26,802 results match your criteria Bacterial Infections and Pregnancy
Rev Med Suisse 2018 Sep;14(618):1620-1625
Institut de microbiologie, Département des laboratoires, Université, de Lausanne et CHUV, 1011 Lausanne.
Chlamydiae are a heterogeneous group of strict intracellular bacteria. Chlamydia trachomatis is the most common cause of sexually transmitted bacterial infection. Being generally asymptomatic, C. Read More
Medicine (Baltimore) 2018 Sep;97(37):e12351
Anesthesiology and Pain Medicine, Soonchunhyang University College of Medicine, Soonchunhyang University Cheonan Hospital, Cheonan, Korea.
Rationale: Anaphylaxis is a very rare event in pregnancy, triggering maternal hypotension leading to intrapartum hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy in infant. Furthermore, cesarean sections are performed at a high rate in anaphylactic pregnant women.
Patient Concerns: A 34-year-old pregnant woman presented with maternal anaphylaxis following prophylactic antibiotic injection for cesarean section. Read More
J Pregnancy 2018 2;2018:5037181. Epub 2018 Aug 2.
Department of Biomedical Sciences, University of Sassari, Italy.
is considered an opportunistic pathogen able to colonize the lower urogenital tract; in females the infection is associated with severe pregnancy and postpartum complications, including abortion, endometritis, preterm delivery, and low birth weight. Molecular mechanisms of pathogenicity and virulence effectors remain poorly characterized. A number of studies in the last decade have demonstrated that can establish an endosymbiotic relationship with , a urogenital parasitic protozoon, also associated with adverse pregnancy outcomes. Read More
BMC Pregnancy Childbirth 2018 Aug 29;18(1):350. Epub 2018 Aug 29.
Department of Molecular Medical Microbiology, Chair of Microbiology, Faculty of Medicine, Jagiellonian University Medical College, Czysta 18, 31-121, Krakow, Poland.
Background: Lactobacilli play an important role in maintaining vaginal health and protection against bacterial infections in the genital tract. The aim of this study is to show the dynamics of changes of the vaginal and rectal Lactobacillus flora during pregnancy by using the Sanger sequencing method.
Method: The study included 31 healthy pregnant women without clinical signs of genitourinary infections. Read More
Medicine (Baltimore) 2018 Aug;97(34):e11891
Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Xuanwu Hospital, Capital Medical University.
Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is associated with adverse perinatal outcomes. This study aimed to examine the association between GDM and abnormal vaginal flora, and the association between abnormal vaginal flora and adverse pregnancy outcomes.This was a prospective study of pregnant women who visited Xuanwu Hospital of the Capital Medical University (Beijing, China) between February and October 2015. Read More
Neuroimmunomodulation 2018 Aug 21:1-9. Epub 2018 Aug 21.
Translational Psychiatry Laboratory, INSERM U955, AP-HP, DHU PePSY, Pôle de Psychiatrie des Hôpitaux Universitaires Henri Mondor, Université Paris-Est-Créteil, Paris, France.
Background/aims: Perinatal exposure to infections during critical developmental periods is a promising area of study in autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Epidemiological data has highlighted this relationship, pointing out significant correlations between perinatal exposure to pathogens and the occurrence of ASD. The aim of this review is to critically examine the present state of the art on intracellular pathogenic infection during pregnancy and postnatally, pointing out possible correlations with the development of ASD. Read More
Fertil Steril 2018 Aug;110(3):327-336
School of Life Sciences, University of Technology Sydney, Sydney, New South Wales, Australia. Electronic address:
The human microbiome project has shown a remarkable diversity of microbial ecology within the human body. The vaginal microbiota is unique in that in many women it is most often dominated by Lactobacillus species. However, in some women it lacks Lactobacillus spp. Read More
J Cell Physiol 2018 Aug 5. Epub 2018 Aug 5.
Department of Morphology, Surgery and Experimental Medicine, Section of Pathology, Oncology and Experimental Biology, University of Ferrara, Ferrara, Italy.
