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    1 OF 91

    Common Skin Conditions in Children: Skin Infections.
    FP Essent 2017 Feb;453:26-32
    University of North Carolina Chapel Hill School of Medicine Dermatology Residency Program, 410 Market St. Suite 400 CB#7715, Chapel Hill, NC 27516.
    Skin infections account for a significant subset of dermatologic conditions of childhood. Common cutaneous viral infections in children include warts, molluscum contagiosum, hand-foot-and-mouth disease, and herpes simplex. Although viral infections are self-limited and often only mildly symptomatic, they can cause anxiety, embarrassment, and health care use. Read More

    Artificial Induction of Native Aquaporin-1 Expression in Human Salivary Cells.
    J Dent Res 2017 Jan 1:22034516685045. Epub 2017 Jan 1.
    1 Gene Therapy Program, Allegheny Health Network, Pittsburgh, PA, USA.
    Gene therapy for dry mouth disorders has transitioned in recent years from theoretical to clinical proof of principle with the publication of a first-in-man phase I/II dose escalation clinical trial in patients with radiation-induced xerostomia. This trial used a prototype adenoviral vector to express aquaporin-1 (AQP1), presumably in the ductal cell layer and/or in surviving acinar cells, to drive transcellular flux of interstitial fluid into the labyrinth of the salivary duct. As the development of this promising gene therapy continues, safety considerations are a high priority, particularly those that remove nonhuman agents (i. Read More

    Identification of infectious microbiota from oral cavity environment of various population group patients as a preventive approach to human health risk factors.
    Ann Agric Environ Med 2016 12;23(4):566-569
    Department of Medical Biology, Medical University of Warsaw, Warsaw, Poland.
    Introduction And Objective: This study presents the results of comparative investigations aimed to determine microbiota that can occur in the oral environment in different human populations. The objective of the research was to identify pathogenic oral microbiota, the potential cause of health complications in patients of different population groups.

    Materials And Method: The study included 95 patients requiring dental or surgical treatment; their oral cavity environment microbiota as risk factors of local and general infections were assessed. Read More

    Brush cells, the newly identified gatekeepers of the urinary tract.
    Curr Opin Urol 2017 Mar;27(2):85-92
    Institute of Anatomy and Cell Biology, Justus-Liebig-University Giessen, Giessen, Germany.
    Purpose Of Review: A specialized epithelial cell with chemosensory properties of taste cells known from the mouth has been newly identified in the urethra and linked to pathogen recognition. We here describe its properties and its link to defence mechanisms, showing parallels to similar sentinel cells in the respiratory and gastrointestinal tract.

    Recent Findings: In the urethra, slender epithelial cells with apical microvilli ('brush cells') express bitter and umami taste receptors and the downstream signalling cascade known from oropharyngeal gustation, utilizing it to monitor for bacterial products and bacterial growth facilitating conditions. Read More

    Comparison of foam swabs and toothbrushes as oral hygiene interventions in mechanically ventilated patients: a randomised split mouth study.
    BMJ Open Respir Res 2016 14;3(1):e000150. Epub 2016 Oct 14.
    School of Dentistry, Cardiff University , Cardiff , UK.
    Introduction: During critical illness, dental plaque may serve as a reservoir of respiratory pathogens. This study compared the effectiveness of toothbrushing with a small-headed toothbrush or a foam-headed swab in mechanically ventilated patients.

    Methods: This was a randomised, assessor-blinded, split-mouth trial, performed at a single critical care unit. Read More

    Immunodominant IgM and IgG Epitopes Recognized by Antibodies Induced in Enterovirus A71-Associated Hand, Foot and Mouth Disease Patients.
    PLoS One 2016 2;11(11):e0165659. Epub 2016 Nov 2.
    Department of Medical Microbiology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Malaya, 50603 Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.
    Enterovirus A71 (EV-A71) is one of the main causative agents of hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD). Unlike other enteroviruses that cause HFMD, EV-A71 is more frequently associated with severe neurological complications and fatality. To date, no effective licensed antivirals are available to combat EV-A71 infection. Read More

    Salivary microbiota and caries occurrence in Mutans Streptococci-positive school children.
    Eur J Paediatr Dent 2016 Sep;17(3):188-192
    Faculty of Dentistry, Kuwait University, Kuwait.
    Aim: To compare the composition of the salivary microbiota in caries-affected vs. caries-free mutans streptococci (MS)- positive children with mixed dentition.

