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    1129 results match your criteria BMC Pulmonary Medicine[Journal]

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    The efficacy of initial ventilation strategy for adult immunocompromised patients with severe acute hypoxemic respiratory failure: study protocol for a multicentre randomized controlled trial (VENIM).
    BMC Pulm Med 2017 Sep 20;17(1):127. Epub 2017 Sep 20.
    Emergency Department, Peking Union Medical College Hospital, No. 1 Shuaifuyuan, Dongcheng District, Beijing, China.
    Background: Acute respiratory failure (ARF) is still one of the most severe complications in immunocompromised patients. Our previous systematic review showed noninvasive mechanical ventilation (NIV) reduced mortality, length of hospitalization and ICU stay in AIDS/hematological malignancy patients with relatively less severe ARF, compared to invasive mechanical ventilation (IMV). However, this systematic review was based on 13 observational studies and the quality of evidence was low to moderate. Read More

    A qualitative study to identify parents' perceptions of and barriers to asthma management in children from South Asian and White British families.
    BMC Pulm Med 2017 Sep 20;17(1):126. Epub 2017 Sep 20.
    Faculty of Health and Social Studies, Mary Seacole Research Centre, De Montfort University, The Gateway, Leicester, LE1 9BH, UK.
    Background: Over one million children receive treatment for asthma in the UK. South Asian children experience excess morbidity and higher rates of hospitalization than the White population. This study aimed to explore perceptions and experiences of asthma and asthma management in British South Asian and White British families, to identify barriers to optimal management and to inform culturally appropriate interventions to improve management. Read More

    The effect of sedation and/or analgesia as rescue treatment during noninvasive positive pressure ventilation in the patients with Interface intolerance after Extubation.
    BMC Pulm Med 2017 Sep 15;17(1):125. Epub 2017 Sep 15.
    Department of Respiratory and Critical Care, No.37 Guoxue Alley, Chengdu, 610041, China.
    Background: Sedation and/or analgesia can relieve the patient-ventilator asynchrony. However, whether sedation and/or analgesia can benefit the clinical outcome of the patients with interface intolerance is still unclear.

    Methods: A retrospective study was performed on patients with interface intolerance who received noninvasive positive pressure ventilation (NIPPV) after extubation in seven intensive care units (ICU) of West China Hospital, Sichuan University. Read More

    Unmet needs in the treatment of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis-insights from patient chart review in five European countries.
    BMC Pulm Med 2017 Sep 15;17(1):124. Epub 2017 Sep 15.
    Regional Referral Centre for Rare Lung Diseases, University of Catania, Catania, Italy.
    Background: Two antifibrotic drugs, pirfenidone and nintedanib, are approved by the European Medicines Agency and the US Food and Drug Administration for the treatment of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF). In this analysis, treatment patterns of European patients with IPF were investigated to understand antifibrotic prescribing and identify unmet needs in IPF treatment practice.

    Methods: Between February and March 2016, respiratory physicians from France, Germany, Italy, Spain, and the UK participated in an online questionnaire designed to collect information on IPF treatment patterns in patients under their care. Read More

    Clinical and radiological characteristics of patients with late-onset severe restrictive lung defect after hematopoietic stem cell transplantation.
    BMC Pulm Med 2017 Sep 7;17(1):123. Epub 2017 Sep 7.
    Division of Pulmonary Medicine, Department of Medicine, Keio University School of Medicine, 35 Shinanomachi, Shinjuku-ku, Tokyo, 160-8582, Japan.
    Background: Late-onset noninfectious pulmonary complications (LONIPCs), which occur more than 3 months after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT), are major causes of morbidity and mortality after transplantation. Among LONIPCs, we occasionally treat patients with late-onset severe restrictive lung defect after HSCT; however, its clinical features have not been fully elucidated.

    Methods: A retrospective chart review of a single center on cases of late-onset severe restrictive lung defect after HSCT was performed. Read More

    Exploring efficacy and safety of oral Pirfenidone for progressive, non-IPF lung fibrosis (RELIEF) - a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel group, multi-center, phase II trial.
    BMC Pulm Med 2017 Sep 6;17(1):122. Epub 2017 Sep 6.
    Department of Internal Medicine II, University of Giessen-Marburg Lung Center, Justus-Liebig University Giessen, Giessen, Germany.
    Background: Pirfenidone is currently approved in the EU for the treatment of mild to moderate idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) and offers a beneficial risk-benefit profile. However, there are several other, progressive fibrotic lung diseases, in which conventional anti-inflammatory therapy is not sufficiently effective and antifibrotic therapies may offer a novel treatment option.

