43,065 results match your criteria Bacterial Pneumonia


Wheezing independently predicts viral infection in children with community-acquired pneumonia.

Pediatr Pulmonol 2019 Apr 19. Epub 2019 Apr 19.

Department of Pediatrics, Federal University of Bahia School of Medicine, Salvador, Brazil.

Aim: To assess whether there was a difference in the frequency of symptoms and signs among children with community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) with viral or bacterial infection.

Methods: A prospective cross-sectional study was conducted in Salvador, Brazil. Children less than 5-years-old hospitalized with CAP were recruited. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ppul.24339DOI Listing

Staphylococcus aureus versus neutrophil: Scrutiny of ancient combat.

Microb Pathog 2019 Apr 16. Epub 2019 Apr 16.

Department of Microbiology, School of Medicine, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran; Department of Pathobiology, School of Public Health, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran. Electronic address:

Staphylococcus aureus (S.aureus) is a Gram-positive bacterium that causes many infections and diseases. This pathogen can cause many types of infections such as impetigo, toxic shock syndrome toxin (TSST1), pneumonia, endocarditis, and autoimmune diseases like lupus erythematosus and can infect other healthy individuals. Read More

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https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S08824010193037
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.micpath.2019.04.026DOI Listing
April 2019
1 Read

Drug Prevention and Control of Ventilator-Associated Pneumonia.

Front Pharmacol 2019 28;10:298. Epub 2019 Mar 28.

Department of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine, The First Affiliated Hospital, Xi'an Jiaotong University, Xi'an, China.

Ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) is one of the most prevalent and serious complications of mechanical ventilation, which is considered a common nosocomial infection in critically ill patients. There are some great options for the prevention of VAP: (i) minimize ventilator exposure; (ii) intensive oral care; (iii) aspiration of subglottic secretions; (iv) maintain optimal positioning and encourage mobility; and (v) prophylactic probiotics. Furthermore, clinical management of VAP depends on appropriate antimicrobial therapy, which needs to be selected based on individual patient factors, such as previous antibacterial therapy, history of hospitalization or mechanical ventilation, and bacterial pathogens and antibiotic resistance patterns. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fphar.2019.00298DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6455059PMC

Interactive antimicrobial and toxicity profiles of Pittosporum angustifolium Lodd. extracts with conventional antimicrobials.

J Integr Med 2019 Mar 27. Epub 2019 Mar 27.

School of Environment and Science, Griffith University, Nathan, Queensland 4111, Australia; Environmental Futures Research Institute, Nathan Campus, Griffith University, Nathan, Queensland 4111, Australia. Electronic address:

Objective: Pittosporum angustifolium Lodd. is used to treat a variety of pathogenic diseases and inflammation by Australian aborigines. Practitioners of complementary medicine frequently use herbal medicines concurrently with conventional antibiotics. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.joim.2019.03.006DOI Listing

Invasive Salmonella infections among children in Bintulu, Sarawak, Malaysian Borneo: a 6-year retrospective review.

BMC Infect Dis 2019 Apr 18;19(1):330. Epub 2019 Apr 18.

Institute of Health and Community Medicine, Universiti Malaysia Sarawak, Kota Samarahan, Sarawak, Malaysia.

Background: Invasive Salmonella infections result in significant morbidity and mortality in developing countries. In Asia, typhoid and paratyphoid fever are reported to be the major invasive Salmonella infections, while invasive non-typhoidal Salmonella (iNTS) infections are believed to be uncommon. Data from Sarawak, in Malaysian Borneo, are limited. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12879-019-3963-xDOI Listing

Budget Impact of Omadacycline for the Treatment of Patients with Community-Acquired Bacterial Pneumonia in the United States from the Hospital Perspective.

Am Health Drug Benefits 2019 Feb;12(1-Supplement 1):S1-S12

Professor, Albany College of Pharmacy and Health Sciences, NY.

Background: Community-acquired bacterial pneumonia (CABP) is an acute, lower respiratory bacterial infection. Despite advances in medical care, CABP remains associated with considerable morbidity, mortality, and healthcare costs; early empiric treatment is recommended by the Infectious Diseases Society of America and by the American Thoracic Society. Omadacycline is an oral and intravenous (IV) once-daily aminomethylcycline antibiotic that is approved in the United States for the treatment of adult patients with CABP. Read More

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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6442092PMC
February 2019
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Co-infection with bacterial and fungal endocarditis at scar tissue in an immunocompromised patient.

J Cardiol Cases 2019 Apr 17;19(4):117-120. Epub 2018 Dec 17.

