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    Performance of MALDI-TOF MS for identification of oral Prevotella species.
    Anaerobe 2017 Apr 21. Epub 2017 Apr 21.
    Department of Periodontology, Institute of Dentistry, University of Turku, Lemminkäisenkatu 2, FI-20520 Turku, Finland; Welfare Division, City of Turku, Lemminkäisenkatu 2, FI-20520 Turku, Finland.
    During the past decade, the clinically relevant genus Prevotella has expanded considerably. Prevotella species can be isolated from nearly all types of oral infections but also from various non-oral infections. Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) has been introduced in clinical microbiology laboratories as a convenient method for identifying bacterial isolates from clinical specimens. Read More

    Dental biofilm infections - an update.
    APMIS 2017 Apr;125(4):376-384
    Department of Immunology and Microbiology, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Teeth are colonized by oral bacteria from saliva containing more than 700 different bacterial species. If removed regularly, the dental biofilm mainly comprises oral streptococci and is regarded as resident microflora. But if left undisturbed, a complex biofilm containing up to 100 bacterial species at a site will build up and may eventually cause development of disease. Read More

    Prospective study to compare antibiosis versus the association of N-acetylcysteine, D-mannose and Morinda citrifolia fruit extract in preventing urinary tract infections in patients submitted to urodynamic investigation.
    Arch Ital Urol Androl 2017 Mar 31;89(1):45-50. Epub 2017 Mar 31.
    Unit of Urology, Department of Sciences and Medico Surgical Biotechnologies, Sapienza, University of Rome, Uroresearch Association, Latina.
    Background: The abuse of antimicrobical drugs has increased the resistance of microorganisms to treatments, thus to make urinary tract infections (UTIs) more difficult to eradicate. Among natural substances used to prevent UTI, literature has provided preliminary data of the beneficial effects of D-mannose, N-acetylcysteine, and Morinda citrifolia fruit extract, due to their complementary mechanism of action which contributes respectively to limit bacteria adhesion to the urothelium, to destroy bacterial pathogenic biofilm, and to the anti-inflammatory and analgesic activity. The purpose of this study was to compare the administration of an association of D-mannose, N-acetylcysteine (NAC) and Morinda citrifolia extract versus antibiotic therapy in the prophylaxis of UTIs potentially associated with urological mini-invasive diagnostics procedures, in clinical model of the urodynamic investigation. Read More

    Functional Salivary Gland Regeneration.
    Methods Mol Biol 2017 ;1597:135-151
    Laboratory for Organ Regeneration, RIKEN Center for Developmental Biology, 2-2-3 Minatojima-minamimachi, Chuou-ku, Kobe, Hyogo, 650-0047, Japan.
    The salivary gland plays important roles in maintaining the health and homeostasis of the oral cavity by regulating functions, such as chewing, digestion, cleaning, and swallowing. Salivary gland dysfunction causes dry mouth syndrome, which includes many oral problems, such as dental caries, bacterial infection, mastication dysfunction, and swallowing dysfunction. Therefore, salivary gland regeneration is expected, and we attempted to establish a method by manual approaches. Read More

    Do Antibiotics Decrease the Risk of Inflammatory Complications After Third Molar Removal in Community Practices?
    J Oral Maxillofac Surg 2017 Feb 6;75(2):249-255. Epub 2016 Oct 6.
    Professor and Chair, Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, University of Washington School of Dentistry, Seattle, WA.
    Purpose: The role of antibiotic use in third molar (M3) surgery is controversial. The purpose of this study was to measure the association between antibiotic use and postoperative inflammatory complications after M3 surgery in the community office-based ambulatory private practice setting.

    Materials And Methods: The authors designed and implemented a prospective cohort study and enrolled a sample composed of patients who had at least one M3 removed in a private practice setting by oral and maxillofacial surgeons participating in a practice-based research collaborative from June 2011 through May 2012. Read More