    Methods/design: We designed a study protocol for inclusion of patients with progressive fibrotic lung disease despite conventional anti-inflammatory therapy (EudraCT 2014-000861-32). Read More

    Pulmonary challenge with carbon nanoparticles induces a dose-dependent increase in circulating leukocytes in healthy males.
    BMC Pulm Med 2017 Sep 6;17(1):121. Epub 2017 Sep 6.
    Department of Respiratory Medicine, Academic Medical Center, University of Amsterdam, Room F-5-260, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.
    Background: Inhalation of particulate matter, as part of air pollution, is associated with increased morbidity and mortality. Nanoparticles (< 100 nm) are likely candidates for triggering inflammatory responses and activation of coagulation pathways because of their ability to enter lung cells and pass bronchial mucosa. We tested the hypothesis that bronchial segmental instillation of carbon nanoparticles causes inflammation and activation of coagulation pathways in healthy humans in vivo. Read More

    Propensity score analysis of lung cancer risk in a population with high prevalence of non-smoking related lung cancer.
    BMC Pulm Med 2017 Sep 6;17(1):120. Epub 2017 Sep 6.
    Department of Radiology, Kaohsiung Veterans General Hospital, Kaohsiung, Taiwan.
    Background: Lung cancer has been the leading cause of cancer-related mortality worldwide among both men and women in recent years. There is an increase in the incidence of nonsmoking-related lung cancer in recent years. The purpose of the present study was to investigate multiple potential risk factors for nonsmoking-related lung cancer among Asian Ethnic Groups. Read More

    Reference Equations for the Six-Minute Walk Distance in the Healthy Chinese Han Population, Aged 18-30 Years.
    BMC Pulm Med 2017 Aug 29;17(1):119. Epub 2017 Aug 29.
    Department of General and Intensive Care Medical, The First Affiliated Hospital of Wenzhou Medical University, Wenzhou, Zhe Jiang Province, China.
    Background: The six-minute walk test (6MWT) is a safe, simple, inexpensive tool for evaluating the functional exercise capacity. However, there is a lack of standard reference equations for the six-minute walk distance (6MWD) in the healthy Chinese Han population with an age of 18-30 years. The aims of the present study were as follows: 1) to measure the anthropometric data and the walking distance in a sample of healthy Chinese Han population, aged 18-30 years; 2) to construct reference equations for the 6MWD; 3) to compare the measured 6MWD of our cohort with previously published equations. Read More

    Reference values of fractional excretion of exhaled nitric oxide among non-smokers and current smokers.
    BMC Pulm Med 2017 Aug 25;17(1):118. Epub 2017 Aug 25.
    Section of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Institute of Medicine, Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Background: Fractional exhaled nitric oxide (FENO) is used to assess of airway inflammation; diagnose asthma and monitor adherence to advised therapy. Reliable and accurate reference values for FENO are needed for both non-smoking and current smoking adults in the clinical setting. The present study was performed to establish reference adult FENO values among never-smokers, former smokers and current smokers. Read More

    Influence of resting lung diffusion on exercise capacity in patients with COPD.
    BMC Pulm Med 2017 Aug 25;17(1):117. Epub 2017 Aug 25.
    Division of Cardiovascular Diseases, Mayo Clinic, Scottsdale, AZ, USA.
    Background: Lung diffusing capacity for carbon monoxide (DLCO) gives an overall assessment of functional lung surface area for gas exchange and can be assessed using various methods. DLCO is an important factor in exercise intolerance in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). We investigated if the intra-breath (IBDLCO) method may give a more sensitive measure of available gas exchange surface area than the more typical single breath (SBDLCO) method and if COPD subjects with the largest resting DLCO relative to pulmonary blood flow (Qc) would have a more preserved exercise capacity. Read More

    Volatile organic compounds in ventilated critical care patients: a systematic evaluation of cofactors.
    BMC Pulm Med 2017 Aug 22;17(1):116. Epub 2017 Aug 22.
    Department of Anaesthesiology, Intensive Care and Pain Therapy, Centre of Breath Research, Saarland University Medical Centre, Kirrberger Strasse 100, 66421, Homburg (Saar), Germany.
    Background: Expired gas (exhalome) analysis of ventilated critical ill patients can be used for drug monitoring and biomarker diagnostics. However, it remains unclear to what extent volatile organic compounds are present in gases from intensive care ventilators, gas cylinders, central hospital gas supplies, and ambient air. We therefore systematically evaluated background volatiles in inspired gas and their influence on the exhalome. Read More