Miscarriage is one of the main complications occurring in pregnancy. The association between adverse pregnancy outcomes and silent bacterial infections has been poorly investigated. Ureaplasma parvum and urealiticum, Mycoplasma genitalium and hominis and Chlamydia trachomatis DNA sequences have been investigated by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) methods in chorionic villi tissues and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) from females with spontaneous abortion (SA, n = 100) and females who underwent voluntary interruption of pregnancy (VI, n = 100). Read More
J Obstet Gynaecol Res 2018 Jul 29. Epub 2018 Jul 29.
Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Nippon Medical School, Tokyo, Japan.
Fetomaternal immune tolerance is required to prevent fetal rejection during pregnancy; simultaneously, the maternal immune system must also protect the fetus from harmful endogenous and exogenous antigens, including those associated with viral and bacterial infections. Therefore, a delicate immune balance is critical for the maintenance of a successful pregnancy, while disruption of this balance can induce complications such as implantation failure, miscarriage, preterm birth/labor, preeclampsia and fetal growth restriction. While the adaptive immune system is critical for the development of tolerance, this review summarizes evidence that modulation of the innate immunity is also essential for achieving this delicate balance between tolerance and protection. Read More
Vet Rec 2018 07;183(4):134
Axiom Veterinary Laboratories, The Manor House, Brunel Road, Newton Abbot, Devon TQ12 4PB.
Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol 2018 Sep 21;228:274-278. Epub 2018 Jul 21.
Femicare Clinical Research for Women, Tienen, Belgium; Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, University Hospital Antwerp, Edegem, Belgium.
Objectives: The incidence of syphilis has been on the rise in Hungary over the last decades. We aimed to assess the syphilis seroprevalence in pregnant women during 2013-2016. The secondary aims were to describe seropositivity by age and gestational age, to estimate infectivity rates in different age groups, and to compare the efficacy of mandatory prenatal screening versus individual venereological testing in revealing syphilis. Read More
Lancet 2018 07 6;392(10142):145-159. Epub 2018 Jul 6.
Johns Hopkins Bloomberg, School of Public Health, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD, USA.
Background: More than 500 000 neonatal deaths per year result from possible serious bacterial infections (pSBIs), but the causes are largely unknown. We investigated the incidence of community-acquired infections caused by specific organisms among neonates in south Asia.
Methods: From 2011 to 2014, we identified babies through population-based pregnancy surveillance at five sites in Bangladesh, India, and Pakistan. Read More
Proc Nutr Soc 2018 Jul 10:1-8. Epub 2018 Jul 10.
Department of Pathology,University of Cambridge,Cambridge CB2 1QP,UK.
Iron deficiency remains the largest nutritional deficiency worldwide and the main cause of anaemia. Severe iron deficiency leads to anaemia known as iron deficiency anaemia (IDA), which affects a total of 1·24 billion people, the majority of whom are children and women from resource-poor countries. In sub-Saharan Africa, iron deficiency is frequently exacerbated by concomitant parasitic and bacterial infections and contributes to over 120 000 maternal deaths a year, while it irreparably limits the cognitive development of children and leads to poor outcomes in pregnancy. Read More
Malawi Med J 2017 12;29(4):290-293
Obstetrics & Gynaecology Department, Federal Medical Centre, Bida, Nigeria.
Aim: To determine the prevalence and risk factors associated with bacterial vaginosis (BV) among non-pregnant women of reproductive age group.
Methods: A cross-sectional study among non-pregnant asymptomatic women aged 19 to 45 years, attending the gynaecological clinic at University of Ilorin Teaching Hospital, Ilorin, Nigeria. Participants were counselled and an informed consent was obtained. Read More
Front Med (Lausanne) 2018 13;5:181. Epub 2018 Jun 13.
Academic Unit of Reproductive and Developmental Medicine, University of Sheffield, Sheffield, United Kingdom.
In addition to being a passage for sperm, menstruum, and the baby, the human vagina and its microbiota can influence conception, pregnancy, the mode and timing of delivery, and the risk of acquiring sexually transmitted infections. The physiological status of the vaginal milieu is important for the wellbeing of the host as well as for successful reproduction. High estrogen states, as seen during puberty and pregnancy, promote the preservation of a homeostatic (eubiotic) vaginal microenvironment by stimulating the maturation and proliferation of vaginal epithelial cells and the accumulation of glycogen. Read More
Rev Fac Cien Med Univ Nac Cordoba 2017 12 21;74(4):320-324. Epub 2017 Dec 21.