    Oral microbiome in HIV-associated periodontitis.
    Medicine (Baltimore) 2017 Mar;96(12):e5821
    aIrsiCaixa AIDS Research Institute, Badalona bUniversity Autònoma de Barcelona, Bellaterra cUniversity de Vic-University Central de Catalunya, Vic, Catalonia, Spain dDivision of Infectious Diseases, Emory University School of Medicine eInfectious Diseases Program, Grady Health System fDepartment of Biology, Emory University, O. Wayne Rollins Research Center gDepartment of Global Health, Emory University Rollins School of Public Health, Atlanta, GA hMinistry of Health, Zambia iUnitat VIH, Hosp. University Germans Trias i Pujol, Badalona, Catalonia, Spain.
    HIV-associated periodontal diseases (PD) could serve as a source of chronic inflammation. Here, we sought to characterize the oral microbial signatures of HIV+ and HIV- individuals at different levels of PD severity.This cross-sectional study included both HIV+ and HIV- patients with varying degrees of PD. Read More

    Stevens-Johnson syndrome and abuse of anabolic steroids.
    J Korean Assoc Oral Maxillofac Surg 2017 Feb 20;43(1):57-60. Epub 2017 Feb 20.
    Department of Dentistry, General Hospital of Siena, University of Siena, Siena, Italy.
    Stevens-Johnson syndrome (SJS) is characterized by mucocutaneous tenderness and typical hemorrhagic erosions, erythema and epidermal detachment presenting as blisters and areas of denuded skin. SJS is often observed after drug use as well as after bacterial or viral infections. Several drugs are at high risk of inducing SJS, but there are no cases in the English literature regarding anabolic steroid use triggering SJS. Read More

    Molecular markers for resistance against infectious diseases of economic importance.
    Vet World 2017 Jan 25;10(1):112-120. Epub 2017 Jan 25.
    Department of Animal Genetics and Breeding, College of Veterinary Science and Animal Husbandry, Sardarkrushinagar Dantiwada Agricultural University, Sardarkrushinagar - 385 506, Gujarat, India.
    Huge livestock population of India is under threat by a large number of endemic infectious (bacterial, viral, and parasitic) diseases. These diseases are associated with high rates of morbidity and mortality, particularly in exotic and crossbred cattle. Beside morbidity and mortality, economic losses by these diseases occur through reduced fertility, production losses, etc. Read More

    Common Skin Conditions in Children: Skin Infections.
    FP Essent 2017 Feb;453:26-32
    University of North Carolina Chapel Hill School of Medicine Dermatology Residency Program, 410 Market St. Suite 400 CB#7715, Chapel Hill, NC 27516.
    Skin infections account for a significant subset of dermatologic conditions of childhood. Common cutaneous viral infections in children include warts, molluscum contagiosum, hand-foot-and-mouth disease, and herpes simplex. Although viral infections are self-limited and often only mildly symptomatic, they can cause anxiety, embarrassment, and health care use. Read More

    Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) in the microbiological diagnostic routine laboratory: a review.
    Crit Rev Microbiol 2017 May 27;43(3):263-293. Epub 2017 Jan 27.
    e Institute for Medical Microbiology, Justus-Liebig-University Giessen , Giessen , Germany.
    Early identification of microbial pathogens is essential for rational and conservative antibiotic use especially in the case of known regional resistance patterns. Here, we describe fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) as one of the rapid methods for easy identification of microbial pathogens, and its advantages and disadvantages for the diagnosis of pathogens in human infections in the laboratory diagnostic routine. Binding of short fluorescence-labeled DNA or nucleic acid-mimicking PNA probes to ribosomes of infectious agents with consecutive analysis by fluorescence microscopy allows identification of bacterial and eukaryotic pathogens at genus or species level. Read More

    Artificial Induction of Native Aquaporin-1 Expression in Human Salivary Cells.
    J Dent Res 2017 Apr 10;96(4):444-449. Epub 2017 Jan 10.
    1 Gene Therapy Program, Allegheny Health Network, Pittsburgh, PA, USA.
    Gene therapy for dry mouth disorders has transitioned in recent years from theoretical to clinical proof of principle with the publication of a first-in-man phase I/II dose escalation clinical trial in patients with radiation-induced xerostomia. This trial used a prototype adenoviral vector to express aquaporin-1 (AQP1), presumably in the ductal cell layer and/or in surviving acinar cells, to drive transcellular flux of interstitial fluid into the labyrinth of the salivary duct. As the development of this promising gene therapy continues, safety considerations are a high priority, particularly those that remove nonhuman agents (i. Read More

    Identification of infectious microbiota from oral cavity environment of various population group patients as a preventive approach to human health risk factors.
    Ann Agric Environ Med 2016 12;23(4):566-569
    Department of Medical Biology, Medical University of Warsaw, Warsaw, Poland.
    Introduction And Objective: This study presents the results of comparative investigations aimed to determine microbiota that can occur in the oral environment in different human populations. The objective of the research was to identify pathogenic oral microbiota, the potential cause of health complications in patients of different population groups.

