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    Income related inequality and influencing factors: a study for the incidence of catastrophic health expenditure in rural China.
    BMC Public Health 2017 Sep 20;17(1):727. Epub 2017 Sep 20.
    Center for Health Policy and Management Studies, Nanjing University, Nanjing, 210093, China.
    Background: Catastrophic health expenditure (CHE) puts a heavy disease burden on patients' families, aggravating income-related inequality. In an attempt to reduce the financial risks of rural families incurring CHE, China began the New Rural Cooperative Medical System (NCMS) on a trial basis in 2003 and has raised the reimbursement rates continuously since then. Based on statistical data about rural families in sample area of Jiangsu province, this study measures the incidence of CHE, analyzes socioeconomic inequality related to CHE, and explores the influences of the NCMS on the incidence of CHE. Read More

    Erratum to: understanding how perceptions of tobacco constituents and the FDA relate to effective and credible tobacco risk messaging: a national phone survey of U.S. adults, 2014-2015.
    BMC Public Health 2017 Sep 20;17(1):726. Epub 2017 Sep 20.
    Department of Health Behavior, Gillings School of Global Public Health, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill (UNC), CB #7440, Chapel Hill, NC, 27599-7440, USA.

    Early food for future health: a randomized controlled trial evaluating the effect of an eHealth intervention aiming to promote healthy food habits from early childhood.
    BMC Public Health 2017 Sep 20;17(1):729. Epub 2017 Sep 20.
    Department of Public Health, Sport and Nutrition, Faculty of Health and Sport Sciences, University of Agder, PO Box 422, 4604, Kristiansand, Norway.
    Background: Childhood overweight and obesity is a global public health challenge. Primary prevention initiatives targeting parents have been called for to encourage a positive feeding environment and healthy eating habits that may lay a good foundation for future health. At the same time, there is a need for interventions which combine accessibility and scalability with cost effectiveness. Read More

    Evaluation of caregiver-friendly workplace policy (CFWPs) interventions on the health of full-time caregiver employees (CEs): implementation and cost-benefit analysis.
    BMC Public Health 2017 Sep 20;17(1):728. Epub 2017 Sep 20.
    Department of Human Resources and Management DeGroote School of Business, McMaster University, 405, 1280 Main Street West, Hamilton, ON, L8S 4M4, Canada.
    Background: Current Canadian evidence illustrating the health benefits and cost-effectiveness of caregiver-friendly workplace policies is needed if Canadian employers are to adopt and integrate caregiver-friendly workplace policies into their employment practices. The goal of this three-year, three study research project is to provide such evidence for the auto manufacturing and educational services sectors. The research questions being addressed are: What are the impacts for employers (economic) and workers (health) of caregiver-friendly workplace policy intervention(s) for full-time caregiver-employees? What are the impacts for employers, workers and society of the caregiver-friendly workplace policy intervention(s) in each participating workplace? What contextual factors impact the successful implementation of caregiver-friendly workplace policy intervention(s)?

    Methods: Using a pre-post-test comparative case study design, Study A will determine the effectiveness of newly implemented caregiver-friendly workplace policy intervention(s) across two workplaces to determine impacts on caregiver-employee health. Read More

    The effects of a rise in cigarette price on cigarette consumption, tobacco taxation revenues, and of smoking-related deaths in 28 EU countries-- applying threshold regression modelling.
    BMC Public Health 2017 Sep 21;17(1):676. Epub 2017 Sep 21.
    Department of Finance, National Changhua University of Education, Changhua, Taiwan.
    Background: European Union public healthcare expenditure on treating smoking and attributable diseases is estimated at over €25bn annually. The reduction of tobacco consumption has thus become one of the major social policies of the EU. This study investigates the effects of price hikes on cigarette consumption, tobacco tax revenues and smoking-caused deaths in 28 EU countries. Read More

    Patients' perception regarding the influence of individual and social vulnerabilities on the adherence to tuberculosis treatment: a qualitative study.
    BMC Public Health 2017 Sep 19;17(1):725. Epub 2017 Sep 19.
    Universidade Estadual da Paraíba, Campina Grande, Paraíba, Brazil.
    Background: Tuberculosis remains an important disease which mainly affects the majority of vulnerable individuals in society, who are subjected to poor living conditions and difficulties to access the services of public health. Under these circumstances, the present study aims to understand patients' perception in relation to the influence of individual and social vulnerabilities on the adherence to tuberculosis treatment.

