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    Examining patterns of multimorbidity, polypharmacy and risk of adverse drug reactions in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: a cross-sectional UK Biobank study.
    BMJ Open 2018 Jan 14;8(1):e018404. Epub 2018 Jan 14.
    General Practice and Primary Care, Institute of Health and Wellbeing, University of Glasgow, Glasgow, UK.
    Objective: This study aims: (1) to describe the pattern and extent of multimorbidity and polypharmacy in UK Biobank participants with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and (2) to identify which comorbidities are associated with increased risk of adverse drug reactions (ADRs) resulting from polypharmacy.

    Design: Cross-sectional.

    Setting: Community cohort. Read More

    Now you see me: a pragmatic cohort study comparing first and final radiological diagnoses in the emergency department.
    BMJ Open 2018 Jan 13;8(1):e020230. Epub 2018 Jan 13.
    Department of Emergency Medicine, Inselspital (University Hospital of Bern), Bern, Switzerland.
    Objectives: To (1) compare timely but preliminary and definitive but delayed radiological reports in a large urban level 1 trauma centre, (2) assess the clinical significance of their differences and (3) identify clinical predictors of such differences.

    Design, Setting And Participants: We performed a retrospective record review for all 2914 patients who presented to our university affiliated emergency department (ED) during a 6-week period. In those that underwent radiological imaging, we compared the patients' discharge letter from the ED to the definitive radiological report. Read More

    Postdischarge service utilisation and outcomes among Chinese and South Asian psychiatric inpatients in Ontario, Canada: a population-based cohort study.
    BMJ Open 2018 Jan 13;8(1):e020156. Epub 2018 Jan 13.
    Mental Health and Addictions Program, Institute for Clinical Evaluative Sciences, Toronto, Canada.
    Objective: We sought to examine the short-term and long-term impacts of psychiatric hospitalisations among patients of Chinese and South Asian origin.

    Design: Retrospective population-based cohort study using linked health administrative data.

    Setting: We examined all adult psychiatric inpatients discharged between 1 April 2006 and 31 March 2014 in Ontario, Canada, who were classified as Chinese, South Asian and all other ethnicities (ie, 'general population') using a validated algorithm. Read More

    Clinical outcomes and prognostic factors in patients with spinal dural arteriovenous fistulas : a prospective cohort study in two Chinese centres.
    BMJ Open 2018 Jan 13;8(1):e019800. Epub 2018 Jan 13.
    Department of Neurosurgery, Xuanwu Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing, China.
    Background: The short-term outcomes and prognostic factors of patients with spinal dural arteriovenous fistulas (SDAVFs) have not been defined in large cohorts.

    Objective: To define the short-term clinical outcomes and prognostic factors in patients with SDAVFs.

    Methods: A prospective cohort of 112 patients with SDAVFs were included consecutively in this study. Read More

    Concealment of type 1 diabetes at work in Finland: a mixed-method study.
    BMJ Open 2018 Jan 13;8(1):e019764. Epub 2018 Jan 13.
    Department of Social Sciences, University of Eastern Finland, Kuopio, Finland.
    Objectives: To explore the possible reasons for concealing type 1 diabetes (T1D) at work.

    Methods: The main set of data came from a cross-sectional survey (response rate 49.3%), the participants of which were 688 wage earners with T1D. Read More

    Is postoperative bracing after pedicle screw fixation of spine fractures necessary? Study protocol of the ORNOT study: a randomised controlled multicentre trial.
    BMJ Open 2018 Jan 13;8(1):e019596. Epub 2018 Jan 13.
    Department of Trauma Surgery, VU University Medical Center, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.
    Introduction: The most common surgical treatment of traumatic spine fractures is through a posterior approach using pedicle screws and rods. Postoperative treatment protocols including the use of postoperative orthoses however differ between hospitals and surgeons. A three-point hyperextension orthosis is designed to support proper posture and unload the anterior column. Read More

    Family-focused practices in addictions: a scoping review protocol.
    BMJ Open 2018 Jan 13;8(1):e019433. Epub 2018 Jan 13.
    Factor-Inwentash Faculty of Social Work, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada.
    Introduction: Families are significantly impacted by addictions and family involvement in treatment can reduce the harms and can also improve treatment entry, treatment completion and treatment outcomes for the individual coping with an addiction. Although the benefits of family-focused practices in addictions have been documented, services continue to have an individual focus and research on this topic is also limited. The objective of this study is to map the extent, range and nature of evidence available examining family interventions in addictions and identify gaps to guide future research, policy and practice. Read More

