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    A pediatric death audit in a large referral hospital in Malawi.
    BMC Pediatr 2018 Feb 21;18(1):75. Epub 2018 Feb 21.
    Assistant Professor of Pediatrics, Cincinnati Children's Hospital Medical Center, Cincinnati, Ohio, USA.
    Background: Death audits have been used to describe pediatric mortality in under-resourced settings, where record keeping is often a challenge. This information provides the cornerstone for the foundation of quality improvement initiatives. Malawi, located in sub-Saharan Africa, currently has an Under-5 mortality rate of 64/1000. Read More

    Neutropenia after intravenous immunoglobulin therapy is associated with coronary artery lesions in children with Kawasaki disease: a case control study.
    BMC Pediatr 2018 Feb 21;18(1):76. Epub 2018 Feb 21.
    Children's Heart Center, the Second Affiliated Hospital and Yuying Children's Hospital, Institute of cardiovascular development and translational medicine, Wenzhou Medical University, Wenzhou, Zhejiang, 325027, China.
    Background: To evaluate differences in laboratory parameters, clinical presentation, and incidence of coronary artery lesions (CAL) between children with neutropenic and non-neutropenic Kawasaki disease (KD).

    Methods: All consecutive KD patients that presented to the Second Affiliated Hospital and Yuying Children's Hospital of Wenzhou Medical University in Wenzhou, China between January 2005 and December 2015 were included in this study. Patients were divided into two groups (KD with neutropenia (NKD) and KD without neutropenia (NNKD)) based on whether or not they developed neutropenia during the course of treatment. Read More

    Pediatric severe asthma: a case series report and perspectives on anti-IgE treatment.
    BMC Pediatr 2018 Feb 21;18(1):73. Epub 2018 Feb 21.
    Department of Translational Medical Sciences, Federico II University, Via Sergio Pansini 5, 80131, Naples, Italy.
    Background: The primary goal of asthma management is to achieve disease control for reducing the risk of future exacerbations and progressive loss of lung function. Asthma not responding to treatment may result in significant morbidity. In many children with uncontrolled symptoms, the diagnosis of asthma may be wrong or adherence to treatment may be poor. Read More

    High-dose of intravenous immunoglobulin modulates immune tolerance in premature infants.
    BMC Pediatr 2018 Feb 21;18(1):74. Epub 2018 Feb 21.
    Pediatrics and Neonatology Department, Zhongnan Hospital of Wuhan University, Donghu road 169, Wuhan, 430071, China.
    Background: Intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) is commonly used to improve the immunomodulatory effects, although its regulatory effect on premature Treg cells is unclear. The purpose of this study is to study the effect of high dose of IVIG (HD-IVIG) on Treg cells expression and cytokine profile in premature birth.

    Methods: Fifty-two premature infants were enrolled in this study and thirty-one premature infants who were suspected to have intrauterine infection received HD-IVIG (1-2 g/kg) at the first day of birth; the remaining 21 premature infants were assigned as the control group. Read More

    Prevalence of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder symptoms and their associations with sleep schedules and sleep-related problems among preschoolers in mainland China.
    BMC Pediatr 2018 Feb 19;18(1):70. Epub 2018 Feb 19.
    Department of Maternal, Child and Adolescent Health, School of Public Health, Anhui Medical University, 81 Mei Shan Road, Hefei, Anhui, 230032, China.
    Background: Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) among children is an increasing public health concern. The identification of behavioral risk factors, including sleep quality, has important public health implications for prioritizing behavioral intervention strategies for ADHD. Herein, this study aimed to investigate the prevalence of high levels of ADHD symptoms and to explore the association between sleep schedules, sleep-related problems and ADHD symptoms among preschoolers aged 3 to 6 years in mainland China. Read More

