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    253 results match your criteria BMC Physiology [Journal]

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    Deficiency of the BMP Type I receptor ALK3 partly protects mice from anemia of inflammation.
    BMC Physiol 2018 Feb 27;18(1). Epub 2018 Feb 27.
    Department of Anaesthesiology, Intensive Care and Pain Medicine, University Hospital Muenster, Albert-Schweitzer Campus 1, Building A1, 48149, Muenster, Germany.
    Background: Inflammatory stimuli induce the hepatic iron regulatory hormone hepcidin, which contributes to anaemia of inflammation (AI). Hepcidin expression is regulated by the bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) and the interleukin-6 (IL-6) signalling pathways. Prior results indicate that the BMP type I receptor ALK3 is mainly involved in the acute inflammatory hepcidin induction four and 72 h after IL-6 administration. Read More

    Regulation of Locomotor activity in fed, fasted, and food-restricted mice lacking tissue-type plasminogen activator.
    BMC Physiol 2018 Jan 25;18(1). Epub 2018 Jan 25.
    Department of Biological Sciences, Kent State University, Kent, OH, 44242, USA.
    Background: Circadian rhythms of physiology and behavior are driven by a circadian clock located in the suprachiasmatic nucleus of the hypothalamus. This clock is synchronized to environmental day/night cycles by photic input, which is dependent on the presence of mature brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in the SCN. Mature BDNF is produced by the enzyme plasmin, which is converted from plasminogen by the enzyme tissue-type plasminogen activator (tPA). Read More

    Claudin expression during early postnatal development of the murine cochlea.
    BMC Physiol 2018 Jan 25;18(1). Epub 2018 Jan 25.
    Anatomy and Physiology Department, Kansas State University, 228 Coles Hall, Manhattan, KS, 66506, USA.
    Background: Claudins are major components of tight junctions, which form the paracellular barrier between the cochlear luminal and abluminal fluid compartments that supports the large transepithelial voltage difference and the large concentration differences of K, Na and Ca needed for normal cochlear function. Claudins are a family of more than 20 subtypes, but our knowledge about expression and localization of each subtype in the cochlea is limited.

    Results: We examined by quantitative RT-PCR the expression of the mRNA of 24 claudin isoforms in mouse cochlea during postnatal development and localized the expression in separated fractions of the cochlea. Read More

    Adiponectin is required for maintaining normal body temperature in a cold environment.
    BMC Physiol 2017 Oct 23;17(1). Epub 2017 Oct 23.
    USDA/ARS Children's Nutrition Research Center, Department of Pediatrics, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, TX, 77030, USA.
    Background: Thermogenic impairment promotes obesity and insulin resistance. Adiponectin is an important regulator of energy homeostasis. While many beneficial metabolic effects of adiponectin resemble that of activated thermogenesis, the role of adiponectin in thermogenesis is not clear. Read More

    Androgen receptor is expressed in mouse cardiomyocytes at prenatal and early postnatal developmental stages.
    BMC Physiol 2017 Aug 14;17(1). Epub 2017 Aug 14.
    Facultad de Medicina, Edificio E, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Av. Universidad #3000, Coyoacán, 04510, Cd. de México, CP, Mexico.
    Background: Previous studies show that androgens are involved in hypertrophy and excitability of cardiomyocytes and that their effects are mediated through their receptor. The aim of this study was to evaluate the presence of androgen receptor (AR) in mouse heart during prenatal and early postnatal stages.

    Results: The expression of AR and related genes, alpha myosin heavy chain -Myh6-, beta myosin heavy chain -Myh7- and atrial natriuretic factor -Nppa- was simultaneously evaluated by semiquantitative RT-PCR. Read More

    Disulfide high mobility group box-1 causes bladder pain through bladder Toll-like receptor 4.
    BMC Physiol 2017 May 25;17(1). Epub 2017 May 25.
    Research and Development, Lexington Veterans Affairs Medical Center, 1101 Veterans Drive, Room C-327, Lexington, Kentucky, 40502, USA.
    Background: Bladder pain is a prominent symptom in several urological conditions (e.g. infection, painful bladder syndrome/interstitial cystitis, cancer). Read More

    Endothelial dysfunction in the pathogenesis of pre-eclampsia in Ghanaian women.
    BMC Physiol 2017 Mar 29;17(1). Epub 2017 Mar 29.
    Department of Immunology, Noguchi Memorial Institute for Medical Research, University of Ghana, Accra, Ghana.
    Background: Pre-eclampsia (PE) remains a disease of theories despite extensive research into its etiology. Alteration in the production of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), a biomarker of endothelial dysfunction, is associated with pre-eclampsia although conflicting reports have been reported. The aim of the study was to determine and compare maternal serum levels of VEGF among pre-eclamptics, normotensive non pregnant and pregnant women. Read More