    Materials And Method: The study included 95 patients requiring dental or surgical treatment; their oral cavity environment microbiota as risk factors of local and general infections were assessed. Read More

    An Outbreak of Kingella Kingae Infections Complicating a Severe Hand, Foot, And Mouth Disease Outbreak in Nice, France, 2016.
    Pediatr Infect Dis J 2017 May;36(5):530-532
    From the *URMITE " Unité de Recherche en Maladies Infectieuses et Tropicales Emergentes", UM63, Inserm 1095, CNRS 7278, IRD 198, Institut Hospitalo-Universitaire Méditerranée-Infection, Aix-Marseille University, Marseille, France; †Childcare Centers, Nice, France; ‡Laboratoire de Virologie, Centre National de Référence des Enterovirus et Parechovirus-laboratoire associé, CHU de Clermont-Ferrand, Clermont-Ferrand, France; §Department of Pediatric Cardiac Surgery, La Timone Children's Hospital, Aix-Marseille University, Marseille, France; ¶Department of Pediatric Emergency Medicine, North Hospital, Marseille, France; ‖Department of Pediatrics, Foundation Lenval Children's Hospital, Nice, France; **Laboratory of Foundation Lenval Children's Hospital, Nice, France; and ††IRD French Institute of Research and Development, EHESP French School of Public Health, EPV UMR_D 190 "Emergence des Pathologies Virales," Institut Hospitalo-Universitaire Méditerranée-Infection, Aix Marseille Université, Marseille, France.
    We report the investigation methods for the diagnosis of an epidemic and culture-negative Kingella kingae endocarditis complicating a severe outbreak of hand, foot and mouth disease in a childcare center. The diagnosis was confirmed by polymerase chain reaction testing performed from cardiac tissue. Our findings argue for the systematic investigation of K. Read More

    Planting the seed: Origins, composition, and postnatal health significance of the fetal gastrointestinal microbiota.
    Crit Rev Microbiol 2017 May 8;43(3):352-369. Epub 2016 Dec 8.
    a The University of Western Australia, School of Women's and Infants' Health, King Edward Memorial Hospital , Subiaco , Perth , Australia.
    It has long been assumed that establishment of the fetal microbiome commences with the birthing process. However, recent studies have found bacterial DNA in umbilical cord blood, placenta, amniotic fluid, meconium, and fetal membranes in healthy normal pregnancies, leading to suggestions that the seeding of the fetal microbiome may commence in utero long before delivery. The origins of the microbiota of the fetal gastrointestinal (GI) tract have not yet been conclusively determined, although bacterial translocation from the maternal circulation, or ascension from the vagina, are both likely to be contributing pathways. Read More

    Adhesion and invasion of Streptococcus pneumoniae to primary and secondary respiratory epithelial cells.
    Mol Med Rep 2017 Jan 6;15(1):65-74. Epub 2016 Dec 6.
    Shraga Segal Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Faculty of Health Sciences, Ben‑Gurion University of The Negev, Beer Sheva 84101, Israel.
    The interaction between Streptococcus pneumoniae (S. pneumoniae) and the mucosal epithelial cells of its host is a prerequisite for pneumococcal disease development, yet the specificity of this interaction between different respiratory cells is not fully understood. In the present study, three areas were examined: i) The capability of the encapsulated S. Read More

    Complete genome sequence of Streptococcus troglodytae TKU31 isolated from the oral cavity of a chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes).
    Microbiol Immunol 2016 Dec;60(12):811-816
    Department of Translational Research, Tsurumi University School of Dental Medicine.
    Streptococcus troglodytae TKU31 was isolated from the oral cavity of a chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes) and was found to be the most closely related species of the mutans group streptococci to Streptococcus mutans. The complete sequence of TKU31 genome consists of a single circular chromosome that is 2,097,874 base pairs long and has a G + C content of 37.18%. Read More

