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    ON THE COMPLEXITY OF SHARK BITE WOUNDS: FROM ASSOCIATED BACTERIA TO TRAUMA MANAGEMENT AND WOUND REPAIR.
    J Trauma Acute Care Surg 2018 Mar 22. Epub 2018 Mar 22.
    Researcher, University of West Florida, Department of Mathematics and Statistics, Pensacola, FL, USA, Shark Behaviorist, Shark Research Institute, Global Shark Attack File, Princeton, NJ, USA.
    The mouth of a shark is a breeding ground for a large variety of bacteria which can easily get transferred onto a human body in the event of a shark bite. Here, we review infections originating from shark oral bacterial flora, which originate from the microbiome of its prey, as well as from the surroundings where an incident takes place. We use the example of an incident which occurred in an aquarium involving a sandtiger shark, Carcharias taurus. Read More

    Focus on periodontal disease and development of endocarditis.
    J Biol Regul Homeost Agents 2018 Jan-Feb;32(2 Suppl. 1):143-147
    Department of Medicine and Surgery, University of Insubria, Varese, Italy.
    Infective endocarditis is a devastating disease with high morbidity and mortality. The link to oral bacteria has been known for many decades and has caused ongoing concern for dentists, patients and cardiologists. The microbiota of the mouth is extremely diverse and more than 700 bacterial species have been detected. Read More

    Genomewide Identification of Essential Genes and Fitness Determinants of UA159.
    mSphere 2018 Jan-Feb;3(1). Epub 2018 Feb 7.
    Department of Oral Biology, College of Dentistry, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida, USA.
    Transposon mutagenesis coupled with next-generation DNA sequencing (Tn-seq) is a powerful tool for discovering regions of the genome that are required for the survival of bacteria in different environments. We adapted this technique to the dental caries pathogen UA159 and identified 11% of the genome as essential, with many genes encoding products required for replication, translation, lipid metabolism, and cell wall biogenesis. Comparison of the essential genome of UA159 with those of selected other streptococci for which such information is available revealed several metabolic pathways and genes that are required in , but not in some spp. Read More

    Establishment of mouse gingival junctional epithelial cell line using a bioengineered tooth system.
    Biochem Biophys Res Commun 2018 02 8;497(1):167-172. Epub 2018 Feb 8.
    Department of Periodontology, School of Dentistry, Showa University, 2-1-1 Kitasenzoku, Ohta-ku, Tokyo 145-8515, Japan. Electronic address:
    Junctional epithelium (JE), one of the constituents of periodontal tissue, has several unique features to prevent bacterial infection. However, the molecular mechanisms of these cells remain to be completely elucidated because there has been no JE cell line to date. We have succeeded in isolating JE cells expressing green fluorescent protein (GFP) by using a bioengineered tooth technique in mice. Read More

    Bronchoalveolar lavage for diagnosis of tuberculosis infection in elephants.
    Epidemiol Infect 2018 Mar 5;146(4):481-488. Epub 2018 Feb 5.
    Department of Reproduction Management,Leibniz Institute for Zoo and Wildlife Research,Alfred-Kowalke-Straße 17,Berlin 10315,Germany.
    Tuberculosis (TB) has been known to affect elephants for thousands of years. It was put into spotlight when few circus elephants were diagnosed carrying Mycobacterium (M.) tuberculosis. Read More

    Detection of Pathogen Exposure in African Buffalo Using Non-Specific Markers of Inflammation.
    Front Immunol 2017 11;8:1944. Epub 2018 Jan 11.
    Department of Integrative Biology, Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR, United States.
    Detecting exposure to new or emerging pathogens is a critical challenge to protecting human, domestic animal, and wildlife health. Yet, current techniques to detect infections typically target known pathogens of humans or economically important animals. In the face of the current surge in infectious disease emergence, non-specific disease surveillance tools are urgently needed. Read More