    Effect of counselling during pulmonary rehabilitation on self-determined motivation towards physical activity in people with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease - protocol of a mixed methods study.
    BMC Pulm Med 2017 Aug 17;17(1):115. Epub 2017 Aug 17.
    Zurich University of Applied Sciences, Institute for Physiotherapy, Technikumstrasse 71, 8401, Winterthur, Switzerland.
    Background: Physical activity promotion in people with Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) is focus of research and public health. Patient-centred interventions like counselling are promising approaches to help patients reducing sedentary behaviour. Aim of the present study is to investigate if a physical activity counselling program during pulmonary rehabilitation increases physical activity level in daily life in people with COPD. Read More

    A multi-center randomized, controlled, open-label trial evaluating the effects of eosinophil-guided corticosteroid-sparing therapy in hospitalised patients with COPD exacerbations - The CORTICO steroid reduction in COPD (CORTICO-COP) study protocol.
    BMC Pulm Med 2017 Aug 15;17(1):114. Epub 2017 Aug 15.
    Department of Internal Medicine, Herlev and Gentofte University Hospital, Hellerup, Denmark.
    Background: The most commonly applied treatment for acute exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (AECOPD) is a 5-day course of high-dose systemic corticosteroids. However, this treatment has not been shown to reduce mortality and can potentially have serious side effects. Recent research has shown that, presumably, only a subgroup of COPD patients identifieable by blood eosinophil count benefit from a rescue course of prednisolone. Read More

    FEV1 and FVC and systemic inflammation in a spinal cord injury cohort.
    BMC Pulm Med 2017 Aug 15;17(1):113. Epub 2017 Aug 15.
    Channing Division of Network Medicine, Department of Medicine, Brigham and Women's Hospital, 401 Park Drive, Landmark Center 3rd Floor West, Boston, MA, 02215, USA.
    Background: Systemic inflammation has been associated with reduced pulmonary function in individuals with and without chronic medical conditions. Individuals with chronic spinal cord injury (SCI) have clinical characteristics that promote systemic inflammation and also have reduced pulmonary function. We sought to assess the associations between biomarkers of systemic inflammation with pulmonary function in a chronic SCI cohort, adjusting for other potential confounding factors. Read More

    Serological and morphological prognostic factors in patients with interstitial pneumonia with autoimmune features.
    BMC Pulm Med 2017 Aug 14;17(1):111. Epub 2017 Aug 14.
    Department of Respiratory Medicine, Kurashiki Central Hospital, Kurashiki, Japan.
    Background: To identify the prognostic factors for survival in patients with interstitial pneumonia with autoimmune features (IPAF) who meet the serological domain of the IPAF criteria.

    Methods: We retrospectively analysed 99 IPAF patients who met the serological domain and were hospitalised at the Respiratory Medicine Unit of Kurashiki Central Hospital from 1999 to 2015. The high-resolution computed tomography findings were usual interstitial pneumonia (UIP; n = 1), non-specific interstitial pneumonia (NSIP; n = 63), NSIP with organizing pneumonia (OP) overlap (n = 15), and OP (n = 20). Read More

    Association between Charlson comorbidity index score and outcome in patients with stage IIIB-IV non-small cell lung cancer.
    BMC Pulm Med 2017 Aug 15;17(1):112. Epub 2017 Aug 15.
    Cancer Center, Beijing Friendship Hospital, Capital Medical University, 95 Yong An Road, Xicheng District, Beijing, 100050, China.
    Background: This retrospective study investigated the association between the Charlson comorbidity index (CCI) score and the survival of patients with stage IIIB-IV (advanced, non-resectable) non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) who also did not have gene mutations in epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) or anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK).

    Methods: The records of 165 patients (28-80 y, median 61 y) who met the above criteria and were admitted to Beijing Friendship Hospital Capital Medical University from 1 May 2010 to 1 October 2014were reviewed. Associations between baseline variables and the CCI score were assessed via univariate and multivariate logistic regression analysis. Read More

    Cathepsin-S degraded decorin are elevated in fibrotic lung disorders - development and biological validation of a new serum biomarker.
    BMC Pulm Med 2017 Aug 9;17(1):110. Epub 2017 Aug 9.
    Nordic Bioscience A/S, Herlev, Denmark.
    Background: Decorin is one of the most abundant proteoglycans of the extracellular matrix and is mainly secreted and deposited in the interstitial matrix by fibroblasts where it plays an important role in collagen turnover and tissue homeostasis. Degradation of decorin might disturb normal tissue homeostasis contributing to extracellular matrix remodeling diseases. Here, we present the development and validation of a competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) quantifying a specific fragment of degraded decorin, which has potential as a novel non-invasive serum biomarker for fibrotic lung disorders. Read More