    Methods: A qualitative descriptive cross sectional study was conducted in one large municipality at the state of Paraíba, Northeast of Brazil. Read More

    Heterogeneity in coverage for measles and varicella vaccination in toddlers - analysis of factors influencing parental acceptance.
    BMC Public Health 2017 Sep 19;17(1):724. Epub 2017 Sep 19.
    Department of Pediatrics, University of Würzburg, Josef-Schneider-Str. 2, 97080, Würzburg, Germany.
    Background: In 2004, routine varicella vaccination was introduced in Germany for children aged 11-14 months. Routine measles vaccination had already been introduced in 1973 for the same age group, but coverage is still too low (<95%) in some areas to eliminate measles. The present study assessed varicella and measles vaccination coverage and determinants of parental acceptance in two study regions, situated in Northern and Southern Bavaria (Germany). Read More

    Accessing physical activity among young adults attending a university: the role of sex, race/ethnicity, technology use, and sleep.
    BMC Public Health 2017 Sep 18;17(1):721. Epub 2017 Sep 18.
    Texas A&M Ergonomics Center & Department of Environmental and Occupational Health, School of Public Health, Texas A&M University, 1266 TAMU, College Station, TX, 77843-1266, USA.
    Background: Identifying factors associated with recommended physical activity (PA) levels are critical in efforts to combat the obesity epidemic and related comorbidities.

    Methods: We conducted cross-sectional analyses of college students (n = 490) enrolled in a large southern state university in October of 2014. Our aim was to identify sociodemographic characteristics, technology use, and sleep patterns among college students and their independent relationship to recommended PA. Read More

    Perceived neighborhood safety related to physical activity but not recreational screen-based sedentary behavior in adolescents.
    BMC Public Health 2017 Sep 18;17(1):722. Epub 2017 Sep 18.
    Department of Behavioral Health and Nutrition, College of Health Sciences, University of Delaware, 019 Carpenter Sports Building, Newark, DE, USA.
    Background: A growing proportion of adolescents have poor cardiovascular health behaviors, including low levels of physical activity and high levels of sedentary behavior, thus increasing the likelihood of poor heart health in later years. This study tested the hypothesis that low perceived neighborhood safety would be associated with low levels of physical activity and high levels of recreational sedentary behavior in high-school students.

    Methods: Using cross-sectional, weighted data from the 2015 Pennsylvania (USA) State and Philadelphia city Youth Risk Behavior Survey, multivariable logistic regression modeling was used to examine the association between perceived neighborhood safety, and physical activity levels and recreational screen-based sedentary behavior time respectively, while controlling for potential confounders. Read More

    Lay health workers perceptions of an anemia control intervention in Karnataka, India: a qualitative study.
    BMC Public Health 2017 Sep 18;17(1):720. Epub 2017 Sep 18.
    Department of Public Health Sciences, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Background: Lay health workers (LHWs) are increasingly used to complement health services internationally. Their perceptions of the interventions they implement and their experiences in delivering community based interventions in India have been infrequently studied. We developed a novel LHW led intervention to improve anemia cure rates in rural community dwelling children attending village day care centers in South India. Read More

    Systematic review: a review of adolescent behavior change interventions [BCI] and their effectiveness in HIV and AIDS prevention in sub-Saharan Africa.
    BMC Public Health 2017 Sep 18;17(1):718. Epub 2017 Sep 18.
    Department of Public Health, School of Public Health and Family Medicine, University of Malawi College of Medicine, Blantyre, Malawi.
    Background: Despite sub-Saharan Africa [SSA] constituting just 12% of the world's population, the region has the highest burden of HIV with 70% of HIV infection in general and 80% of new infections among young people occuring in the region. Diverse intervention programmes have been implemented among young people but with minimal translation to behavior change. A systematic review of Behavior Change Interventions [BCI] targeting adolescents in SSA was therefore conducted with the objective of delineating this intervention vis-a-vis efficacy gap. Read More

    Increasing educational attainment and mortality reduction: a systematic review and taxonomy.
    BMC Public Health 2017 Sep 18;17(1):719. Epub 2017 Sep 18.
    Division of General Internal Medicine, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI, USA.
    Background: Understanding the relationship between increasing educational attainment and mortality reduction has important policy and public health implications. This systematic review of the literature establishes a taxonomy to facilitate evaluation of the association between educational attainment and early mortality.

