) was prospectively incorporated in its CABP trials (Lefamulin Evaluation Against Pneumonia [LEAP] 1 and 2) via the 12-Item Short-Form Survey (SF-12), a widely used PRO that measures general health status in 8 domains. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/ofid/ofaa209DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7314585PMC

Fatal Superimposed Bacterial Sepsis in a Healthy Coronavirus (COVID-19) Patient.

Cureus 2020 May 29;12(5):e8350. Epub 2020 May 29.

Internal Medicine, Terna Medical College, Mumbai, IND.

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a highly infectious disease caused by the newly discovered coronavirus, SARS-CoV-2 (severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2). The novel coronavirus first emerged in Wuhan, China, in December 2019 and has led to a global pandemic. The virus mainly spreads through respiratory droplets from an infected person, but environmental contamination can also act as a source of infection, making social distancing an important key in containing the spread of infection. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.7759/cureus.8350DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7325395PMC

Dried blood spots for Streptococcus pneumoniae and Haemophilus influenzae detection and serotyping among children < 5 years old in rural Mozambique.

BMC Pediatr 2020 Jul 2;20(1):326. Epub 2020 Jul 2.

Division of Bacterial Diseases, National Center for Immunization and Respiratory Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, 30329, USA.

Background: Dried blood spots (DBS) have been proposed as potentially tool for detecting invasive bacterial diseases.

Methods: We evaluated the use of DBS for S. pneumoniae and H. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12887-020-02209-3DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7331148PMC

Fatal outcome in a patient under immunosuppressant therapy infected with human T-lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1), cytomegalovirus (CMV) and Strongyloides stercoralis: a case report.

BMC Infect Dis 2020 Jul 2;20(1):470. Epub 2020 Jul 2.

Department of Hematology and Rheumatology, Kindai University School of Medicine, 377-2 Oonohigashi, Osaka-Sayama, Osaka, 589-0014, Japan.

Background: Strongyloidiasis is a gastrointestinal parasitic infection caused by percutaneous infection with Strongyloides stercoralis. Digestive symptoms such as diarrhea and abdominal pain are the main manifestation, but serious infections such as septicemia, purulent meningitis, and bacterial pneumonia may occur in individuals harboring human T-lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1) or who are immunocompromised. Although coinfection with Strongyloides stercoralis and HTLV-1 can lead to chronic strongyloidiasis and a disseminated form of the disease, there is a high rate of response to the anthelmintic ivermectin. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12879-020-05195-0DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7331000PMC

Diagnostic accuracy of procalcitonin for bacterial pneumonia in children - a systematic review and meta-analysis.

Infect Dis (Lond) 2020 Jul 2:1-15. Epub 2020 Jul 2.

Department of Pediatric Emergency Medicine, Johns Hopkins School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD, USA.

The predictive role of procalcitonin for childhood bacterial pneumonia, a leading cause of death, is unclear. We aimed to evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of procalcitonin for childhood bacterial pneumonia. Major bibliographic databases were searched from inception through September 2019 using pre-defined index terms, including 'procalcitonin,' 'pneumonia' and 'children'. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/23744235.2020.1788719DOI Listing

Post-mortem histopathology of a pediatric brain after bilateral DBS of GPI for status dystonicus: case report and review of the literature.

Childs Nerv Syst 2020 Jul 2. Epub 2020 Jul 2.

Pediatric Anesthesiology and Intensive Care Unit, Children's Hospital A. Meyer-University of Florence, Florence, Italy.

Purpose: To investigate the effects of deep brain stimulation (DBS) electrodes on the brain of a dystonic pediatric patient submitted to bilateral DBS of the globus pallidus internus (GPI).

Methods: An 8-year-old male patient underwent bilateral DBS of GPI for status dystonicus. He died 2 months later due to multiorgan failure triggered by bacterial pneumonia. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00381-020-04761-wDOI Listing

Antibiotics for Childhood Pneumonia - Do We Really Know How Long to Treat?

N Engl J Med 2020 07;383(1):77-79

From the Australian Centre for Health Services Innovation, Queensland University of Technology, and the Department of Respiratory and Sleep Medicine, Queensland Children's Hospital, Brisbane (A.B.C.), the Menzies School of Health Research, Darwin, QLD (A.B.C.), and the School of Medicine and Menzies Health Institute Queensland, Griffith University, and the Departments of Infectious Diseases and Paediatrics, Gold Coast Health, Gold Coast (K.G.) - all in Australia.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1056/NEJMe2016328DOI Listing

Haemolacria: a case of pseudomembranous conjunctivitis in a neonate.

BMJ Case Rep 2020 Jun 30;13(6). Epub 2020 Jun 30.

Department of Adolescent and Child Health, Mater Dei Hospital, Msida, Malta.