    Cohort profile: the Comparative Outcomes And Service Utilization Trends (COAST) Study among people living with and without HIV in British Columbia, Canada.
    BMJ Open 2018 Jan 13;8(1):e019115. Epub 2018 Jan 13.
    British Columbia Centre for Excellence in HIV/AIDS, St. Paul's Hospital, Vancouver, BC, Canada.
    Purpose: The Comparative Outcomes And Service Utilization Trends (COAST) Study in British Columbia (BC), Canada, was designed to evaluate the determinants of health outcomes and health care services use among people living with HIV (PLHIV) as they age in the period following the introduction of combination antiretroviral therapy (cART). The study also assesses how age-associated comorbidities and health care use among PLHIV may differ from those observed in the general population.

    Participants: COAST was established through a data linkage between two provincial data sources: The BC Centre for Excellence in HIV/AIDS Drug Treatment Program, which centrally manages cART dispensation across BC and contains prospectively collected data on demographic, immunological, virological, cART use and other clinical information for all known PLHIV in BC; and Population Data BC, a provincial data repository that holds individual event-level, longitudinal data for all 4. Read More

    A study protocol for a non-randomised comparison trial evaluating the feasibility and effectiveness of a mobile cognitive-behavioural programme with integrated coaching for anxious adults in primary care.
    BMJ Open 2018 Jan 13;8(1):e019108. Epub 2018 Jan 13.
    Lantern, San Francisco, California, USA.
    Introduction: Generalised anxiety disorder (GAD) and subclinical GAD are highly prevalent in primary care. Unmanaged anxiety worsens quality of life in patients seen in primary care practices and leads to increased medical utilisation and costs. Programmes that teach patients cognitive-behavioural therapy (CBT) techniques have been shown to improve anxiety and to prevent the evolution of anxiety symptoms to disorders, but access and engagement have hampered integration of CBT into medical settings. Read More

    Is there a social gradient of sarcopenia? A meta-analysis and systematic review protocol.
    BMJ Open 2018 Jan 13;8(1):e019088. Epub 2018 Jan 13.
    Australian Institute for Musculoskeletal Science (AIMSS), University of Melbourne, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia.
    Introduction: Sarcopenia (or loss of muscle mass and function) is a relatively new area within the field of musculoskeletal research and medicine. Investigating whether there is a social gradient, including occupation type and income level, of sarcopenia, as observed for other diseases, will contribute significantly to the limited evidence base for this disease. This new information may inform the prevention and management of sarcopenia and widen the evidence base to support existing and future health campaigns. Read More

    Temporal trends in antithrombotic treatment of real-world UK patients with newly diagnosed atrial fibrillation: findings from the GARFIELD-AF registry.
    BMJ Open 2018 Jan 13;8(1):e018905. Epub 2018 Jan 13.
    Clinical Trials Unit, Warwick Medical School, University of Warwick, Coventry, UK.
    Objective: To investigate evolving patterns in antithrombotic treatment in UK patients with newly diagnosed non-valvular atrial fibrillation (AF).

    Design: Prospective, multicentre, international registry.

    Setting: 186 primary care practices in the UK. Read More

    Association between health service utilisation of internal migrant children and parents' acculturation in Guangdong, China: a cross-sectional study.
    BMJ Open 2018 Jan 13;8(1):e018844. Epub 2018 Jan 13.
    Center for Migrant Health Policy, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou, China.
    Objectives: To assess the health service utilisation of internal migrant children in Guangdong, China, and to explore the association between children's health service utilisation and their parents' acculturation.

    Design: Cross-sectional survey between April and May 2016.

    Setting: Six society-run schools of Tianhe and Baiyun districts in Guangzhou City of China. Read More

    Understanding frailty: a qualitative study of European healthcare policy-makers' approaches to frailty screening and management.
    BMJ Open 2018 Jan 13;8(1):e018653. Epub 2018 Jan 13.
    Faculty of Health and Medicine, Centre for Ageing Research, Furness College, Lancaster University, Lancaster, UK.
    Objective: To elicit European healthcare policy-makers' views, understanding and attitudes about the implementation of frailty screening and management strategies and responses to stakeholders' views.