    Methods: Following PRISMA guidelines, we searched Ovid Medline, Embase, PubMed and hand searches of references for English-language primary data analyses using education as an independent variable and mortality as a dependent variable. Read More

    Asthma hospitalisation trends from 2010 to 2015: variation among rural and metropolitan Australians.
    BMC Public Health 2017 Sep 18;17(1):723. Epub 2017 Sep 18.
    Department of Rural Health, The University of Melbourne, 49 Graham Street, Shepparton, VIC 3630, Australia.
    Background: Asthma remains a leading cause of illness, where primary care can assist to reduce hospitalisations through prevention, controlling acute episodes, and overall management of asthma. In Victoria, Asthma hospitalisations were as high as 3.1 hospitalisations per 1000 population in 1993-94. Read More

    Feasibility of a low-cost hearing screening in rural Indiana.
    BMC Public Health 2017 Sep 18;17(1):715. Epub 2017 Sep 18.
    Department of Speech and Hearing Sciences, College of Arts and Sciences, Indiana University, Bloomington, IN, USA.
    Background: Hearing loss remains a neglected public health issue in the rural and agricultural communities in the United States and therefore, promotion of a low-cost hearing screening may be important for these underserved populations. The major objectives of our study were to assess feasibility of a low-cost telephone-administered hearing test in rural Indiana and to identify the challenges, barriers and viable implementation strategies associated with this test. Also, we evaluated whether a focus group session could change the hearing health attitude of rural residents. Read More

    Big hearts, small hands: a focus group study exploring parental food portion behaviours.
    BMC Public Health 2017 Sep 18;17(1):716. Epub 2017 Sep 18.
    Behaviour & Interventions Research, Faculty of Health & Life Sciences, Coventry University (Joint with Public Health Warwickshire), Mile Lane, Coventry, CV1 2NL, UK.
    Background: The development of healthy food portion sizes among families is deemed critical to childhood weight management; yet little is known about the interacting factors influencing parents' portion control behaviours. This study aimed to use two synergistic theoretical models of behaviour: the COM-B model (Capability, Opportunity, Motivation - Behaviour) and Theoretical Domains Framework (TDF) to identify a broad spectrum of theoretically derived influences on parents' portion control behaviours including examination of affective and habitual influences often excluded from prevailing theories of behaviour change.

    Methods: Six focus groups exploring family weight management comprised of one with caseworkers (n = 4), four with parents of overweight children (n = 14) and one with parents of healthy weight children (n = 8). Read More

    Positive mental health literacy: development and validation of a measure among Norwegian adolescents.
    BMC Public Health 2017 Sep 18;17(1):717. Epub 2017 Sep 18.
    Department of Public Health and Nursing, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Postbox 8905, 7491, Trondheim, Norway.
    Background: Mental health literacy (MHL), or the knowledge and abilities necessary to benefit mental health, is a significant determinant of mental health and has the potential to benefit both individual and public mental health. MHL and its measures have traditionally focused on knowledge and beliefs about mental -ill-health rather than on mental health. No measures of MHL addressing knowledge of good or positive mental health have been identified. Read More

    Project LifeSkills - a randomized controlled efficacy trial of a culturally tailored, empowerment-based, and group-delivered HIV prevention intervention for young transgender women: study protocol.
    BMC Public Health 2017 Sep 16;17(1):713. Epub 2017 Sep 16.
    Division of Adolescent Medicine, Ann & Robert H. Lurie Children's Hospital, 225 E. Chicago Avenue, Box 161, Chicago, IL, 60611, USA.
    Background: Transgender women in the U.S. have an alarmingly high incidence rate of HIV infection; condomless anal and vaginal sex is the primary risk behavior driving transmission. Read More

    The role of self-control and cognitive functioning in educational inequalities in adolescent smoking and binge drinking.
    BMC Public Health 2017 Sep 16;17(1):714. Epub 2017 Sep 16.
    Department of Public Health, Academic Medical Center - University of Amsterdam, P.O. Box 22660, 1100 DD, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.
    Background: Large differences in substance use between educational levels originate at a young age, but there is limited evidence explaining these inequalities. The aim of this study was to test whether a) smoking and binge drinking are associated with lower levels of self-control and cognitive functioning, and b) associations between educational track and smoking and binge drinking, respectively, are attenuated after controlling for self-control and cognitive functioning.