    Isolated unilateral temporalis muscle hypertrophy in a child: a case report with literature review.
    BMC Pediatr 2018 Feb 19;18(1):71. Epub 2018 Feb 19.
    Department of Radiology, Teaching Hospital, Kandy, Sri Lanka.
    Background: Temporalis muscle hypertrophy is a rare entity of masticatory muscle hypertrophy. All types of masticatory muscle hypertrophies have been documented of which temporalis muscle hypertrophy is one. Temporalis muscle hypertrophy is most commonly bilateral and usually associated with other types of masticatory muscles hypertrophy such as masseter or pterygoid hypertrophy. Read More

    Maternal socio-demographic and psychological predictors for risk of developmental delays among young children in Mongolia.
    BMC Pediatr 2018 Feb 19;18(1):68. Epub 2018 Feb 19.
    Department of Pediatrics, National Center for Global Health and Medicine, Tokyo, Japan.
    Background: Factors influencing child development are not well studied in developing settings, and especially in Mongolia. This cohort study examined the relationship between maternal socio-demographic and psychological conditions on risk of young child developmental delay.

    Methods: A total of 150 children aged between 13 ~ 24 months old participated in this study. Read More

    HIV-1 transmission and survival according to feeding options in infants born to HIV-infected women in Yaoundé, Cameroon.
    BMC Pediatr 2018 Feb 19;18(1):69. Epub 2018 Feb 19.
    Virology Laboratory, Chantal BIYA International Reference Centre for Research on HIV/AIDS prevention and management, Yaoundé, Cameroon.
    Background: Evidence of 24-months survival in the frame of prevention of mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT) cascade-care is scare from routine programs in sub-Saharan African (SSA) settings. Specifically, data on infant outcomes according to feeding options remain largely unknown by month-24, thus limiting its breath for public-health recommendations toward eliminating new pediatric HIV-1 infections and improving care. We sought to evaluate HIV-1 vertical transmission and infant survival rates according to feeding options. Read More

    Integrated children's clinic care (ICCC) versus a self-directed care pathway for children with a chronic health condition: a multi-centre randomised controlled trial study protocol.
    BMC Pediatr 2018 Feb 19;18(1):72. Epub 2018 Feb 19.
    School of Allied Health Sciences & Menzies Health Institute Queensland, Griffith University, Gold Coast, QLD, 4222, Australia.
    Background: Children with chronic health conditions have better health-related outcomes when their care is managed in a personalised and coordinated way. However, increased demand on Australian ambulatory care hospital services has led to longer waitlist times to access specialists and appropriate intervention services; placing vulnerable children at increased risk of poorer short-term (e.g. Read More

    Patterns of paediatric end-of-life care: a chart review across different care settings in Switzerland.
    BMC Pediatr 2018 Feb 16;18(1):67. Epub 2018 Feb 16.
    Department of Pediatrics, Inselspital Bern University Hospital, Bern, Switzerland.
    Background: Paediatric end-of-life care is challenging and requires a high level of professional expertise. It is important that healthcare teams have a thorough understanding of paediatric subspecialties and related knowledge of disease-specific aspects of paediatric end-of-life care. The aim of this study was to comprehensively describe, explore and compare current practices in paediatric end-of-life care in four distinct diagnostic groups across healthcare settings including all relevant levels of healthcare providers in Switzerland. Read More

    Prospective observational study on assessing the hemodynamic relevance of patent ductus arteriosus with frequency domain near-infrared spectroscopy.
    BMC Pediatr 2018 Feb 16;18(1):66. Epub 2018 Feb 16.
    Department of Neonatology, University Children's Hospital, Tuebingen, Germany.
    Background: What constitutes a hemodynamically relevant patent ductus arteriosus (hrPDA) in preterm infants is unclear. Different clinical and echocardiographic parameters are used, but a gold standard definition is lacking. Our objective was to evaluate associations between regional cerebral tissue oxygen saturation (rcStO), fraction of tissue oxygen extraction (rcFtOE) measured by frequency domain near-infrared spectroscopy (fd-NIRS) and their correlation to echocardiographic, Doppler-ultrasound, and clinical parameters in preterm infants with and without a hrPDA. Read More

    Clinical and genetic study of 20 patients from China with Cornelia de Lange syndrome.
    BMC Pediatr 2018 Feb 16;18(1):64. Epub 2018 Feb 16.
    National Key Laboratory of Medical Genetics of Central South University, Changsha, Hunan, 410008, China.
    Background: Cornelia de Lange syndrome (CdLS) is a rare congenital syndrome with no racial difference. The objective of this study is to report the clinical characteristics and genetic study of 20 CdLS cases from China.