    In-situ, time-lapse study of extracellular polymeric substance discharge in Streptococcus mutans biofilm.
    Colloids Surf B Biointerfaces 2017 Feb 24;150:98-105. Epub 2016 Nov 24.
    Department of Materials Science and Engineering, National Cheng Kung University, Taiwan.
    Streptococcus mutans is one of the main pathogens that cause tooth decay. By metabolizing carbohydrates, S. mutans emits extracellular polymeric substance (EPS) that adheres to the tooth surface and forms layers of biofilm. Read More

    [Prevention of the recurrent herpetic stomatitis in employees of Kazan city industrial enterprises frequently suffering from acute respiratory viral infections].
    Stomatologiia (Mosk) 2016;95(5):24-26
    Kazan National Research Technological University, Kazan, Russia, Moscow State Medical Dental University named after A.I. Evdokimov, Moscow, Russia.
    Research objective was to study the efficacy of ingavirin for prevention of recurrent herpetic stomatitis in employees of Kazan city industrial enterprises frequently suffering from acute respiratory viral infections. 128 employees aged from 18 to 56 years were included in the study. Clinical and immunological efficiency of ingavirin prevention of recurrent herpetic stomatitis is proved by estimation of oral cavity local immunity (SlgA, lisozyme), humoral immunity (IgE and IgG) and cellular immunity (RBTL with FGA, defined T-lymphocytes). Read More

    Efficacy and safety of a therapeutic apparatus using hydrogen peroxide photolysis to treat dental and periodontal infectious diseases.
    J Toxicol Sci 2016 ;41(6):793-799
    Tohoku University Graduate School of Dentistry.
    The present study aimed to evaluate the acute locally injurious property of our most current hydroxyl radical generation system by hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) photolysis. This system, which releases 3% H2O2 with a 405-nm laser, was developed in our laboratory for the treatment of dental and periodontal infectious diseases. First, the hydroxyl radical yield generated by H2O2 photolysis was examined by applying an electron spin resonance-spin trapping technique. Read More

    Brush cells, the newly identified gatekeepers of the urinary tract.
    Curr Opin Urol 2017 Mar;27(2):85-92
    Institute of Anatomy and Cell Biology, Justus-Liebig-University Giessen, Giessen, Germany.
    Purpose Of Review: A specialized epithelial cell with chemosensory properties of taste cells known from the mouth has been newly identified in the urethra and linked to pathogen recognition. We here describe its properties and its link to defence mechanisms, showing parallels to similar sentinel cells in the respiratory and gastrointestinal tract.

    Recent Findings: In the urethra, slender epithelial cells with apical microvilli ('brush cells') express bitter and umami taste receptors and the downstream signalling cascade known from oropharyngeal gustation, utilizing it to monitor for bacterial products and bacterial growth facilitating conditions. Read More

    Comparison of foam swabs and toothbrushes as oral hygiene interventions in mechanically ventilated patients: a randomised split mouth study.
    BMJ Open Respir Res 2016 14;3(1):e000150. Epub 2016 Oct 14.
    School of Dentistry, Cardiff University , Cardiff , UK.
    Introduction: During critical illness, dental plaque may serve as a reservoir of respiratory pathogens. This study compared the effectiveness of toothbrushing with a small-headed toothbrush or a foam-headed swab in mechanically ventilated patients.

    Methods: This was a randomised, assessor-blinded, split-mouth trial, performed at a single critical care unit. Read More

    Assessment of Photodynamic Inactivation against Periodontal Bacteria Mediated by a Chitosan Hydrogel in a 3D Gingival Model.
    Int J Mol Sci 2016 Nov 1;17(11). Epub 2016 Nov 1.
    Department of Biochemical Science and Technology, National Taiwan University, Taipei 10617, Taiwan.
    Chitosan hydrogels containing hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC) and toluidine blue O were prepared and assessed for their mucoadhesive property and antimicrobial efficacy of photodynamic inactivation (PDI). Increased HPMC content in the hydrogels resulted in increased mucoadhesiveness. Furthermore, we developed a simple In Vitro 3D gingival model resembling the oral periodontal pocket to culture the biofilms of Staphylococcus aureus (S. Read More

    Immunodominant IgM and IgG Epitopes Recognized by Antibodies Induced in Enterovirus A71-Associated Hand, Foot and Mouth Disease Patients.
    PLoS One 2016 2;11(11):e0165659. Epub 2016 Nov 2.
    Department of Medical Microbiology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Malaya, 50603 Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.
    Enterovirus A71 (EV-A71) is one of the main causative agents of hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD). Unlike other enteroviruses that cause HFMD, EV-A71 is more frequently associated with severe neurological complications and fatality. To date, no effective licensed antivirals are available to combat EV-A71 infection. Read More