Antimicrobial Resistance Research Center, Iran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

We present the case of a 65-year-old immunocompromised male with a history of kidney transplantation, diabetes, coronary artery bypass, and cardiac resynchronization therapy device implantation who was finally diagnosed with an unusual form of infective endocarditis due to co-infection of fungal and bacterial pathogens. He was afebrile at the time of admission and presented with decompensated heart failure and pneumonia. A spleen abscess was discovered incidentally and prompted us to search for a cardiac source of emboli. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jccase.2018.11.004DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6451046PMC

[Exogenous lipoid pneumonia induced by long-term usage of compound menthol nasal drops: a case report].

Authors:
M Lu W Yan X Zhu H Zhu

Beijing Da Xue Xue Bao Yi Xue Ban 2019 Apr;51(2):359-361

Department of Respiratory Medicine, Peking University Third Hospital, Beijing 100191, China.

Here we reported a case of exogenous lipoid pneumonia from Peking University Third Hospital. A 62-year-old male presented with chronic cough and expectoration for 8 years, without chest pain, hemoptysis or short of breath. He was an ex-smoker. Read More

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CD89 Is a Potent Innate Receptor for Bacteria and Mediates Host Protection from Sepsis.

Cell Rep 2019 Apr;27(3):762-775.e5

INSERM U1149, Centre de Recherche sur l'Inflammation, Paris, France; CNRS ERL8252, Paris, France; Université Paris Diderot, Sorbonne Paris Cité, Faculté de Médecine, Site Xavier Bichat, Paris, France; Inflamex Laboratory of Excellence, Paris, France. Electronic address:

Direct bacterial recognition by innate receptors is crucial for bacterial clearance. Here, we show that the IgA receptor CD89 is a major innate receptor that directly binds bacteria independently of its cognate ligands IgA and c-reactive protein (CRP). This binding is only partially inhibited by serum IgA and induces bacterial phagocytosis by CD11c dendritic cells and monocytes and/or macrophages, suggesting a physiological role in innate host defense. Read More

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https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S22111247193039
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.celrep.2019.03.062DOI Listing
April 2019
2 Reads

Respiratory tract virus infections in the elderly with pneumonia.

BMC Geriatr 2019 Apr 16;19(1):111. Epub 2019 Apr 16.

Department of Pediatrics and Adolescent Medicine, University of Turku and Turku University Hospital, PO Box 52, 20520, Turku, Finland.

Background: In children suffering from severe lower airway illnesses, respiratory virus detection has given good prognostic information, but such reports in the elderly are scarce. Therefore, our aim was to study whether the detection of nasopharyngeal viral pathogens and conventional inflammatory markers in the frail elderly correlate to the presence, signs and symptoms or prognosis of radiographically-verified pneumonia.

Methods: Consecutive episodes of hospital care of patients 65 years and older with respiratory symptoms (N = 382) were prospectively studied as a cohort. Read More

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https://bmcgeriatr.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/s12877
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12877-019-1125-zDOI Listing
April 2019
6 Reads

Daphnetin prevents methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus infection by inducing autophagic response.

Int Immunopharmacol 2019 Apr 13;72:195-203. Epub 2019 Apr 13.

School of Medicine and Life Science, Nanjing University of Chinese Medicine, Nanjing 210046, China. Electronic address:

The bacterial pneumonia caused by methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is a potentially fatal disease, featured with extensive infection, inflammation, and airway dysfunction. With the increasing emerging of drug-resistant strains, new therapeutic strategies beyond canonical antibiotic treatment are pressingly needed. Daphnetin (DAPH) is a natural coumarin derivative with anti-inflammation, anti-microorganism and anti-oxidative properties. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.intimp.2019.04.007DOI Listing
April 2019
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Noninvasive Ventilation-Facilitated Bronchofiberoscopy in Patients with Respiratory Failure.

Adv Exp Med Biol 2019 Apr 16. Epub 2019 Apr 16.

Department of Pneumology, School of Medicine in Katowice, Upper-Silesian Medical Center, Medical University of Silesia, Katowice, Poland.

Respiratory failure is one of the most important risk factors for diagnostic bronchofiberoscopy (BF), whereas therapeutic bronchoscopies are typically performed in intubated patients. Only a few published studies analyzed the outcomes of noninvasive mechanical ventilation (NIV)-facilitated BF. In this case series, we present our experiences with NIV-facilitated diagnostic and therapeutic BF performed in patients with respiratory failure that was associated with acute interstitial pulmonary disease, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, cystic fibrosis exacerbation, foreign body aspiration, tracheal stenosis, pneumonia, and in a patient with a neuromuscular disease. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/5584_2019_375DOI Listing
April 2019
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Risk factors for death among children 0-59 months of age with moderate-to-severe diarrhea in Manhiça district, southern Mozambique.

