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    The effect of knowledge on uptake of breast cancer prevention modalities among women in Kyadondo County, Uganda.
    BMC Public Health 2018 Feb 23;18(1):279. Epub 2018 Feb 23.
    Institute of Allied Health Sciences, International Health Sciences University, P.O Box 7782, Kampala, Uganda.
    Background: Breast cancer, the third most frequent cancer of women is preventable through knowledge on breast self-examination. Of the 44% of women diagnosed with breast cancer at the Uganda Cancer Institute, only 22% go for check-up in less than three months. This study explored the effect of breast cancer knowledge on the uptake of breast cancer prevention modalities among women in Kyadondo County, Uganda. Read More

    Widening disparities in health between educational levels and their determinants in later life: evidence from a nine-year cohort study.
    BMC Public Health 2018 Feb 23;18(1):278. Epub 2018 Feb 23.
    Institute of Economic Research, Hitotsubashi University, 2-1 Naka, Kunitachi, Tokyo, 186-8603, Japan.
    Background: Education has attracted more attention as a key determinant of health in later life. In this study, the hypothesis that widened educational disparities in health can be observed in later life was investigated, and the factors that mediated the association between education and changes in health were also assessed.

    Methods: Using the 9-year (10-wave) longitudinal data of 20,024 individuals (9320 men and 10,704 women) aged 50-59 years at baseline, collected from a nationwide population survey in Japan (2005-2014), the changes in self-rated health, functional limitations, and psychological distress between educational levels were compared. Read More

    Rural-urban and racial-ethnic differences in awareness of direct-to-consumer genetic testing.
    BMC Public Health 2018 Feb 23;18(1):277. Epub 2018 Feb 23.
    Department of Health Outcomes and Biomedical Informatics, College of Medicine, University of Florida, 2004 Mowry Road, PO Box 100177, Gainesville, FL, 32610, USA.
    Background: Access to direct-to-consumer genetic testing services has increased in recent years. However, disparities in knowledge and awareness of these services are not well documented. We examined awareness of genetic testing services by rural/urban and racial/ethnic status. Read More

    Ethnic differences in infectious burden and the association with metabolic risk factors for cardiovascular disease: a cross-sectional analysis.
    BMC Public Health 2018 Feb 22;18(1):276. Epub 2018 Feb 22.
    Department of Public Health, Academic Medical Centre, University of Amsterdam, Meibergdreef 15, 1105 AZ, J2-209, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.
    Background: The burden of metabolic risk factors for cardiovascular disease (CVD), such as type 2 diabetes, elevated cholesterol and hypertension, is unequally distributed across ethnic groups. Recent findings suggest an association of infectious burden (IB) and metabolic risk factors, but data from ethnic groups are scarce. Therefore, we investigated ethnic differences in IB and its association with metabolic risk factors. Read More

    The impact of alcohol among injury patients in Moshi, Tanzania: a nested case-crossover study.
    BMC Public Health 2018 Feb 21;18(1):275. Epub 2018 Feb 21.
    Division of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, School of Public Health, Georgia State University, Atlanta, Georgia, USA.
    Background: Globally, alcohol is responsible for 3.3 million deaths annually and contributes to 5.9% of the overall global burden of disease. Read More

    Is there a causal effect of parity on body composition: a birth cohort study.
    BMC Public Health 2018 Feb 22;18(1):215. Epub 2018 Feb 22.
    Postgraduate Programme in Epidemiology, Federal University of Pelotas, Marechal Deodoro, 1160, 3° piso, Centro, Pelotas, Rio Grande do Sul, 96020-220 - Caixa Postal 464, Brazil.
    Background: Non-communicable diseases are the leading cause of death, worldwide. Obesity is one of the factors that is associated with the development of such diseases. The role of reproductive factors on women body composition has been evaluated, but the findings are controversial. Read More

    Vendor-based restrictions on pesticide sales to prevent pesticide self-poisoning - a pilot study.
    BMC Public Health 2018 Feb 20;18(1):272. Epub 2018 Feb 20.
    Department of Community Medicine, Faculty of Medicine & Allied Sciences, Rajarata University of Sri Lanka, Anuradhapura, Sri Lanka.
    Background: In South Asia, up to 20% of people ingesting pesticides for self-poisoning purchase the pesticide from a shop with the sole intention of self-harm. Individuals who are intoxicated with alcohol and/or non-farmers represent 72% of such high-risk individuals. We aimed to test the feasibility and acceptability of vendor-based restrictions on pesticide sales for such high-risk individuals. Read More