    Methods: This study used cross-sectional survey data of 15 to 20-year-olds (N = 191) from low, middle, and high educational tracks. Read More

    A prospective cohort study on ambient air pollution and respiratory morbidities including childhood asthma in adolescents from the western Cape Province: study protocol.
    BMC Public Health 2017 Sep 16;17(1):712. Epub 2017 Sep 16.
    Centre for Environmental and Occupational Health Research, School of Public Health and Family Medicine, University of Cape Town, Cape Town, South Africa.
    Background: There is evidence from existing literature that ambient air pollutant exposure in early childhood likely plays an important role in asthma exacerbation and other respiratory symptoms, with greater effect among asthmatic children. However, there is inconclusive evidence on the role of ambient air pollutant exposures in relation to increasing asthma prevalence as well as asthma induction in children. At the population level, little is known about the potential synergistic effects between pollen allergens and air pollutants since this type of association poses challenges in uncontrolled real life settings. Read More

    The associations between workplace bullying, salivary cortisol, and long-term sickness absence: a longitudinal study.
    BMC Public Health 2017 Sep 16;17(1):710. Epub 2017 Sep 16.
    Department of Public Health, Centre for Health and Society, University of Copenhagen, Øster Farimagsgade 5, 1014, Copenhagen K, Denmark.
    Background: Workplace stressors, such as bullying, are strongly related to subsequent long-term sickness absence, but little is known of the possible physiological mechanisms linking workplace stressors and sickness absence. The primary aim of this study was to investigate to what extent cortisol levels were associated with subsequent sickness absence and if cortisol mediated the association between workplace bullying and sickness absence. We additionally investigated possible bidirectional associations between bullying, cortisol, and long-term sickness absence. Read More

    Physical fitness and anthropometric characteristics among adolescents living in urban or rural areas of Kosovo.
    BMC Public Health 2017 Sep 16;17(1):711. Epub 2017 Sep 16.
    Centre for Sport Science and University Sports, University of Vienna, Auf der Schmelz 6, 1150, Vienna, Austria.
    Background: High physical fitness levels in childhood and adolescence are associated with positive health-related outcomes later in life. Albeit many researchers investigated rural-urban differences in physical fitness, the outcomes of these studies are inconsistent and data on Kosovo are widely missing. Thus, this study aims to examine anthropometric and physical fitness parameters in 14 to 15 year old Kosovan adolescents living in rural and urban areas. Read More

    Evaluating the impact of a walking program in a disadvantaged area: using the RE-AIM framework by mixed methods.
    BMC Public Health 2017 Sep 15;17(1):709. Epub 2017 Sep 15.
    Federal University of São Carlos, Washington Luís Highway, 235 km, São Carlos, São Paulo, 13565-905, Brazil.
    Background: The positive health impact of physical activity (PA) is well known, yet a large proportion of the world's population remains sedentary. General PA programs are common as health promotion initiatives. However, effectiveness evaluations of such PA programs on individual and organizational aspects, which could inform the decision-making process of public health bodies are still lacking, particularly in the most socially disadvantaged areas, where health promotion schemes are particularly needed. Read More

    Body mass index and type 2 diabetes in Thai adults: defining risk thresholds and population impacts.
    BMC Public Health 2017 Sep 15;17(1):707. Epub 2017 Sep 15.
    Population Health Department, QIMR Berghofer Medical Research Institute, Brisbane, Australia.
    Background: Body mass index (BMI) cut-off values (>25 and >30) that predict diabetes risk have been well validated in Caucasian populations but less so in Asian populations. We aimed to determine the BMI threshold associated with increased type 2 diabetes (T2DM) risk and to calculate the proportion of T2DM cases attributable to overweight and obesity in the Thai population.