    Application of Metagenomic Analyses in Dentistry as a Novel Strategy Enabling Complex Insight into Microbial Diversity of the Oral Cavity.
    Pol J Microbiol 2017 Mar;66(1):9-15
    Department of Dental Microbiology, Medical University of Warsaw, Poland; Department of Microbiology, Central Clinical Hospital in Warsaw, Poland.
    The composition of the oral microbiome in healthy individuals is complex and dynamic, and depends on many factors, such as anatomical location in the oral cavity, diet, oral hygiene habits or host immune responses. It is estimated at present that worldwide about 2 billion people suffer from diseases of the oral cavity, mainly periodontal disease and dental caries. Importantly, the oral microflora involved in local infections may spread and cause systemic, even life-threatening infections. Read More

    Sialolith removal in the submandibular region using surgical diode laser: report of two cases and literature review.
    Oral Maxillofac Surg 2018 Mar 22;22(1):105-111. Epub 2018 Jan 22.
    Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Pontificial Catholic University of Rio Grande do Sul, PUC/RS, Av. Ipiranga, n.6681, Building 6, Porto Alegre, Rio Grande do Sul, 91530-001, Brazil.
    Purpose: Sialolithiasis is defined as the presence of one or more calcified structures within the duct of a major or minor salivary gland. It occurs as a result of deposition of calcium salts around an accumulation of organic debris in the duct lumen. The main signs and symptoms are edema and bacterial infection with abscess formation. Read More

    Is the routine practice of antibiotic prescription and microbial culture and antibiotic sensitivity testing justified in primary maxillofacial space infection patients? A prospective, randomized clinical study.
    J Craniomaxillofac Surg 2018 Mar 20;46(3):446-452. Epub 2017 Dec 20.
    Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Maulana Azad Institute of Dental Sciences, MAMC Complex, Bahadur Shah Zafar Marg, New Delhi, 110002, India. Electronic address:
    Purpose: The purpose of this prospective, randomized, comparative clinical study was to compare treatment outcome of removal of foci and incision and drainage, with or without oral antibiotic therapy, in the management of single primary maxillofacial space infection with a known focus.

    Materials And Methods: A total of 40 patients with single primary maxillofacial space infection with a known infectious focus were divided into two groups, one treated with incision and drainage only, and the other with incision and drainage along with oral antibiotics. The focus of infection was addressed in both groups. Read More

    Prevention of surgical site infection after oral cancer surgery by topical tetracycline: Results of a multicenter randomized control trial.
    Medicine (Baltimore) 2017 Dec;96(48):e8891
    Department of Clinical Oral Oncology, Nagasaki University Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences, Nagasaki.
    Background: In a pilot study, we showed that topical administration of a tetracycline could decrease oral bacteria levels for 6 hours in patients who underwent oral cancer surgery combined with tracheotomy and flap reconstruction. This multicenter, randomized control trial aimed to investigate the effectiveness of topical application of tetracycline ointment for prevention of surgical site infection (SSI) associated with major oral cancer surgery.

    Methods: One hundred seventeen patients who underwent oral cancer resection combined with neck dissection, flap reconstruction, and tracheotomy were divided randomly into an intervention group (n = 56) and a control group (n = 61). Read More

    Frequency and levels of candidate endodontic pathogens in acute apical abscesses as compared to asymptomatic apical periodontitis.
    PLoS One 2018 2;13(1):e0190469. Epub 2018 Jan 2.
    Department of Endodontics and Molecular Microbiology Laboratory, Estácio de Sá University, Rio de Janeiro, RJ, Brazil.
    Introduction: Acute apical abscess is caused by bacteria that leave the infected dental root canal to invade the periodontal tissues. Most species occurring in abscesses are also found in asymptomatic infections; therefore, the possibility exists that not only the presence of certain species but also their specific counts influence the appearance of symptoms. This molecular study compared the frequency and levels of several candidate endodontic pathogens in teeth with acute apical abscesses and asymptomatic apical periodontitis. Read More