    Materials And Methods: Twenty eight healthy, 11-12-year-old schoolchildren with high MS counts (>10⊃5 CFU/mL) were included in this study. Read More

    Bacterial diversity of symptomatic primary endodontic infection by clonal analysis.
    Braz Oral Res 2016 Oct 10;30(1):e103. Epub 2016 Oct 10.
    Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), Piracicaba Dental School, Endodontics Division, Piracicaba, SP, Brazil.
    The aim of this study was to explore the bacterial diversity of 10 root canals with acute apical abscess using clonal analysis. Samples were collected from 10 patients and submitted to bacterial DNA isolation, 16S rRNA gene amplification, cloning, and sequencing. A bacterial genomic library was constructed and bacterial diversity was estimated. Read More

    Cetylpyridinium chloride mouth rinses alleviate experimental gingivitis by inhibiting dental plaque maturation.
    Int J Oral Sci 2016 Sep 29;8(3):182-90. Epub 2016 Sep 29.
    Department of Operative Dentistry and Endodontics, Guanghua School and Hospital of Stomatology, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou, China.
    Oral rinses containing chemotherapeutic agents, such as cetylpyridinium chloride (CPC), can alleviate plaque-induced gingival infections, but how oral microbiota respond to these treatments in human population remains poorly understood. Via a double-blinded, randomised controlled trial of 91 subjects, the impact of CPC-containing oral rinses on supragingival plaque was investigated in experimental gingivitis, where the subjects, after a 21-day period of dental prophylaxis to achieve healthy gingivae, received either CPC rinses or water for 21 days. Within-subject temporal dynamics of plaque microbiota and symptoms of gingivitis were profiled via 16S ribosomal DNA gene pyrosequencing and assessment with the Mazza gingival index. Read More

    Hand-Foot and Mouth Dısease and Reactıve Arthritis: An Unusual Paediatric Case.
    J Coll Physicians Surg Pak 2016 Sep;26(9):793-4
    Department of Paediatric Cardiology, Faculty of Medicine, Turgut Ozal University, Ankara, Turkey.
    Reactive arthritis is defined as arthritis that occurs during or after an extraarticular infection. It is mostly difficult to determine the causative agent that causes inflammation in the joints. Initially, salmonella, shigella, chlamydiaand yersinia were considered to be pathogenic agents. Read More

    Regenerative Endodontic Treatment versus Apical Plug in Immature Teeth: Three-Year Follow-Up.
    J Clin Pediatr Dent 2016;40(5):356-60
    This report compares and evaluates the treatment outcomes of regenerative endodontic treatment and apical plug as two accepted treatment protocols in a pair of necrotic immature maxillary central incisors of a 12-year old female. The patient was referred complaining of a dull pain and swelling in her upper lip area. She had a history of trauma to the anterior maxilla two years earlier. Read More

    Evaluation of carriage and environmental contamination by carbapenem-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii.
    Clin Microbiol Infect 2016 Nov 3;22(11):949.e5-949.e7. Epub 2016 Sep 3.
    Division of Epidemiology, Tel Aviv-Sourasky Medical Centre, Tel-Aviv, Israel; Sackler Faculty of Medicine, Tel-Aviv University, Tel-Aviv, Israel.
    We evaluated the sensitivity of surveillance cultures for carbapenem-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii (CRAB) in patients and in their environment. Patients with a CRAB-positive clinical culture were sampled within 7 days; the buccal mucosa and rectum were sampled using swabs, and skin was sampled using pre-moistened sterile sponges. Sponges were also used to sample the surrounding environment. Read More