    Methods: Participants were those from the Thai Cohort Study who were diabetes-free in 2005 and were followed-up in 2009 and 2013 (n = 39,021). Read More

    Effectiveness of a 16-month multi-component and environmental school-based intervention for recovery of poor income overweight/obese children and adolescents: study protocol of the health multipliers program.
    BMC Public Health 2017 Sep 15;17(1):708. Epub 2017 Sep 15.
    Department of Physiology, Federal University of São Paulo, UNIFESP, Rua Botucatu, 862, 2° andar, Vila Clementino. CEP, São Paulo, SP, 04023062, Brazil.
    Background: Excess of weight is a serious public health concern in almost all countries, afflicting people of different ages and socioeconomic backgrounds. Studies have indicated the need for developing treatment strategies that intervene directly in the obesogenic environment. This study aims to evaluate the effectiveness of a multi-component and environmental school-based intervention, lasting 16 months, on the recovery of the nutritional status of low-income children and adolescents with overweight/ obesity. Read More

    Cancer survival disparities worsening by socio-economic disadvantage over the last 3 decades in new South Wales, Australia.
    BMC Public Health 2017 Sep 14;17(1):691. Epub 2017 Sep 14.
    Cancer Institute NSW, GPO Box 41, Alexandria, Sydney, NSW, 1435, Australia.
    Background: Public concerns are commonly expressed about widening health gaps. This cohort study examines variations and trends in cancer survival by socio-economic disadvantage, geographical remoteness and country of birth in an Australian population over a 30-year period.

    Methods: Data for cases diagnosed in New South Wales (NSW) in 1980-2008 (n = 651,245) were extracted from the population-based NSW Cancer Registry. Read More

    Modelling the effects of booster dose vaccination schedules and recommendations for public health immunization programs: the case of Haemophilus influenzae serotype b.
    BMC Public Health 2017 Sep 13;17(1):705. Epub 2017 Sep 13.
    Agent-Based Modelling Laboratory, York University, 4700 Keele Street, Toronto, ON, M3J 1P3, Canada.
    Background: Haemophilus influenzae serotype b (Hib) has yet to be eliminated despite the implementation of routine infant immunization programs. There is no consensus regarding the number of primary vaccine doses and an optimal schedule for the booster dose. We sought to evaluate the effect of a booster dose after receiving the primary series on the long-term disease incidence. Read More

    A socio-ecological analysis of barriers to the adoption, sustainablity and consistent use of sanitation facilities in rural Ethiopia.
    BMC Public Health 2017 Sep 13;17(1):706. Epub 2017 Sep 13.
    Department of Sociology, University of Connecticut, Storrs, USA.
    Background: Despite evidence showing that access to and use of improved sanitation is associated with healthier households and communities, barriers influencing the adoption and sustainablity of sanitation facilities remain unclear. We conducted a qualitative case study to explore barriers influencing the adoption, sustainablity and consistent use of sanitation facilities in rural Ethiopia.

    Methods: A qualitative study was conducted in the rural district of Becho, in central Ethiopia, from June to August 2016. Read More

    Neighborhood-resources for the development of a strong SOC and the importance of understanding why and how resources work: a grounded theory approach.
    BMC Public Health 2017 Sep 12;17(1):704. Epub 2017 Sep 12.
    Department of Neuromedicine and Movement Science, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Trondheim, Norway.
    Background: Providing individuals with psychosocial resources such as sense of coherence (SOC) seems a beneficial strategy for health promotion in the neighborhood. In order to become a supporting theory for health promotion, Salutogenesis should renew its focus on resources for health, and explore how the development of a strong SOC can be facilitated.

    Methods: Relevant issues were explored using a Grounded Theory- approach. Read More

    Is economic environment associated with the physical activity levels and obesity in Chinese adults? A cross-sectional study of 30 regions in China.
    BMC Public Health 2017 Sep 12;17(1):701. Epub 2017 Sep 12.
    China Institute of Sport Science, 11 Tiyuguan Road, Dongcheng District, Beijing, 100061, People's Republic of China.
    Background: Based on the 2014 survey of physical activity and physical fitness data of 20 - 69 year old Chinese, this study aims to investigate the relationship between economic development and people's physical activity in China.