We report an unusual case of an 11-day-old neonate presenting with haemolacria on a background of sticky conjunctival discharge. This was secondary to pseudomembranous conjunctivitis which responded well to systemic erythromycin. Early appropriate treatment is important to prevent progression of the ophthalmic infection, which could lead to blindness, and to prevent other manifestations of neonatal chlamydial infection, particularly pneumonia, which could be fatal. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bcr-2020-235110DOI Listing

Endoribonuclease YbeY Is Essential for RNA Processing and Virulence in Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

mBio 2020 Jun 30;11(3). Epub 2020 Jun 30.

State Key Laboratory of Medicinal Chemical Biology, Key Laboratory of Molecular Microbiology and Technology of the Ministry of Education, Department of Microbiology, College of Life Sciences, Nankai University, Tianjin, China

Posttranscriptional regulation plays an essential role in the quick adaptation of pathogenic bacteria to host environments, and RNases play key roles in this process by modifying small RNAs and mRNAs. We find that the endonuclease YbeY is required for rRNA processing and the bacterial virulence in a murine acute pneumonia model. Transcriptomic analyses reveal that knocking out the gene results in downregulation of oxidative stress response genes, including the catalase genes and Consistently, the mutant is more susceptible to HO and neutrophil-mediated killing. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/mBio.00659-20DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7327168PMC

Activation of pro- and anti-inflammatory responses in lung tissue injury during the acute phase of PRRSV-1 infection with the virulent strain Lena.

Vet Microbiol 2020 Jul 2;246:108744. Epub 2020 Jun 2.

Department of Anatomy and Comparative Pathology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Córdoba, 14014, Córdoba, Spain.

Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) plays a key role in porcine respiratory disease complex modulating the host immune response and favouring secondary bacterial infections. Pulmonary alveolar macrophages (PAMs) are the main cells supporting PRRSV replication, with CD163 as the essential receptor for viral infection. Although interstitial pneumonia is by far the representative lung lesion, suppurative bronchopneumonia is described for PRRSV virulent strains. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.vetmic.2020.108744DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7265841PMC

Bovine Respiratory Syncytial Virus Decreased Pasteurella multocida Adherence by Downregulating the Expression of Intercellular Adhesion Molecule-1 on the Surface of Upper Respiratory Epithelial Cells.

Vet Microbiol 2020 Jul 2;246:108748. Epub 2020 Jun 2.

Graduate School of Medicine and Veterinary Medicine, University of Miyazaki, Miyazaki, Japan; Department of Veterinary Science, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Miyazaki, Miyazaki, Japan; Center for Animal Disease Control, University of Miyazaki, Miyazaki, Japan. Electronic address:

The synergistic infection of bovine respiratory syncytial virus (BRSV) and Pasteurella multocida (PM) may predispose cattle to develop severe pneumonia. Previously, we reported that BRSV infection significantly decreased PM adherence to the upper respiratory epithelial cells. It may allow bacteria to invade into the lower respiratory tract and lead to severe pneumonia. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.vetmic.2020.108748DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7265823PMC

Analysis of Infection Factors and Nerve Conduction Velocity in Patients with Chronic Glomerular Disease Based on Information Health Data and Electromyography.

Neurosci Lett 2020 Jun 27:135216. Epub 2020 Jun 27.

Department of Intensive Care Unit, Yinzhou People's Hospital, Ningbo, 315040, Zhejiang Province, China. Electronic address:

The paper was to study the infection factors of chronic glomerular disease and peripheral nerve conduction under information health data to deepen the understanding of the disease. By collecting the data of existing patients, the basic situation of infection in patients with chronic glomerular disease was analyzed, and the infection factors of chronic glomerular disease were analyzed. At the same time, the electron microscope was used for assisted observation to understand the situation of different kidney diseases. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.neulet.2020.135216DOI Listing

Bacterial and fungal coinfection among hospitalised patients with COVID-19: A retrospective cohort study in a UK secondary care setting.

Clin Microbiol Infect 2020 Jun 27. Epub 2020 Jun 27.

Chelsea and Westminster NHS Foundation Trust, 369 Fulham Road, London, SW10 9NH. UK; North West London Pathology, Imperial College Healthcare NHS Trust, Fulham Palace Road. London. W6 8RF. UK; National Institute for Health Research Health Protection Research Unit in Healthcare Associated Infections and Antimicrobial Resistance, Imperial College London, Hammersmith Campus, Du Cane Road, London. W12 0NN. UK.

Objectives: We investigate the incidence of bacterial and fungal co-infection of hospitalised patients with confirmed SARS-CoV-2 in this retrospective observational study across two London hospitals during the first UK wave of COVID-19.