    Supportive periodontal therapy (SPT) for maintaining the dentition in adults treated for periodontitis.
    Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2018 01 1;1:CD009376. Epub 2018 Jan 1.
    Adult Comprehensive Dentistry, Dental School, University of Barcelona, Feixa LLarga s/n, Hospitalet de Llobregat, Barcelona, Spain, 08907.
    Background: Periodontitis is a bacterially-induced, chronic inflammatory disease that destroys the connective tissues and bone that support teeth. Active periodontal treatment aims to reduce the inflammatory response, primarily through eradication of bacterial deposits. Following completion of treatment and arrest of inflammation, supportive periodontal therapy (SPT) is employed to reduce the probability of re-infection and progression of the disease; to maintain teeth without pain, excessive mobility or persistent infection in the long term, and to prevent related oral diseases. Read More

    Culture-dependent approaches to explore the prevalence of root canal pathogens from endodontic infections.
    Braz Oral Res 2017 Dec 18;31:e108. Epub 2017 Dec 18.
    Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Department of Microbiology, School of Medicine, Tehran, Iran.
    Endodontic infections are considered to be caused by the presence of various microorganisms within the root canal system. Recognition of this microbiota contributes to the successful treatment of infected root canals. This study investigated the microorganisms associated with primary and secondary endodontic infections via culture methods, biochemical tests, and molecular approaches in an Iranian population. Read More

    Foot-and-mouth disease virus infection stimulates innate immune signaling in the mouse macrophage RAW 264.7 cells.
    Can J Microbiol 2018 Feb 18;64(2):155-166. Epub 2017 Dec 18.
    a College of Veterinary Medicine, Gansu Agricultural University, Lanzhou, 730070 Gansu, People's Republic of China.
    The innate immune system acts as the first line of defense against invasion by bacterial and viral pathogens. The role of macrophages in innate immune responses to foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) is poorly understood. To determine the mechanism underlying activation of innate immunity after FMDV infection in macrophages, we performed FMDV infection in mouse macrophage RAW 264. Read More

    Elizabethkingia miricola as an opportunistic oral pathogen associated with superinfectious complications in humoral immunodeficiency: a case report.
    BMC Infect Dis 2017 12 12;17(1):763. Epub 2017 Dec 12.
    Hirszfeld Institute of Immunology and Experimental Therapy, Polish Academy of Sciences, Rudolfa Weigla 12, 53-114, Wroclaw, Poland.
    Background: Elizabethkingia miricola is a rare Gram-negative bacterium found in water and clinical specimens. Typical culturing methods often misidentify Elizabethkingia spp. as Flavobacterium or Chryseobacterium. Read More

    Effects of chlorhexidine preprocedural rinse on bacteremia in periodontal patients: a randomized clinical trial.
    J Appl Oral Sci 2017 Nov-Dec;25(6):586-595
    Universidade de Taubaté, Departamento de Odontologia, Núcleo de Pesquisa Periodontal, Taubaté, SP, Brasil.
    Objective: Single dose of systemic antibiotics and short-term use of mouthwashes reduce bacteremia. However, the effects of a single dose of preprocedural rinse are still controversial. This study evaluated, in periodontally diseased patients, the effects of a pre-procedural mouth rinse on induced bacteremia. Read More

    [Actinomycosis revealed by ulceration of the palate and gingiva].
    Ann Dermatol Venereol 2018 Mar 28;145(3):173-177. Epub 2017 Nov 28.
    Service de dermatologie, CHU d'Amiens, 1, place Victor-Pauchet, 80000 Amiens, France; Université de Picardie-Jules-Verne, 80000 Amiens, France.
    Background: Actinomycosis is a chronic and extensive granulomatous, bacterial infection. Revelation by oral ulceration is rare.