    Short-term overfeeding of zebrafish with normal or high-fat diet as a model for the development of metabolically healthy versus unhealthy obesity.
    BMC Physiol 2017 Mar 21;17(1). Epub 2017 Mar 21.
    Center for Pediatric Research Leipzig (CPL), University Hospital for Children & Adolescents, University of Leipzig, Liebigstraße 21, 04103, Leipzig, Germany.
    Background: Obese individuals differ in their risk of developing metabolic and cardiovascular complications depending on fat distribution (subcutaneous versus visceral) and adipose tissue (AT) phenotype (hyperplasic versus hypertrophic). However, the exact mechanisms which determine whether an obese individual is metabolically healthy or unhealthy are not clear, and analyses of the underlying pathomechanisms are limited by the lack of suitable in vivo models in which metabolically healthy versus metabolically unhealthy AT accumulation can be specifically induced. In the current study, we aimed to establish a protocol for the use of zebrafish as a model for obesity-related metabolically healthy versus metabolically unhealthy AT accumulation. Read More

    Myocardial susceptibility to ischaemia/reperfusion in obesity: a re-evaluation of the effects of age.
    BMC Physiol 2017 Mar 17;17(1). Epub 2017 Mar 17.
    Division of Medical Physiology, Department of Biomedical Sciences, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, University of Stellenbosch, Stellenbosch, South Africa.
    Background: Reports on the effect of age and obesity on myocardial ischaemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury and ischaemic preconditioning are contradictory. The aim of this study was to re-evaluate the effects of age and diet-induced obesity (DIO) on myocardial I/R injury and preconditioning potential.

    Methods: Four groups of Wistar male rats were used: age-matched controls (AMC) receiving standard rat chow for (i) 16 weeks and (ii) 16 months respectively; DIO rats receiving a sucrose-supplemented diet for (iii) 16 weeks and (iv) 16 months respectively. Read More

    Variation in branchial expression among insulin-like growth-factor binding proteins (igfbps) during Atlantic salmon smoltification and seawater exposure.
    BMC Physiol 2017 Jan 18;17(1). Epub 2017 Jan 18.
    USGS, Leetown Science Center, S.O. Conte Anadromous Fish Research Center, P.O. Box 796, One Migratory Way, Turners Falls, 01376, MA, USA.
    Background: In preparation for migration from freshwater to marine habitats, Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.) undergo smoltification, a transformation that includes the acquisition of hyposmoregulatory capacity. The growth hormone (Gh)/insulin-like growth-factor (Igf) axis promotes the development of branchial ionoregulatory functions that underlie ion secretion. Read More

    Small interfering RNA targeting NF-κB attenuates lipopolysaccharide-induced acute lung injury in rats.
    BMC Physiol 2016 Dec 28;16(1). Epub 2016 Dec 28.
    Department of Pathology, Nanfang Hospital, Southern Medical University, Guangzhou, China.
    Background: To investigate the anti-inflammatory effects of specific small interfering RNA targeting NF-κB on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced acute lung injury (ALI) in rats.

    Method: Acute lung injury was induced in Sprague-Dawley rats by intraperitoneal injection with LPS (5 mg/kg), followed by immediate intratracheal instillation of siRNA targeting NF-κB p65 (40 μg/ml). Animals in each group were sacrificed at 1 h or 8 h after the instillation. Read More

    Ryanodine-induced vasoconstriction of the gerbil spiral modiolar artery depends on the Ca sensitivity but not on Ca sparks or BK channels.
    BMC Physiol 2016 Nov 2;16(1). Epub 2016 Nov 2.
    Anatomy & Physiology Department, Cell Physiology Laboratory, Kansas State University, 228 Coles Hall, Manhattan, Kansas, 66506-5802, USA.
    Background: In many vascular smooth muscle cells (SMCs), ryanodine receptor-mediated Ca sparks activate large-conductance Ca-activated K (BK) channels leading to lowered SMC [Ca] and vasodilation. Here we investigated whether Ca sparks regulate SMC global [Ca] and diameter in the spiral modiolar artery (SMA) by activating BK channels.