    Longitudinal study on clinical and microbial analysis of periodontal status in pregnancy.
    Braz Oral Res 2016 Aug 22;30(1):e87. Epub 2016 Aug 22.
    Universidade Federal de Juiz de Fora - UFJF, School of Dentistry, Department of Social and Child Dentistry, Juiz de Fora, MG, Brazil.
    This study was aimed to provide a longitudinal overview of the subgingival bacterial microbiome using fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) technique, in women in the second trimester of pregnancy (between 14 and 24 weeks), and 48 h and 8 weeks postpartum. Of 31 women evaluated during pregnancy, 24 returned for the 48-h and 18 for their 8-week exams postpartum. Probing depth (PD), bleeding on probing, clinical attachment level, and presence of calculus were recorded. Read More

    Vulvovaginal Candidiasis in Pregnant Women and its Importance for Candida Colonization of Newborns.
    Folia Med (Plovdiv) 2016 Apr-Jun;58(2):108-14
    Unlabelled: Vulvovaginal candidiasis is the second most common cause of vaginitis worldwide (after bacterial candidiasis). Maternal vulvovaginal candidiasis is a major risk factor for Candida colonization and infection of the infant where prognosis depends on different predisposing factors. The aim of this study was to determine the incidence and the etiological structure of vulvovaginal candidiasis in pregnant women and its impact on Candida colonization of newborns. Read More

    Impact of aging on TREM-1 responses in the periodontium: a cross-sectional study in an elderly population.
    BMC Infect Dis 2016 Aug 19;16(1):429. Epub 2016 Aug 19.
    Department of Dental Medicine, Karolinska Institute, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Background: Aging is associated with altered immune response, which increases susceptibility to infections. sTREM-1 is involved in the amplification of the inflammatory response to bacterial infection. The present cross-sectional study aims to investigate local sTREM-1 levels in gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) as well as key periodontal pathogen levels in the subgingival plaque in an elderly cohort with periodontal health, gingivitis, and chronic periodontitis (CP). Read More

    Oral pathogens change proliferation properties of oral tumor cells by affecting gene expression of human defensins.
    Tumour Biol 2016 Oct 1;37(10):13789-13798. Epub 2016 Aug 1.
    Department of Periodontology, Operative and Preventive Dentistry, University of Bonn, Welschnonnenstr. 17, 53111, Bonn, Germany.
    The impact of oral pathogens onto the generation and variability of oral tumors has only recently been investigated. To get further insights, oral cancer cells were treated with pathogens and additionally, as a result of this bacterial cellular infection, with human defensins, which are as anti-microbial peptide members of the innate immune system. After cell stimulation, proliferation behavior, expression analysis of oncogenic relevant defensin genes, and effects on EGFR signaling were investigated. Read More

    Microbial diversity in individuals and their household contacts following typical antibiotic courses.
    Microbiome 2016 Jul 30;4(1):39. Epub 2016 Jul 30.
    Department of Medicine, University of California, San Diego, 9500 Gilman Drive, MC 0612, La Jolla, CA, 92093-0612, USA.
    Background: Antibiotics are a mainstay of treatment for bacterial infections worldwide, yet the effects of typical antibiotic prescriptions on human indigenous microbiota have not been thoroughly evaluated. We examined the effects of the two most commonly prescribed antibiotics (amoxicillin and azithromycin) in the USA to discern whether short-term antibiotic courses may have prolonged effects on human microbiota.

    Results: We sampled the feces, saliva, and skin specimens from a cohort of unrelated, cohabitating individuals over 6 months. Read More

    Endodontic Treatment of Primary Molars with Antibiotic Paste: A Report of 38 Cases.
    J Clin Pediatr Dent 2016;40(3):175-7
    Objective: This study presents 38 cases of primary molars with necrotic pulps treated with antibiotics-based paste.