    Methods: This is an observational study. Read More

    Assessing retention in care after 12 months of the Pediatric Development Clinic implementation in rural Rwanda: a retrospective cohort study.
    BMC Pediatr 2018 Feb 16;18(1):65. Epub 2018 Feb 16.
    Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USA.
    Background: In Africa, a high proportion of children are at risk for developmental delay. Early interventions are known to improve outcomes, but they are not routinely available. The Rwandan Ministry of Health with Partners In Health/Inshuti Mu Buzima created the Pediatric Development Clinic (PDC) model for providing interdisciplinary developmental care for high-risk infants in rural settings. Read More

    Histologic chorioamnionitis in preterm infants: correlation with brain magnetic resonance imaging at term equivalent age.
    BMC Pediatr 2018 Feb 15;18(1):63. Epub 2018 Feb 15.
    Victorian Infant Brain Studies, Murdoch Childrens Research Institute, Melbourne, Australia.
    Background: To explore the associations between histologic chorioamnionitis with brain injury, maturation and size on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of preterm infants at term equivalent age.

    Methods: Preterm infants (23-36 weeks' gestational age) were recruited into two longitudinal cohort studies. Presence or absence of chorioamnionitis was obtained from placental histology and clinical data were recorded. Read More

    Gender-related differences in cardiometabolic risk factors and lifestyle behaviors in treatment-seeking adolescents with severe obesity.
    BMC Pediatr 2018 Feb 14;18(1):61. Epub 2018 Feb 14.
    Morbid Obesity Centre, Vestfold Hospital Trust, Box 2168, 3103, Tønsberg, Norway.
    Background: Obesity during adolescence is associated with cardiovascular mortality in adulthood. The adverse obesity-related cardiometabolic risk profile is already observed in adolescence. We aimed to examine possible gender differences in cardiometabolic risk factors and lifestyle behaviors among adolescents with severe obesity, hypothesizing that boys would have both a higher prevalence of the metabolic syndrome as well as less healthy lifestyle behaviors than girls. Read More

    The comparison of perceived health-related quality of life between Australian children with severe specific language impairment to age and gender-matched peers.
    BMC Pediatr 2018 Feb 14;18(1):62. Epub 2018 Feb 14.
    The Univeristy of Queensland, Brisbane, QLD, 4072, Australia.
    Background: Children with specific language impairment often present with multiple comorbidities, which may adversely affect both participation in play and academic performance, potentially impacting a child's health-related quality of life. This study 1) explored the suitability of the Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory™ Version 4.0 Generic Core Scales (PedsQL™) for use with a typically developing Australian control group, and 2) compared the health-related quality of life between a control group and Australian children with severe specific language impairment. Read More

    Sonographic evaluation of adrenal size in neonates (23 to 41 weeks of gestation).
    BMC Pediatr 2018 Feb 14;18(1):60. Epub 2018 Feb 14.
    Department of Neonatology, Toho University Medical Center, Tokyo, Japan.
    Background: Fetal adrenal gland size is known to have a positive correlation with both gestational age and estimated body weight. In contrast, some clinical observations suggest that maturation of the adrenal stress response occurs after 30 weeks of gestation. In this study, adrenal gland size at birth in extremely preterm to term neonates was investigated using ultrasonography to evaluate the adrenal developmental pattern and the impact of prematurity and perinatal factors. Read More

    Clinical evaluation of two different protein content formulas fed to full-term healthy infants: a randomized controlled trial.
    BMC Pediatr 2018 02 13;18(1):59. Epub 2018 Feb 13.
    Fondazione I.R.C.C.S. Ca Granda Ospedale Maggiore Policlinico, Neonatal Intensive Care Unit Department of Clinical Science and Community Health, University of Milan, Milan, Italy.
    Background: A high early protein intake is associated with rapid postnatal weight gain and altered body composition. We aimed to evaluate the safety of a low-protein formula in healthy full-term infants.