    Prognostic nomogram for inpatients with asthma exacerbation.
    BMC Pulm Med 2017 Aug 4;17(1):108. Epub 2017 Aug 4.
    Department of Respiratory Medicine, Graduate School of Medicine, The University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo, 113-8655, Japan.
    Background: Asthma exacerbation may require a visit to the emergency room as well as hospitalization and can occasionally be fatal. However, there is limited information about the prognostic factors for asthma exacerbation requiring hospitalization, and no methods are available to predict an inpatient's prognosis. We investigated the clinical features and factors affecting in-hospital mortality of patients with asthma exacerbation and generated a nomogram to predict in-hospital death using a national inpatient database in Japan. Read More

    Diagnostic value of medical thoracoscopy in malignant pleural effusion.
    BMC Pulm Med 2017 Aug 4;17(1):109. Epub 2017 Aug 4.
    Department of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine, Beijing Institute of Respiratory Medicine and Beijing Chaoyang Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing, China.
    Background: Medical thoracoscopy has been shown to be an efficacious procedure in diagnosing unexplained exudative pleural effusions with excellent safety. This study aimed to assess the diagnostic significance of thoracoscopy in the management of patients with malignant pleural effusion (MPE).

    Methods: Consecutive patients with malignant pleural effusion were retrospectively reviewed, and their demographic, radiographic, thoracoscopic and histological data were collected. Read More

    Lymphangioleiomyomatosis, multifocal micronodular pneumocyte hyperplasia, and sarcoidosis: more pathological findings in the same chest CT, or a single pathological pathway?
    BMC Pulm Med 2017 Jul 28;17(1):107. Epub 2017 Jul 28.
    Respiratory Unit, Ospedale San Paolo, Department of Health Sciences, Università degli Studi di Milano, Milan, Italy.
    Background: Autoimmune hepatitis/primary biliary cirrhosis overlap syndrome, lymphangioleiomyomatosis/tuberous sclerosis complex (LAM-TSC), and sarcoidosis are three rare diseases. Here we present, to the best of our knowledge, the first description of a patient with the coexistence of these three diseases.

    Case Presentation: A 47-year-old woman affected by LAM-TSC and primary biliary cirrosis/autoimmune hepatitis overlap syndrome. Read More

    Air pollution exposure is associated with MRSA acquisition in young U.S. children with cystic fibrosis.
    BMC Pulm Med 2017 Jul 27;17(1):106. Epub 2017 Jul 27.
    Division of Pulmonary Medicine, University of Washington School of Medicine, Seattle, WA, USA.
    Background: The role of air pollution in increasing susceptibility to respiratory tract infections in the cystic fibrosis (CF) population has not been well described. We recently demonstrated that chronic PM2.5 exposure is associated with an increased risk of initial Pseudomonas aeruginosa acquisition in young children with CF. Read More

    Intravenous superoxide dismutase as a protective agent to prevent impairment of lung function induced by high tidal volume ventilation.
    BMC Pulm Med 2017 Jul 26;17(1):105. Epub 2017 Jul 26.
    School of Medicine, Fu Jen Catholic University, No. 510, Zhongzheng Rd., Xinzhuang Dist, New Taipei City, 24205, Taiwan.
    Background: Positive-pressure mechanical ventilation is essential in assisting patients with respiratory failure in the intensive care unit and facilitating oxygenation in the operating room. However, it was also recognized as a primary factor leading to hospital-acquired pulmonary dysfunction, in which pulmonary oxidative stress and lung inflammation had been known to play important roles. Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase (SOD) is an important antioxidant, and possesses anti-inflammatory capacity. Read More

    Prognosis and longitudinal changes of physical activity in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis.
    BMC Pulm Med 2017 Jul 25;17(1):104. Epub 2017 Jul 25.
    Pulmonary Research Institute at LungenClinic Grosshansdorf, Woehrendamm 80, 22927, Grosshansdorf, Germany.
    Background: Physical activity (PA) is associated with disease severity in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF), but longitudinal studies evaluating its prognostic value and changes over time are lacking.

    Methods: We measured PA (steps per day, SPD) in a cohort of 46 IPF-patients (mean age, 67 years; mean FVC, 76.1%pred. Read More

    Successful rescue combination of extracorporeal membrane oxygenation, high-frequency oscillatory ventilation and prone positioning for the management of severe methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus pneumonia complicated by pneumothorax: a case report and literature review.
    BMC Pulm Med 2017 Jul 20;17(1):103. Epub 2017 Jul 20.
    Department of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine, Beijing Institute of Respiratory Medicine, Beijing Key Laboratory of Respiratory and Pulmonary Circulation, Beijing Chao-Yang Hospital, Capital Medical University, No. 8 Gongren Tiyuchang Nanlu, Chaoyang District, Beijing, 100020, China.
    Background: To describe the experience of combination therapy with extracorporeal membrane oxygenation(ECMO), high-frequency oscillatory ventilation(HFOV) and prone positioning in treating severe respiratory failure caused by community acquired methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus(CA-MRSA).