    Patients And Methods: A 76-year-old patient with diabetes was treated with dabrafenib for stage IV melanoma. Read More

    Transcriptome profiling analysis of senescent gingival fibroblasts in response to Fusobacterium nucleatum infection.
    PLoS One 2017 30;12(11):e0188755. Epub 2017 Nov 30.
    Department of Oral Biochemistry, Dental Science Research Institute, Medical Research Center for Biomineralization Disorders, School of Dentistry, Chonnam National University, Gwangju, Republic of Korea.
    Periodontal disease is caused by dental plaque biofilms. Fusobacterium nucleatum is an important periodontal pathogen involved in the development of bacterial complexity in dental plaque biofilms. Human gingival fibroblasts (GFs) act as the first line of defense against oral microorganisms and locally orchestrate immune responses by triggering the production of reactive oxygen species and pro-inflammatory cytokines (IL-6 and IL-8). Read More

    Age-related differences in the respiratory microbiota of chickens.
    PLoS One 2017 22;12(11):e0188455. Epub 2017 Nov 22.
    Infection and Immunity, The Roslin Institute and Royal (Dick) School of Veterinary Studies, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, Midlothian, United Kingdom.
    In this era of next generation sequencing technologies it is now possible to characterise the chicken respiratory microbiota without the biases inherent to traditional culturing techniques. However, little research has been performed in this area. In this study we characterise and compare buccal, nasal and lung microbiota samples from chickens in three different age groups using 16S rRNA gene analysis. Read More

    Potential Role of the Lung Microbiome in Shaping Asthma Phenotypes.
    Ann Am Thorac Soc 2017 Nov;14(Supplement_5):S326-S331
    1 National Heart and Lung Institute, Imperial College London, London, United Kingdom; and.
    The introduction of 16s ribosomal RNA sequencing as a nonculture technique has led to the discovery of the presence of microbiota in the lower airways of healthy individuals. These bacterial communities may originate from the mouth and nasopharynx or from the environment by inhalation. The microbial composition of the lower airways may be modulated by dietary factors, antibiotic therapy, and microbial infections, particularly in early life. Read More

    Characteristic Comparison of Meningitis and Non-meningitis of Streptococcus suis in an Experimentally Infected Porcine Model.
    Inflammation 2018 Mar;41(2):368-377
    College of Veterinary Medicine, Jilin University, Xi'an Road 5333, Changchun, 130062, People's Republic of China.
    This study tested the differences of meningitis and non-meningitis of Streptococcus suis (SS). In this study, an infected pig model of streptococcal meningitis was established. Compared with the non-meningitis Streptococcus suis group (JZLQ001 group), the meningitis Streptococcus suis group (JZLQ022) exhibited neurological symptoms, such as ataxia and foaming at the mouth, and the brain showed a large area of congestion at 5 days post-infection (p. Read More

    Activation of the Innate Immune System by Treponema denticola Periplasmic Flagella through Toll-Like Receptor 2.
    Infect Immun 2018 01 19;86(1). Epub 2017 Dec 19.
    Department of Pediatric Dentistry, School of Dentistry, The University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, Alabama, USA
    is an indigenous oral spirochete that inhabits the gingival sulcus or periodontal pocket. Increased numbers of oral treponemes within this environment are associated with localized periodontal inflammation, and they are also part of an anaerobic polymicrobial consortium responsible for endodontic infections. Previous studies have indicated that stimulates the innate immune system through Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2); however, the pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) responsible for activation of the innate immune system are currently not well defined. Read More

    Type-III secretion pore formed by flagellar protein FliP.
    Mol Microbiol 2018 Jan 28;107(1):94-103. Epub 2017 Nov 28.
    Department of Biology, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT, 84112, USA.
    During assembly of the bacterial flagellum, protein subunits that form the exterior structures are exported through a specialized secretion apparatus energized by the proton gradient. This category of protein transport, together with the similar process that occurs in the injectisomes of gram-negative pathogens, is termed type-III secretion. The membrane-embedded part of the flagellar export apparatus contains five essential proteins: FlhA, FlhB, FliP, FliQ and FliR. Read More