    Methods: A total of 43,389 adults from 30 different regions in mainland China were recruited. The GDP per capita of the 30 regions were determined based on the 2013 annual statistical report released by the national bureau of statistics of China and provincial level statistics bureaus. Read More

    Effects of physical activity calorie expenditure (PACE) labeling: study design and baseline sample characteristics.
    BMC Public Health 2017 Sep 12;17(1):702. Epub 2017 Sep 12.
    Center for Health Promotion and Disease Prevention, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, USA.
    Background: Obesity and physical inactivity are responsible for more than 365,000 deaths per year and contribute substantially to rising healthcare costs in the US, making clear the need for effective public health interventions. Calorie labeling on menus has been implemented to guide consumer ordering behaviors, but effects on calories purchased has been minimal.

    Methods: In this project, we tested the effect of physical activity calorie expenditure (PACE) food labels on actual point-of-decision food purchasing behavior as well as physical activity. Read More

    Nationwide cross-sectional survey of schistosomiasis and soil-transmitted helminthiasis in Sudan: study protocol.
    BMC Public Health 2017 Sep 12;17(1):703. Epub 2017 Sep 12.
    Research and Grants Unit, Ahfad University for Women, Omdurman, Khartoum, Sudan.
    Background: Schistosomiasis and soil-transmitted helminthiasis (STHs) are target neglected tropical diseases (NTDs) of preventive chemotherapy, but the control and elimination of these diseases have been impeded due to resource constraints. Few reports have described study protocol to draw on when conducting a nationwide survey. We present a detailed methodological description of the integrated mapping of schistosomiasis and STHs on the basis of our experiences, hoping that this protocol can be applied to future surveys in similar settings. Read More

    Perspectives of Aboriginal women on participation in mammographic screening: a step towards improving services.
    BMC Public Health 2017 Sep 11;17(1):697. Epub 2017 Sep 11.
    Western Australian Centre for Rural Health, The University of Western Australia, PO Box 109, Geraldton, WA, 6530, Australia.
    Background: Early detection of breast cancer using screening mammography provides an opportunity for treatment which can lead to significantly improved outcomes. Despite considerable efforts having been made, the rate at which Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander (hereafter respectfully referred to as Aboriginal) women in Western Australia participate in BreastScreen WA's screening mammogram program remains below that for the overall female population of Western Australia. This study aimed to examine perspectives on breast screening amongst Aboriginal women in Western Australia. Read More

    The indirect and direct pathways between physical fitness and academic achievement on commencement in post-compulsory education in a historical cohort of Danish school youth.
    BMC Public Health 2017 Sep 11;17(1):699. Epub 2017 Sep 11.
    Public Health and Epidemiology Group, Department of Health Science and Technology, Aalborg University, Niels Jernes Vej 12 Øst, 9220, Aalborg, Denmark.
    Background: Some studies have found positive associations between physical fitness and academic achievements. Pupils' academic achievements should indicate scholastic abilities to commence a post-compulsory education. However, the effect magnitude of physical fitness and academic achievements on commencement in post-compulsory education is unknown. Read More

    A mixed methods study on evaluating the performance of a multi-strategy national health program to reduce maternal and child health disparities in Haryana, India.
    BMC Public Health 2017 Sep 11;17(1):698. Epub 2017 Sep 11.
    Department of Family Practice, CAPHRI, Maastricht University, Maastricht, The Netherlands.
    Background: A multi pronged community based strategy, known as National Rural Health Mission (NRHM), was implemented from 2005-06 to 2012-13 in India to curtail maternal and child health (MCH) disparities between poor and rich, rural and urban areas, and boys and girls,. This study aimed to determine the degree to which MCH plans of NRHM implemented, and resulted in improving the MCH outcomes and reducing the inequalities.

    Methods: An explanatory sequential mixed methods study was conducted, first to assess the degree of implementation of MCH plans by estimating the budget utilization rates of each MCH plan, and the effectiveness of these plans by comparing demographic health surveys data conducted post (2012-13), during (2007-08) and pre- (2002-04) NRHM implementation period, in the quantitative study. Read More

    Associations between media use and health information-seeking behavior on vaccinations in South Korea.
    BMC Public Health 2017 Sep 11;17(1):700. Epub 2017 Sep 11.
    Department of Health Science, Dongduk Women's University, Seoul, South Korea.
    Background: Although vaccinations are critical for preventing emerging infectious diseases, scant research has been conducted on risk communication. With socio-economic characteristics, health behavior, and underlying diseases under control, we investigated associations between media use, health information-seeking behavior, health information type, and vaccination in the population.