    Case Report: The technique consisted of necrotic tissue removal of the pulp chamber, using spoons excavators and low speed drills. Pulp cavity was washed with saline solution and dried with sterile cotton balls. Read More

    Laser Application in Dentistry: Irradiation Effects of Nd:YAG 1064 nm and Diode 810 nm and 980 nm in Infected Root Canals-A Literature Overview.
    Biomed Res Int 2016 4;2016:8421656. Epub 2016 Jul 4.
    Department of Conservative Dentistry, Periodontology and Preventive Dentistry, RWTH Aachen University, Pauwelsstraße 30, 52074 Aachen, Germany.
    Objective. In endodontics, Nd:YAG laser (1064 nm) and diode laser (810 nm and 980 nm) devices are used to remove bacteria in infected teeth. A literature review was elaborated to compare and evaluate the advantages and disadvantages of using these lasers. Read More

    Profile of bacteria colonizing the exposed bone of patients with anti-osteoclastic drug-related osteonecrosis of the jaws.
    Can J Microbiol 2016 Sep 11;62(9):772-80. Epub 2016 May 11.
    b Department of Dental Materials and Prosthodontics, Faculty of Dentistry of Ribeirão Preto, University of São Paulo, Brazil.
    Microbial etiology for anti-osteoclastic drug-related osteonecrosis of the jaw (ARONJ) was suggested. This study investigates any link between bacteria colonizing ARONJ sites and other oral cavity sites. Microbiota samples of 10 ARONJ patients were collected from the exposed bone, adjacent teeth, contralateral teeth, and tongue. Read More

    [Pregnancy and lactation: antibiotics. mouthwashes and pastes or ointments.
    Swiss Dent J 2016 ;126(6):598-9
    Cabinet dentaire privé Wiedikon, Dr Sandra Fatori and Partner, médecin-dentiste et médecin, Zurich, Switzerland.
    The aim of this paper is to show aspects of dental treatment in pregnancy. The reader should gain security in the election of the proper drugs for antibiotic therapy and rinsing solutions. Antibiotics as penicillins are the first choice in case of dental infections in pregnancy. Read More

    Clinical relevance of infections with zoonotic and human oral species of Campylobacter.
    J Microbiol 2016 Jul 28;54(7):459-67. Epub 2016 Jun 28.
    Department of Oral Microbiology, College of Dentistry, Wonkwang University, Iksan, Chonbuk, 54538, Republic of Korea.
    Genus Campylobacter has been recognized as a causative bacterial agent of animal and human diseases. Human Campylobacter infections have caused more concern. Campylobacters can be classified into two groups in terms of their original host: zoonotic and human oral species. Read More

    [Confusion and solution for root canal working length determination].
    Hua Xi Kou Qiang Yi Xue Za Zhi 2016 Apr;34(2):109-14
    Pulpitis and periapical periodontitis is a type of bacterial infectious disease, and bacteria frequently plant in the entire root canal system during the terminal stage. Main clinical treatment strategy of the disease requires root canal therapy, a key and core procedure for the successful treatment by thoroughly removing the root canal infection. The premise and guarantee of thoroughly removing root canal infection is by determining the accurate root canal working length. Read More

    Eksp Klin Gastroenterol 2016 (2):30-4
    Introduction: Helicobacter pylori infection is due to the high prevalence in population attracts the clinical interest of researchers in the whole World. It is well known that this microorganism not only resides in the mucosa of the gastrointestinal tract, but is also defined in the periodontal pocket of the oral cavity. THE AIM OF INVESTIGATION: to evaluate Helicobacter pylori diagnostics in the mouth and prove a method of relief of the inflammatory process by applying immunomodulator Imudon. Read More

    [Pregnancy and breast feeding: antibiotics, irrigation and pastes].
    Swiss Dent J 2016 ;126(5):490-1
    Privatpraxis Zahnärzte Wiedikon – Dr. Fatori and Partner, Zahnärztin and Ärztin, Zentralstrasse 2, Zürich, Switzerland.
    The aim of this paper is to show aspects of dental treatment in pregnancy. The reader should gain security in the election of the proper drugs for antibiotic therapy and rinsing solutions. Antibiotics as penicillins are the first choice in case of dental infections in pregnancy. Read More