Methods: A retrospective case-series of hospitalised patients with confirmed SARS-CoV-2 by PCR was analysed across two acute NHS hospitals (February 20-April 20; each isolate reviewed independently in parallel). This was contrasted to a control group of influenza positive patients admitted during 2019/20 flu season. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cmi.2020.06.025DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7320692PMC

Reasons for readmission after hospital discharge in patients with chronic diseases-Information from an international dataset.

PLoS One 2020 30;15(6):e0233457. Epub 2020 Jun 30.

Dr Foster Telstra Health, London, United Kingdom.

Background: Chronic diseases are increasingly prevalent in Western countries. Once hospitalised, the chance for another hospitalisation increases sharply with large impact on well-being of patients and costs. The pattern of readmissions is very complex, but poorly understood for multiple chronic diseases. Read More

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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0233457PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7326238PMC

[Surfactant proteins A and D: role in the pathogenesis of community-acquired pneumonia and possible predictive perspectives].

Ter Arkh 2020 Apr 27;92(3):109-115. Epub 2020 Apr 27.

Research Institute of Therapy and Preventive Medicine - branch of the Federal Research Center Institute of Cytology and Genetics.

Community-acquired pneumonia is one of the most common infectious diseases and remains one of the leading causes of death in this group of diseases. Studies of community-acquired pneumonia are extremely relevant for modern clinical practice. One of the important role in the pathogenesis of bacterial, viral, fungal invasion in the system of a human lung system belongs to the pulmonary surfactant, in particular, its proteins SP-A and SP-D. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.26442/00403660.2020.03.000275DOI Listing

[Etiology of severe community - acquired pneumonia in adults: results of the first Russian multicenter study].

Ter Arkh 2020 Jan 15;92(1):36-42. Epub 2020 Jan 15.

M.K. Ammosov Federal North-Eastern University.

Aim: to study the etiology of severe community - acquired pneumonia (SCAP) in adults in Russian Federation. SCAP is distinguished by high mortality and socio - economic burden. Both etiology and antimicrobial resistance are essential for appropriate antibiotic choice. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.26442/00403660.2020.01.000491DOI Listing
January 2020

[One case of severely scalded patient with pneumonia and sepsis].

Zhonghua Shao Shang Za Zhi 2020 Jun;36(6):503-505

Pharmacological Research, Qingdao Municipal Hospital, Qingdao 266011, China.

In February 2018, one 54-year-old male patient with severe scald complicated with pneumonia and sepsis was transferred to Qingdao Municipal Hospital from other hospital. Drugs including cephalosporin, vancomycin, and imipenem/cilastatin combined with ciprofloxacin were used successively for anti-infective treatment, with no obvious effect. Multiple bacterial culture results of sputum, blood, and wound exudate showed infection of extensively drug resistant . Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3760/cma.j.cn501120-20190221-00034DOI Listing

Inhibition of miR-497-3p Downregulates the Expression of Procalcitonin and Ameliorates Bacterial Pneumonia in Mice.

Inflammation 2020 Jun 26. Epub 2020 Jun 26.

Department of Blood Collection Center, Cangzhou Central Hospital, No.16 Xinhua West Road, Cangzhou, 061001, Hebei, China.

Pneumonia is usually caused by a wide variety of pathogen infection. The underlying mechanism contributing to pneumonia remains elusive. Here, the role of microRNA-497-3p (miR-497-3p) was explored in bacterial pneumonia. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10753-020-01279-wDOI Listing

Could there be a link between oral hygiene and the severity of SARS-CoV-2 infections?

Br Dent J 2020 06;228(12):971-975

Orthodontics, Cambridge University Hospital Trust, Cambridge, CB1 00Q, UK.

On 30 January 2020, the World Health Organisation identified COVID-19, caused by the virus SARS-CoV-2, to be a global emergency. The risk factors already identified for developing complications from a COVID-19 infection are age, gender and comorbidities such as diabetes, hypertension, obesity and cardiovascular disease. These risk factors, however, do not account for the other 52% of deaths arising from COVID-19 in often seemingly healthy individuals. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41415-020-1747-8DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7319209PMC

Pneumococcal superinfection in COVID-19 patients: A series of 5 cases.

Med Clin (Barc) 2020 Jun 5. Epub 2020 Jun 5.

Hospital at Home Unit, Medical and Nurse Direction, Internal Medicine Service, Hospital Clinic Barcelona, Spain; Universitat de Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain; Institut d'Investigacions Biomédiques August Pi i Sunyer (IDIBAPS), Barcelona, Spain. Electronic address:

Background: In the context of the COVID-19 pandemic the risk of misdiagnosis of other causes of respiratory infection is likely. In this work we aim to describe the clinical characteristics, treatment and outcome of pneumococcal infection in COVID-19 patients.