    A spatiotemporal mixed model to assess the influence of environmental and socioeconomic factors on the incidence of hand, foot and mouth disease.
    BMC Public Health 2018 Feb 20;18(1):274. Epub 2018 Feb 20.
    LREIS, Institute of Geographical Sciences and Natural Resources Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China.
    Background: As a common infectious disease, hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD) is affected by multiple environmental and socioeconomic factors, and its pathogenesis is complex. Furthermore, the transmission of HFMD is characterized by strong spatial clustering and autocorrelation, and the classical statistical approach may be biased without consideration of spatial autocorrelation. In this paper, we propose to embed spatial characteristics into a spatiotemporal additive model to improve HFMD incidence assessment. Read More

    Effects of cardiorespiratory fitness and weight status on knowledge of physical activity and fitness, attitude toward physical education, and physical activity.
    BMC Public Health 2018 Feb 20;18(1):273. Epub 2018 Feb 20.
    Department of Kinesiology, Health Promotion, and Recreation, University of North Texas, 1921 Chestnut Street, Denton, TX, 76203, USA.
    Background: The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of cardiorespiratory fitness and weight status on knowledge of physical activity and fitness (PAF knowledge), attitude toward physical education (PE), and physical activity.

    Methods: A total of 343 middle school students participated in the study (Age: M/SD = 12.76/. Read More

    Healthy Parent Carers programme: development and feasibility of a novel group-based health-promotion intervention.
    BMC Public Health 2018 Feb 20;18(1):270. Epub 2018 Feb 20.
    Peninsula Cerebra Research Unit (PenCRU), University of Exeter Medical School, St. Luke's Campus, Heavitree Road, Exeter, EX1 2LU, UK.
    Background: Parent carers of disabled children report poor physical health and mental wellbeing. They experience high levels of stress and barriers to engagement in health-related behaviours and with 'standard' preventive programmes (e.g. Read More

    Reducing GHG emissions while improving diet quality: exploring the potential of reduced meat, cheese and alcoholic and soft drinks consumption at specific moments during the day.
    BMC Public Health 2018 Feb 20;18(1):264. Epub 2018 Feb 20.
    The National Institute for Public Health and the Environment (RIVM), Postbus 1, 3720, BA, Bilthoven, The Netherlands.
    Background: The typical Western diet is associated with high levels of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and with obesity and other diet-related diseases. This study aims to determine the impact of adjustments to the current diet at specific moments of food consumption, to lower GHG emissions and improve diet quality.

    Methods: Food consumption in the Netherlands was assessed by two non-consecutive 24-h recalls for adults aged 19-69 years (n = 2102). Read More

    Obesity and risk of respiratory tract infections: results of an infection-diary based cohort study.
    BMC Public Health 2018 Feb 20;18(1):271. Epub 2018 Feb 20.
    Center for Chronic Immunodeficiency (CCI), Medical Center - University of Freiburg, Faculty of Medicine, University of Freiburg, Freiburg, Germany.
    Background: Respiratory tract infections (RTIs) are a major morbidity factor contributing largely to health care costs and individual quality of life. The aim of the study was to test whether obesity (BMI ≥ 30 kg/m) is one of the risk factors underlying frequent RTIs in the German adult population.

    Methods: We recruited 1455 individuals between 18 to 70 years from a cross-sectional survey on airway infections in Germany and invited them to self-report in diaries incident RTIs experienced during three consecutive winter/spring seasons. Read More

    Role of health determinants in a measles outbreak in Ecuador: a case-control study with aggregated data.
    BMC Public Health 2018 Feb 20;18(1):269. Epub 2018 Feb 20.
    Programa de Pós-Graduação em Epidemiologia, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre, Brazil.
    Background: In 2011-2012, an outbreak of measles occurred in Ecuador. This study sought to ascertain which population characteristics were associated.