    Evaluation of selected oral cavity microbiota--risk factors of management complications in patients with masticatory system disorders.
    Ann Parasitol 2016 ;62(1):71-6
    Department of Medical Biology, Medical University of Warsaw, Nowogrodzka 73, 02-018 Warsaw, Poland.
    The retrospective analysis of data on oral cavity clinical status in relation to microbiota species composition is presented. The research regards patients of different age, with and without congenital malformation, pretreatment assessed for occurrence of pathological changes in the masticatory system. Samples of the swabs collected from each patient (from dental plaque, periodontium and dental pockets) were used for identification of oral protozoans in wet slides and stained preparations; additionally, transmission electron microscope examination was performed. Read More

    Virulence traits and antibiotic resistance among enterococci isolated from dogs with periodontal disease.
    Comp Immunol Microbiol Infect Dis 2016 Jun 12;46:27-31. Epub 2016 Apr 12.
    Centro de Investigação Interdisciplinar em Sanidade Animal, Faculdade de Medicina Veterinária da Universidade de Lisboa, Avenida da Universidade Técnica, Polo Universitário da Ajuda, 1300-477 Lisboa, Portugal. Electronic address:
    Periodontal disease - PD - is one of the most widespread diseases in dogs, but the role of this odontogenic infection in the dissemination of pathogenic bacteria present in the oral mucosa to other animals or pet owners is understudied. Trying to unveil the putative pathogenicity of enterococci present in the gums of dogs diagnosed with PD, thirty-two animals were investigated during routine visits to a private veterinary clinic. Seventy-one enterococci were recovered and characterized regarding species, genomic variability, virulence traits, antimicrobial resistance and biofilm-forming ability. Read More

    Deep neck abscesses: study of 101 cases.
    Braz J Otorhinolaryngol 2016 May 5. Epub 2016 May 5.
    Departamento de Otorrinolaringologia, Faculdade de Ciências Médicas, Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), Campinas, SP, Brazil.
    Introduction: Although the incidence of Deep Cervical Abscess (DCA) has decreased mainly for the availability of antibiotics, this infection still occurs with considerable frequency and can be associated with high morbidity and mortality.

    Objective: This study aimed to present our clinical-surgical experience with deep neck abscesses.

    Methods: A retrospective study analyzed 101 patients diagnosed with deep neck abscesses caused by multiple etiologies, assisted at the Department of Otolaryngology, Head and Neck Surgery from a Brazilian Hospital of Medical School, during 6 years. Read More

    Zh Mikrobiol Epidemiol Immunobiol 2016 Mar-Apr(2):100-7
    Chronic generalized periodontitis (CGP) is a disease of periodontium tissues supporting tooth induced by bacteria, that is characterized by the presence of processes of inflammation with destruction of bone tissue. The knowledge of molecular mechanisms of CGP pathogenesis facilitates creation of the most effective methods of therapy of this disease. Bacterial infection is a primary factor in periodontitis etiology, however is not sufficient for its start and subsequent development. Read More

    [The influence of orthodontic treatment on dental pulp and periapical tissues].
    Zhonghua Kou Qiang Yi Xue Za Zhi 2016 May;51(5):317-20
    Department of Endodontics, Ninth People's Hospital, College of Stomatology, Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine & Shanghai Research Institute of Stomatology & Shanghai Key Laboratory of Stomatology, Shanghai 200011, China.
    The pathogenesis of pulpal and periapical diseases is related with not only bacterial infection but also physicochemical irritations such as trauma and thermal changes. During orthodontic therapy, the application of orthodontic forces on teeth may produce a series of changes in periodontal ligament, alveolar bone and pulpo-dentinal complex. This article reviewed the influences of orthodontic therapy on dental pulp and periapical tissues. Read More

    The Prevalence of Oral Flora in the Biofilm Microbiota of the Endotracheal Tube.
    Am Surg 2016 May;82(5):403-6
    Division of Trauma, Acute Care Surgery, and Critical Care, Department of Surgery, West Virginia University, Morgantown, West Virginia, USA.
    The endotracheal tube (ETT) is recognized as an independent factor for infection in intubated patients. The presence of biofilm contributes to the development of pneumonia. Standard culturing techniques are inadequate to detect many of the bacteria present in a biofilm. Read More

    Role of preprocedural rinse and high volume evacuator in reducing bacterial contamination in bioaerosols.
    J Oral Maxillofac Pathol 2016 Jan-Apr;20(1):59-65
    Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Pathology, G Pulla Reddy Dental College, Kurnool, Andhra Pradesh, India.
    Context: Microbial contamination, which occurs during dental procedures, has been a potential threat to dental professionals and individuals. There has been a growing concern over the role of bioaerosols in spread of various airborne infections and also to reduce the risk of bioaerosol contamination.