    Design: Thematic analysis of semistructured qualitative interviews.

    Setting: European healthcare policy departments. Read More

    Effectiveness and safety of oral sedation in adult patients undergoing dental procedures: protocol for a systematic review.
    BMJ Open 2018 Jan 13;8(1):e017681. Epub 2018 Jan 13.
    Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Sorocaba, Sorocaba, São Paulo, Brazil.
    Introduction: The management of anxious patients undergoing dental procedures is still a challenge in clinical practice. Despite a wide variety of drugs for oral sedation in adult patients, there are relatively few systematic reviews that compare the effectiveness and safety of different drugs administered via this route. Thus, this study will evaluate the effectiveness and safety of oral sedation with benzodiazepines and other agents to patients undergoing dental surgical procedures. Read More

    Right Iliac Fossa Pain Treatment (RIFT) Study: protocol for an international, multicentre, prospective observational study.
    • Authors:
    BMJ Open 2018 01 13;8(1):e017574. Epub 2018 Jan 13.
    Introduction: Patients presenting with right iliac fossa (RIF) pain are a common challenge for acute general surgical services. Given the range of potential pathologies, RIF pain creates diagnostic uncertainty and there is subsequent variation in investigation and management. Appendicitis is a diagnosis which must be considered in all patients with RIF pain; however, over a fifth of patients undergoing appendicectomy, in the UK, have been proven to have a histologically normal appendix (negative appendicectomy). Read More

    What are the characteristics of vitamin D metabolism in opioid dependence? An exploratory longitudinal study in Australian primary care.
    BMJ Open 2018 Jan 13;8(1):e016806. Epub 2018 Jan 13.
    Department of Psychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences, University of Western Australia, Perth, Queensland, Australia.
    Objective: Compare vitamin D levels in opioid dependence and control population and adjust for relevant confounding effects. Nuclear hormone receptors (including the vitamin D receptor) have been shown to be key transducers and regulators of intracellular metabolism and comprise an important site of pathophysiological immune and metabolic dysregulation potentially contributing towards pro-ageing changes observed in opioid-dependent patients (ODPs).

    Design: Longitudinal prospective comparing ODPs with general medical controls (GMCs). Read More

    Therapists' experiences with a new treatment combining physical exercise and dietary therapy (the PED-t) for eating disorders: an interview study in a randomised controlled trial at the Norwegian School of Sport Sciences.
    BMJ Open 2018 Jan 11;8(1):e019386. Epub 2018 Jan 11.
    Department of Health and Care Science, University of Tromsø, The Arctic University of Norway, Tromsø, Norway.
    Objectives: The aim of the current study is to explore how therapists running a guided physical exercise and dietary therapy programme (PED-t) experience their contribution to the treatment of patients with bulimia nervosa and binge eating disorder.

    Methods: Ten therapists running the PED-t were semistructurally interviewed and the transcribed interviews were analysed using a systematic text condensation approach.

    Setting: The study was run within the context of a randomised controlled trial at the Norwegian School of Sport Sciences. Read More

    Development and validation of an instrument for measuring the burden of medicine on functioning and well-being: the Medication-Related Burden Quality of Life (MRB-QoL) tool.
    BMJ Open 2018 Jan 11;8(1):e018880. Epub 2018 Jan 11.
    Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Sydney, Sydney, New South Wales, Australia.
    Objective: Medication-related burden (MRB) is a negative experience with medicine, which may impact on psychological, social, physical and financial well-being of an individual. This study describes the development and initial validation of an instrument specifically designed to measure MRB on functioning and well-being-the Medication-Related Burden Quality of Life (MRB-QoL) tool.

    Methods: An initial pool of 76-items for MRB-QoL was generated. Read More

    Views and experiences of seeking information and help for vitiligo: a qualitative study of written accounts.
    BMJ Open 2018 Jan 11;8(1):e018652. Epub 2018 Jan 11.
    Primary Care and Population Sciences, Faculty of Medicine, University of Southampton, Southampton, UK.
    Objectives: Vitiligo is a relatively common autoimmune condition causing loss of skin pigment. Around 1 in 100 people in the UK develop vitiligo. It can have a significant impact on quality of life for many of those affected. Read More

    Seasonal variations in tuberculosis diagnosis among HIV-positive individuals in Southern Africa: analysis of cohort studies at antiretroviral treatment programmes.
    BMJ Open 2018 Jan 11;8(1):e017405. Epub 2018 Jan 11.
    Institute of Social and Preventive Medicine, University of Bern, Bern, BE, Switzerland.
    Objectives: Seasonal variations in tuberculosis diagnoses have been attributed to seasonal climatic changes and indoor crowding during colder winter months. We investigated trends in pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB) diagnosis at antiretroviral therapy (ART) programmes in Southern Africa.