    Methods: A randomized controlled trial was conducted. Read More

    Measuring empathy in pediatrics: validation of the Visual CARE measure.
    BMC Pediatr 2018 02 13;18(1):57. Epub 2018 Feb 13.
    Department of Clinical and Experimental Medical Sciences, Unit of Pediatrics, University Hospital of Udine, ASUI Udine, Pediatria, P.zzale S. Maria Misericordia 1, 33100, Udine, Italy.
    Background: Empathy is a key element of "Patient and Family Centered Care", a clinical approach recommended by the American Academy of Pediatrics. However, there is a lack of validated tools to evaluate paediatrician empathy. This study aimed to validate the Visual CARE Measure, a patient rated questionnaire measuring physician empathy, in the setting of a Pediatric Emergency Department (ED). Read More

    BCG vaccination in southern rural Mozambique: an overview of coverage and its determinants based on data from the demographic and health surveillance system in the district of Manhiça.
    BMC Pediatr 2018 02 13;18(1):56. Epub 2018 Feb 13.
    ISGlobal, Barcelona Ctr. Int. Health Res. (CRESIB), Hospital Clínic-Universitat de Barcelona, C/Rosselló 132, 08036, Barcelona, Spain.
    Background: Over the past four decades, the World Health Organization established the Expanded Programme on Immunization (EPI) to foster universal access to all relevant vaccines for all children at risk. The success of this program has been undeniable, but requires periodic monitoring to ensure that coverage rates remain high. The aim of this study was to measure the BCG vaccination coverage in Manhiça district, a high TB burden rural area of Southern Mozambique and to investigate factors that may be associated with BCG vaccination. Read More

    Elevated central venous pressure is associated with increased mortality in pediatric septic shock patients.
    BMC Pediatr 2018 02 13;18(1):58. Epub 2018 Feb 13.
    Division of Pediatric Critical Care Medicine, Department of Pediatrics, Asan Medical Center Children's Hospital, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, 388-1 Pungnap-2 dong, Songpa-gu, Seoul, 138-736, Republic of Korea.
    Background: Central venous pressure (CVP) is an important factor affecting capillary blood flow, and it is associated with poor outcomes in adult septic shock patients. However, whether a similar association exists in pediatric patients remains unclear.

    Methods: We retrospectively analyzed data from patients admitted to our pediatric intensive care unit (PICU) between February 2009 and July 2015. Read More

    Case report of severe myocarditis in an immunocompromised child with Respiratory Syncytial Virus infection.
    BMC Pediatr 2018 02 12;18(1):51. Epub 2018 Feb 12.
    Department of Pediatrics, Fujita Health University School of Medicine, 1-98, Dengakugakubo, Kutsukake-cho, Toyoake, Aichi, 470-1192, Japan.
    Background: Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infection is common and may be severe among patients with preexisting cardiac anomalies, but direct involvement of myocardial damage is not common in those patients. Additionally, myocardial involvement has been rarely described among immune compromised children.

    Case Presentation: A 4-year-old girl with acute lymphoblastic leukemia who received maintenance chemotherapy in an outpatient clinic developed systemic inflammatory response syndrome. Read More

    Benefits of starting hypothermia treatment within 6 h vs. 6-12 h in newborns with moderate neonatal hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy.
    BMC Pediatr 2018 02 12;18(1):50. Epub 2018 Feb 12.
    Department of Neonatology, The Affiliated Hospital of Southwest Medical University, Luzhou, 646000, China.
    Background: It has been suggested that mild hypothermia treatment of hypoxia-ischemic encephalopathy (HIE) should start within 6 h after HIE, but many children are admitted to the hospital > 6 h, particularly in developing areas. We aimed to determine whether hypothermia treatment could remain effective within 12 h after birth.