    Methods: SMAs were isolated from adult female gerbils, loaded with the Ca-sensitive flourescent dye fluo-4 and pressurized using a concentric double-pipette system. Read More

    Trimester-specific thyroid hormone reference ranges in Sudanese women.
    BMC Physiol 2016 Oct 31;16(1). Epub 2016 Oct 31.
    Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Alneelain University, Khartoum, Sudan.
    Background: Trimester-specific reference ranges for T3, T4, and TSH need to be established in different communities. Neither Sudan nor other African countries have established trimester-specific reference ranges for TSH, free T3 (FT3), and free T4 (FT4) in healthy pregnant women. This study aimed to establish trimester-specific reference ranges for TSH, FT3, and FT4 in healthy pregnant Sudanese women. Read More

    The gastric H,K-ATPase in stria vascularis contributes to pH regulation of cochlear endolymph but not to K secretion.
    BMC Physiol 2016 Aug 11;17(1). Epub 2016 Aug 11.
    Department of Anatomy & Physiology, Cellular Biophysics Laboratory, Kansas State University, 228 Coles Hall, Manhattan, KS, 66506-5802, USA.
    Background: Disturbance of acid-base balance in the inner ear is known to be associated with hearing loss in a number of conditions including genetic mutations and pharmacologic interventions. Several previous physiologic and immunohistochemical observations lead to proposals of the involvement of acid-base transporters in stria vascularis.

    Results: We directly measured acid flux in vitro from the apical side of isolated stria vascularis from adult C57Bl/6 mice with a novel constant-perfusion pH-selective self-referencing probe. Read More

    The novel in vitro reanimation of isolated human and large mammalian heart-lung blocs.
    BMC Physiol 2016 Jun 4;16(1). Epub 2016 Jun 4.
    Departments of Surgery, University of Minnesota, 420 Delaware St. SE, B172 Mayo, Minneapolis, MN, 55455, USA.
    Background: In vitro isolated heart preparations are valuable tools for the study of cardiac anatomy and physiology, as well as for preclinical device testing. Such preparations afford investigators a high level of hemodynamic control, independent of host or systemic interactions. Here we hypothesize that recovered human and swine heart-lung blocs can be reanimated using a clear perfusate and elicit viable cardiodynamic and pulmonic function. Read More

    Renal effects of angiotensin II in the newborn period: role of type 1 and type 2 receptors.
    BMC Physiol 2016 Apr 18;16. Epub 2016 Apr 18.
    Department of Physiology & Pharmacology; Alberta Children's Hospital Research Institute for Child and Maternal Health, Cumming School of Medicine, University of Calgary, 3330 Hospital Drive, NW, Calgary, AB, T2N 4N1, Canada.
    Background: Evidence suggests a critical role for the renin-angiotensin system in regulating renal function during postnatal development. However, the physiological relevance of a highly elevated renin-angiotensin system early in life is not well understood, nor which angiotensin receptors might be involved. This study was designed to investigate the roles of angiotensin receptors type 1 (AT1R) and type 2 (AT2R) in regulating glomerular and tubular function during postnatal development. Read More

    Subcellular dissemination of prothymosin alpha at normal physiology: immunohistochemical vis-a-vis western blotting perspective.
    BMC Physiol 2016 Mar 1;16. Epub 2016 Mar 1.
    Department of Pharmacology and Therapeutic Innovation, Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences, Nagasaki University, Nagasaki, Japan.
    Background: The cell type, cell status and specific localization of Prothymosin α (PTMA) within cells seemingly determine its function. PTMA undergoes 2 types of protease proteolytic modifications that are useful in elucidating its interactions with other molecules; a factor that typifies its roles. Preferably a nuclear protein, PTMA has been shown to function in the cytoplasm and extracellularly with much evidence leaning on pathognomonic status. Read More

    The normal electrocardiograms in the conscious newborn lambs in neonatal period and its progression.
    BMC Physiol 2016 Jan 19;16. Epub 2016 Jan 19.
    Department of Clinical Veterinary of School of Veterinary Medicine and Animal Science, State University of São Paulo, (UNESP), 18619-970, Botucatu, São Paulo, Brazil.
    Background: Veterinary cardiology, especially electrocardiography, has shown major advancements for all animal species. Consequently, the number of ovine species used as experimental animals has increased to date. Few studies have been published on ovine systematic electrocardiography, particularly with respect to lamb physiology and neonatology. Read More

    An investigation of the efficacy and mechanism of contrast-enhanced X-ray computed tomography utilizing iodine for large specimens through experimental and simulation approaches.
    BMC Physiol 2015 Dec 21;15. Epub 2015 Dec 21.
    Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Rice University, Houston, TX, USA.
    Background: Iodine-based solutions have long been known to be effective in aiding the differentiation among soft tissues in both fundamental anatomical research and for clinical diagnoses. Recently the combination of this particular contrasting agent with micro-computed tomography (micro-CT) has resulted in an array of high-quality image data, in which anatomical structures not visible in conventional CT can be identified and quantified. However, there has been only limited data available to inform detailed protocols for staining large specimens. Read More