    Methods: Case-control study of aggregate data. Read More

    Associations of total and type-specific physical activity with mortality in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: a population-based cohort study.
    BMC Public Health 2018 Feb 17;18(1):268. Epub 2018 Feb 17.
    Charles Perkins Centre, School of Public Health, Prevention Research Collaboration, The University of Sydney, Sydney, Australia.
    Background: Regular physical activity is recommended for all people with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), but the dose of physical activity required to gain mortality benefit in this population is not yet known. This aim of this study was to examine the associations of total and type-specific physical activity with mortality risk in people with COPD.

    Methods: People with COPD aged ≥40 years were identified from the 1997 Health Survey for England and the 1998 and 2003 Scottish Health Survey cohorts. Read More

    Predictors of working beyond retirement in older workers with and without a chronic disease - results from data linkage of Dutch questionnaire and registry data.
    BMC Public Health 2018 Feb 17;18(1):265. Epub 2018 Feb 17.
    Department of Public and Occupational Health, Amsterdam Public Health research institute, VU University Medical Center, Van der Boechorststraat 7, 1081, BT, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.
    Background: An increasing number of retirees continue to work beyond retirement despite being eligible to retire. As the prevalence of chronic disease increases with age, working beyond retirement may go along with having a chronic disease. Working beyond retirement may be different for retirees with and without chronic disease. Read More

    Peer support to improve diabetes care: an implementation evaluation of the Australasian Peers for Progress Diabetes Program.
    BMC Public Health 2018 Feb 17;18(1):262. Epub 2018 Feb 17.
    Melbourne School of Population & Global Health, the University of Melbourne, Melbourne, Australia.
    Background: Several studies have now demonstrated the benefits of peer support in promoting diabetes control. The aim of this study is to evaluate the implementation of a cluster randomised controlled trial of a group-based, peer support program to improve diabetes self-management and thereby, diabetes control in people with Type 2 Diabetes in Victoria, Australia.

    Methods: The intervention program was designed to address four key peer support functions i. Read More

    Latent tuberculosis infection and associated risk indicators in pastoral communities in southern Ethiopia: a community based cross-sectional study.
    BMC Public Health 2018 Feb 17;18(1):266. Epub 2018 Feb 17.
    Aklilu Lemma Institute of Pathobiology (ALIPB), Addis Ababa University, P O Box 1176, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.
    Background: Research pertaining to the community-based prevalence of latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI) is important to understand the magnitude of this infection. This study was conducted to estimate LTBI prevalence and to identify associated risk factors in the Omo Zone of Southern Ethiopia.

    Methods: A community-based cross-sectional study was conducted in six South Omo districts from May 2015 to February 2016. Read More

    Obesity and caries in four-to-six year old English children: a cross-sectional study.
    BMC Public Health 2018 Feb 17;18(1):267. Epub 2018 Feb 17.
    Public Health England, Follaton House, Road, Totnes, Plymouth, Devon, TQ9 5NE, UK.
    Background: Obesity and caries are common conditions in childhood and can have significant implications on children's wellbeing. Evidence into their association remains conflicting. Furthermore, studies examining the ssociation between obesity and caries commonly focus on individual-level determinants. Read More

    Points-based physical activity: a novel approach to facilitate changes in body composition in inactive women with overweight and obesity.
    BMC Public Health 2018 Feb 17;18(1):261. Epub 2018 Feb 17.
    School of Sport, Exercise and Rehabilitation Sciences, University of Birmingham, Edgbaston, Birmingham, UK.
    Background: Physical activity (PA) interventions for the promotion of weight-management may benefit from increased choice and flexibility to overcome commonly-perceived barriers to PA. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of a novel "points-based" approach to PA on body composition in inactive women, who are overweight or obese.