BMC Infect Dis 2019 Apr 15;19(1):322. Epub 2019 Apr 15.

Centro de Investigação em Saúde de Manhiça (CISM), Rúa 12, Vila da Manhiça, 1929, Maputo, CP, Mozambique.

Background: Despite major improvements in child survival rates, the number of deaths due to diarrhea remains unacceptably high. We aimed to describe diarrhea-associated mortality and evaluate risk factors for death among Mozambican children with moderate-to-severe diarrhea (MSD).

Methods: Between December 2007 and November 2012, children under-five with MSD were enrolled in Manhiça district, as part of the Global Enteric Multicenter study (GEMS). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12879-019-3948-9DOI Listing
April 2019
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The Basics and the Advancements in Diagnosis of Bacterial Lower Respiratory Tract Infections.

Diagnostics (Basel) 2019 Apr 3;9(2). Epub 2019 Apr 3.

Motif BioSciences, Princeton, NJ 08540, USA.

Lower respiratory tract infections (LRTIs) are the leading infectious cause of death and the sixth-leading cause of death overall worldwide. , with more than 90 serotypes, remains the most common identified cause of community-acquired acute bacterial pneumonia. Antibiotics treat LRTIs with a bacterial etiology. Read More

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https://www.mdpi.com/2075-4418/9/2/37
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/diagnostics9020037DOI Listing
April 2019
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Is hospital-acquired pneumonia different in transplant recipients?

Clin Microbiol Infect 2019 Apr 12. Epub 2019 Apr 12.

Infectious Diseases Department, Bellvitge University Hospital, IDIBELL, University of Barcelona, Spain; REIPI (Spanish Network for Research in Infectious Disease), Instituto de Salud Carlos III, Madrid, Spain. Electronic address:

Background: Hospital-acquired pneumonia (HAP) and ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) are serious complications in transplant patients.

Objectives: The aim of this review is to summarize the evidence regarding nosocomial pneumonia in transplant recipients, including HAP in non-ventilated patients and VAP, and to identify future directions for improvement.

Sources: A comprehensive literature search in the PubMed/MEDLINE database was performed. Read More

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https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S1198743X193015
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cmi.2019.04.003DOI Listing
April 2019
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Yap/Taz regulate alveolar regeneration and resolution of lung inflammation.

J Clin Invest 2019 Apr 15;130. Epub 2019 Apr 15.

Department of Pharmacology, Center for Translational Medicine, Temple University Lewis Katz School of Medicine, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, USA.

Alveolar epithelium plays a pivotal role in protecting the lungs from inhaled infectious agents. Therefore, the regenerative capacity of the alveolar epithelium is critical for recovery from these insults in order to rebuild the epithelial barrier and restore pulmonary functions. Here, we show that sublethal infection of mice with Streptococcus pneumoniae, the most common pathogen of community-acquired pneumonia, led to exclusive damage in lung alveoli, followed by alveolar epithelial regeneration and resolution of lung inflammation. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1172/JCI125014DOI Listing
April 2019
2 Reads

Live Usability Testing of Two Complex Clinical Decision Support Tools: Observational Study.

JMIR Hum Factors 2019 Apr 15;6(2):e12471. Epub 2019 Apr 15.

New York University School of Medicine, New York, NY, United States.

Background: Potential of the electronic health records (EHR) and clinical decision support (CDS) systems to improve the practice of medicine has been tempered by poor design and the resulting burden they place on providers. CDS is rarely tested in the real clinical environment. As a result, many tools are hard to use, placing strain on providers and resulting in low adoption rates. Read More

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http://humanfactors.jmir.org/2019/2/e12471/
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2196/12471DOI Listing
April 2019
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Impact of additional antibiotics on in-hospital mortality in tuberculosis isolated general bacteria: A propensity score analysis.

J Infect Chemother 2019 Apr 11. Epub 2019 Apr 11.

Respiratory Medicine and Infectious Diseases, Oita University Faculty of Medicine, 1-1 Idaigaoka, Hasama-machi, Yufu, Oita, 879-5593, Japan.

Whether or not additional antibiotics with anti-tuberculosis agents are required to treat bacterial co-infection with pulmonary tuberculosis is unclear. We aimed to assess the impact of additional antibiotics on mortality in pulmonary tuberculosis patients whose sputum cultures were positive for general bacteria as a surrogate definition of bacterial pneumonia. This study was a single-center retrospective cohort using a propensity score analysis. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jiac.2019.03.022DOI Listing

In a murine model of acute lung infection, airway administration of a therapeutic antibody confers greater protection than parenteral administration.

J Control Release 2019 Apr 11;303:24-33. Epub 2019 Apr 11.