    The Management of Infections and the Use of Antibiotic Prophylaxis by Dentists: A Review of the Evidence.
    J Calif Dent Assoc 2017 03;45(3):123-32
    Dentistry plays an important role in managing the antibiotic resistance problem. Guidelines for the use of antibiotics for prevention of endocarditis, prosthetic joint infections and other medical conditions have changed frequently. Unfortunately, the original guidelines and subsequent changes were often made through consensus opinions and not evidence based. Read More

    Case report: Features of hand, foot and mouth disease in neonates.
    Medicine (Baltimore) 2017 Oct;96(42):e8307
    aDepartment of Neonatology bInternal Medicine Intensive Care Unit, Zhangzhou Municipal Hospital affiliated to Fujian Medical School, Zhangzhou, China.
    Rationale: Hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD) is caused by enterovirus. The virus may exist in secretions.

    Patient Concerns: Five neonates had symptoms of fever and maculopapular rashes involving face, trunk, breech, arms, and legs, especially scattering on palms and feet. Read More

    Antifungal defense of probiotic Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG is mediated by blocking adhesion and nutrient depletion.
    PLoS One 2017 12;12(10):e0184438. Epub 2017 Oct 12.
    Department of Dermatology, University Hospital Tübingen, Germany.
    Candida albicans is an inhabitant of mucosal surfaces in healthy individuals but also the most common cause of fungal nosocomial blood stream infections, associated with high morbidity and mortality. As such life-threatening infections often disseminate from superficial mucosal infections we aimed to study the use of probiotic Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG (LGG) in prevention of mucosal C. albicans infections. Read More

    KR-12-a5 is a non-cytotoxic agent with potent antimicrobial effects against oral pathogens.
    Biofouling 2017 11 12;33(10):807-818. Epub 2017 Oct 12.
    b São Paulo State University (UNESP), Department of Pediatric Dentistry and Public Health, School of Dentistry , Araçatuba , Brazil.
    This study evaluated the cytotoxicity and antimicrobial activity of analogs of cationic peptides against microorganisms associated with endodontic infections. L-929 fibroblasts were exposed to LL-37, KR-12-a5 and hBD-3-1C and chlorhexidine (CHX, control), and cell metabolism was evaluated with MTT. The minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) and the minimal bactericidal/fungicidal concentration (MBC/MFC) of the peptides and CHX were determined against oral pathogens associated with endodontic infections. Read More

    Straight from the Horse's "Mouth": Genomic Epidemiology of an Icelandic Equine Epidemic.
    MBio 2017 Oct 10;8(5). Epub 2017 Oct 10.
    Department of Microbiology and Immunology, at the Peter Doherty Institute for Infection and Immunity, The University of Melbourne, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia
    Despite tight biosecurity measures, an outbreak of respiratory disease rapidly spread across the Icelandic equine population in 2010. Horse transportation was brought to a halt in order to contain the spread of the infectious agent. In a recent article, Björnsdóttir and colleagues (S. Read More

    Oral manifestations of inflammatory bowel disease.
    J Biol Regul Homeost Agents 2017 Jul-Sep;31(3):817-821
    Department of Experimental Biomedicine and Clinical Neuroscience, Section of Histology, (BIONEC), University of Palermo, Italy
    Inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD), including Crohn’s disease and ulcerative colitis, have important extraintestinal manifestations, notably in the oral cavity. These oral manifestations can constitute important clinical clues in the diagnosis and management of IBD, and include changes at the immune and bacterial levels. Aphthous ulcers, pyostomatitis vegetans, cobblestoning and gingivitis are important oral findings frequently observed in IBD patients. Read More