    Case Presentation: A 30-year-old female presented with fever and dyspnea for 3 days. She was diagnosed CA-MRSA pneumonia complicated by severe respiratory failure, pneumothorax and neutropenia. Read More

    Analysis of long term CD4+CD25highCD127- T-reg cells kinetics in peripheral blood of lung transplant recipients.
    BMC Pulm Med 2017 Jul 18;17(1):102. Epub 2017 Jul 18.
    Department of Internal Medicine, University of Pavia, Pavia, Italy.
    Background: The role of CD4(+)CD25(high)CD127(-) T-reg cells in solid-organ Transplant (Tx) acceptance has been extensively studied. In previous studies on kidney and liver recipients, peripheral T-reg cell counts were associated to graft survival, while in lung Tx, there is limited evidence for similar findings. This study aims to analyze long term peripheral kinetics of T-reg-cells in a cohort of lung recipients and tests its association to several clinical variables. Read More

    Type 2 diabetes is associated with an increased prevalence of respiratory symptoms as compared to the general population.
    BMC Pulm Med 2017 Jul 17;17(1):101. Epub 2017 Jul 17.
    Unit of Epidemiology and Medical Statistics, Department of Diagnostic and Public Health, University of Verona, Strada Le Grazie, 8 -, 37134, Verona, Italy.
    Background: To estimate the prevalence of respiratory symptoms in individuals with type 2 diabetes, as compared to the general population.

    Methods: Between 2007 and 2010 the screening questionnaire of GEIRD (Gene Environment Interactions in Respiratory Diseases) study was administered to two samples of Verona general population, aged respectively 45-64 years and 65-84 years, and to a convenience sample of individuals with type 2 diabetes, consequently recruited at the local Diabetes Centre. Ninety-four and 165 people with type 2 diabetes, aged respectively 45-64 and 65-84 years, were compared with 676 and 591 subjects in the same age range from the general population. Read More

    Monitoring clinical and microbiological evolution of a cystic fibrosis patient over 26 years: experience of a Brazilian CF Centre.
    BMC Pulm Med 2017 Jul 14;17(1):100. Epub 2017 Jul 14.
    Departamento de Microbiologia, Imunologia e Parasitologia, Faculdade de Ciências Médicas, Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.
    Background: Burkholderia cepacia complex is a group of opportunistic pathogens in cystic fibrosis (CF) patients believed to be associated with poor prognosis and patient-to-patient transmissibility. Little is known about clinical outcomes after B. vietnamiensis chronic colonization/infection. Read More

    Patient preferences for dry powder inhaler attributes in asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in France: a discrete choice experiment.
    BMC Pulm Med 2017 Jul 6;17(1):99. Epub 2017 Jul 6.
    Respiratory and Intensive Care Medicine, Cochin Hospital Group, AP-HP, University Paris Descartes, Paris, France.
    Background: Dry powder inhalers (DPIs) are often used in asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) therapies. Using the discrete choice experiment (DCE) methodology, this study conducted in France was designed to assess patients' preferences for different attributes of DPIs.

    Methods: Attributes of DPIs were defined based on a literature review, patient focus group discussions and interviews with healthcare professionals (qualitative phase of the study). Read More

    Regulating autonomic nervous system homeostasis improves pulmonary function in rabbits with acute lung injury.
    BMC Pulm Med 2017 Jul 3;17(1):98. Epub 2017 Jul 3.
    Department of Anesthesiology, the Second Affiliated Hospital of Harbin Medical University, the HeiLongJiang Province key laboratory on Anesthesiology and Critical Care Medicine, NO.246 of Xuefu Road, Nangang District, Harbin, Heilongjiang Province, 150081, China.
    Background: This study aimed to investigate the effects of regulating autonomic nervous system (ANS) homeostasis by inhibiting sympathetic hyperactivity and/or enhancing parasympathetic activity on pulmonary inflammation and functional disturbance.

    Methods: An animal model of acute lung injury (ALI) was established in rabbits by an intratracheal injection of hydrochloric acid (HCl) in rabbits. Animals in control groups were received saline or HCl only, and the others received both HCl and followed treatments: vagus nerve stimulation (VNS), intravenous injection of tetrahydroaminoacridine (THA), or stellate ganglion block (SGB). Read More

    Lung function development after preterm birth in relation to severity of Bronchopulmonary dysplasia.
    BMC Pulm Med 2017 Jun 30;17(1):97. Epub 2017 Jun 30.
    Department of Pediatrics, Södersjukhuset, Sachs' Children and Youth Hospital, 118 83, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Background: Bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) is a strong risk factor for respiratory morbidity in children born preterm. Our aims were to evaluate lung function in adolescents born preterm with and without a history of BPD, and to assess lung function change over time from school age.