    Methods: According to their admission, 152 newborns were enrolled in the < 6 h and 6-12 h after HIE groups. Read More

    The accuracy of parent-reported height and weight for 6-12 year old U.S. children.
    BMC Pediatr 2018 02 12;18(1):52. Epub 2018 Feb 12.
    Department of Pediatrics, University of Washington School of Medicine, M/S CW8-6, PO Box 5371, Seattle, WA, 98145-5005, USA.
    Background: Previous studies have examined correlations between BMI calculated using parent-reported and directly-measured child height and weight. The objective of this study was to validate correction factors for parent-reported child measurements.

    Methods: Concordance between parent-reported and investigator measured child height, weight, and BMI (kg/m) among participants in the Neighborhood Impact on Kids Study (n = 616) was examined using the Lin coefficient, where a value of ±1. Read More

    Early-onset neonatal hyperkalemia associated with maternal hypermagnesemia: a case report.
    BMC Pediatr 2018 02 13;18(1):55. Epub 2018 Feb 13.
    Division of Neonatology, Kumamoto University Hospital, 1-1-1 Honjo, Chuo-ku, Kumamoto, 860-8556, Japan.
    Background: Neonatal nonoliguric hyperkalemia (NOHK) is a metabolic abnormality that occurs in extremely premature neonates at approximately 24 h after birth and is mainly due to the immature functioning of the sodium (Na)/potassium (K) pump. Magnesium sulfate is frequently used in obstetrical practice to prevent preterm labor and to treat preeclampsia; this medication can also cause hypermagnesemia and hyperkalemia by a mechanism that is different from that of NOHK. Herein, we report the first case of very early-onset neonatal hyperkalemia induced by maternal hypermagnesemia. Read More

    Assessment of peripheral blood lymphocyte subsets in children with iron deficiency anemia.
    BMC Pediatr 2018 02 12;18(1):49. Epub 2018 Feb 12.
    Peditretic Department, Faculty of Medicine, Minia University, El Minya, 61511, Egypt.
    Background: Iron plays an important role in body defense and essential for normal immune system development where its deficiency may result in an inadequate immune response. We aimed to assess the lymphocyte subsets in childhood iron deficiency anemia (IDA) with their laboratory correlations.

    Methods: Fifty IDA (< 18 years) and 25 age and sex-matched healthy children were enrolled and a complete history was obtained and clinical examination was performed. Read More

    An infant formula containing dairy lipids increased red blood cell membrane Omega 3 fatty acids in 4 month-old healthy newborns: a randomized controlled trial.
    BMC Pediatr 2018 02 13;18(1):53. Epub 2018 Feb 13.
    Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (NICU), Department of Clinical Science and Community Health, Fondazione IRCCS "Ca' Granda" Ospedale Maggiore Policlinico, University of Milan, Milan, Italy.
    Background: When breastfeeding is not possible, infants are fed formulas (IF) in which lipids are usually of plant origin. However, the use of dairy fat in combination with plant oils enables a lipid profile closer to breast milk in terms of fatty acid (FA) composition, triglyceride structure, polar lipids and cholesterol contents. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of an IF containing a mix of dairy fat and plant oils on Omega-3 FA content in red blood cells (RBC). Read More

    Elevated blood pressure among primary school children in Dar es salaam, Tanzania: prevalence and risk factors.
    BMC Pediatr 2018 02 13;18(1):54. Epub 2018 Feb 13.
    Department of Physiology, Muhimbili University of Health and Allied Sciences, Dar es Salaam, Tanzania.
    Background: Whilst the burden of non-communicable diseases is increasing in developing countries, little data is available on blood pressure among Tanzanian children. This study aimed at determining the blood pressure profiles and risk factors associated with elevated blood pressure among primary school children in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania.