    Hypoxia mediated pulmonary edema: potential influence of oxidative stress, sympathetic activation and cerebral blood flow.
    BMC Physiol 2015 Oct 9;15. Epub 2015 Oct 9.
    Department of Health and Exercise Science, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, CO, 80523, USA.
    Background: Neurogenic pulmonary edema (NPE) is a non-cardiogenic form of pulmonary edema that can occur consequent to central neurologic insults including stroke, traumatic brain injury, and seizure. NPE is a public health concern due to high morbidity and mortality, yet the mechanism(s) are unknown. We hypothesized that NPE, evoked by cerebral hypoxia in the presence of systemic normoxia, would be accompanied by sympathetic activation, oxidative stress, and compensatory antioxidant mechanisms. Read More

    Effects of postnatal growth restriction and subsequent catch-up growth on neurodevelopment and glucose homeostasis in rats.
    BMC Physiol 2015 Jun 5;15. Epub 2015 Jun 5.
    Department of Pediatrics, University of California, Davis Medical Center, Sacramento, CA, 95817, USA.
    Background: There is increasing evidence that poor growth of preterm infants is a risk factor for poor long-term development, while the effects of early postnatal growth restriction are not well known. We utilized a rat model to examine the consequences of different patterns of postnatal growth and hypothesized that early growth failure leads to impaired development and insulin resistance. Rat pups were separated at birth into normal (N, n = 10) or restricted intake (R, n = 16) litters. Read More

    Antenatal maternal low protein diet: ACE-2 in the mouse lung and sexually dimorphic programming of hypertension.
    BMC Physiol 2015 May 14;15. Epub 2015 May 14.
    Center for Perinatal Biology, School of Medicine, Loma Linda University, Loma Linda, CA, 92350, USA.
    Elevated blood pressure is an important global health problem, and in-utero under-nutrition may be an important factor in the pathogenesis of hypertension. In the present study, we tested the hypothesis that antenatal maternal low protein diet (MLPD) leads to sexually dimorphic developmental programming of the components of the pulmonary renin-angiotensin system. This may be important in the antenatal MLPD-associated development of hypertension. Read More

    Exercise performed around MLSS decreases systolic blood pressure and increases aerobic fitness in hypertensive rats.
    BMC Physiol 2015 Mar 14;15. Epub 2015 Mar 14.
    Centro de Análises Proteômicas e Bioquímicas, Programa de Pós-Graduação em Ciências Genômicas e Biotecnologia, Universidade Católica de Brasília SGAN, Quadra 916, Módulo B, Av. W5 Norte, CEP 70.790-160, Brasília, DF, Brasil.
    Background: Exercise is a non-pharmacologic agent widely used for hypertension control, where low intensity is often associated with blood pressure reduction. Maximal lactate steady state (MLSS) was recently identified in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs) as an important step in establishing secure intensities for prescribing exercise for hypertensive phenotypes. Here we verified the effects of training around MLSS, 20% below MLSS, and 15% above MLSS on aerobic fitness and blood pressure status of SHR. Read More

    Alteration in circulating metabolites during and after heat stress in the conscious rat: potential biomarkers of exposure and organ-specific injury.
    BMC Physiol 2014 Dec 24;14:14. Epub 2014 Dec 24.
    The United States Army Center for Environmental Health Research, Environmental Health Program, Bldg, 568 Doughten Drive, Fort Detrick, Frederick 21702-5010, MD, USA.
    Background: Heat illness is a debilitating and potentially life-threatening condition. Limited data are available to identify individuals with heat illness at greatest risk for organ damage. We recently described the transcriptomic and proteomic responses to heat injury and recovery in multiple organs in an in vivo model of conscious rats heated to a maximum core temperature of 41. Read More

    CaMKII content affects contractile, but not mitochondrial, characteristics in regenerating skeletal muscle.
    BMC Physiol 2014 Dec 17;14. Epub 2014 Dec 17.
    Institute for Biomedical Research into Human Movement and Health, Manchester Metropolitan University, John Dalton Building, Oxford Road, M1 5GD, Manchester, United Kingdom.
    Background: The multi-meric calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII) is the main CaMK in skeletal muscle and its expression increases with endurance training. CaMK family members are implicated in contraction-induced regulation of calcium handling, fast myosin type IIA expression and mitochondrial biogenesis. The objective of this study was to investigate the role of an increased CaMKII content for the expression of the contractile and mitochondrial phenotype in vivo. Read More