    Methods: Fifty-one individuals born in Stockholm, Sweden between gestational ages 24 to 31 weeks (23 neonatally diagnosed with respiratory distress syndrome (RDS) but not BPD, and 28 graded as mild (n = 17), moderate (n = 7) or severe (n = 4) BPD) were examined in adolescence (13-17 years of age) using spirometry, impulse oscillometry (IOS), plethysmography, and ergospirometry. Read More

    Prevalence and associated risk factors of chronic bronchitis in First Nations people.
    BMC Pulm Med 2017 Jun 29;17(1):95. Epub 2017 Jun 29.
    Canadian Centre for Health and Safety in Agriculture, Royal University Hospital, 104, Clinic Place, Saskatoon, SK, S7N 2Z4, Canada.
    Background: Inadequate housing, low family income, household smoking, personal smoking status, and poor schooling are some of the conditions that have been significantly associated with the prevalence and incidence of chronic bronchitis. The aim of the current study was to determine the prevalence of chronic bronchitis (CB) and associated risk factors among First Nations people.

    Methods: An interviewer-administered survey was conducted as part of the First Nations Lung Health Project in 2012 and 2013 with 874 individuals from 406 households in two First Nations communities located in the province of Saskatchewan, Canada. Read More

    Bacteraemia and fungaemia in cystic fibrosis patients with febrile pulmonary exacerbation: a prospective observational study.
    BMC Pulm Med 2017 Jun 29;17(1):96. Epub 2017 Jun 29.
    Institute of Medical Microbiology, University Hospital Essen, Essen, Germany.
    Background: Bloodstream pathogens can be identified by multiplex PCR (SeptiFast (SF)) or blood culture (BC); whether these pathogens are present in cystic fibrosis (CF) patients during febrile pulmonary exacerbations (FPE) has not been sufficiently studied.

    Methods: In this prospective observational study, blood from CF patients experiencing FPE was tested with SF and BC before the initiation of antibiotic treatment.

    Results: After contaminants had been excluded, 9 of 72 blood samples tested positive by BC or SF. Read More

    Three-dimensional substructure measurements for the differential diagnosis of ground glass nodules.
    BMC Pulm Med 2017 Jun 19;17(1):93. Epub 2017 Jun 19.
    Shanghai Key Laboratory of Orthopaedic Implant, Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Shanghai Ninth People's Hospital, Shanghai Jiao Tong University School Of Medicine, Room 703, No. 3 Building, 693 Zhizaoju Road, Shanghai, 200011, China.
    Background: We analyzed the differences between maximum and peak computed tomography (CT) numbers (M-P), respectively representing the densities of the solid center and the main periphery of ground-glass nodules (GGNs), and the average change in M-P velocity (V(M-P)) during follow-up to differentiate between pre-invasive (PIA) and invasive adenocarcinoma (IAC).

    Methods: Data of 102 patients were retrospectively collected and analyzed in our study including 43 PIAs and 59 IACs. Diameters, total volumes, and the maximum and peak CT numbers in CT number histograms were measured and followed for at least 3 months. Read More

    Azithromycin for idiopathic acute exacerbation of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis: a retrospective single-center study.
    BMC Pulm Med 2017 Jun 19;17(1):94. Epub 2017 Jun 19.
    Division of Respiratory Medicine, Social Welfare Organization Saiseikai Imperial Gift Foundation, Inc., Saiseikai Kumamoto Hospital, Kumamoto, Kumamoto, 861-4193, Japan.
    Background: Acute exacerbation (AE) of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is a fatal condition without an established pharmaceutical treatment. Most patients are treated with high-dose corticosteroids and broad-spectrum antibiotics. Azithromycin is a macrolide with immunomodulatory activity and may be beneficial for treatment of acute lung injury. Read More

    White matter lesions characterise brain involvement in moderate to severe chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, but cerebral atrophy does not.
    BMC Pulm Med 2017 Jun 19;17(1):92. Epub 2017 Jun 19.
    Neurosciences Research Centre, Molecular and Clinical Sciences Research Institute, St George's University of London, Cranmer Terrace, Tooting, London, SW17 ORE, UK.
    Background: Brain pathology is relatively unexplored in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). This study is a comprehensive investigation of grey matter (GM) and white matter (WM) changes and how these relate to disease severity and cognitive function.