    Methods: Seventy-six overweight or obese, inactive women were randomly allocated to one of three conditions: 'Points-based' PA (PBPA; 30 "PA points"•week), Structured exercise (StructEx; 150 min moderate-intensity exercise•week) or control (CONT; continue habitual inactive lifestyle) for a 24-week intervention. Read More

    Prevalence and correlates of positive mental health in Chinese adolescents.
    BMC Public Health 2018 Feb 17;18(1):263. Epub 2018 Feb 17.
    Center for Clinical Research, Uppsala University, Västerås Hospital, Västerås, Sweden.
    Background: Studies investigating the prevalence of positive mental health and its correlates are still scarce compared to the studies on mental disorders, although there is growing interest of assessing positive mental health in adolescents. So far, no other study examining the prevalence and determinants of positive mental health in Chinese adolescents has been found. The purpose of this study was to assess the prevalence and correlates of positive mental health in Chinese adolescents. Read More

    EXPOsOMICS: final policy workshop and stakeholder consultation.
    BMC Public Health 2018 Feb 15;18(1):260. Epub 2018 Feb 15.
    Barcelona Institute for Global Health (ISGlobal), Barcelona, Spain.
    The final meeting of the EXPOsOMICS project "Final Policy Workshop and Stakeholder Consultation" took place 28-29 March 2017 to present the main results of the project and discuss their implications both for future research and for regulatory and policy activities. This paper summarizes presentations and discussions at the meeting related with the main results and advances in exposome research achieved through the EXPOsOMICS project; on other parallel research initiatives on the study of the exposome in Europe and in the United States and their complementarity to EXPOsOMICS; lessons learned from these early studies on the exposome and how they may shape the future of research on environmental exposure assessment; and finally the broader implications of exposome research for risk assessment and policy development on environmental exposures. The main results of EXPOsOMICS in relation to studies of the external exposome and internal exposome in relation to both air pollution and water contaminants were presented as well as new technologies for environmental health research (adductomics) and advances in statistical methods. Read More

    A randomised control crossover trial of a theory based intervention to improve sun-safe and healthy behaviours in construction workers: study protocol.
    BMC Public Health 2018 Feb 15;18(1):259. Epub 2018 Feb 15.
    Heriot-Watt University, School of Engineering and Physical Sciences, Institute of Biological Chemistry, Biophysics and Bioengineering, Edinburgh, EH14 4AS, UK.
    Background: Exposure to sunlight can have both positive and negative health impacts. Excessive exposure to ultra-violet (UV) radiation from the sun can cause skin cancer, however insufficient exposure to sunlight has a detrimental effect on production of Vitamin D. In the construction industry there are onsite proactive behaviours for safety, but sun-safety remains a low priority. Read More

    Volunteers in Ethiopia's women's development army are more deprived and distressed than their neighbors: cross-sectional survey data from rural Ethiopia.
    BMC Public Health 2018 02 14;18(1):258. Epub 2018 Feb 14.
    Independent Researcher, Bahir Dar, Ethiopia.
    Background: Many Community Health Workers (CHWs) experience the same socioeconomic and health needs as their neighbors, given that they are by definition part of their communities. Yet very few studies aim to measure and characterize experiences of deprivation, poverty, and wellbeing among community health workers. This study quantitatively examines deprivation and wellbeing in Ethiopia's Women's Development Army (WDA), a massive unpaid community health workforce intended to improve population health and modernize the country. Read More

    Impact of tobacco control policies on adolescent smokeless tobacco and cigar use: a difference-in-differences approach.
    BMC Public Health 2018 02 15;18(1):154. Epub 2018 Feb 15.
    Boston College, School of Social Work, McGuinn Hall, 140 Commonwealth Avenue, Chestnut Hill, MA, 02467, USA.
    Background: While increasing cigarette taxes has been a major policy driver to decrease smoking, taxes on other tobacco products have received less attention. Our aims were to evaluate the impact of chewing tobacco/cigar taxes, cigarette taxes, and smoke-free legislation on adolescent male and female use of smokeless tobacco and cigars.

    Methods: We analyzed data on 499,381 adolescents age 14-18 years from 36 US states in the Youth Risk Behavior Surveys (1999-2013) linked to state-level tobacco control policies. Read More

    Understanding the rapid increase in life expectancy in shanghai, China: a population-based retrospective analysis.
    BMC Public Health 2018 02 14;18(1):256. Epub 2018 Feb 14.
    Department of Cancer, Injury Prevention and Vital Statistics, Shanghai Pudong New Area Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Fudan University Pudong Institute of Preventive Medicine, Shanghai, 200136, China.
    Background: Life expectancy at birth (LE) is a comprehensive measure that accounts for age-specific death rates in a population. Shanghai has ranked first in LE in China mainland for decades. Understanding the reasons behind its sustained gain in LE provides a good reflection of many other cities in China. Read More