    Big data in wildlife research: remote web-based monitoring of hibernating black bears.
    BMC Physiol 2014 Dec 11;14:13. Epub 2014 Dec 11.
    Department of Surgery, University of Minnesota, B172 Mayo, MMC 195 420 Delaware Street SE, Minneapolis, MN, 55455, USA.
    Background: Numerous innovations for the management and collection of "big data" have arisen in the field of medicine, including implantable computers and sensors, wireless data transmission, and web-based repositories for collecting and organizing information. Recently, human clinical devices have been deployed in captive and free-ranging wildlife to aid in the characterization of both normal physiology and the interaction of animals with their environment, including reactions to humans. Although these devices have had a significant impact on the types and quantities of information that can be collected, their utility has been limited by internal memory capacities, the efforts required to extract and analyze information, and by the necessity to handle the animals in order to retrieve stored data. Read More

    Acetate transiently inhibits myocardial contraction by increasing mitochondrial calcium uptake.
    BMC Physiol 2014 Dec 9;14:12. Epub 2014 Dec 9.
    Department of Anatomy, Physiology, and Genetics, Uniformed Services University for the Health Sciences, 4301 Jones Bridge Road, Rm. C-2114, Bethesda, 20814, MD, USA.
    Background: There is a close relationship between cardiovascular disease and cardiac energy metabolism, and we have previously demonstrated that palmitate inhibits myocyte contraction by increasing Kv channel activity and decreasing the action potential duration. Glucose and long chain fatty acids are the major fuel sources supporting cardiac function; however, cardiac myocytes can utilize a variety of substrates for energy generation, and previous studies demonstrate the acetate is rapidly taken up and oxidized by the heart. In this study, we tested the effects of acetate on contractile function of isolated mouse ventricular myocytes. Read More

    Identification of novel Kirrel3 gene splice variants in adult human skeletal muscle.
    BMC Physiol 2014 Dec 9;14:11. Epub 2014 Dec 9.
    Department of Physiological Science, Stellenbosch University, Private Bag X1 Matieland, 7602, Stellenbosch, South Africa.
    Background: Multiple cell types including trophoblasts, osteoclasts and myoblasts require somatic cell fusion events as part of their physiological functions. In Drosophila Melanogaster the paralogus type 1 transmembrane receptors and members of the immunoglobulin superfamily Kin of Irre (Kirre) and roughest (Rst) regulate myoblast fusion during embryonic development. Present within the human genome are three homologs to Kirre termed Kin of Irre like (Kirrel) 1, 2 and 3. Read More

    White-nose syndrome initiates a cascade of physiologic disturbances in the hibernating bat host.
    BMC Physiol 2014 Dec 9;14:10. Epub 2014 Dec 9.
    US Geological Survey - National Wildlife Health Center, 6006 Schroeder Rd., Madison, Wisconsin, USA.
    Background: The physiological effects of white-nose syndrome (WNS) in hibernating bats and ultimate causes of mortality from infection with Pseudogymnoascus (formerly Geomyces) destructans are not fully understood. Increased frequency of arousal from torpor described among hibernating bats with late-stage WNS is thought to accelerate depletion of fat reserves, but the physiological mechanisms that lead to these alterations in hibernation behavior have not been elucidated. We used the doubly labeled water (DLW) method and clinical chemistry to evaluate energy use, body composition changes, and blood chemistry perturbations in hibernating little brown bats (Myotis lucifugus) experimentally infected with P. Read More

    Differential role of STIM1 and STIM2 during transient inward (T in) current generation and the maturation process in the Xenopus oocyte.
    BMC Physiol 2014 Nov 15;14. Epub 2014 Nov 15.
    Background: The Xenopus oocyte is a useful cell model to study Ca2+ homeostasis and cell cycle regulation, two highly interrelated processes. Here, we used antisense oligonucleotides to investigate the role in the oocyte of stromal interaction molecule (STIM) proteins that are fundamental elements of the store-operated calcium-entry (SOCE) phenomenon, as they are both sensors for Ca2+ concentration in the intracellular reservoirs as well as activators of the membrane channels that allow Ca2+ influx.