    Methods: This study relied on a national survey of Korean adults (n = 1367). Read More

    Promoting physical activity in worksite settings: results of a German pilot study of the online intervention Healingo fit.
    BMC Public Health 2017 Sep 8;17(1):696. Epub 2017 Sep 8.
    Department of Social Work and Health, University of Applied Science Kiel, Kiel, Germany.
    Background: Worldwide, one third of the adult population is insufficiently physically active. This fact has led to a strong demand for public health initiatives. Given the mixed evidence on the effectiveness of worksite interventions promoting physical activity (PA), a pedometer-based and gamified intervention, Healingo Fit, was developed and evaluated over a period of six weeks. Read More

    Electronic cigarette use behaviors and motivations among smokers and non-smokers.
    BMC Public Health 2017 Sep 8;17(1):686. Epub 2017 Sep 8.
    Department of Environmental Health and Engineering, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, 615 N. Wolfe Street, Baltimore, MD, USA.
    Background: The use of electronic cigarettes (EC) has risen exponentially over the past decade, including among never smokers, and ECs are now the most popular tobacco product among teenagers in the US. While, EC manufacturers utilize numerous marketing strategies to target both smokers and non-smokers, it is unclear how perceptions and behaviors differ between these two groups.

    Methods: We conducted a survey of 320 adults either via online surveys or in Baltimore vape shops to determine demographics, behaviors, perceptions, and motivations underlying use of ECs. Read More

    Evaluation of a peer education program on student leaders' energy balance-related behaviors.
    BMC Public Health 2017 Sep 7;17(1):695. Epub 2017 Sep 7.
    Western Sydney Local Health District, Westmead, NSW, Australia.
    Background: Few studies have reported energy balance-related behavior (EBRB) change for peer leaders delivering health promotion programs to younger students in secondary schools. Our study assessed the impact of the Students As LifeStyle Activists (SALSA) program on SALSA peer leaders' EBRBs, and their intentions regarding these behaviors.

    Methods: We used a pre-post study design to assess changes in EBRBs and intentions of Year 10 secondary school students (15-16 year olds) who volunteered to be peer leaders to deliver the SALSA program to Year 8 students (13-14 year olds). Read More

    Male involvement in maternal healthcare through Community- based Health Planning and Services: the views of the men in rural Ghana.
    BMC Public Health 2017 Sep 6;17(1):693. Epub 2017 Sep 6.
    Faculty of Social Sciences, Universiti Malaysia Sarawak, Kuching, Sarawak, Malaysia.
    Background: The need to promote maternal health in Ghana has committed the government to extend maternal healthcare services to the door steps of rural families through the community-based Health Planning and Services. Based on the concerns raised in previous studies that male spouses were indifferent towards maternal healthcare, this study sought the views of men on their involvement in maternal healthcare in their respective communities and at the household levels in the various Community-based Health Planning and Services zones in Awutu-Senya West District in the Central Region of Ghana.

    Methods: A qualitative method was employed. Read More

    An assessment of healthcare professionals' knowledge about and attitude towards influenza vaccination in Freetown Sierra Leone: a cross-sectional study.
    BMC Public Health 2017 Sep 5;17(1):692. Epub 2017 Sep 5.
    School of Pharmacy, Monash University Malaysia, 45700, Bandar Sunway, Selangor, Malaysia.
    Background: Vaccinating healthcare professionals against influenza is considered an effective infection control measure. However, there is a low uptake of influenza vaccine among healthcare professionals around the globe. Currently, it is unknown whether healthcare professionals in Sierra Leone are aware of, and have been vaccinated against influenza. Read More

    Maternal cell phone use in early pregnancy and child's language, communication and motor skills at 3 and 5 years: the Norwegian mother and child cohort study (MoBa).
    BMC Public Health 2017 Sep 5;17(1):685. Epub 2017 Sep 5.
    Division of Health Data and Digitalisation, Norwegian Institute of Public Health, P.O. Box 4404, NO-0403, Oslo, Nydalen, Norway.
    Background: Cell phone use during pregnancy is a public health concern. We investigated the association between maternal cell phone use in pregnancy and child's language, communication and motor skills at 3 and 5 years.