- Cátedra de Microbiología General, Departamento de Microbiología, Facultad de Ciencias y Tecnología, Universidad Nacional de Itapúa. Encarnación, Paraguay..
Streptococcus agalactiae (GBS) cause severe infections in newborns under three months. Meningitis, pneumonia and sepsis are the main infectious diseases in these children. These infections are among the most serious that an individual can suffer in his first twelve hours of life. Read More
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2018 06 11;115(26):E6000-E6009. Epub 2018 Jun 11.
Laboratorio de Inmunopatología, Instituto de Biología y Medicina Experimental, Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas, C1428ADN Buenos Aires, Argentina;
() constitutes the most prevalent sexually transmitted bacterium worldwide. Chlamydial infections can lead to severe clinical sequelae including pelvic inflammatory disease, ectopic pregnancy, and tubal infertility. As an obligate intracellular pathogen, has evolved multiple strategies to promote adhesion and invasion of host cells, including those involving both bacterial and host glycans. Read More
Vet Rec 2018 06;182(23):655-658
Clin Microbiol Infect 2018 Jun 2. Epub 2018 Jun 2.
Department of Emergency Medicine, Erasmus University Medical Center, Rotterdam, The Netherlands.
Objectives: Overuse of broad-spectrum antibiotics in emergency departments (EDs) results in antibiotic resistance. We determined whether procalcitonin (PCT) -guided therapy can be used to reduce antibiotic regimens in EDs by investigating efficacy, safety and accuracy.
Methods: This was a non-inferiority multicentre randomized clinical trial, performed in two Dutch hospitals. Read More
Front Immunol 2018 17;9:1098. Epub 2018 May 17.
Department of Neonatology, Tuebingen University Children's Hospital, Tuebingen, Germany.
Nosocomial bacterial infections (NBI) and necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) are among the main reasons for death in preterm infants. Both are often caused by bacteria coming from the infected infant's gut and feeding with breast milk (BM) seems beneficial in their pathogenesis. However, mechanisms causing the protective effect of BM are only incompletely understood. Read More
PLoS One 2018 1;13(6):e0197572. Epub 2018 Jun 1.
Department of Clinical Infection, Microbiology and Immunology, Institute of Infection and Global Health, University of Liverpool, Liverpool, United Kingdom.
Background: Contraceptive vaginal rings could play a role in expanding the contraceptive method mix and in preparing communities for the introduction of HIV prevention and multipurpose rings.
Methods: We conducted an open label single-centre randomised clinical trial of intermittent versus continuous use of NuvaRing® in Kigali, Rwanda, in 2013-2014. We randomised 120 HIV-negative women 1:1 to intermittent use (three rings with a ring-free week in between rings) or continuous use (four rings without ring-free weeks). Read More
Medicine (Baltimore) 2018 May;97(21):e10868
Department of Respiratory Medicine, Qinghai University Affiliated Hospital, Xining, China.
Rationale: Unilateral hypoplasia of the lung is a rare congenital condition, the mechanism of which is poorly understood. Primary pulmonary hypoplasia occurring in an adult is extremely rare and we present what is probably the first case of a link to a tuberculous pleural effusion in a young woman after childbirth.
Patient Concerns: Herein, we describe a 31-year-old woman with left lung hypoplasia, and she not only survived to adulthood without problems, but was able to deliver a baby in natural labor. Read More
J Heart Valve Dis 2017 09;26(5):600-602
Department of Cardiovascular Surgery, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, New York, New York, USA. Electronic correspondence:
A 36-year-old pregnant woman with a history of rheumatic heart disease and prior aortic valve replacement and mitral valve repair presented to an outside hospital with severe aortic stenosis. The patient had a cardiac arrest upon labor induction and underwent a transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR), which dislodged two days later. Five months later, the patient underwent removal of the dislodged TAVR and a Ross procedure at the authors' institution. Read More
Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci 2018 Apr;22(8):2207-2211
Department of Gynecology, Maternal and Child Health Care Hospital, Laiwu City, Shandong Province, China.