INSERM, Centre d'Etude des Pathologies Respiratoires, U1100, F-37032 Tours, France; Université de Tours, F-37032 Tours, France. Electronic address:

Due to growing antibiotic resistance, pneumonia caused by Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a major threat to human health and is driving the development of novel anti-infectious agents. Preventively or curatively administered pathogen-specific therapeutic antibodies (Abs) have several advantages, including a low level of toxicity and a unique pharmacological profile. At present, most Abs against respiratory infections are administered parenterally; this may not be optimal for therapeutics that have to reach the lungs to be effective. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jconrel.2019.04.005DOI Listing
April 2019
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Incidence and costs of ventilator-associated pneumonia in the adult intensive care unit of a tertiary referral hospital in Mexico.

Am J Infect Control 2019 Apr 11. Epub 2019 Apr 11.

Unidad de Investigación en Microbiología y Toxicología, Hospital Juárez de México.

Background: Ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) is defined as pneumonia that occurs after 48 hours of endotracheal intubation and initiation of mechanical ventilation. The aim of this work was to use a micro-costing method to calculate the costs generated in 2017 for the care of patients with VAP at the Hospital Juárez de México.

Methods: We performed a cross-sectional, retrospective, analytical, and observational study of the databases of the registry of health care-associated infections (HAIs) in 2017, in addition to a micro-costing study. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ajic.2019.02.031DOI Listing
April 2019
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Infections in Cirrhosis.

Curr Treat Options Gastroenterol 2019 Apr 12. Epub 2019 Apr 12.

Division of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, University of Pennsylvania, 2 Dulles, 3400 Spruce Street, HUP, Philadelphia, PA, 19104, USA.

Purpose Of Review: Patients with cirrhosis are at high risk of developing serious infections. Bacterial infections remain the most common cause of morbidity and mortality in these patients. This review is focused on the prevalence of infections in those with cirrhosis, including multidrug-resistant (MDR) pathogens, pathogenesis of infection-related acute-on-chronic liver failure (ACLF), current treatment recommendations, and prophylactic strategies in patients with cirrhosis. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11938-019-00229-2DOI Listing
April 2019
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Can Nebulised Colistin Therapy Improve Outcomes in Critically Ill Children with Multi-Drug Resistant Gram-Negative Bacterial Pneumonia?

Antibiotics (Basel) 2019 Apr 11;8(2). Epub 2019 Apr 11.

Department of Pediatric Intensive Care Unit, Istanbul University Cerrahpasa Medical Faculty, 34098 Fatih, Istanbul, Turkey.

In the past decade, multidrug-resistant (MDR) gram-negative bacteria have become a major problem, especially for patients in intensive care units. Recently, colistin became the last resort therapy for MDR gram-negative bacteria infections. However, nebulised colistin use was limited to adult patients. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/antibiotics8020040DOI Listing
April 2019
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Epidemiology and outcomes of hospitalized adults with respiratory syncytial virus: A 6-year retrospective study.

Influenza Other Respir Viruses 2019 Apr 11. Epub 2019 Apr 11.

Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine, Chicago, Illinois.

Objectives: Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is an important cause of morbidity and mortality in adults. Existing studies are limited by the number of seasons studied and most have focused on the immunocompromised.

Methods: A retrospective cohort study was conducted on all adults (≥18 years) with a positive RSV molecular test admitted from 2009 to 2015 to one hospital in Chicago, IL. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/irv.12643DOI Listing
April 2019
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Disulfide bond of Mycoplasma pneumoniae community acquired respiratory distress syndrome toxin is essential to maintain the ADP-ribosylating and vacuolating activities.

Cell Microbiol 2019 Apr 11:e13032. Epub 2019 Apr 11.

Department of Microbiology, Immunology and Molecular Genetics, The University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio, TX.

Mycoplasma pneumoniae is the leading cause of bacterial community acquired pneumonia among hospitalized children in United States and worldwide. Community acquired respiratory distress syndrome (CARDS) toxin is a key virulence determinant of M. pneumoniae. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/cmi.13032DOI Listing
April 2019
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Minimal adjuvant chemotherapy for children with hepatoblastoma resected at diagnosis (AHEP0731): a Children's Oncology Group, multicentre, phase 3 trial.

Lancet Oncol 2019 Apr 8. Epub 2019 Apr 8.

Primary Children's Hospital, Salt Lake City, UT, USA.

Background: Hepatoblastoma treatment with curative intent requires surgical resection, but only about a third of newly diagnosed patients with hepatoblastoma have resectable disease at diagnosis. Patients who have upfront resection typically receive a total of 4-6 cycles of adjuvant chemotherapy post-surgery, with the combination of cisplatin, fluorouracil, and vincristine. We aimed to investigate whether event-free survival in children with hepatoblastoma who had complete resection at diagnosis could be maintained with two cycles of adjuvant chemotherapy. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S1470-2045(18)30895-7DOI Listing
April 2019
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H3N2 canine influenza virus and Enterococcus faecalis coinfection in dogs in China.