    Results: Endogenous STIM1 and STIM2 expression was demonstrated, and their synthesis was knocked down 48-72 h after injecting oocytes with specific antisense sequences. Read More

    Longevity of Daphnia and the attenuation of stress responses by melatonin.
    BMC Physiol 2014 Nov 6;14. Epub 2014 Nov 6.
    Institute for Biochemistry and Biology, Ecology and Ecosystem Modelling, University of Potsdam, Am Neuen Palais 10, 14469, Potsdam, Germany.
    Background: The widespread occurrence of melatonin in prokaryotes as well as eukaryotes indicates that this indoleamine is considerably old. This high evolutionary age has led to the development of diverse functions of melatonin in different organisms, such as the detoxification of reactive oxygen species and anti-stress effects. In insects, i. Read More

    Impact of maternal dietary fat supplementation during gestation upon skeletal muscle in neonatal pigs.
    BMC Physiol 2014 Aug 27;14. Epub 2014 Aug 27.
    Background: Maternal diet during pregnancy can modulate skeletal muscle development of the offspring. Previous studies in pigs have indicated that a fat supplemented diet during pregnancy can improve piglet outcome, however, this is in contrast to human studies suggesting adverse effects of saturated fats during pregnancy. This study aimed to investigate the impact of a fat supplemented (palm oil) "high fat" diet on skeletal muscle development in a porcine model. Read More

    MAPK-activated protein kinase 2-deficiency causes hyperacute tumor necrosis factor-induced inflammatory shock.
    BMC Physiol 2014 Sep 4;14. Epub 2014 Sep 4.
    Inflammation Research Center, VIB, Ghent, 9052, Belgium.
    Background: MAPK-activated protein kinase 2 (MK2) plays a pivotal role in the cell response to (inflammatory) stress. Among others, MK2 is known to be involved in the regulation of cytokine mRNA metabolism and regulation of actin cytoskeleton dynamics. Previously, MK2-deficient mice were shown to be highly resistant to LPS/d-Galactosamine-induced hepatitis. Read More

    Sympathoactivation and rho-kinase-dependent baroreflex function in experimental renovascular hypertension with reduced kidney mass.
    BMC Physiol 2014 Jun 19;14. Epub 2014 Jun 19.
    Institute for Cardiovascular Physiology, Vascular Research Centre, Fachbereich Medizin, Goethe University, Frankfurt (Main), Germany.
    Background: Dysregulation of the autonomic nervous system is frequent in subjects with cardiovascular disease. The contribution of different forms of renovascular hypertension and the mechanisms contributing to autonomic dysfunction in hypertension are incompletely understood. Here, murine models of renovascular hypertension with preserved (2-kidneys-1 clip, 2K1C) and reduced (1-kidney-1 clip, 1K1C) kidney mass were studied with regard to autonomic nervous system regulation (sympathetic tone: power-spectral analysis of systolic blood pressure; parasympathetic tone: power-spectral analysis of heart rate) and baroreflex sensitivity of heart rate by spontaneous, concomitant changes of systolic blood pressure and pulse interval. Read More

    Reductions in expression of growth regulating genes in skeletal muscle with age in wild type and myostatin null mice.
    BMC Physiol 2014 Mar 28;14. Epub 2014 Mar 28.
    Department of Animal Sciences, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, IL 61801, USA.
    Background: Genes that decline in expression with age and are thought to coordinate growth cessation have been identified in various organs, but their expression in skeletal muscle is unknown. Therefore, our objective was to determine expression of these genes (Ezh2, Gpc3, Mdk, Mest, Mycn, Peg3, and Plagl1) in skeletal muscle from birth to maturity. We hypothesized that expression of these genes would decline with age in skeletal muscle but differ between sexes and between wild type and myostatin null mice. Read More

    Cardiac responses to elevated seawater temperature in Atlantic salmon.
    BMC Physiol 2014 Mar 1;14. Epub 2014 Mar 1.
    Nofima AS, P,O, Box 210, N-1431 Ås, Norway.
    Background: Atlantic salmon aquaculture operations in the Northern hemisphere experience large seasonal fluctuations in seawater temperature. With summer temperatures often peaking around 18-20°C there is growing concern about the effects on fish health and performance. Since the heart has a major role in the physiological plasticity and acclimation to different thermal conditions in fish, we wanted to investigate how three and eight weeks exposure of adult Atlantic salmon to 19°C, previously shown to significantly reduce growth performance, affected expression of relevant genes and proteins in cardiac tissues under experimental conditions. Read More