    Aims: This study was to analyze the number of colony forming units (CFUs) in bioaerosols generated during ultrasonic scaling procedure as well as to evaluate the efficacy of chlorhexidine 0. Read More

    [Molecular Epidemiology of Bartonella henselae in Stray and Sheltered Cats of Zaragoza, Spain].
    Rev Esp Salud Publica 2016 May 5;90:E5. Epub 2016 May 5.
    Departamento de Patología Animal. Facultad de Veterinaria de Zaragoza. Zaragoza. España.
    Objective: Bartonella henselae is responsible for the Cat Scratch Disease in humans, being it underdiagnosed. This study aims to detect and quantify the load of B. henselae DNA in oral and whole blood samples from stray and shelthered cats from Zaragoza (Spain), and analyze associations with epidemiological and clinical factors. Read More

    Molar-incisor hypomineralization and the association with childhood illnesses and antibiotics in a group of Finnish children.
    Acta Odontol Scand 2016 Jul 3;74(5):416-22. Epub 2016 May 3.
    a Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Diseases, Faculty of Medicine , University of Helsinki , Helsinki , Finland ;
    Objective: Molar-incisor hypomineralization (MIH) is a developmental enamel defect affecting 1-4 first permanent molars (FPMs) and often also incisors. The aim of this study was to assess whether childhood illnesses or medication are associated with MIH.

    Material And Methods: FPMs and incisors of 287 Finnish children were examined for MIH in line with the criteria of the EAPD. Read More

    [Neonatal herpes simplex infection].
    Ned Tijdschr Geneeskd 2016 ;160:A9634
    Langeland Ziekenhuis, afd. Kindergeneeskunde, Zoetermeer.
    Neonatal encephalitis caused by herpes simplex virus (HSV) is a familiar disease with a high mortality and morbidity rate. Isolated skin-eye-mouth infection is less familiar among professionals. In this article we present two neonates with an isolated skin lesion caused by an HSV infection. Read More

    Association of three putative periodontal pathogens with chronic periodontitis in Brazilian subjects.
    J Appl Oral Sci 2016 Apr;24(2):181-5
    Departamento de Periodontia, Universidade de Guarulhos, Guarulhos, SP, Brasil.
    Objective The aim of this study was to evaluate the association of Porphyromonas endodontalis, Filifactor alocis and Dialister pneumosintes with the occurrence of periodontitis. Material and Methods Thirty subjects with chronic periodontitis (ChP) and 10 with periodontal health (PH) were included in the study. Nine subgingival biofilm samples were collected as follows: i) PH group - from the mesial/buccal aspect of each tooth in two randomly chosen contralateral quadrants; ii) ChP group - from three sites in each of the following probing depth (PD) categories: shallow (≤3 mm), moderate (4-6 mm) and deep (≥7 mm). Read More

    In vivo model for microbial invasion of tooth root dentinal tubules.
    J Appl Oral Sci 2016 Apr;24(2):126-35
    Department of Oral and Dental Sciences, University of Bristol, Bristol, United Kingdom.
    Objective Bacterial penetration of dentinal tubules via exposed dentine can lead to root caries and promote infections of the pulp and root canal system. The aim of this work was to develop a new experimental model for studying bacterial invasion of dentinal tubules within the human oral cavity. Material and Methods Sections of human root dentine were mounted into lower oral appliances that were worn by four human subjects for 15 d. Read More