BMC Vet Res 2019 Apr 11;15(1):113. Epub 2019 Apr 11.

College of Veterinary Medicine, China Agricultural University, No.2 Yuanmingyuan West Road, Beijing, 100193, China.

Background: In May 2017, 17 dogs in a German Shepherd breeding kennel in northern China developed respiratory clinical signs. The owner treated the dogs with an intravenous injection of Shuang-Huang-lian, a traditional Chinese medicine, and azithromycin. The respiratory signs improved 3 days post-treatment, however, cysts were observed in the necks of eight dogs, and three of them died in the following 2 days. Read More

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https://bmcvetres.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/s12917-
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12917-019-1832-xDOI Listing
April 2019
2 Reads

Bacterial Resistance in Pneumonia in Developing Countries-A Role for Iron Chelation.

Trop Med Infect Dis 2019 Apr 10;4(2). Epub 2019 Apr 10.

Department of Anesthesia, Pain Management and Perioperative Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Dalhousie University, Halifax, NS B3H 1X5, Canada.

Pneumonia represents one of the major infectious diseases in developing countries and is associated with high mortality, in particular in children under the age of five. The main causative bacterial agents are and type B, accounting for 33% and 16%, respectively, of the mortality in under-fives. Iron modulates the immune response in infectious diseases and increased iron levels can lead to complications such as sepsis and multiorgan failure. Read More

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https://www.mdpi.com/2414-6366/4/2/59
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/tropicalmed4020059DOI Listing
April 2019
3 Reads

Von Willebrand Factor Mediates Pneumococcal Aggregation and Adhesion in Blood Flow.

Front Microbiol 2019 26;10:511. Epub 2019 Mar 26.

Institute of Microbiology, Technische Universität Braunschweig, Braunschweig, Germany.

is a major cause of community acquired pneumonia and septicaemia in humans. These diseases are frequently associated with thromboembolic cardiovascular complications. Pneumococci induce the exocytosis of endothelial Weibel-Palade Bodies and thereby actively stimulate the release of von Willebrand factor (VWF), which is an essential glycoprotein of the vascular hemostasis. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fmicb.2019.00511DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6443961PMC
March 2019
1 Read

Regenerative therapy based on miRNA-302 mimics for enhancing host recovery from pneumonia caused by .

Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2019 Apr 10. Epub 2019 Apr 10.

Department of Microbiology, Perelman School of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA 19104;

Bacterial pneumonia remains a leading cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. A defining feature of pneumonia is lung injury, leading to protracted suffering and vulnerability long after bacterial clearance. Little is known about which cells are damaged during bacterial pneumonia and if the regenerative process can be harnessed to promote tissue repair and host recovery. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1818522116DOI Listing
April 2019
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Evaluation of the ELITe InGenius PCR for Detection of .

J Clin Microbiol 2019 Apr 10. Epub 2019 Apr 10.

Department of Pathology, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL 35294, USA

, Mpn, is the leading cause of bacterial community acquired pneumonia in persons of all ages. Due to the fastidious nature of this bacteria and the necessary specialized growth media, nucleic acid amplification testing is currently the most reliable means for patient diagnostics. Analytical sensitivity, specificity, reproducibility, and clinical performance of the ELITe InGenius automated PCR platform with its MGB Alert Real-Time PCR research use only reagents (ELITechGroup, Inc. Read More

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http://jcm.asm.org/lookup/doi/10.1128/JCM.00287-19
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/JCM.00287-19DOI Listing
April 2019
4 Reads

[Update on the use of steroids in infectious diseases].

Rev Med Suisse 2019 Apr;15(646):792-796

Service des maladies infectieuses, HUG, 1211 Genève 14.

It is well established in daily clinical practice, on the basis of randomized studies, to add corticosteroïds to the antibiotherapy in cases of S. pneumoniae H. influenzae meningitis, tuberculous meningitis and Pneumocystis jiroveci pneumonia in HIV patients. Read More

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April 2019
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The Role of Neutrophil to Lymphocyte Count Ratio in the Differential Diagnosis of Pulmonary Tuberculosis and Bacterial Community-Acquired Pneumonia: a Cross-Sectional Study at Ayder and Mekelle Hospitals, Ethiopia.