    Methods: This prospective study includes 45,389 mother-child pairs, participants of the MoBa, recruited at mid-pregnancy from 1999 to 2008. Read More

    Development of a framework for the co-production and prototyping of public health interventions.
    BMC Public Health 2017 Sep 4;17(1):689. Epub 2017 Sep 4.
    Centre for the Development and Evaluation of Complex Interventions for Public Health Improvement (DECIPHer), Cardiff University, Cardiff, CF10 3BD, UK.
    Background: Existing guidance for developing public health interventions does not provide information for researchers about how to work with intervention providers to co-produce and prototype the content and delivery of new interventions prior to evaluation. The ASSIST + Frank study aimed to adapt an existing effective peer-led smoking prevention intervention (ASSIST), integrating new content from the UK drug education resource Talk to Frank ( www.talktofrank. Read More

    Knowledge, attitude, and status of nitrite inhalant use among men who have sex with men in Tianjin, China.
    BMC Public Health 2017 Sep 4;17(1):690. Epub 2017 Sep 4.
    Tianjin Deep Blue Volunteers Workgroup, Tianjin, 300131, China.
    Background: Nitrite inhalants have become popular as recreational drugs among the homosexual population in some developed countries since the 1980s. These drugs, also called RUSH in China, have become attractive among Chinese men who have sex with men (MSM) in the past few years. The aim of this cross-sectional study was to understand the knowledge, attitude, and status of nitrite inhalant use among Chinese MSM. Read More

    The mediating role of the home environment in relation to parental educational level and preschool children's screen time: a cross-sectional study.
    BMC Public Health 2017 Sep 2;17(1):688. Epub 2017 Sep 2.
    Folkhälsan Research Center, Samfundet Folkhälsan, Topeliuksenkatu 20, 00250, Helsinki, Finland.
    Background: Previous studies suggest that preschoolers from low socioeconomic backgrounds engage in more screen time. Still, the factors in the social and physical home environment driving these differences in preschool children's screen time are poorly understood. This study examines potential home environment mediators in the associations between parental educational level and preschoolers' screen time. Read More

    Assessment of nutrition and physical activity environments in family child care homes: modification and psychometric testing of the Environment and Policy Assessment and Observation.
    BMC Public Health 2017 Aug 29;17(1):680. Epub 2017 Aug 29.
    Center for Health Promotion and Disease Prevention, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, USA.
    Background: Early care and education (ECE) settings play an important role in shaping the nutrition and physical activity habits of young children. Increasing research attention is being directed toward family child care homes (FCCHs) specifically. However, existing measures of child care nutrition and physical activity environments are limited in that they have been created for use with center-based programs and require modification for studies involving FCCHs. Read More


    Piloting a low-cost hardware intervention to reduce improper disposal of solid waste in communal toilets in low-income settlements in Dhaka, Bangladesh.
    BMC Public Health 2017 Aug 29;17(1):682. Epub 2017 Aug 29.
    Department of International Health, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, MD, 21205-2103, USA.
    Background: Bangladesh faces daunting challenges in addressing the sanitation needs of its urban poor. Maintaining the cleanliness and functionality of communal toilets is dependent upon periodic emptying of fecal sludge, and cooperation between users of communal toilets. Trash disposal into latrines can block the outflow pipes, rendering the toilets non-functional. Read More

    "I would rather be told than not know" - A qualitative study exploring parental views on identifying the future risk of childhood overweight and obesity during infancy.
    BMC Public Health 2017 Aug 29;17(1):684. Epub 2017 Aug 29.
    Faculty of Health, Social Care and Education, Anglia Ruskin University, Cambridge, United Kingdom.
    Background: Risk assessment tools provide an opportunity to prevent childhood overweight and obesity through early identification and intervention to influence infant feeding practices. Engaging parents of infants is paramount for success however; the literature suggests there is uncertainty surrounding the use of such tools with concerns about stigmatisation, labelling and expressions of parental guilt. This study explores parents' views on identifying future risk of childhood overweight and obesity during infancy and communicating risk to parents. Read More

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