    Perceived health and work-environment related problems and associated subjective production loss in an academic population.
    BMC Public Health 2018 02 14;18(1):257. Epub 2018 Feb 14.
    Unit of Intervention and Implementation Research for Worker Health, Institute of Environmental Medicine (IMM), Karolinska Institutet, 171 77, Stockholm, SE, Sweden.
    Background: The aim was to investigate the prevalence of health problems and work environment problems and how these are associated with subjective production loss among women and men at an academic workplace. An additional aim was to investigate whether there were differences between women and men according to age group, years at current workplace, academic rank or managerial position.

    Methods: A questionnaire was sent in 2011 to all employees at a Swedish university (n = 5144). Read More

    Designing a behavioral intervention using the COM-B model and the theoretical domains framework to promote gas stove use in rural Guatemala: a formative research study.
    BMC Public Health 2018 02 14;18(1):253. Epub 2018 Feb 14.
    University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco, California, USA.
    Background: Three billion people use solid cooking fuels, and 4 million people die from household air pollution annually. Shifting households to clean fuels, like liquefied petroleum gas (LPG), may protect health only if stoves are consistently used. Few studies have used an implementation science framework to systematically assess "de-implementation" of traditional stoves, and none have done so with pregnant women who are more likely to adopt new behaviors. Read More

    School and class-level variations and patterns of physical activity: a multilevel analysis of Danish high school students.
    BMC Public Health 2018 02 14;18(1):255. Epub 2018 Feb 14.
    National Institute of Public Health, University of Southern Denmark, Studiestræde 6, 1455, Copenhagen K, Denmark.
    Background: There is limited knowledge of physical activity (PA) patterns among high school students. High schools plays an important role as context for the students, but it is uncertain to what extent schools influence student participation in PA during leisure time. The purpose of this study is to describe patterns of PA and assess variations between schools and classes in PA, in a large cohort of Danish high school students. Read More

    Exposure to revised drinking guidelines and 'COM-B' determinants of behaviour change: descriptive analysis of a monthly cross-sectional survey in England.
    BMC Public Health 2018 02 14;18(1):251. Epub 2018 Feb 14.
    Sheffield Alcohol Research Group, School of Health and Related Research (ScHARR), University of Sheffield, Sheffield, UK.
    Background: January 2016 saw the publication of proposed revisions to the UK's lower risk drinking guidelines but no sustained promotional activity. This paper aims to explore the impact of publishing guidelines without sustained promotional activity on reported guideline exposure and determinants of behaviour (capability, opportunity and motivation) proposed by the COM-B model.

    Methods: Data were collected by a monthly repeat cross-sectional survey of adults (18+) resident in England over 15 months between November 2015 and January 2017 from a total of 16,779 drinkers, as part of the Alcohol Toolkit Study. Read More

    Income inequality in uptake of voluntary versus organised breast cancer screening: evidence from the British Household Panel Survey.
    BMC Public Health 2018 02 14;18(1):252. Epub 2018 Feb 14.
    Centre for Public Health, Queens University Belfast, Belfast, UK.
    Background: This paper measures income-related inequality in uptake of breast cancer screening among women before and after a policy change to extend the screening programme to women aged 65 to 70. Prior to programme expansion women aged 50 to 64 were invited for screening under the national cancer screening programme in England and Wales whereas women in the 65 to 70 age cohort could elect to be screened by personally organising a screen. This will give a deeper insight into the nature of inequality in screening and the impact of policies aimed at widening the access related to age on inequality of uptake. Read More

    Cancer screening in Koreans: a focus group approach.
    BMC Public Health 2018 02 14;18(1):254. Epub 2018 Feb 14.
    School of Nursing, University of California, Los Angeles, CA, USA.
    Background: Cancer is the greatest disease burden in Korea. Cancer screening can reduce the burden of cancer but cancer screening rates among Koreans remain low. The purposes of this study were to a) understand Koreans' beliefs and knowledge about cancer screening, and b) explore preferred strategies for increasing cancer screening utilization. Read More