    Lamina propria group 2 innate lymphoid cells impair the antibacterial defense of burned mice to enterococcal translocation.
    J Leukoc Biol 2017 Dec 26;102(6):1451-1460. Epub 2017 Sep 26.
    Department of Internal Medicine, The University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston, Texas, USA;
    Gut microbiota that invades to the defective mucosal barrier is one of the major sources of infectious complications in severely burned hosts. In this study, a role of group 2 innate lymphoid cells (ILC2) and effects of -{4-[2,2,2-trifluoro-1-hydroxy-1-(trifluoromethyl)ethyl]phenyl}-2-thiophenesulfonamide (SR3335) on the host antibacterial resistance against infectious complications caused by oral infection were investigated in burned mice. Retinoic acid receptor-related orphan receptor α (RORα) is a transcription factor required for the development of ILC2, and SR3335 is an RORα-selective inverse agonist. Read More

    Gut biofilm forming bacteria in inflammatory bowel disease.
    Microb Pathog 2017 Nov 20;112:5-14. Epub 2017 Sep 20.
    Department of Biotechnology, National Institute of Technology, Raipur 492010, Chhattisgarh, India. Electronic address:
    Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) symbolizes a group of intestinal disorders in which prolonged inflammation occur in the digestive tract (esophagus, large intestine, small intestine mouth, stomach). Both genetic and environmental factors (infections, stress, diet) are involved in the development of IBD. As we know that bacteria are found in the intestinal mucosa of human and clinical observations revealed bacterial biofilms associated with patients of IBD. Read More

    [Targeting the skin - erythema multiforme in dogs and cats].
    Tierarztl Prax Ausg K Kleintiere Heimtiere 2017 Oct 20;45(5):352-356. Epub 2017 Sep 20.
    Teresa Böhm, Medizinische Kleintierklinik, Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität München, Veterinärstraße 13, 80539 München, E-Mail:
    This review article will describe the complex nature of erythema multiforme in dogs and cats. The disease pattern will be illustrated in terms of etiology, pathogenesis, clinical signs, diagnostics and therapy. Erythema multiforme is a rare, immune-mediated skin disorder with an acute specific reaction pattern of skin and mucous membranes against different underlying causes. Read More

    Face Masks and Cough Etiquette Reduce the Cough Aerosol Concentration of Pseudomonas aeruginosa in People with Cystic Fibrosis.
    Am J Respir Crit Care Med 2018 Feb;197(3):348-355
    1 Lung Bacteria Group and.
    Rationale: People with cystic fibrosis (CF) generate Pseudomonas aeruginosa in droplet nuclei during coughing. The use of surgical masks has been recommended in healthcare settings to minimize pathogen transmission between patients with CF.

    Objectives: To determine if face masks and cough etiquette reduce viable P. Read More

    [Acute skin infections and their imitators in children : A photo quiz].
    Hautarzt 2017 Oct;68(10):774-783
    Abteilung pädiatrische Dermatologie, Universitäts-Kinderspital Zürich, Steinwiesstrasse 75, 8032, Zürich, Schweiz.
    Background: Skin infections account for 40% of emergency visits in pediatric dermatology. It is important to promptly recognize skin infections with potential complications and initiate treatment. However some characteristic skin findings may imitate skin infections and are often misdiagnosed. Read More

    Occurrence of vancomycin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in the oral cavity of patients with dental caries.
    Acta Microbiol Immunol Hung 2017 Sep 11;64(3):343-351. Epub 2017 Sep 11.
    6 Visiting Professor, College of Applied Medical Sciences, King Saud University , Riyadh, Saudi Arabia.
    Oral streptococci are the major group of microbes isolated from oral microflora. They represent frequent pathogens of infective endocarditis (IE), and it is assumed that in most of the cases oral streptococci are acquired via mucosa layer of oral cavity. Staphylococcus aureus is also frequently isolated from IE as it accounts for 20%-30% of all cases. Read More