    Methods: T1-weighted and fluid-attenuated inversion recovery images were acquired for 31 stable COPD patients (FEV1 52. Read More

    Monitoring the electric activity of the diaphragm during noninvasive positive pressure ventilation: a case report.
    BMC Pulm Med 2017 Jun 17;17(1):91. Epub 2017 Jun 17.
    Pulmonary Division, Heart Institute (InCor) - Hospital das Clínicas da Faculdade de Medicina da Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil.
    Background: In patients with post-extubation respiratory distress, delayed reintubation may worsen clinical outcomes. Objective measures of extubation failure at the bedside are lacking, therefore clinical parameters are currently used to guide the need of reintubation. Electrical activity of the diaphragm (EAdi) provides clinicians with valuable, objective information about respiratory drive and could be used to monitor respiratory effort. Read More

    Health coaching to improve self-management and quality of life for low income patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD): protocol for a randomized controlled trial.
    BMC Pulm Med 2017 Jun 9;17(1):90. Epub 2017 Jun 9.
    Department of Family and Community Medicine, University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, CA, USA.
    Background: Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) severely hinders quality of life for those affected and is costly to the health care system. Care gaps in areas such as pharmacotherapy, inhaler technique, and knowledge of disease are prevalent, particularly for vulnerable populations served by community clinics. Non-professionally licensed health coaches have been shown to be an effective and cost-efficient solution in bridging care gaps and facilitating self-management for patients with other chronic diseases, but no research to date has explored their efficacy in improving care for people living with COPD. Read More

    NRAMP1 and VDR gene polymorphisms in susceptibility to pulmonary tuberculosis among Andhra Pradesh population in India: a case-control study.
    BMC Pulm Med 2017 Jun 5;17(1):89. Epub 2017 Jun 5.
    Department of Human Genetics, Andhra University, Visakhapatnam, India.
    Background: The aim of the present study was to evaluate the association of NRAMP1 -3'UTR, 274-CT,VDR- Fok1 VDR-Taq1 Polymorphisms with the risk of pulmonary tuberculosis.

    Method: A case -control study was conducted on Andhra Pradesh Population of India. Analysis of gene polymorphisms of NRAMP1 gene (3'UTR, 274CT) and VDR gene (Fok1 and Taq1) was done by using Polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) in Tuberculosis (TB) patients and healthy controls. Read More

    Sarcoidosis as a rare cause for symmetrical giant bullous disease.
    BMC Pulm Med 2017 May 30;17(1):88. Epub 2017 May 30.
    Institute of Clinical Pathology, University Hospital Zurich, Zurich, Switzerland.
    Background: Sarcoidosis presents with typical clinic-radiological findings and shows histologically non-caseating granulomas. Pulmonary manifestations of sarcoidosis can be diverse, involving the intrathoracic lymph nodes and pulmonary parenchyma.

    Case Presentation: We here describe a case of a 35-year-old patient who presented with a history of exertion dyspnoea and coughing for the past 20 years. Read More

    Evaluation of gene xpert for routine diagnosis of HIV-associated tuberculosis in Nigeria: A prospective cohort study.
    BMC Pulm Med 2017 May 30;17(1):87. Epub 2017 May 30.
    Department of Medicine, Northwestern University, Chicago, IL, USA.
    Background: Xpert MTB/Rif (Xpert) is described as a game changer in tuberculosis (TB) control. We evaluated the impact of Xpert on diagnosis, time to treatment, and treatment outcome among patients with HIV associated TB in Nigeria.

    Methods: Adults with HIV being evaluated for pulmonary TB (PTB) were consecutively enrolled into the study cohort. Read More

    Detection of ALK fusion transcripts in FFPE lung cancer samples by NanoString technology.
    BMC Pulm Med 2017 May 26;17(1):86. Epub 2017 May 26.
    Molecular Oncology Research Center, Barretos Cancer Hospital, Rua Antenor Duarte Villela, 1331, Barretos, CEP 14784-400, São Paulo, Brazil.
    Background: ALK-rearranged lung cancers exhibit specific pathologic and clinical features and are responsive to anti-ALK therapies. Therefore, the detection of ALK-rearrangement is fundamental for personalized lung cancer therapy. Recently, new molecular techniques, such as NanoString nCounter, have been developed to detect ALK fusions with more accuracy and sensitivity. Read More

    Predicted body weight relationships for protective ventilation - unisex proposals from pre-term through to adult.
    BMC Pulm Med 2017 May 23;17(1):85. Epub 2017 May 23.
    ResMed Science Center, ResMed Ltd, 1 Elizabeth Macarthur Drive, Bella Vista, 2153, Sydney, Australia.
    Background: The lung-protective ventilation bundle has been shown to reduce mortality in adult acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). This concept has expanded to other areas of acute adult ventilation and is recommended for pediatric ventilation. A component of lung-protective ventilation relies on a prediction of lean body weight from height. Read More