    Eikenella corrodens bone and hip joint infection. A case report and literature review.
    Arch Pediatr 2016 Nov 20;23(11):1146-1149. Epub 2016 Sep 20.
    Pediatric orthopedics department, Strasbourg university hospital center, Hautepierre hospital, avenue Molière, 67098 Strasbourg, France.
    Eikenella corrodens (EC) is a human commensal microorganism of the mouth flora. This bacterium is rarely reported in bone and joint infections in children, but the consequences on the joint function can be devastating and irreversible. We report the case of septic arthritis of the hip following an oral wound in a 12-year-old boy. Read More

    Phage Therapy: A New Horizon in the Antibacterial Treatment of Oral Pathogens.
    Curr Top Med Chem 2017 ;17(10):1199-1211
    Department of Prosthodontics, Hebrew University-Hadassah School of Dental Medicine, Jerusalem, Israel.
    Dental diseases are perhaps the most prevalent infection-related diseases in humans. Biofilm is involved in almost every infectious disease compromising oral health, notably caries, periodontal disease, gingivitis, endodontic infections and peri-implantitis. Current therapies of biofilm-derived oral infections lack sensitivity; they are not species-specific and kill pathogenic species as well as commensal species, which are protective against the formation of pathogenic biofilms. Read More

    Capping Agent-Dependent Toxicity and Antimicrobial Activity of Silver Nanoparticles: An In Vitro Study. Concerns about Potential Application in Dental Practice.
    Int J Med Sci 2016 27;13(10):772-782. Epub 2016 Sep 27.
    Department of Medical Chemistry, Medical University Gdansk, Poland.
    Objectives: In dentistry, silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) have drawn particular attention because of their wide antimicrobial activity spectrum. However, controversial information on AgNPs toxicity limited their use in oral infections. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to evaluate the antibacterial activities against a panel of oral pathogenic bacteria and bacterial biofilms together with potential cytotoxic effects on human gingival fibroblasts of 10 nm AgNPs: non-functionalized - uncapped (AgNPs-UC) as well as surface-functionalized with capping agent: lipoic acid (AgNPs-LA), polyethylene glycol (AgNPs-PEG) or tannic acid (AgNPs-TA) using silver nitrate (AgNO3) as control. Read More

    Salivary microbiota and caries occurrence in Mutans Streptococci-positive school children.
    Eur J Paediatr Dent 2016 Sep;17(3):188-192
    Faculty of Dentistry, Kuwait University, Kuwait.
    Aim: To compare the composition of the salivary microbiota in caries-affected vs. caries-free mutans streptococci (MS)- positive children with mixed dentition.

    Materials And Methods: Twenty eight healthy, 11-12-year-old schoolchildren with high MS counts (>10⊃5 CFU/mL) were included in this study. Read More

    Bacterial diversity of symptomatic primary endodontic infection by clonal analysis.
    Braz Oral Res 2016 Oct 10;30(1):e103. Epub 2016 Oct 10.
    Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), Piracicaba Dental School, Endodontics Division, Piracicaba, SP, Brazil.
    The aim of this study was to explore the bacterial diversity of 10 root canals with acute apical abscess using clonal analysis. Samples were collected from 10 patients and submitted to bacterial DNA isolation, 16S rRNA gene amplification, cloning, and sequencing. A bacterial genomic library was constructed and bacterial diversity was estimated. Read More

    Cetylpyridinium chloride mouth rinses alleviate experimental gingivitis by inhibiting dental plaque maturation.
    Int J Oral Sci 2016 Sep 29;8(3):182-90. Epub 2016 Sep 29.
    Department of Operative Dentistry and Endodontics, Guanghua School and Hospital of Stomatology, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou, China.
    Oral rinses containing chemotherapeutic agents, such as cetylpyridinium chloride (CPC), can alleviate plaque-induced gingival infections, but how oral microbiota respond to these treatments in human population remains poorly understood. Via a double-blinded, randomised controlled trial of 91 subjects, the impact of CPC-containing oral rinses on supragingival plaque was investigated in experimental gingivitis, where the subjects, after a 21-day period of dental prophylaxis to achieve healthy gingivae, received either CPC rinses or water for 21 days. Within-subject temporal dynamics of plaque microbiota and symptoms of gingivitis were profiled via 16S ribosomal DNA gene pyrosequencing and assessment with the Mazza gingival index. Read More