Patients And Methods: Every COVID-19 patient presenting with concomitant pneumococcal pneumonia during March 2020 in a tertiary teaching Hospital In Barcelona, Spain. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.medcli.2020.05.022DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7274636PMC

Community-acquired pneumonia caused by methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in a Chinese adult: A case report.

Medicine (Baltimore) 2020 Jun;99(26):e20914

Department of Respiratory Medicine.

Rationale: Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) has been established as an important cause of severe community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) with very high mortality. Panton-Valentine leukocidin (PVL) producing MRSA has been reported to be associated with necrotizing pneumonia and worse outcome. The incidence of community-acquired MRSA (CA-MRSA) pneumonia is very low, as only a few CA-MRSA pneumonia cases were reported in the last few years. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/MD.0000000000020914DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7329007PMC

The rough colony morphotype of exhibits high virulence in human macrophages and mice.

J Med Microbiol 2020 Jun 26. Epub 2020 Jun 26.

Department of Infectious Diseases, Keio University School of Medicine, Shinjuku-ku, Tokyo, Japan.

The incidence of complex (MAC) pulmonary disease (MAC PD), a refractory chronic respiratory tract infection, is increasing worldwide. MAC has three predominant colony morphotypes: smooth opaque (SmO), smooth transparent (SmT) and rough (Rg). To determine whether colony morphotypes can predict the prognosis of MAC PD, we evaluated the virulence of SmO, SmT and Rg in mice and in human macrophages. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1099/jmm.0.001224DOI Listing

Rhabdomyolysis as an initial presentation in a patient diagnosed with COVID-19.

BMJ Case Rep 2020 Jun 24;13(6). Epub 2020 Jun 24.

Pulmonary Medicine, Centro Medico ABC, Mexico City, Mexico.

The presence of rhabdomyolysis secondary to multiple infections has been reported, predominantly viral, but also bacterial and fungal. It is well known that COVID-19 can present a wide variety of complications during the course of infection; however, the presence of rhabdomyolysis as an initial condition has not been reported so far. We report a case of rhabdomyolysis as an initial presentation in a patient diagnosed with SARS-CoV-2 (Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2) infection. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bcr-2020-236719DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7319710PMC

CytoResc - "CytoSorb" Rescue for critically ill patients undergoing the COVID-19 Cytokine Storm: A structured summary of a study protocol for a randomized controlled trial.

Trials 2020 Jun 26;21(1):577. Epub 2020 Jun 26.

Department of Nephrology and Medical Intensive Care, Charité - Universitätsmedizin Berlin, Berlin, Germany.

Objectives: Approximately 8 - 10 % of COVID-19 patients present with a serious clinical course and need for hospitalization, 8% of hospitalized patients need ICU-treatment. Currently, no causal therapy is available and treatment is purely supportive. The main reason for death in critically ill patients is acute respiratory failure. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13063-020-04501-0DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7316574PMC

Concordance of early and late endpoints for community-acquired bacterial pneumonia trials.

Clin Infect Dis 2020 Jun 25. Epub 2020 Jun 25.

Office of Infectious Diseases, Center for Drug Evaluation and Research, Food and Drug Administration, Silver Spring, MD.

Background: While there are ongoing regulatory convergence efforts, differences remain in primary endpoints recommended for community-acquired bacterial pneumonia (CABP) trials. The US Food and Drug Administration recommends assessing CABP symptom resolution at an early time point (3-5 days after randomization). Other regulatory agencies recommend assessing overall clinical response at a later time point (5-10 days after therapy ends). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/cid/ciaa860DOI Listing

Understanding Early and Late Endpoints in Registrational Trials of Community-acquired Bacterial Pneumonia.

Authors:
George H Talbot

Clin Infect Dis 2020 Jun 25. Epub 2020 Jun 25.

Talbot Advisors LLC, Anna Maria, FL USA.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/cid/ciaa853DOI Listing

Achillea spp.: A comprehensive review on its ethnobotany, phytochemistry, phytopharmacology and industrial applications.

Cell Mol Biol (Noisy-le-grand) 2020 Jun 25;66(4):78-103. Epub 2020 Jun 25.

Department of Physiology and Biophysics, Weill Cornell Medicine-Qatar, Education City, Qatar Foundation, Doha, P.O. Box 24144, Qatar.

The genus Achillea genus houses more than 100 species, a number of them are popularly used in traditional medicine for spasmodic gastrointestinal, gynecological and hepatobiliary disorders, hemorrhages, pneumonia, rheumatic pain, inflammation, wounds healing etc. Members of the genus contain a wide variety of volatile and non-volatile secondary metabolites, including terpenes, polyphenols, flavonoids and others. Multiple studies have assessed the biological effects and other aspects of Achillea spp. Read More

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June 2020
1.234 Impact Factor