Objective: This study explores the possible relation between cervical infections with Ureaplasma urealyticum (UU) and Mycoplasma hominis (MH) and the occurrence of recurrent spontaneous abortion (RSA).
Patients And Methods: 132 patients with RSA (observation group) and 96 normal pregnancy volunteers undergoing planned abortions (control group) were selected successively and enrolled in the investigation. Cervical secretion samples were obtained for each subject. Read More
PLoS One 2018 11;13(5):e0196925. Epub 2018 May 11.
Departamento de Microbiologia Médica, Instituto de Microbiologia Paulo de Góes, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.
Group B Streptococcus (GBS) carriage by pregnant women is the primary risk factor for early-onset GBS neonatal sepsis. Intrapartum antibiotic prophylaxis (IAP) can prevent this transmission route, and two main approaches are recommended to base the selection of pregnant women to be submitted to IAP: the risk-based and the culture-based strategies. In Brazil, compliance to such recommendations is poor, and not much is known about GBS carriage. Read More
Zhonghua Fu Chan Ke Za Zhi 2018 Apr;53(4):221-226
Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Renji Hospital, School of Medicine, Shanghai Jiaotong University, Shanghai 200127, China.
To analyze the effect of maternal age on pregnancy outcome in patients with structural heart disease. Totally 986 patients diagnosed with structural heart disease who had their delivery at Renji Hospital from January 1st, 2003 to December 31st, 2016 were divided into 5 groups according to maternal age. Sixteen (1. Read More
Microbes Infect 2018 Jun - Jul;20(6):328-336. Epub 2018 May 3.
Department of Health Science and Technology, Aalborg University, Fredrik Bajers Vej 3b, 9220, Aalborg Ø, Denmark. Electronic address:
Chlamydia trachomatis is an obligate intracellular bacterium that causes severe infections, which can lead to infertility and ectopic pregnancy. Although both innate and adaptive immune responses are elicited during chlamydial infection the bacterium succeeds to evade host defense mechanisms establishing chronic infections. Thus, studying the host-pathogen interaction during chlamydial infection is of importance to understand how C. Read More
BMC Pregnancy Childbirth 2018 May 3;18(1):126. Epub 2018 May 3.
Departamento de Microbiologia, Centro de Ciências Biológicas, Universidade Estadual de Londrina, Londrina, Paraná, Brazil.
Background: Streptococcus agalactiae or Group B Streptococcus (GBS) remains the leading cause of infections in newborns worldwilde. Prenatal GBS screening of pregnant women for vaginal-rectal colonization is recommended in many countries to manage appropriate intrapartum antimicrobial prophylaxis for those identified as carriers. In this study, a novel melting-curve based multiplex real-time PCR assay for the simultaneous detection of GBS and macrolide and lincosamide resistance markers was developed. Read More
Pan Afr Med J 2017 8;28:298. Epub 2017 Dec 8.
Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, University of Zimbabwe, College of Health Sciences, Harare, Zimbabwe.
Pregnant women with severe mitral stenosis tend to experience clinical decompensation with approximately 50% mortality and they may experience adverse effects of the medication they are taking, notably congenital malformations from warfarin exposure. Corrective heart surgery may increase the risk of pregnancy loss. We present 2 cases of RHD in pregnancy. Read More
Infect Dis Poverty 2018 May 2;7(1):31. Epub 2018 May 2.
State Key Laboratory for Infectious Disease Prevention and Control, Collaborative Innovation Center for Diagnosis and Treatment of Infectious Diseases, National Institute for Communicable Disease Control and Prevention, Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Beijing, China.
Background: Brucellosis is a worldwide zoonotic disease caused by Brucella spp. Brucella invades the body through the skin mucosa, digestive tract, and respiratory tract. However, only a few studies on human spontaneous abortion attributable to Brucella have been reported. Read More
PLoS One 2018 1;13(5):e0196516. Epub 2018 May 1.
Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences & Peking Union Medical College Institute of Dermatology, Nanjing, China.