    Ultra-deep and quantitative saliva proteome reveals dynamics of the oral microbiome.
    Genome Med 2016 Apr 21;8(1):44. Epub 2016 Apr 21.
    Department of Proteomics and Signal Transduction, Max-Planck Institute of Biochemistry, Am Klopferspitz 18, D-82152, Martinsried, Germany.
    Background: The oral cavity is home to one of the most diverse microbial communities of the human body and a major entry portal for pathogens. Its homeostasis is maintained by saliva, which fulfills key functions including lubrication of food, pre-digestion, and bacterial defense. Consequently, disruptions in saliva secretion and changes in the oral microbiome contribute to conditions such as tooth decay and respiratory tract infections. Read More

    Genome Sequence of the Fish Pathogen Yersinia ruckeri SC09 Provides Insights into Niche Adaptation and Pathogenic Mechanism.
    Int J Mol Sci 2016 Apr 14;17(4):557. Epub 2016 Apr 14.
    Department of Basic Veterinary, Veterinary Medicine College, Sichuan Agricultural University, 211 Huimin Road, Chengdu 611134, Sichuan, China.
    Yersinia ruckeri is the etiologic agent of enteric red mouth disease (ERM), a severe fish disease prevailing in worldwide aquaculture industries. Here we report for the first time the complete genome of Y. ruckeri (Yersinia ruckeri) SC09, a highly virulent strain isolated from Ictalurus punctatus with severe septicemia. Read More

    In vitro Evaluation of Copaifera oblongifolia Oleoresin Against Bacteria Causing Oral Infections and Assessment of Its Cytotoxic Potential.
    Curr Pharm Biotechnol 2016;17(10):894-904
    Laboratório de Pesquisa em Microbiologia Aplicada, Universidade de Franca, 14404-600 Franca, São Paulo, Brazil.
    The oral cavity, which harbors more than 750 bacterial species, is one of the most diverse sites of the human body. Some of these bacteria have been associated with oral diseases, such as dental caries and endodontic infections. We report on the antimicrobial and cytotoxic activities of Copaifera oblongifolia oleoresin against bacteria that cause caries and endodontic infections. Read More

    The microbiome associated with equine periodontitis and oral health.
    Vet Res 2016 Apr 14;47:49. Epub 2016 Apr 14.
    Infection and Immunity Research Group, Dental School, University of Glasgow, 378 Sauchiehall Street, Glasgow, G2 3JZ, UK.
    Equine periodontal disease is a common and painful condition and its severe form, periodontitis, can lead to tooth loss. Its aetiopathogenesis remains poorly understood despite recent increased awareness of this disorder amongst the veterinary profession. Bacteria have been found to be causative agents of the disease in other species, but current understanding of their role in equine periodontitis is extremely limited. Read More

    NOX1/2 activation in human gingival fibroblasts by Fusobacterium nucleatum facilitates attachment of Porphyromonas gingivalis.
    Arch Microbiol 2016 Aug 12;198(6):573-83. Epub 2016 Apr 12.
    Department of Oral Biochemistry, Dental Science Research Institute, Medical Research Center for Biomineralization Disorders, School of Dentistry, Chonnam National University, Gwangju, Republic of Korea.
    Periodontal diseases are infectious polymicrobial inflammatory diseases that lead to destruction of the periodontal ligament, gingiva, and alveolar bone. Sequential colonization of a broad range of bacteria, including Fusobacterium nucleatum and Porphyromonas gingivalis, is an important phenomenon in this disease model. F. Read More

    Porphyromonas gingivalis Gingipain-Dependently Enhances IL-33 Production in Human Gingival Epithelial Cells.
    PLoS One 2016 8;11(4):e0152794. Epub 2016 Apr 8.
    Department of Oral Disease Research, National Center for Geriatrics and Gerontology, Obu, Aichi, Japan.
    The cytokine IL-33 is constitutively expressed in epithelial cells and it augments Th2 cytokine-mediated inflammatory responses by regulating innate immune cells. We aimed to determine the role of the periodontal pathogen, Porphyromonas gingivalis, in the enhanced expression of IL-33 in human gingival epithelial cells. We detected IL-33 in inflamed gingival epithelium from patients with chronic periodontitis, and found that P. Read More