Clin Lab 2019 Apr;65(4)

Background: The differential diagnosis of pulmonary tuberculosis and bacterial community-acquired pneumonia is often a challenging phenomenon. The neutrophil to lymphocyte count ratio, a suitable indicator of inflammation, has been demonstrated to be a useful biomarker for predicting bacteremia. The main aim this study is to evaluate the role of neutrophil to lymphocyte count ratio in the differential diagnosis of pulmonary tuberculosis and bacterial Community-Acquired Pneumonia at Ayder and Mekelle hospitals, Mekelle, Ethiopia. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.7754/Clin.Lab.2018.180833DOI Listing
April 2019
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As a Novel Procalcitonin Assay is Architect B∙R∙A∙H∙M∙S PCT; Comparison of Two Commercial Systems.

Clin Lab 2019 Apr;65(4)

Background: Procalcitonin (PCT) is the precursor structure of the calcitonin hormone with 116 amino acids. The measurement of serum procalcitonin is currently being safely used in community-acquired pneumonia, bacterial peritonitis and sepsis in the diagnosis, decision on the initiation of treatment, and follow-up of the response to treatment. In this study, it is aimed to compare PCT results obtained by the VIDAS PCT that makes measurements by the enzyme-dependent fluorescence (ELFA) method and Architect PCT method, a chemiluminescent microparticle immunoassay (CMIA) that has just been put into use, both of which are B∙R∙A∙H∙M∙S licensed and have method differences. Read More

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http://www.clin-lab-publications.com/article/2932
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http://dx.doi.org/10.7754/Clin.Lab.2018.180727DOI Listing
April 2019
6 Reads

Antibacterial Properties and Efficacy of a Novel SPLUNC1-Derived Antimicrobial Peptide, α4-Short, in a Murine Model of Respiratory Infection.

MBio 2019 Apr 9;10(2). Epub 2019 Apr 9.

Department of Environmental and Occupational Health, Graduate School of Public Health, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, USA

Multidrug resistance (MDR) by bacterial pathogens constitutes a global health crisis, and resistance to treatment displayed by biofilm-associated infections (e.g., cystic fibrosis, surgical sites, and medical implants) only exacerbates a problem that is already difficult to overcome. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/mBio.00226-19DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6456746PMC
April 2019
2 Reads

Inhalation of specific anti-Pseudomonas aeruginosa IgY antibodies transiently decreases P. aeruginosa colonization of the airway in mechanically ventilated piglets.

Intensive Care Med Exp 2019 Apr 8;7(1):21. Epub 2019 Apr 8.

Hedenstierna laboratory, CIRRUS, Anesthesiology and Intensive Care, Department of Surgical Sciences, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.

Background: P. aeruginosa is a pathogen frequently resistant to antibiotics and a common cause of ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP). Non-antibiotic strategies to prevent or treat VAP are therefore of major interest. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s40635-019-0246-1DOI Listing
April 2019
1 Read

Multi-organ failure induced by Nivolumab in the context of allo-stem cell transplantation.

Exp Hematol Oncol 2019 28;8. Epub 2019 Mar 28.

1Institute for Advanced Biosciences, Université Grenoble Alpes, INSERM 1209, UMR CNRS 5309, Grenoble, France.

Background: Immune checkpoint inhibitors have radically changed the landscape of anti-tumor therapies in several malignancies. However the adverse events associated with immune checkpoint blockade in combination with other treatments remains to be thoroughly documented. Here we report the case of a 33-year-old male with classical Hodgkin lymphoma who was successfully treated for lymphoma but experienced serious and eventually fatal multisystem organ failure following nivolumab administration and allogeneic stem cell transplantation. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s40164-019-0132-2DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6437980PMC
March 2019
1 Read

Korean Red Ginseng enhances pneumococcal Δ vaccine efficacy by inhibiting reactive oxygen species production.

J Ginseng Res 2019 Apr 9;43(2):218-225. Epub 2017 Dec 9.

School of Pharmacy, Sungkyunkwan University, Suwon, Republic of Korea.

Background: , more than 90 serotypes of which exist, is recognized as an etiologic agent of pneumonia, meningitis, and sepsis associated with significant morbidity and mortality worldwide. Immunization with a pneumococcal mutant (Δ) has been shown to confer comprehensive, long-term protection against even nontypeable strains. However, Δ is effective as a vaccine only after at least three rounds of immunization. Read More

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https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S12268453173027
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jgr.2017.11.007DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6437420PMC
April 2019
2 Reads

φSa3mw Prophage as a Molecular Regulatory Switch of β-toxin Production.

J Bacteriol 2019 Apr 8. Epub 2019 Apr 8.