This study was aimed to estimate the prevalences of chlamydia (CT) and gonococcal (NG) infections and explore risk factors associated with the CT infection among women in Shenzhen, China. We collected socio-demographic and clinical data from women (aged 20-60) and determined positivity of CT or NG by nucleic acid amplification test (NAAT) with self-collected urine specimens. We estimated prevalence of CT and NG and determined risk factors associated with CT infection. Read More
Vet J 2018 05 20;235:47-53. Epub 2018 Mar 20.
Facultad de Bioquímica y Ciencias Biológicas, Universidad Nacional del Litoral, Santa Fe, Argentina; Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas (CONICET), Argentina.
Staphylococcus aureus is a worldwide pathogen that causes mastitis in dairy herds. Shortcomings in control programs have encouraged the development of vaccines against this pathogen. This study evaluated the vaccine candidate VacR, which included recombinant S. Read More
MMWR Recomm Rep 2018 04 27;67(2):1-44. Epub 2018 Apr 27.
Division of Reproductive Health, National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion, CDC.
This report compiles and summarizes all recommendations from CDC's Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP) regarding prevention and control of tetanus, diphtheria, and pertussis in the United States. As a comprehensive summary of previously published recommendations, this report does not contain any new recommendations and replaces all previously published reports and policy notes; it is intended for use by clinicians and public health providers as a resource. ACIP recommends routine vaccination for tetanus, diphtheria, and pertussis. Read More
Obstet Gynecol Int 2018 1;2018:4827353. Epub 2018 Mar 1.
Mbarara University of Science and Technology, Mbarara, Uganda.
Background: Increase in the number of ectopic pregnancy is attributed to increase in the incidence of pelvic infections. is responsible for most of the sexually transmitted bacterial infections. If undetected and untreated, the infection can ascend to the upper genital tract and cause pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) and related sequelae (ectopic pregnancy and tubal factor infertility). Read More
Medicine (Baltimore) 2018 Apr;97(16):e0335
Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Faculty of Medicine, Kurdistan University of Medical Sciences.
Background: Chlamydia trachomatis (CT) is the cause of genital tract infections in women. Some evidence has shown the role of this infection with CT in spontaneous abortions. The purpose of this study is to study the frequency of CT infection in Iranian women. Read More
Ginekol Pol 2018 ;89(3):115-119
Department of Basic Sciences Faculty of Health Sciences Wroclaw Medical University, ul. Chałubińskiego 4,, 50-368 Wrocław, Poland.
Objectives: Chlamydial infection is often asymptomatic. The lack of symptoms may result in the infection developing into a chronic. Chlamydial infections of the genitourinary system in women can lead to serious complications like PID, fallopian tubes infertility, ectopic pregnancy, and chronic pelvic pain. Read More
Virol J 2018 04 16;15(1):70. Epub 2018 Apr 16.
Service de gynécologie et obstétrique and Risk in pregnancy university department, Hôpital Louis-Mourier, Assistance publique-Hôpitaux de Paris, 178, rue des Renouillers, 92700, Colombes, France.
Background: Enteroviruses account for about one billion infections worldwide each year, the majority remain asymptomatic. Data on enterovirus infections during pregnancy appear to be very rare. Several cases have been reported in the literature of fetal and neonatal complications attributed to these viruses, but prospective data on these infections during pregnancy are not available. Read More
Vaccine 2018 05 10;36(21):3048-3053. Epub 2018 Apr 10.
Boston University School of Public Health, Department of Global Health, United States.
Introduction: Severe and fatal pertussis infections are concentrated among infants who are too young to be protected through routine vaccinations. Maternal Tdap (mTdap), which is now the standard of care in the US and UK, is considered to be the most effective way to address this gap in preventative care. Little is known about how pregnant women in low-resource settings might view mTdap. Read More
Sci Pharm 2018 Apr 13;86(2). Epub 2018 Apr 13.
Department of Biology, Faculty of Biology, University 8 May 1945, 24000 Guelma, Algeria.
Medicinal benefits of honey bee have been recognized in the medical community since ancient times as a remedy for many diseases and infections. This study aimed to investigate the susceptibility of 11 multidrug-resistant bacterial strains, isolated from urinary tract infections of pregnant women, to six honey samples collected from different localities in the east of Algeria. The evaluation of the antibacterial activity was performed by the well method followed by the broth dilution method using two-fold dilutions of each honey sample ranging from 2. Read More
Med Lett Drugs Ther 2018 Mar;60(1543):52-53
J Clin Invest 2018 May 9;128(5):1985-1999. Epub 2018 Apr 9.