    Setting: Five ART programmes participating in the International Epidemiology Database to Evaluate AIDS in South Africa, Zambia and Zimbabwe. Read More

    PARENTS 2 study protocol: pilot of Parents' Active Role and ENgagement in the review of Their Stillbirth/perinatal death.
    BMJ Open 2018 Jan 10;8(1):e020164. Epub 2018 Jan 10.
    Centre for Academic Women's Health, University of Bristol, Women's Health, Southmead Hospital, Bristol, UK.
    Background: The perinatal mortality review meeting that takes place within the hospital following a stillbirth or neonatal death enables clinicians to learn vital lessons to improve care for women and their families for the future. Recent evidence suggests that parents are unaware that a formal review following the death of their baby takes place. Many would welcome the opportunity to feedback into the meeting itself. Read More

    Young adults' perspectives on living with kidney failure: a systematic review and thematic synthesis of qualitative studies.
    BMJ Open 2018 Jan 10;8(1):e019926. Epub 2018 Jan 10.
    Population Health Sciences, Bristol Medical School, Bristol, UK.
    Introduction: Young adults fare worse than younger adolescents or older adults on a broad range of health indicators. Those with a chronic illness such as renal failure are a particularly vulnerable group, who experience poor outcomes compared with both children and older adults. Understanding how being in receipt of renal replacement therapy (RRT) affects the lives of young adults might help us to better prepare and support these individuals for and on RRT, and improve outcomes. Read More

    Why do GPs leave direct patient care and what might help to retain them? A qualitative study of GPs in South West England.
    BMJ Open 2018 Jan 10;8(1):e019849. Epub 2018 Jan 10.
    University of Exeter Medical School, College House, Exeter, UK.
    Objective: To identify factors influencing general practitioners' (GPs') decisions about whether or not to remain in direct patient care in general practice and what might help to retain them in that role.

    Design: Qualitative, in-depth, individual interviews exploring factors related to GPs leaving, remaining in and returning to direct patient care.

    Setting: South West England, UK. Read More

    Association of erythrocyte parameters with metabolic syndrome in the Pearl River Delta region of China: a cross sectional study.
    BMJ Open 2018 Jan 10;8(1):e019792. Epub 2018 Jan 10.
    Institute of Chronic Disease Risks Assessment, Henan University, Kaifeng, China.
    Objective: Increasing studies have reported that erythrocyte parameters, including red blood cells (RBCs), haematocrit (HCT), haemoglobin (Hb) and red blood cell distribution width (RDW), are associated with metabolic syndrome (MetS) in adults worldwide. However, the association, stratified by sex, remains to be elucidated, particularly in the Pearl River Delta region of China. Therefore, our aim was to explore the association of erythrocyte parameters with MetS, stratified by sex, in the Pearl River Delta region of China. Read More

    Patient satisfaction with hospital care and nurses in England: an observational study.
    BMJ Open 2018 Jan 11;8(1):e019189. Epub 2018 Jan 11.
    Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Southampton, Southampton, UK.
    Objectives: To inform healthcare workforce policy decisions by showing how patient perceptions of hospital care are associated with confidence in nurses and doctors, nurse staffing levels and hospital work environments.

    Design: Cross-sectional surveys of 66 348 hospital patients and 2963 inpatient nurses.

    Setting: Patients surveyed were discharged in 2010 from 161 National Health Service (NHS) trusts in England. Read More

    Evidence for sample selection effect and Hawthorne effect in behavioural HIV prevention trial among young women in a rural South African community.
    BMJ Open 2018 Jan 10;8(1):e019167. Epub 2018 Jan 10.
    MRC/Wits Rural Public Health and Health Transitions Research Unit (Agincourt), Faculty of Health Sciences, School of Public Health, University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, South Africa.
    Objectives: We examined the potential influence of both sample selection effects and Hawthorne effects in the behavioural HIV Prevention Trial Network 068 study, designed to examine whether cash transfers conditional on school attendance reduce HIV acquisition in young South African women. We explored whether school enrolment among study participants differed from the underlying population, and whether differences existed at baseline (sample selection effect) or arose during study participation (Hawthorne effect).