    Kcnq1-5 (Kv7.1-5) potassium channel expression in the adult zebrafish.
    BMC Physiol 2014 Feb 20;14. Epub 2014 Feb 20.
    Department of Molecular Pharmacology & Biological Chemistry, Northwestern University, Chicago, IL 60611, USA.
    Background: KCNQx genes encode slowly activating-inactivating K+ channels, are linked to physiological signal transduction pathways, and mutations in them underlie diseases such as long QT syndrome (KCNQ1), epilepsy in adults (KCNQ2/3), benign familial neonatal convulsions in children (KCNQ3), and hearing loss or tinnitus in humans (KCNQ4, but not KCNQ5). Identification of kcnqx potassium channel transcripts in zebrafish (Danio rerio) remains to be fully characterized although some genes have been mapped to the genome. Using zebrafish genome resources as the source of putative kcnq sequences, we investigated the expression of kcnq1-5 in heart, brain and ear tissues. Read More

    Inference of mechanical states of intestinal motor activity using hidden Markov models.
    BMC Physiol 2013 Dec 11;13:14. Epub 2013 Dec 11.
    Discipline of Human Physiology, Flinders Medical Science and Technology, Flinders University, Adelaide, Australia.
    Background: Contractions and relaxations of the muscle layers within the digestive tract alter the external diameter and the internal pressures. These changes in diameter and pressure move digesting food and waste products. Defining these complex relationships is a fundamental step for neurogastroenterologists to be able define normal and abnormal gut motility. Read More

    The endotoxin/toll-like receptor-4 axis mediates gut microvascular dysfunction associated with post-prandial lipidemia.
    BMC Physiol 2013 Nov 12;13:12. Epub 2013 Nov 12.
    Molecular & Cellular Physiology, LSU Health, 1501 King Highway, Shreveport, LA, USA.
    Background: Postprandial lipidemia is important in the development of coronary artery disease (CAD). Consumption of a meal high in monounsaturated fat was correlated with acute impairment of endothelial function. However, the mechanisms underlying impaired endothelial function in the postprandial state have not yet been elucidated. Read More

    Dynamically regulated miRNA-mRNA networks revealed by exercise.
    BMC Physiol 2013 Jun 7;13. Epub 2013 Jun 7.
    SRC Bioclinicum, Ugreshskaya str 2/85, Moscow 115088, Russia.
    Background: MiRNAs are essential mediators of many biological processes. The aim of this study was to investigate the dynamics of miRNA-mRNA regulatory networks during exercise and the subsequent recovery period.

    Results: Here we monitored the transcriptome changes using microarray analysis of the whole blood of eight highly trained athletes before and after 30 min of moderate exercise followed by 30 min and 60 min of recovery period. Read More

    Overtraining is associated with DNA damage in blood and skeletal muscle cells of Swiss mice.
    BMC Physiol 2013 Oct 8;13:11. Epub 2013 Oct 8.
    Universidade de São Paulo (USP), Escola de Educação Física e Esporte de Ribeirão Preto (EEFERP), Ribeirão Preto, São Paulo, Brasil.
    Background: The alkaline version of the single-cell gel (comet) assay is a useful method for quantifying DNA damage. Although some studies on chronic and acute effects of exercise on DNA damage measured by the comet assay have been performed, it is unknown if an aerobic training protocol with intensity, volume, and load clearly defined will improve performance without leading to peripheral blood cell DNA damage. In addition, the effects of overtraining on DNA damage are unknown. Read More

    Estrogen-related receptor β deficiency alters body composition and response to restraint stress.
    BMC Physiol 2013 Sep 22;13:10. Epub 2013 Sep 22.
    Department of Physiology, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD, USA.
    Background: Estrogen-related receptors (ERRs) are orphan nuclear hormone receptors expressed in metabolically active tissues and modulate numerous homeostatic processes. ERRs do not bind the ligand estrogen, but they are able to bind the estrogen response element (ERE) embedded within the ERR response elements (ERREs) to regulate transcription of genes. Previous work has demonstrated that adult mice lacking Errβ have altered metabolism and meal patterns. Read More

    Significance of K(ATP) channels, L-type Ca²⁺ channels and CYP450-4A enzymes in oxygen sensing in mouse cremaster muscle arterioles in vivo.
    BMC Physiol 2013 May 12;13. Epub 2013 May 12.
    Department of Biomedical Sciences, Faculty of Health and Medical Sciences, The Panum institute, University of Copenhagen, Blegdamsvej 3, Copenhagen N, DK-2200, Denmark.
    Background: ATP-sensitive K⁺ channels (KATP channels), NO, prostaglandins, 20-HETE and L-type Ca²⁺ channels have all been suggested to be involved in oxygen sensing in skeletal muscle arterioles, but the role of the individual mechanisms remain controversial. We aimed to establish the importance of these mechanisms for oxygen sensing in arterioles in an in vivo model of metabolically active skeletal muscle. For this purpose we utilized the exteriorized cremaster muscle of anesthetized mice, in which the cremaster muscle was exposed to controlled perturbation of tissue PO₂. Read More