    Effects on inequality in life expectancy from a social ecology perspective.
    BMC Public Health 2018 02 13;18(1):243. Epub 2018 Feb 13.
    Global Management of Natural Resources, University College London (UCL), London, UK.
    Background: Inequality in life expectancy (ILE) is defined as inequality in the distribution of expected span of life-based on data from survival tables estimated using the Atkinson inequality index. ILE can be influenced by socio-ecological indicators including the Gini coefficient, secondary education, output per worker, and old age pension. This study examined the effects on ILE from a social ecology perspective. Read More

    Use of 'eradication' in HIV cure-related research: a public health debate.
    BMC Public Health 2018 02 13;18(1):245. Epub 2018 Feb 13.
    University of San Diego School of Medicine, 9500 Gilman Drive #0679, La Jolla, CA, 92093, USA.
    Background: The landscape of Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) research has changed drastically over the past three decades. With the remarkable success of antiretroviral treatment (ART) in decreasing AIDS-related mortality, some researchers have shifted their HIV research focus from treatment to cure research. The HIV cure research community often uses the term eradication to describe the science, and talks about eradicating the virus from the body. Read More

    Novel patterns of physical activity in a large sample of preschool-aged children.
    BMC Public Health 2018 02 13;18(1):242. Epub 2018 Feb 13.
    Department of Pediatrics, Vanderbilt University School of Medicine, 2200 Children's Way, Doctor's Office Tower 8232, Nashville, TN, 37232-9225, USA.
    Background: Moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA), shown to be associated with health benefits, is not well-characterized in preschool-aged children. MVPA is commonly described as a threshold amount to achieve. We examined a novel way to characterize MVPA patterns in preschool-aged children by gender and age. Read More

    Population attributable risk of key modifiable risk factors associated with non-exclusive breastfeeding in Nigeria.
    BMC Public Health 2018 02 13;18(1):247. Epub 2018 Feb 13.
    Translational Health Research Institute, School of Medicine, Western Sydney University, Campbelltown Campus, Locked Bag 1797, Penrith, NSW, 2571, Australia.
    Background: Non-exclusive breastfeeding (non-EBF) is a risk factor for many of the 2300 under-five deaths occurring daily in Nigeria - a developing country with approximately 40 million children. This study aimed to quantify and compare the attributable burden of key modifiable risk factors associated with non-EBF in Nigeria to inform strategic policy responses and initiatives.

    Methods: Relative risk and exposure prevalence for selected modifiable risk factors were used to calculate population attributable fractions based on Nigeria Demographic and Health Surveys data for the period (1999-2013). Read More

    Exposure to cooking oil fumes and chronic bronchitis in nonsmoking women aged 40 years and over: a health-care based study.
    BMC Public Health 2018 02 13;18(1):246. Epub 2018 Feb 13.
    Department of Public Health, College of Health Sciences, Kaohsiung Medical University, Kaohsiung, Taiwan.
    Background: Little is known about the effect of exposure to cooking oil fumes (COFs) on the development of non-malignant respiratory diseases in nonsmoking women. This study investigated the relationship between exposure to COFs and chronic bronchitis in female Taiwanese non-smokers.

    Methods: Searching the 1999 claims and registration records maintained by Taiwan's National Health Insurance Program, we identified 1846 women aged 40 years or older diagnosed as having chronic bronchitis (ICD-9 code: 491) at least twice in 1999 as potential study cases and 4624 women who had no diagnosis of chronic bronchitis the same year as potential study controls. Read More

    Male partner involvement in increasing the uptake of infant antiretroviral prophylaxis/treatment in sub Saharan Africa: A systematic review and meta-analysis.
    BMC Public Health 2018 02 13;18(1):249. Epub 2018 Feb 13.
    Ministry of Health Zimbabwe, Limbe, Cameroon.
    Background: Infant antiretroviral prophylaxis plays an important role towards ensuring the reduction of HIV transmission from mother to child in the postpartum period. However in sub Saharan Africa (SSA), the low level of involvement of male partners may hinder the uptake of such services by HIV positive mothers. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis to determine the impact of male partner involvement approaches on the uptake of infant antiretroviral prophylaxis in SSA. Read More

    Cardiometabolic disorder reduces survival prospects more than suboptimal body mass index irrespective of age or gender: a longitudinal study of 377,929 adults in Taiwan.
    BMC Public Health 2018 02 14;18(1):142. Epub 2018 Feb 14.
    Institute of Population Health Sciences, National Health Research Institutes, 35 Keyan Road, Zhunan, Miaoli County, Taiwan.
    Background: The effect of cardio-metabolic profile on the relationship of body mass index (BMI) with mortality is unclear. The aim of this study was to explore association between BMI and mortality at all ages, taking account of cardio-metabolic disorders.