    Methods: We constructed a cohort of 3889 young women aged 11-20 years using data from the Agincourt Health and socio-Demographic Surveillance System. Read More

    Establishing anchor-based minimally important differences (MID) with the EORTC quality-of-life measures: a meta-analysis protocol.
    BMJ Open 2018 Jan 10;8(1):e019117. Epub 2018 Jan 10.
    Quality of life department, European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer, Brussels, Belgium.
    Introduction: As patient assessment of health-related quality of life (HRQOL) in cancer clinical trials has increased over the years, so has the need to attach meaningful interpretations to differences in HRQOL scores between groups and changes within groups. Determining what represents a minimally important difference (MID) in HRQOL scores is useful to clinicians, patients and researchers, and can be used as a benchmark for assessing the success of a healthcare intervention. Our objective is to provide an evidence-based protocol to determine MIDs for the European Organisation for Research and Treatment for Cancer Quality of life Questionnaire core 30 (EORTC QLQ-C30). Read More

    A qualitative study of patients' feedback about Outpatient Parenteral Antimicrobial Therapy (OPAT) services in Northern England: implications for service improvement.
    BMJ Open 2018 Jan 10;8(1):e019099. Epub 2018 Jan 10.
    Leeds Teaching Hospitals NHS Trust, Leeds, UK.
    Objective: Outpatient parenteral antimicrobial therapy (OPAT) provides opportunities for improved cost savings, but in the UK, implementation is patchy and a variety of service models are in use. The slow uptake in the UK and Europe is due to a number of clinical, financial and logistical issues, including concern about patient safety. The measurement of patient experience data is commonly used to inform commissioning decisions, but these focus on functional aspects of services and fail to examine the relational aspects of care. Read More

    Period prevalence, risk factors and consequent injuries of falling among the Saudi elderly living in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia: a cross-sectional study.
    BMJ Open 2018 Jan 10;8(1):e019063. Epub 2018 Jan 10.
    College of Medicine, King Saud bin Abdulaziz University for Health Sciences, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia.
    Objectives: Approximately 28% to 35% of people aged 65 and over fall each year. The consequent injuries of falls are considered a major public health problem. Falls account for more than half of injury-related hospitalisations among old people. Read More

    Managing cognitive impairment following stroke: protocol for a systematic review of non-randomised controlled studies of psychological interventions.
    BMJ Open 2018 Jan 10;8(1):e019001. Epub 2018 Jan 10.
    Division of Population Health Sciences, Royal College of Surgeons in Ireland, Dublin, Ireland.
    Introduction: Stroke is one of the primary causes of death and disability worldwide, leaving a considerable proportion of survivors with persistent cognitive and functional deficits. Despite the prevalence of poststroke cognitive impairment, there is no established treatment aimed at improving cognitive function following a stroke. Therefore, the aims of this systematic review are to identify psychological interventions intended to improve poststroke cognitive function and establish their efficacy. Read More

    Pilot study protocol to inform a future longitudinal study of ageing using linked administrative data: Healthy AGeing in Scotland (HAGIS).
    BMJ Open 2018 Jan 10;8(1):e018802. Epub 2018 Jan 10.
    Stirling Management School, University of Stirling, Stirling, UK.
    Introduction: Population ageing is a welcome testament to improvements in the social, economic and health circumstances over the life course. However, these successes necessitate that we understand more about the pathways of ageing to plan and cost our health and social care services, to support our ageing population to live healthier for longer and to make adequate provisions for retirement. Longitudinal studies of ageing facilitate such understanding in many countries around the world. Read More

    Factors associated with neonatal pneumonia in India: protocol for a systematic review and planned meta-analysis.
    BMJ Open 2018 Jan 10;8(1):e018790. Epub 2018 Jan 10.
    Public Health Evidence South Asia (PHESA), Manipal University, Manipal, India.
    Introduction: India accounts for more neonatal deaths than any other country. There is a lack of consolidated evidence from India regarding the determining factors of pneumonia in neonates. This systematic review is aimed to consolidate and appraise the evidence on risk factors and determinants of pneumonia among neonates in India. Read More