    Rev Inst Med Trop Sao Paulo 2015 Dec;57(6):513-4
    Faculdade de Enfermagem, Universidade Federal de Goiás, Goiânia, GO, Brazil,
    This cross-sectional study, performed in an oncology hospital in Goiania, aimed to characterize the prevalence of oral colonization and antimicrobial susceptibility of Pseudomonas spp. isolated from the saliva of healthcare workers. Microorganisms were subjected to biochemical tests, susceptibility profile, and phenotypic detection. Read More

    J Zoo Wildl Med 2016 Mar;47(1):98-105
    The role of microbes and their antimicrobial susceptibilities in both acute and chronic infections of the dental pulp in humans has been well studied. Presently, no data are available on endodontic pathogens in cheetahs (Acinonyx jubatus). The aim of this study was to isolate and identify the bacteria found in the canine teeth of cheetahs, where the pulp was necrotic and exposed due to a complicated crown fracture. Read More

    The presence of Helicobacter pylori in oral cavities of patients with leukoplakia and oral lichen planus.
    J Appl Oral Sci 2016 Jan-Feb;24(1):18-23
    Unit of Oral Pathology, Department of Periodontology, Wroclaw Medical University, Wrocław, Poland.
    Objective: Helicobacter pylori infection is one of the most common bacterial infections in men. This gastrointestinal pathogen is closely related to gastritis, peptic ulcers, and the increased risk of gastric cancer. Numerous studies have indicated oral cavities as possible Helicobacter pylori reservoirs. Read More

    Changes in the Eye Microbiota Associated with Contact Lens Wearing.
    MBio 2016 Mar 22;7(2):e00198. Epub 2016 Mar 22.
    Division of Translational Medicine, New York University School of Medicine, New York, New York, USA
    Unlabelled: Wearing contact lenses has been identified as a risk factor for the development of eye conditions such as giant papillary conjunctivitis and keratitis. We hypothesized that wearing contact lenses is associated with changes in the ocular microbiota. We compared the bacterial communities of the conjunctiva and skin under the eye from 58 subjects and analyzed samples from 20 subjects (9 lens wearers and 11 non-lens wearers) taken at 3 time points using a 16S rRNA gene-based sequencing technique (V4 region; Illumina MiSeq). Read More

    Arthritis-induced alveolar bone loss is associated with changes in the composition of oral microbiota.
    Anaerobe 2016 Jun 18;39:91-6. Epub 2016 Mar 18.
    Department of Oral Surgery and Pathology, Faculdade de Odontologia, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Minas Gerais, Brazil. Electronic address:
    Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and periodontitis (PD) are chronic inflammatory disorders that cause bone loss. PD tends to be more prevalent and severe in RA patients. Previous experimental studies demonstrated that RA triggers alveolar bone loss similarly to PD. Read More

    Rare and unusual isolates of viridans streptococci from the human oral cavity.
    Indian J Pathol Microbiol 2016 Jan-Mar;59(1):47-9
    Department of Microbiology, Maharashtra Institute of Medical Sciences and Research, Latur, Maharashtra, India.
    Context: The genus Streptococcus consists of more than 65 species. The taxonomic classification of these members is not well-defined. Among the viridans group streptococci (VGS), there are major taxonomic changes by the addition of many new species; whereas, most of the new strains are of animal origin and only a few have been reported to be isolated from humans. Read More

    Detection of hydrogen cyanide from oral anaerobes by cavity ring down spectroscopy.
    Sci Rep 2016 Mar 4;6:22577. Epub 2016 Mar 4.
    Folkhälsan Institute of Genetics, Folkhälsan Research Center, Helsinki, Finland.
    Hydrogen cyanide (HCN) has been recognized as a potential biomarker for non-invasive diagnosis of Pseudomonas aeruginosa infection in the lung. However, the oral cavity is a dominant production site for exhaled HCN and this contribution can mask the HCN generated in the lung. It is thus important to understand the sources of HCN production in the oral cavity. Read More

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