Department of Microbiology and Immunology, University of Iowa, Roy J. and Lucille A. Carver College of Medicine, Iowa City, Iowa, USA

Phage regulatory switches (phage-RSs) are a newly described form of active lysogeny where prophages function as regulatory mechanisms for expression of chromosomally-encoded, bacterial genes. In φSa3int is a widely-distributed family of prophages that integrate into the β-toxin structural gene effectively inactivating it. However, β-toxin producing strains often arise during infections and are more virulent in experimental infective endocarditis and pneumonia infections. Read More

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http://jb.asm.org/lookup/doi/10.1128/JB.00766-18
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/JB.00766-18DOI Listing
April 2019
5 Reads

Mind the Coverage Gap: A PK-PD Evaluation of Ertapenem for Patients with Hospital-Acquired or Ventilator-Associated Bacterial Pneumonia.

Antimicrob Agents Chemother 2019 Apr 8. Epub 2019 Apr 8.

Institute for Clinical Pharmacodynamics, Inc., Schenectady, NY, USA.

Ertapenem provides activity against many pathogens commonly associated with hospital-acquired and ventilator-associated bacterial pneumoniae (HABP and VABP, respectively), including methicillin-susceptible and numerous Gram-negative pathogens with one major gap in coverage - Pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic (PK-PD) target attainment analyses were conducted to evaluate ertapenem against the most prevalent Enterobacteriaceae causing HABP/VABP. The objective of these analyses was to provide dose selection support for and demonstrate the appropriateness of ertapenem to empirically treat patients with HABP/VABP when administered with murepavadin, a novel targeted antimicrobial exhibiting a highly specific spectrum of activity against A previously-developed population pharmacokinetic model, total-drug epithelial lining fluid to free-drug serum penetration ratio, contemporary surveillance data for ertapenem against Enterobacteriaceae, and %T>MIC targets associated with efficacy were used to conduct Monte Carlo simulations for five ertapenem regimens administered over short or prolonged durations of infusion. Overall total-drug ELF percent probabilities of PK-PD target attainment based on a %T>MIC target of 35% among simulated patients with HABP/VABP arising from Enterobacteriaceae based on pathogen prevalence data for nosocomial pneumonia ranged from 89. Read More

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http://aac.asm.org/lookup/doi/10.1128/AAC.00318-19
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/AAC.00318-19DOI Listing
April 2019
2 Reads

Multidrug-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa and mortality inmechanically ventilated ICU patients.

Am J Infect Control 2019 Apr 6. Epub 2019 Apr 6.

Assistance Publique - Hôpitaux de Marseille, Hôpital Nord, Réanimation des Détresses Respiratoires et des Infections Sévères, Marseille, France; Aix-Marseille Université, School of Medicine - La Timone Medical Campus, CEReSS - Health Service Research and Quality of Life Center, Marseille, France.

Background: The link between bacterial resistance and prognosis remains controversial. Predominant pathogen causing ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) is Pseudomonas aeruginosa (Pa), which has increasingly become multidrug resistant (MDR). The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship between MDR VAP Pa episodes and 30-day mortality. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ajic.2019.02.030DOI Listing
April 2019
3 Reads

CD5L contributes to the pathogenesis of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus-induced pneumonia.

Int Immunopharmacol 2019 Apr 5;72:40-47. Epub 2019 Apr 5.

Department of Laboratory Medicine, The First Affiliated Hospital of Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing, China. Electronic address:

Staphylococcus aureus is a major causative microorganism in community- and healthcare-acquired pneumonia. CD5L is an important protein in the control of immune homeostasis. In this study, we found that patients with S. Read More

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https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S15675769193004
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.intimp.2019.03.057DOI Listing
April 2019
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A Retrospective Forensic Review of Unexpected Infectious Deaths.

Open Forum Infect Dis 2019 Apr 15;6(4):ofz081. Epub 2019 Feb 15.

Division of Infectious Diseases and Clinical Epidemiology, Sunnybrook Health Sciences Center, Toronto, Canada.

Background: There exists a knowledge gap in identifying the spectrum of infectious pathogens and syndromes that lead to fulminant decline and death. The aim of this study was to better characterize patient-, pathogen-, and disease-related factors in the phenomenon of unexpected infectious deaths.

Methods: We conducted a population-based, retrospective cohort study of all community-based, unexpected infectious deaths in Ontario, Canada between January 2016 and December 2017. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/ofid/ofz081DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6441567PMC
April 2019
2 Reads

Community-acquired Pneumonia and Hospital-acquired Pneumonia.

Med Clin North Am 2019 May 7;103(3):487-501. Epub 2019 Mar 7.

Division of Respiratory and Critical Care Physiology and Medicine, Harbor-UCLA Medical Center, 1000 West Carson Street, Box 402, Torrance, CA 90509, USA.