    Enhancing prescribing of guideline-recommended medications for ischaemic heart diseases: a systematic review and meta-analysis of interventions targeted at healthcare professionals.
    BMJ Open 2018 Jan 10;8(1):e018271. Epub 2018 Jan 10.
    Groningen Research Institute of Pharmacy, Unit of PharmacoTherapy, Epidemiology & Economics, University of Groningen, Groningen, The Netherlands.
    Objectives: Ischaemic heart diseases (IHDs) are a leading cause of death worldwide. Although prescribing according to guidelines improves health outcomes, it remains suboptimal. We determined whether interventions targeted at healthcare professionals are effective to enhance prescribing and health outcomes in patients with IHDs. Read More

    Assessing the effectiveness of a patient-centred computer-based clinic intervention, Health-E You/Salud iTu, to reduce health disparities in unintended pregnancies among Hispanic adolescents: study protocol for a cluster randomised control trial.
    BMJ Open 2018 Jan 10;8(1):e018201. Epub 2018 Jan 10.
    Institute for Health Policy Studies, University of California, San Francisco, California, USA.
    Introduction: Teen pregnancy rates in the USA remain higher than any other industrialised nation, and pregnancies among Hispanic adolescents are disproportionately high. Computer-based interventions represent a promising approach to address sexual health and contraceptive use disparities. Preliminary findings have demonstrated that the Health-E You/Salud iTu, computer application (app) is feasible to implement, acceptable to Latina adolescents and improves sexual health knowledge and interest in selecting an effective contraceptive method when used in conjunction with a healthcare visit. Read More

    Transvaginal natural orifice transluminal endoscopic surgery (vNOTES) adnexectomy for benign pathology compared with laparoscopic excision (NOTABLE): a protocol for a randomised controlled trial.
    BMJ Open 2018 Jan 10;8(1):e018059. Epub 2018 Jan 10.
    Department of Gynaecology, Imelda Hospital, Bonheiden, Belgium.
    Introduction: Natural orifice transluminal endoscopic surgery (NOTES) uses natural orifices to access the cavities of the human body to perform surgical interventions. NOTES limits the magnitude of surgical trauma and potentially reduces postoperative pain. Our group published a protocol on a randomised study comparing transvaginal NOTES (vNOTES) versus laparoscopy for hysterectomy (HALON). Read More

    Variations in childbirth interventions in high-income countries: protocol for a multinational cross-sectional study.
    BMJ Open 2018 Jan 10;8(1):e017993. Epub 2018 Jan 10.
    Boston University School of Public Health, Boston, Massachusetts, USA.
    Introduction: There are growing concerns about the increase in rates of commonly used childbirth interventions. When indicated, childbirth interventions are crucial for preventing maternal and perinatal morbidity and mortality, but their routine use in healthy women and children leads to avoidable maternal and neonatal harm. Establishing ideal rates of interventions can be challenging. Read More

    What are the sources of stress and distress for general practitioners working in England? A qualitative study.
    BMJ Open 2018 Jan 11;8(1):e017361. Epub 2018 Jan 11.
    Primary Care and Health Sciences, Research Institute, Keele University, Keele, UK.
    Objectives: This paper reports the sources of stress and distress experienced by general practitioners (GP) as part of a wider study exploring the barriers and facilitators to help-seeking for mental illness and burnout among this medical population.

    Design: Qualitative study using in-depth interviews with 47 GP participants. The interviews were audio-recorded, transcribed, anonymised and imported into NVivo V. Read More

    Prevalence and burden of chronic kidney disease among the general population and high-risk groups in Africa: a systematic review.
    BMJ Open 2018 Jan 10;8(1):e015069. Epub 2018 Jan 10.
    Clinical Epidemiology of Renal Diseases and Hypertension, Reggio Cal Unit, CNR/IFC, Reggio Calabria, Italy.
    Objectives: While increasing attention is paid to the rising prevalence of chronic diseases in Africa, there is little focus on chronic kidney disease (CKD). This systematic review assesses CKD burden among the general population and high-risk groups on the entire African continent.