    Hand-Foot and Mouth Dısease and Reactıve Arthritis: An Unusual Paediatric Case.
    J Coll Physicians Surg Pak 2016 Sep;26(9):793-4
    Department of Paediatric Cardiology, Faculty of Medicine, Turgut Ozal University, Ankara, Turkey.
    Reactive arthritis is defined as arthritis that occurs during or after an extraarticular infection. It is mostly difficult to determine the causative agent that causes inflammation in the joints. Initially, salmonella, shigella, chlamydiaand yersinia were considered to be pathogenic agents. Read More

    Investigation of Bacterial Contents From Persistent Endodontic Infection and Evaluation of Their Inflammatory Potential.
    Braz Dent J 2016 Jul-Aug;27(4):412-8
    Department of Restorative Dentistry, Endodontic Division, Institute of Science and Technology, UNESP - Univ Estadual Paulista, São José dos Campos, SP, Brazil.
    This clinical study investigated and quantified cultivable bacteria and their levels of endotoxins in persistent endodontic infection, determining their antigenicity against macrophages and fibroblast cells by IL-1β and TNF-α secretion and evaluating their relationship with clinical and radiographic features. Samples from the root canals were obtained after root filling removal. Culture techniques were used to determine the bacterial count and the endotoxins were determined by LAL-assay. Read More

    Regenerative Endodontic Treatment versus Apical Plug in Immature Teeth: Three-Year Follow-Up.
    J Clin Pediatr Dent 2016;40(5):356-60
    This report compares and evaluates the treatment outcomes of regenerative endodontic treatment and apical plug as two accepted treatment protocols in a pair of necrotic immature maxillary central incisors of a 12-year old female. The patient was referred complaining of a dull pain and swelling in her upper lip area. She had a history of trauma to the anterior maxilla two years earlier. Read More

    Efficacy of periimplant mechanical debridement with and without adjunct antimicrobial photodynamic therapy in the treatment of periimplant diseases among cigarette smokers and non-smokers.
    Photodiagnosis Photodyn Ther 2016 Dec 4;16:85-89. Epub 2016 Sep 4.
    Department of Prosthetic Dental Sciences, College of Dentistry, King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia.
    Objective: The aim was to assess the efficacy of mechanical debridement (MD) with and without adjunct antimicrobial photodynamic therapy (aPDT) in reducing periimplant inflammation among cigarette-smokers and non-smokers.

    Methods: Cigarette-smokers and non-smokers were randomly divided into 2 groups. In the test-group, participants underwent full mouth scaling and periimplant MD with adjunct aPDT; and in the control-group, the participants underwent full mouth scaling and periimplant MD alone. Read More

    Evaluation of carriage and environmental contamination by carbapenem-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii.
    Clin Microbiol Infect 2016 Nov 3;22(11):949.e5-949.e7. Epub 2016 Sep 3.
    Division of Epidemiology, Tel Aviv-Sourasky Medical Centre, Tel-Aviv, Israel; Sackler Faculty of Medicine, Tel-Aviv University, Tel-Aviv, Israel.
    We evaluated the sensitivity of surveillance cultures for carbapenem-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii (CRAB) in patients and in their environment. Patients with a CRAB-positive clinical culture were sampled within 7 days; the buccal mucosa and rectum were sampled using swabs, and skin was sampled using pre-moistened sterile sponges. Sponges were also used to sample the surrounding environment. Read More

    Longitudinal study on clinical and microbial analysis of periodontal status in pregnancy.
    Braz Oral Res 2016 Aug 22;30(1):e87. Epub 2016 Aug 22.
    Universidade Federal de Juiz de Fora - UFJF, School of Dentistry, Department of Social and Child Dentistry, Juiz de Fora, MG, Brazil.
    This study was aimed to provide a longitudinal overview of the subgingival bacterial microbiome using fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) technique, in women in the second trimester of pregnancy (between 14 and 24 weeks), and 48 h and 8 weeks postpartum. Of 31 women evaluated during pregnancy, 24 returned for the 48-h and 18 for their 8-week exams postpartum. Probing depth (PD), bleeding on probing, clinical attachment level, and presence of calculus were recorded. Read More