Pneumonia is among the leading causes of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Although Streptococcus pneumoniae is the most likely cause in most cases, the variety of potential pathogens can make choosing a management strategy a complex endeavor. The setting in which pneumonia is acquired heavily influences diagnostic and therapeutic choices. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.mcna.2018.12.008DOI Listing
May 2019
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Antibacterial activity against porcine respiratory bacterial pathogens and in vitro biocompatibility of essential oils.

Arch Microbiol 2019 Apr 6. Epub 2019 Apr 6.

Groupe de Recherche en Écologie Buccale (GREB), Faculté de Médecine Dentaire, Université Laval, 2420 Rue de la Terrasse, Quebec City, QC, G1V 0A6, Canada.

Bacterial respiratory infections affecting pigs such as pneumonia, pleuropneumonia, and pleurisy, are a major health concern in the swine industry and are associated with important economic losses. This study aimed to investigate the antibacterial activities of essential oils against major swine respiratory pathogens with a view to developing a potential alternative to antibiotics. Their synergistic interactions with the bacteriocin nisin was also examined. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00203-019-01655-7DOI Listing
April 2019
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Determining preventable acute care spending among high-cost patients in a single-payer public health care system.

Eur J Health Econ 2019 Apr 5. Epub 2019 Apr 5.

ICES, Toronto, Canada.

Background: Research has shown that a small proportion of patients account for the majority of health care spending. The objective of this analysis was to determine the amount and proportion of preventable acute care spending among high-cost patients.

Methods: We examined a population-based sample of all adult high-cost patients using linked administrative health care data housed at ICES in Toronto, Ontario. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10198-019-01051-4DOI Listing

Antimicrobial susceptibilities of clinical isolates of the anaerobic bacteria which can cause aspiration pneumonia.

Anaerobe 2019 Apr 2;57:86-89. Epub 2019 Apr 2.

Department of Infection Control and Prevention, Aichi Medical University Hospital, Aichi, Japan; Department of Clinical Infectious Diseases, Aichi Medical University Graduate School of Medicine, Aichi, Japan. Electronic address:

Aspiration pneumonia is an infectious disease of the lungs caused by inhalation of saliva or foods, associated with swallowing dysfunction. Therefore, the major causative organisms are oral or gastric bacteria. In this study, we evaluated the antimicrobial susceptibility patterns of the anaerobic bacteria which can cause aspiration pneumonia, Fusobacterium spp. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.anaerobe.2019.04.002DOI Listing
April 2019
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A review of melioidosis cases imported into Europe.

Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis 2019 Apr 4. Epub 2019 Apr 4.

Laboratoire de Pharmaco-Chimie Radicalaire, Aix Marseille Univ, CNRS, ICR, Marseille, France, Marseille, France.

Melioidosis is a tropical bacterial infection, rarely encountered, and poorly known by clinicians. In non-endemic areas, a misdiagnosis can lead to a fatal outcome. This study aims to identify the main characteristics of imported and diagnosed melioidosis cases in Europe to increase clinician's awareness of this diagnosis. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10096-019-03548-5DOI Listing
April 2019
3 Reads

Introduction: lefamulin and pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic rationale to support the dose selection of lefamulin.

Authors:
Keith A Rodvold

J Antimicrob Chemother 2019 Apr;74(Supplement_3):iii2-iii4

University of Illinois at Chicago, Colleges of Pharmacy and Medicine, Chicago, IL, USA.

Lefamulin is the first semisynthetic pleuromutilin being developed for oral and intravenous administration. The drug selectively inhibits prokaryotic ribosomal protein synthesis by binding to the peptidyl transferase centre via four H-bonds and other interactions, resulting in an 'induced fit' that tightens the binding pocket around lefamulin. This unique mechanism of action has been associated with a low probability of cross-resistance to other antimicrobial classes commonly used to treat community-acquired bacterial pneumonia (CABP). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/jac/dkz084DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6449571PMC
April 2019
5 Reads

Prediction of lefamulin epithelial lining fluid penetration after intravenous and oral administration using Phase 1 data and population pharmacokinetics methods.

J Antimicrob Chemother 2019 Apr;74(Supplement_3):iii27-iii34

Institute for Clinical Pharmacodynamics, Schenectady, NY, USA.

Objectives: Lefamulin is a semi-synthetic intravenous and oral pleuromutilin antibiotic with activity against pathogens commonly associated with community-acquired bacterial pneumonia. Using data from two Phase 1 studies, a population pharmacokinetics (PPK) model for lefamulin in plasma and epithelial lining fluid (ELF) was constructed.

Methods: Plasma pharmacokinetic (PK) data from a crossover, bioavailability, food-effect study and plasma and ELF PK data from a tissue penetration study in normal healthy volunteers were used to construct a PPK model for lefamulin. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/jac/dkz088DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6449575PMC
April 2019
2 Reads