    Methods: We followed 377,929 individuals (≥ 20 years), who registered for health checkups in 1996-2007, until 2008 and found 9490 deaths. Read More

    What matters most: protocol for a randomized controlled trial of breast cancer surgery encounter decision aids across socioeconomic strata.
    BMC Public Health 2018 02 13;18(1):241. Epub 2018 Feb 13.
    The Dartmouth Institute for Health Policy & Clinical Practice, Geisel School of Medicine, Dartmouth College, Lebanon, NH, USA.
    Background: Breast cancer is the most commonly diagnosed malignancy in women. Mastectomy and breast-conserving surgery (BCS) have equivalent survival for early stage breast cancer. However, each surgery has different benefits and harms that women may value differently. Read More

    Acceptability of financial incentives for maintenance of weight loss in mid-older adults: a mixed methods study.
    BMC Public Health 2018 02 13;18(1):244. Epub 2018 Feb 13.
    Prevention Research Collaboration, Sydney School of Public Health, University of Sydney, Sydney, NSW, 2006, Australia.
    Background: Health insurers worldwide implement financial incentive schemes to encourage health-related behaviours, including to facilitate weight loss. The maintenance of weight loss is a public health challenge, and as non-communicable diseases become more prevalent with increasing age, mid-older adults could benefit from programs which motivate weight loss maintenance. However, little is understood about their perceptions of using financial incentives to maintain weight loss. Read More

    The factors affecting household transmission dynamics and community compliance with Ebola control measures: a mixed-methods study in a rural village in Sierra Leone.
    BMC Public Health 2018 02 13;18(1):248. Epub 2018 Feb 13.
    Manson Unit, Médecins Sans Frontières (MSF), London, UK.
    Background: Little is understood of Ebola virus disease (EVD) transmission dynamics and community compliance with control measures over time. Understanding these interactions is essential if interventions are to be effective in future outbreaks. We conducted a mixed-methods study to explore these factors in a rural village that experienced sustained EVD transmission in Kailahun District, Sierra Leone. Read More

    Associations between perceived stress, socioeconomic status, and health-risk behaviour in deprived neighbourhoods in Denmark: a cross-sectional study.
    BMC Public Health 2018 02 13;18(1):250. Epub 2018 Feb 13.
    Unit for Health Promotion Research, Department of Public Health, University of Southern Denmark, Niels Bohrs Vej 9, 6700, Esbjerg, Denmark.
    Background: Previous studies have found that residents of deprived neighbourhoods have an increased risk of perceived stress compared to residents with similar sociodemographic and socioeconomic characteristics in non-deprived neighbourhoods. While stress may provide an explanatory pathway linking neighbourhood deprivation to health-risk behaviour, only limited research has been undertaken on whether perceived stress influences health-risk behaviour in deprived neighbourhoods. Moreover, it is uncertain whether perceived stress has a negative effect on the associations between socioeconomic status and health-risk behaviours in deprived neighbourhoods. Read More

    What does an enabling environment for infant and young child nutrition look like at implementation level? Perspectives from a multi-stakeholder process in the Breede Valley Sub-District, Western Cape, South Africa.
    BMC Public Health 2018 02 13;18(1):240. Epub 2018 Feb 13.
    Division of Human Nutrition, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Stellenbosch University, PO Box 241, CAPE TOWN, 8000, South Africa.
    Background: Breede Valley is a sub-district of the Cape Winelands district, Western Cape Province, South Africa. The administrative capital of the district is situated in the semi-rural town Worcester. Findings of a baseline survey in Worcester revealed poor infant feeding practices and childhood under- and overnutrition, with particular concern over high levels of stunting and low dietary diversity. Read More

    Prevalence, risk awareness and health beliefs of behavioural risk factors for cardiovascular disease among university students in nine ASEAN countries.
    BMC Public Health 2018 02 13;18(1):237. Epub 2018 Feb 13.
    ASEAN Institute for Health Development, Mahidol University, Salaya, Thailand.
    Background: Understanding behavioural risk factors of cardiovascular disease (CVD) is of great importance for CVD prevention and control. The aim of the study was to investigate the prevalence, risk awareness and health beliefs of behavioural risk factors of cardiovascular disease among university students in Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) member states.