    Vulvovaginal Candidiasis in Pregnant Women and its Importance for Candida Colonization of Newborns.
    Folia Med (Plovdiv) 2016 Apr-Jun;58(2):108-14
    Unlabelled: Vulvovaginal candidiasis is the second most common cause of vaginitis worldwide (after bacterial candidiasis). Maternal vulvovaginal candidiasis is a major risk factor for Candida colonization and infection of the infant where prognosis depends on different predisposing factors. The aim of this study was to determine the incidence and the etiological structure of vulvovaginal candidiasis in pregnant women and its impact on Candida colonization of newborns. Read More

    Impact of aging on TREM-1 responses in the periodontium: a cross-sectional study in an elderly population.
    BMC Infect Dis 2016 Aug 19;16(1):429. Epub 2016 Aug 19.
    Department of Dental Medicine, Karolinska Institute, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Background: Aging is associated with altered immune response, which increases susceptibility to infections. sTREM-1 is involved in the amplification of the inflammatory response to bacterial infection. The present cross-sectional study aims to investigate local sTREM-1 levels in gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) as well as key periodontal pathogen levels in the subgingival plaque in an elderly cohort with periodontal health, gingivitis, and chronic periodontitis (CP). Read More

    Oral pathogens change proliferation properties of oral tumor cells by affecting gene expression of human defensins.
    Tumour Biol 2016 Oct 1;37(10):13789-13798. Epub 2016 Aug 1.
    Department of Periodontology, Operative and Preventive Dentistry, University of Bonn, Welschnonnenstr. 17, 53111, Bonn, Germany.
    The impact of oral pathogens onto the generation and variability of oral tumors has only recently been investigated. To get further insights, oral cancer cells were treated with pathogens and additionally, as a result of this bacterial cellular infection, with human defensins, which are as anti-microbial peptide members of the innate immune system. After cell stimulation, proliferation behavior, expression analysis of oncogenic relevant defensin genes, and effects on EGFR signaling were investigated. Read More

    Microbial diversity in individuals and their household contacts following typical antibiotic courses.
    Microbiome 2016 Jul 30;4(1):39. Epub 2016 Jul 30.
    Department of Medicine, University of California, San Diego, 9500 Gilman Drive, MC 0612, La Jolla, CA, 92093-0612, USA.
    Background: Antibiotics are a mainstay of treatment for bacterial infections worldwide, yet the effects of typical antibiotic prescriptions on human indigenous microbiota have not been thoroughly evaluated. We examined the effects of the two most commonly prescribed antibiotics (amoxicillin and azithromycin) in the USA to discern whether short-term antibiotic courses may have prolonged effects on human microbiota.

    Results: We sampled the feces, saliva, and skin specimens from a cohort of unrelated, cohabitating individuals over 6 months. Read More

    Endodontic Treatment of Primary Molars with Antibiotic Paste: A Report of 38 Cases.
    J Clin Pediatr Dent 2016;40(3):175-7
    Objective: This study presents 38 cases of primary molars with necrotic pulps treated with antibiotics-based paste.

    Case Report: The technique consisted of necrotic tissue removal of the pulp chamber, using spoons excavators and low speed drills. Pulp cavity was washed with saline solution and dried with sterile cotton balls. Read More

    Laser Application in Dentistry: Irradiation Effects of Nd:YAG 1064 nm and Diode 810 nm and 980 nm in Infected Root Canals-A Literature Overview.
    Biomed Res Int 2016 4;2016:8421656. Epub 2016 Jul 4.
    Department of Conservative Dentistry, Periodontology and Preventive Dentistry, RWTH Aachen University, Pauwelsstraße 30, 52074 Aachen, Germany.
    Objective. In endodontics, Nd:YAG laser (1064 nm) and diode laser (810 nm and 980 nm) devices are used to remove bacteria in infected teeth. A literature review was elaborated to compare and evaluate the advantages and disadvantages of using these lasers. Read More