    Liver-derived endocrine IGF-I is not critical for activation of skeletal muscle protein synthesis following oral feeding.
    BMC Physiol 2013 May 8;13. Epub 2013 May 8.
    Department of Surgery Sahlgrenska University Hospital Kir, Metabol lab Bruna Stråket 20, Gothenburg Sweden.
    Background: Insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) is produced in various tissues to stimulate protein synthesis under different conditions. It is however, difficult to distinguish effects by locally produced IGF-1 compared to liver-derived IGF-1 appearing in the circulation. In the present study the role of liver-derived endocrine IGF-I for activation of skeletal muscle protein synthesis following feeding was evaluated. Read More

    cAMP-stimulated Cl- secretion is increased by glucocorticoids and inhibited by bumetanide in semicircular canal duct epithelium.
    BMC Physiol 2013 Mar 27;13. Epub 2013 Mar 27.
    Dept, Anatomy & Physiology, Kansas State University, Manhattan, KS 66506, USA.
    Background: The vestibular system controls the ion composition of its luminal fluid through several epithelial cell transport mechanisms under hormonal regulation. The semicircular canal duct (SCCD) epithelium has been shown to secrete Cl- under β2-adrenergic stimulation. In the current study, we sought to determine the ion transporters involved in Cl- secretion and whether secretion is regulated by PKA and glucocorticoids. Read More

    Quinine controls body weight gain without affecting food intake in male C57BL6 mice.
    BMC Physiol 2013 Feb 8;13. Epub 2013 Feb 8.
    Nestlé Research Center, Vers-chez-les-Blanc, Lausanne 1000, Switzerland.
    Background: Quinine is a natural molecule commonly used as a flavouring agent in tonic water. Diet supplementation with quinine leads to decreased body weight and food intake in rats. Quinine is an in vitro inhibitor of Trpm5, a cation channel expressed in taste bud cells, the gastrointestinal tract and pancreas. Read More

    Importance of uncharged polar residues and proline in the proximal two-thirds (Pro107-Ser128) of the highly conserved region of mouse ileal Na+-dependent bile acid transporter, Slc10a2, in transport activity and cellular expression.
    BMC Physiol 2013 Feb 4;13. Epub 2013 Feb 4.
    Laboratory of Molecular Nutrition, Kyoto Prefectural University, Shimogamo, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto, Japan.
    Background: SLC10A2-mediated reabsorption of bile acids at the distal end of the ileum is the first step in enterohepatic circulation. Because bile acids act not only as detergents but also as signaling molecules in lipid metabolism and energy production, SLC10A2 is important as the key transporter for understanding the in vivo kinetics of bile acids. SLC10A family members and the homologous genes of various species share a highly conserved region corresponding to Gly104-Pro142 of SLC10A2. Read More

    The antioxidant response of the liver of male Swiss mice raised on a AIN 93 or commercial diet.
    BMC Physiol 2013 Jan 24;13. Epub 2013 Jan 24.
    Postgraduate Program in Food Science and Technology, Escola Superior de Agricultura “Luiz de Queiroz”, University of São Paulo (USP), Piracicaba, SP, Brazil.
    Background: Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are formed under natural physiological conditions and are thought to play an important role in many human diseases. A wide range of antioxidants are involved in cellular defense mechanisms against ROS, which can be generated in excess during stressful conditions, these include enzymes and non-enzymatic antioxidants. The aim of this study was to evaluate the antioxidant responses of mice to two diets control, commercial and the purified AIN 93 diet, commonly used in experiments with rodents. Read More

    Genomic homeostasis is dysregulated in favour of apoptosis in the colonic epithelium of the azoxymethane treated rat.
    BMC Physiol 2013 Jan 23;13. Epub 2013 Jan 23.
    CSIRO Preventative Health Flagship, CSIRO, North Ryde, NSW 2113, Australia.
    Background: The acute response to genotoxic carcinogens in rats is an important model for researching cancer initiation events. In this report we define the normal rat colonic epithelium by describing transcriptional events along the anterior-posterior axis and then investigate the acute effects of azoxymethane (AOM) on gene expression, with a particular emphasis on pathways associated with the maintenance of genomic integrity in the proximal and distal compartments using whole genome expression microarrays.

    Results: There are large transcriptional changes that occur in epithelial gene expression along the anterior-posterior axis of the normal healthy rat colon. Read More

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