    Methods: In a cross-sectional survey 8806 (37. Read More

    Problem drinking among Flemish students: beverage type, early drinking onset and negative personal & social consequences.
    BMC Public Health 2018 02 12;18(1):234. Epub 2018 Feb 12.
    Department of Epidemiology and Social Medicine, Social Epidemiology and Health Policy, University of Antwerp, Antwerp, Belgium.
    Background: Although alcohol is socially accepted in most Western societies, studies are clear about its associated negative consequences, especially among university and college students. Studies on the relationship between alcohol-related consequences and both beverage type and drinking onset, however, are scarce, especially in a European context. The aim of this research was, therefore, twofold: (1) What is the relationship between beverage type and the negative consequences experienced by students? and (2) Are these consequences determined by early drinking onset? We will examine these questions within the context of a wide range of alcohol-related consequences. Read More

    Strengthening health data on a rare and heterogeneous disease: sarcoma incidence and histological subtypes in Germany.
    BMC Public Health 2018 02 12;18(1):235. Epub 2018 Feb 12.
    Cancer Registry of Rhineland-Palatinate, Große Bleiche 46, 55116, Mainz, Germany.
    Background: The population-based incidence of sarcoma and its histological subtypes in Germany is unknown. Up-to-date information on a disease with an incidence comparable to other cancer entities is of high public health relevance. The aim of this study was to determine this incidence and to detect significant changes in incidence trends using data from German epidemiological cancer registries. Read More

    Community perspectives on persistent transmission of lymphatic filariasis in three hotspot districts in Ghana after 15 rounds of mass drug administration: a qualitative assessment.
    BMC Public Health 2018 02 13;18(1):238. Epub 2018 Feb 13.
    Department of Parasitology, Noguchi Memorial Institute for Medical Research, University of Ghana, P.O Box LG 581, Legon-Accra, Ghana.
    Background: The Global Program for the Elimination of Lymphatic Filariasis (GPELF) started operation in 2000 and aimed at eliminating the disease by the year 2020, following 5-6 rounds of effective annual Mass Drug Administration (MDA). The MDA programme took off in Ghana in 2001 and has interrupted transmission in many areas while it has persisted in some areas after 10 or more rounds of MDA. This study was to appreciate community members' perspectives on MDA after over 15 years of implementation. Read More

    Ecological study of road traffic injuries in the eastern Mediterranean region: country economic level, road user category and gender perspectives.
    BMC Public Health 2018 02 13;18(1):236. Epub 2018 Feb 13.
    Department of Public Health Sciences, Karolinska Institutet, Widerströmska Huset, Tomtebodavägen 18 A, 171 77, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Background: The Eastern Mediterranean region has the second highest number of road traffic injury mortality rates after the African region based on 2013 data, with road traffic injuries accounting for 27% of the total injury mortality in the region. Globally the number of road traffic deaths has plateaued despite an increase in motorization, but it is uncertain whether this applies to the Region. This study investigated the regional trends in both road traffic injury mortality and morbidity and examined country-based differences considering on income level, categories of road users, and gender distribution. Read More

    Effects of smoke-free air law on acute myocardial infarction hospitalization in Indianapolis and Marion County, Indiana.
    BMC Public Health 2018 02 9;18(1):232. Epub 2018 Feb 9.
    Department of Social and Behavioral Sciences, Indiana University Richard M. Fairbanks School of Public Health, Indianapolis, IN, USA.
    Background: A comprehensive smoke-free air law was enacted on June 1, 2012 in most of Marion County, Indiana, including all of the City of Indianapolis. We evaluated changes in acute myocardial infarction (AMI) admission rates in Indianapolis and Marion County before compared to after the law.

    Methods: We collected AMI admissions from five Marion County hospitals between May 2007 and December 2014. Read More

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