    Mechanical ventilation in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis: a nationwide analysis of ventilator use, outcomes, and resource burden.
    BMC Pulm Med 2017 May 22;17(1):84. Epub 2017 May 22.
    Partnership for Health Analytic Research, LLC, Beverly Hills, CA, USA.
    Background: Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is associated with increased risk of respiratory-related hospitalizations. Studies suggest mechanical ventilation (MV) use in IPF does not improve outcomes and guidelines recommend against its general use. Our objective was to investigate MV use and association with cost and mortality in IPF. Read More

    Single use and conventional bronchoscopes for Broncho alveolar lavage (BAL) in research: a comparative study (NCT 02515591).
    BMC Pulm Med 2017 May 5;17(1):83. Epub 2017 May 5.
    Respiratory Infection Group, Liverpool School of Tropical Medicine, Pembroke Place, Liverpool, L3 5QA, UK.
    Background: Broncho alveolar lavage (BAL) is widely used for investigative research to study innate, cellular and humoral immune responses, and in early phase drug trials. Conventional (multiple use) flexible bronchoscopes have time and monetary costs associated with cleaning, and carries a small risk of cross infection. Single use bronchoscopes may provide an alternative, but have not been evaluated in this context. Read More

    Risk of incident active tuberculosis disease in patients treated with non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs: a population-based study.
    BMC Pulm Med 2017 May 4;17(1):82. Epub 2017 May 4.
    Department of Emergency Medicine, National Taiwan University Hospital, Number 7, Chung-Shan South Road, Taipei, 100, Taiwan.
    Background: Mycobacterium tuberculosis (TB) is one of the world's most devastating public health threats. Our goal is to evaluate whether the use of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) affect the risk of new incident active TB disease.

    Methods: We conducted a nested case-control analysis by using a 1 million longitudinally followed cohort, from Taiwan's national health insurance research database. Read More

    Chronic hypersensitivity pneumonitis: identification of key prognostic determinants using automated CT analysis.
    BMC Pulm Med 2017 May 4;17(1):81. Epub 2017 May 4.
    Interstitial Lung Disease Unit, Royal Brompton Hospital, Royal Brompton and Harefield NHS Foundation Trust, London, UK.
    Background: Chronic hypersensitivity pneumonitis (CHP) has a variable disease course. Computer analysis of CT features was used to identify a subset of CHP patients with an outcome similar to patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF).

    Methods: Consecutive patients with a multi-disciplinary team diagnosis of CHP (n = 116) had pulmonary function tests (FEV1, FVC, DLco, Kco, and a composite physiologic index [CPI]) and CT variables predictive of mortality evaluated by analysing visual and computer-based (CALIPER) parenchymal features: total interstitial lung disease (ILD) extent, honeycombing, reticular pattern, ground glass opacities, pulmonary vessel volume (PVV), emphysema, and traction bronchiectasis. Read More

    Seasonal influenza vaccination in patients with COPD: a systematic literature review.
    BMC Pulm Med 2017 May 3;17(1):79. Epub 2017 May 3.
    GSK, Wavre, Belgium.
    Background: Influenza is a frequent cause of exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Exacerbations are associated with worsening of the airflow obstruction, hospitalisation, reduced quality of life, disease progression, death, and ultimately, substantial healthcare-related costs. Despite longstanding recommendations to vaccinate vulnerable high-risk groups against seasonal influenza, including patients with COPD, vaccination rates remain sub-optimal in this population. Read More

    Epithelial ciliated beating cells essential for ex vivo ALI culture growth.
    BMC Pulm Med 2017 May 3;17(1):80. Epub 2017 May 3.
    Department of Respiratory Diseases, CHRU Montpellier, Montpellier, France.
    Background: Bronchial epithelium plays a key role in orchestrating innate and adaptive immunity. The fate of ex vivo airway epithelial cultures growing at the air liquid interface (ALI) derived from human endobronchial biopsies or brushings is not easy to predict. Calibrating and differentiating these cells is a long and expensive process requiring rigorous expertise. Read More

    Predictive factors for moderate or severe exacerbations in asthma patients receiving outpatient care.
    BMC Pulm Med 2017 May 2;17(1):77. Epub 2017 May 2.
    Asthma Unit, UMQER, Hospital Universitario Virgen del Rocio, C/Alcalde Manuel del Valle, edificio Cónsul, Portal 6, 1° A, 41008, Sevilla, Spain.
    Background: Asthma exacerbations are important events that affect disease control, but predictive factors for severe or moderate exacerbations are not known. The objective was to study the predictive factors for moderate (ME) and severe (SE) exacerbations in asthma patients receiving outpatient care.

    Methods: Patients aged > 12 years with asthma were included in the study and followed-up at 4-monthly intervals over a 12-month period. Read More

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