    Design, Setting And Participants: We searched Medline and PubMed databases for articles published between 1 January 1995 and 7 April 2017 by sensitive search strategies focusing on CKD surveys at the community level and high-risk groups. Read More

    Perceptions of the uses of routine general practice data beyond individual care in England: a qualitative study.
    BMJ Open 2018 Jan 8;8(1):e019378. Epub 2018 Jan 8.
    School of Population Health and Environmental Sciences, Faculty of Life Sciences and Medicine, King's College London, London, UK.
    Objective: To investigate how different lay and professional groups perceive and understand the use of routinely collected general practice patient data for research, public health, service evaluation and commissioning.

    Design, Method, Participants And Setting: We conducted a multimethod, qualitative study. This entailed participant observation of the design and delivery of a series of deliberative engagement events about a local patient database made of routine primary care data. Read More

    Cohort profile: effect of malaria in early pregnancy on fetal growth in Benin (RECIPAL preconceptional cohort).
    BMJ Open 2018 Jan 8;8(1):e019014. Epub 2018 Jan 8.
    UMR216-MERIT, French National Research Institute for Sustainable Development (IRD), Université Paris Descartes, Paris, France.
    Purpose: REtard de Croissance Intra-uterin et PALudisme (RECIPAL) is an original preconceptional cohort designed to assess the consequences of malaria during the first trimester of pregnancy, which is a poorly investigated period in Africa and during which malaria may be detrimental to the fetus.

    Participants: For this purpose, a total of 1214 women of reproductive age living in Sô-Ava and Akassato districts (south Benin) were followed up monthly from June 2014 to December 2016 until 411 of them became pregnant. A large range of health determinants was collected both before and during pregnancy from the first weeks of gestation to delivery. Read More

    Home polygraphic recording with telemedicine monitoring for diagnosis and treatment of sleep apnoea in stroke (HOPES Study): study protocol for a single-blind, randomised controlled trial.
    BMJ Open 2018 Jan 9;8(1):e018847. Epub 2018 Jan 9.
    Department of Diagnostics, NRZ Rosenhügel Wien, Vienna, Austria.
    Introduction: Meta-analyses report that more than 50% of patients who had a stroke suffer from moderate to severe sleep apnoea (SA), with adherence rates to positive airway pressure (PAP) therapy of only 30%. The primary objective of this study is to determine whether PAP adherence in patients who had a stroke with obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA) can be improved by a PAP training strategy during inhospital rehabilitation combined with a telemedicine monitoring system after discharge. Further objectives are (1) to compare the validity of a non-attended level-III polygraphy with that of a level-II polysomnography (PSG) in the diagnosis of SA, (2) to compare the validity of an apnoea-hypopnoea index (AHI) yielded by the PAP device with that obtained during PSG, (3) to determine changes in nocturnal systolic blood pressure (BP) due to PAP therapy with the pulse transit time (PTT) method and (4) to assess the impact of telemonitored PAP therapy on neurorehabilitation outcome parameters. Read More

    Patients' and therapists' experiences with a new treatment programme for eating disorders that combines physical exercise and dietary therapy: the PED-t trial. A qualitative study protocol.
    BMJ Open 2018 Jan 8;8(1):e018708. Epub 2018 Jan 8.
    Department of Sports Medicine, Norwegian School of Sport Sciences, Oslo, Norway.
    Introduction: Women with bulimia nervosa and binge eating disorder often suffer for many years before they seek professional help. Evidence-based treatments like cognitive-behavioural therapy (CBT) might be poorly accessible, and about 50% of those who receive CBT respond to it. Such outcome may reflect the heterogeneous nature of eating disorders, and addressing this heterogeneity calls for expanding the portfolio of treatment options. Read More

    The association between macronutrient intake and cognition in individuals aged under 65 in China: a cross-sectional study.
    BMJ Open 2018 Jan 9;8(1):e018573. Epub 2018 Jan 9.
    Department of Chronic Disease, Daxing Centre for Disease Control and Prevention, Beijing, China.
    Objective: The aim of this retrospective study was to explore the correlation between daily energy intake from macronutrients and cognitive functions in a Chinese population aged less than 65 years.

    Design: This is a cross-sectional study to explore the relationships between macronutrients' intake and cognitive function. The analysis of variance (ANOVA) and χ2 test were used to compare the demographic and physical characteristics, lifestyle and laboratory parameters with the intake of macronutrients among different quartiles of % fat/energy. Read More

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