    Probing the potential of mucus permeability to signify preterm birth risk.
    Sci Rep 2017 Sep 4;7(1):10302. Epub 2017 Sep 4.
    Department of Biological Engineering, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA, 02139, USA.
    Preterm birth is the leading cause of neonatal mortality, and is frequently associated with intra-amniotic infection hypothesized to arise from bacterial ascension across a dysfunctional cervical mucus plug. To study this dysfunction, we assessed the permeability of cervical mucus from non-pregnant ovulating (n = 20) and high- (n = 9) and low-risk (n = 16) pregnant women to probes of varying sizes and surface chemistries. We found that the motion of negatively charged, carboxylated microspheres in mucus from pregnant patients was significantly restricted compared to ovulating patients, but not significantly different between high- and low-risk pregnant women. Read More

    Enhancing antibacterial effect of sodium hypochlorite by low electric current-assisted sonic agitation.
    PLoS One 2017 30;12(8):e0183895. Epub 2017 Aug 30.
    Department of Electronics and Communication, Faculty of Engineering & Architect, Süleyman Demirel University, Isparta, Turkey.
    Background: This research focused on the effects of low electric current (μE)-assisted sonic agitation of sodium hypochlorite on Enterococcus faecalis infected human root dentin.

    Methods: Extracted human canine roots were instrumented, sterilized, and experimentally contaminated with E. faecalis. Read More

    A Therapeutic Connection between Dietary Phytochemicals and ATP Synthase.
    Curr Med Chem 2017 Nov;24(35):3894-3906
    Department of Biochemistry, Kirksville College of Osteopathic Medicine, A.T. Still University, Kirksville, Missouri 63501, USA.
    For centuries, phytochemicals have been used to prevent and cure multiple health ailments. Phytochemicals have been reported to have antioxidant, antidiabetic, antitussive, antiparasitic, anticancer, and antimicrobial properties. Generally, the therapeutic use of phytochemicals is based on tradition or word of mouth with few evidence-based studies. Read More

    Antimicrobial efficacy of irradiation with visible light on oral bacteria in vitro: a systematic review.
    Future Med Chem 2017 09 9;9(13):1557-1574. Epub 2017 Aug 9.
    Department of Dermatology, University Medical Center Regensburg, 93053 Regensburg, Germany.
    Aim: Resistances to antibiotics employed for treatment of infectious diseases have increased to alarming numbers making it more and more difficult to treat diseases caused by microorganisms resistant to common antibiotics. Consequently, novel methods for successful inactivation of pathogens are required. In this instance, one alternative could be application of light for treatment of topical infections. Read More

    An evaluation of selected oral health indicators and cariogenic bacteria titer in patients with Helicobacter pylori.
    Adv Clin Exp Med 2017 May-Jun;26(3):401-407
    Department of General Medical Biology, Medical University of Silesia, Katowice, Poland.
    Background: Studies based on polymerase chain reaction (PCR) techniques indicate that Helicobacter pylori can be constantly or temporarily present in the oral cavity in virulent or non-virulent form. Streptococcus mutans exerts a strong inhibitory effect on H. pylori. Read More

    Swiss Dent J 2017 ;127(7-8):654-655
    Klinik für Mund-, Kiefer- und Gesichtschirurgie am Universitätsspital Zürich, Zurich, Switzerland.
    This script gives a pragmatic advice for general dentists on accurate use of amoxicillin with clavulanic acid considering current literature at acute inflammatory disease. In absence of contraindications a twice daily formulation of 1g amoxicillin with clavulanic acid is the first choice for concomitant therapy after treating the cause of inflammation or prophylaxis. Compared to clindamycin the concentration of amoxicillin in teeth and bone (Hallig 2014) is higher and has less gastrointestinal side-effects (Bax 2007). Read More

    Human enteroviruses associated with and without diarrhea in Thailand between 2010 and 2016.
    PLoS One 2017 27;12(7):e0182078. Epub 2017 Jul 27.
    Center of Excellence in Clinical Virology, Faculty of Medicine, Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok, Thailand.
    Non-bacterial acute gastroenteritis (AGE) associated with virus infection affects individuals living in developing countries, especially children. To investigate whether shedding of certain human enterovirus (EV) is more frequently detected in the stool of individuals with AGE of unknown etiology than individuals without AGE symptoms, we tested fecal samples collected from 2,692 individuals with diarrhea between January 2010 and December 2016. Samples were tested for rotavirus, norovirus, and EV by reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and adenovirus by PCR. Read More