Department of Global Health, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington, USA.
Thirteen percent of pregnancies result in preterm birth or stillbirth, accounting for fifteen million preterm births and three and a half million deaths annually. A significant cause of these adverse pregnancy outcomes is in utero infection by vaginal microorganisms. To establish an in utero infection, vaginal microbes enter the uterus by ascending infection; however, the mechanisms by which this occurs are unknown. Read More
Afr J Reprod Health 2017 Jun;21(2):108-118
Microbial Endogenous Infections Studies, Department of Medical Biosciences, University of the Western Cape, Bellville, South Africa.
Aerobic vaginitis (AV) is an endogenous opportunistic infection brought about by the disruption of the normal vaginal microbiota. Its early diagnosis and treatment during pregnancy may reduce the risk of negative pregnancy outcomes. The aim of this review was to report on the aerobic bacteria most prevalent in AV and to provide evidence of the threat of untreated AV on pregnancy outcomes. Read More
Nature 2018 04;556(7699):16-18
PLoS One 2018 4;13(4):e0193589. Epub 2018 Apr 4.
Clinical Infection Medicine, Department of Translational Medicine, Lund University, Malmö, Sweden.
We evaluated the performance of QuantiFERON-TB Gold Plus (QFT-Plus), which includes two Mycobacterium tuberculosis antigen formulations (TB1 and TB2), for detection of latent tuberculosis infection during pregnancy. Eight-hundred-twenty-nine Ethiopian pregnant women (5.9% HIV-positive) were tested with QFT-Plus, with bacteriological sputum analysis performed for women with clinically suspected tuberculosis and HIV-positive women irrespective of clinical presentation. Read More
Pediatr Rev 2018 Apr;39(4):210
Department of Pediatrics, Duke University School of Medicine, Durham, NC.
Wiad Lek 2018;71(1 pt 2):168-172
Kharkiv National Medical University, Kharkiv, Ukraine.
Objective: Introduction: Vaginal protective systems function independently of other systemic mechanisms and impairments of local immune mechanisms of the vaginal mucosa are the cause of infectious disorders of the reproductive system The aim: To assess characteristics of local immunity in local inflammatory reactions in pregnant, depending on the implementation of intrauterine infection.
Patients And Methods: Materials and methods: The study comprised Group 1 of pregnant women with the presence of bacterial infections with and without implementation of IUI, Group 2 with the presence of viral infections with and without implementation of IUI, Group 3 with the presence of infections of combined polyetiological structure with and without implementation of IUI and control group included pregnant women with physiological pregnancy. The study implied evaluation of the number of leukocytes in vaginal contents, concentration of IgA, IgM, IgG, sIgA, concentration of cytokines-IL-1 β , IL-6, IL-10, TNF- α in vaginal swabs. Read More
Vaccine 2018 04 27;36(18):2385-2393. Epub 2018 Mar 27.
Department of Pathology and Institute of Infectious Diseases and Molecular Medicine, University of Cape Town, 7701 Cape Town, South Africa. Electronic address:
Pertussis remains a major cause of morbidity and mortality, particularly in infants and young children, and despite the availability of vaccines and pertinent national and international guidelines. The disease burden is more severe in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs), especially in the African continent. Pertussis is more prevalent among young infants in Africa. Read More
N Engl J Med 2018 03;378(13):1257-1258
Medical Research Council, Johannesburg, South Africa.
PLoS One 2018 28;13(3):e0194030. Epub 2018 Mar 28.
Frances Payne Bolton School of Nursing, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, Ohio, United States of America.
Background: Rheumatic heart disease (RHD) is a leading cause of premature mortality in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). Women of reproductive age are a unique and vulnerable group of RHD patients, due to increased risk of cardiovascular complications and death during pregnancy. Yet, less than 5% of women of childbearing age with RHD in LMICs use contraceptives, and one in five pregnant women with RHD take warfarin despite known teratogenicity. Read More