    Profile of bacteria colonizing the exposed bone of patients with anti-osteoclastic drug-related osteonecrosis of the jaws.
    Can J Microbiol 2016 Sep 11;62(9):772-80. Epub 2016 May 11.
    b Department of Dental Materials and Prosthodontics, Faculty of Dentistry of Ribeirão Preto, University of São Paulo, Brazil.
    Microbial etiology for anti-osteoclastic drug-related osteonecrosis of the jaw (ARONJ) was suggested. This study investigates any link between bacteria colonizing ARONJ sites and other oral cavity sites. Microbiota samples of 10 ARONJ patients were collected from the exposed bone, adjacent teeth, contralateral teeth, and tongue. Read More

    Biofilm on the tracheoesophageal voice prosthesis: considerations for oral decontamination.
    Eur Arch Otorhinolaryngol 2017 Jan 11;274(1):405-413. Epub 2016 Jul 11.
    Department of Head and Neck Surgery, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Unit 1445, P. O. Box 301402, Houston, TX, 77030, USA.
    The tracheoesophageal puncture (TEP) restores verbal communication after total laryngectomy using a one-way valved voice prosthesis (VP). Microbial colonization can shorten VP device life. Our aims were to investigate patterns of prosthetic and oral colonization, and record changes in VP device life after targeted decontamination. Read More

    [Pregnancy and lactation: antibiotics. mouthwashes and pastes or ointments.
    Swiss Dent J 2016 ;126(6):598-9
    Cabinet dentaire privé Wiedikon, Dr Sandra Fatori and Partner, médecin-dentiste et médecin, Zurich, Switzerland.
    The aim of this paper is to show aspects of dental treatment in pregnancy. The reader should gain security in the election of the proper drugs for antibiotic therapy and rinsing solutions. Antibiotics as penicillins are the first choice in case of dental infections in pregnancy. Read More

    Predicting serious complications and high cost of treatment of tooth-knuckle injuries: a systematic literature review.
    Eur J Trauma Emerg Surg 2016 Dec 30;42(6):701-710. Epub 2016 Jun 30.
    Cairns Clinical School, College of Medicine and Dentistry, James Cook University, Cairns, QLD, Australia.
    Purpose: The tooth-knuckle injury (TKI) is a serious and potentially costly injury seen in orthopaedic practice. The aim was to conduct a systematic literature review on the factors associated with serious complications and high treatment costs in tooth-knuckle injuries.

    Methods: MEDLINE, Scopus and CINAHL were used as the literature sources. Read More

    Clinical relevance of infections with zoonotic and human oral species of Campylobacter.
    J Microbiol 2016 Jul 28;54(7):459-67. Epub 2016 Jun 28.
    Department of Oral Microbiology, College of Dentistry, Wonkwang University, Iksan, Chonbuk, 54538, Republic of Korea.
    Genus Campylobacter has been recognized as a causative bacterial agent of animal and human diseases. Human Campylobacter infections have caused more concern. Campylobacters can be classified into two groups in terms of their original host: zoonotic and human oral species. Read More

    [Confusion and solution for root canal working length determination].
    Hua Xi Kou Qiang Yi Xue Za Zhi 2016 Apr;34(2):109-14
    Pulpitis and periapical periodontitis is a type of bacterial infectious disease, and bacteria frequently plant in the entire root canal system during the terminal stage. Main clinical treatment strategy of the disease requires root canal therapy, a key and core procedure for the successful treatment by thoroughly removing the root canal infection. The premise and guarantee of thoroughly removing root canal infection is by determining the accurate root canal working length. Read More

    Eksp Klin Gastroenterol 2016 (2):30-4
    Introduction: Helicobacter pylori infection is due to the high prevalence in population attracts the clinical interest of researchers in the whole World. It is well known that this microorganism not only resides in the mucosa of the gastrointestinal tract, but is also defined in the periodontal pocket of the oral cavity. THE AIM OF INVESTIGATION: to evaluate Helicobacter pylori diagnostics in the mouth and prove a method of relief of the inflammatory process by applying immunomodulator Imudon. Read More

    [Pregnancy and breast feeding: antibiotics, irrigation and pastes].
    Swiss Dent J 2016 ;126(5):490-1
    Privatpraxis Zahnärzte Wiedikon – Dr. Fatori and Partner, Zahnärztin and Ärztin, Zentralstrasse 2, Zürich, Switzerland.
    The aim of this paper is to show aspects of dental treatment in pregnancy. The reader should gain security in the election of the proper drugs for antibiotic therapy and rinsing solutions. Antibiotics as penicillins are the first choice in case of dental infections in pregnancy. Read More

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