    Paleoproteomics of the Dental Pulp: The plague paradigm.
    PLoS One 2017 26;12(7):e0180552. Epub 2017 Jul 26.
    Aix-Marseille Université, URMITE, CNRS, Faculté de Médecine IHU Méditerranée-Infection, Marseille, France.
    Chemical decomposition and fragmentation may limit the detection of ancient host and microbial DNA while some proteins can be detected for extended periods of time. We applied paleoproteomics on 300-year-old dental pulp specimens recovered from 16 individuals in two archeological funeral sites in France, comprising one documented plague site and one documented plague-negative site. The dental pulp paleoproteome of the 16 teeth comprised 439 peptides representative of 30 proteins of human origin and 211 peptides representative of 27 proteins of non-human origin. Read More

    Correlation between virulence markers of Helicobacter pylori in the oral cavity and gastric biopsies.
    Arq Gastroenterol 2017 Jul-Sept;54(3):217-221. Epub 2017 Jul 13.
    Area de Bacteriología, Instituto de Medicina Regional, Universidad Nacional del Nordeste, Resistencia, Argentina.
    Background:: The clinical outcome of Helicobacter pylori infection has been associated with virulence factors. The presence of these factors is useful as molecular markers in the identification of the high risk for developing severe gastric pathologies.

    Objective:: To correlate the presence of virulence markers cagA and bab2A of H. Read More

    Virulence genes in biofilm producer Enterococcus faecalis isolates from root canal infections.
    Cell Mol Biol (Noisy-le-grand) 2017 May 20;63(5):55-59. Epub 2017 May 20.
    Drug Applied Research Center, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences Tabriz, Iran.
    Enterococcus faecalis is occurring in opportunistic infections involving the oral cavity. This study aimed to evaluate the presence of E. faecalis virulence genes in dental root canal isolates recovered from advanced chronic periodontitis patients. Read More

    Cyclic Dinucleotides in Oral Bacteria and in Oral Biofilms.
    Front Cell Infect Microbiol 2017 21;7:273. Epub 2017 Jun 21.
    Department of Chemistry and Purdue Institute for Drug Discovery and Purdue Institute of Inflammation, Immunology and Infectious Disease, Purdue UniversityWest Lafayette, IN, United States.
    Oral cavity acts as a reservoir of bacterial pathogens for systemic infections and several oral microorganisms have been linked to systemic diseases. Quorum sensing and cyclic dinucleotides, two "decision-making" signaling systems, communicate to regulate physiological process in bacteria. Discovery of cyclic dinucleotides has a long history, but the progress in our understanding of how cyclic dinucleotides regulate bacterial lifestyle is relatively new. Read More

    The oral bacterial microbiome of occlusal surfaces in children and its association with diet and caries.
    PLoS One 2017 5;12(7):e0180621. Epub 2017 Jul 5.
    Department of Diagnostic Sciences, School of Dentistry, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, United States of America.
    Dental caries is the most prevalent disease in humans globally. Efforts to control it have been invigorated by an increasing knowledge of the oral microbiome composition. This study aimed to evaluate the bacterial diversity in occlusal biofilms and its relationship with clinical surface diagnosis and dietary habits. Read More

    Disseminated Neonatal Herpes Simplex Virus Infection with Escherichia Coli Coinfection.
    J Forensic Sci 2017 Jul 5. Epub 2017 Jul 5.
    Department of Pathology, University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM.
    Neonatal herpes simplex virus (HSV) infection is an uncommon disease that rarely presents as sudden unexpected death of a previously healthy newborn. Clinical manifestations are variable; signs and symptoms may be subtle and nonspecific. Neonatal infection may present with mucocutaneous (skin, eye, and/or mouth), disseminated, or central nervous system disease. Read More

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