    Methods: We conducted a cross sectional survey among 446 children aged 6-17 years from 9 randomly selected primary schools in Dar es Salaam. Read More

    Gastro-oesophageal reflux: a mixed methods study of infants admitted to hospital in the first 12 months following birth in NSW (2000-2011).
    BMC Pediatr 2018 02 12;18(1):30. Epub 2018 Feb 12.
    School of Nursing and Midwifery, Western Sydney University, Locked Bag 1797, Penrith, NSW, 2751, Australia.
    Background: Gastro-oesophageal reflux (GOR) is common in infants. When the condition causes pathological symptoms and/or complications it is considered gastro-oesophageal reflux disease (GORD). It appears to be increasingly diagnosed and causes great distress in the first year of infancy. Read More

    Supporting play exploration and early developmental intervention versus usual care to enhance development outcomes during the transition from the neonatal intensive care unit to home: a pilot randomized controlled trial.
    BMC Pediatr 2018 02 9;18(1):46. Epub 2018 Feb 9.
    Children's Hospital of Richmond, Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, USA.
    Background: While therapy services may start in the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (NICU) there is often a gap in therapy after discharge. Supporting Play Exploration and Early Development Intervention (SPEEDI) supports parents, helping them build capacity to provide developmentally supportive opportunities starting in the NICU and continuing at home. The purpose of this single blinded randomized pilot clinical trial was to evaluate the initial efficacy of SPEEDI to improve early reaching and exploratory problem solving behaviors. Read More

    Barriers and enablers to skin-to-skin contact at birth in healthy neonates - a qualitative study.
    BMC Pediatr 2018 02 9;18(1):48. Epub 2018 Feb 9.
    Department of Neonatology, St. John's Medical College Hospital, Sarjapur Road, Koramangala, Bangalore, 560034, India.
    Background: Skin to skin contact (SSC) at birth is the standard of care for newborns without risk factors. However, implementation of SSC at birth has been far from optimal. A qualitative study was undertaken to determine the barriers, enablers and potential solutions to implementation of SSC at birth in healthy newborn infants in a level III neonatal-care facility in Bangalore, India. Read More

    Barriers to voluntary participation in sport for children: a systematic review.
    BMC Pediatr 2018 02 9;18(1):47. Epub 2018 Feb 9.
    National Institute for Health Research (NIHR) Nottingham Biomedical Research Centre, Ropewalk House, 113 The Ropewalk, Nottingham, NG1 5DU, England.
    Background: Numerous studies have detailed the physical health benefits of children's participation in sport and a growing body of research also highlights the benefits for mental health. Children who participate in sport have also been shown to be advantaged academically. However, despite the benefits there is evidence that children are leading increasingly sedentary lifestyles and are at greater risk of chronic disease than those with active lifestyles. Read More

    Rapid intravenous rehydration of children with acute gastroenteritis and dehydration: a systematic review and meta-analysis.
    BMC Pediatr 2018 02 9;18(1):44. Epub 2018 Feb 9.
    Department of Paediatrics, Faculty of Medicine, Wellcome Trust Centre for Clinical Tropical Medicine, Imperial College, W2 1PG, London, UK.
    Background: The World Health Organization (WHO) recommends rapid intravenous rehydration, using fluid volumes of 70-100mls/kg over 3-6 h, with some of the initial volume given rapidly as initial fluid boluses to treat hypovolaemic shock for children with acute gastroenteritis (AGE) and severe dehydration. The evidence supporting the safety and efficacy of rapid versus slower rehydration remains uncertain.

    Methods: We conducted a systematic review of randomised controlled trials (RCTs) on 11th of May 2017 comparing different rates of intravenous fluid therapy in children with AGE and moderate or severe dehydration, using standard search terms. Read More

    Adherence to guidelines for testing and treatment of children with pharyngitis: a retrospective study.
    BMC Pediatr 2018 02 9;18(1):43. Epub 2018 Feb 9.
    Division of Infectious Diseases, Department of Medicine, Boston Children's Hospital, Harvard Medical School, 300 Longwood Avenue, Boston, MA, 02115, USA.
    Background: Group A streptococcus (GAS) is the most common bacterial etiology of pharyngitis but is difficult to distinguish clinically from viral pharyngitis. There are benefits to early antibacterial treatment of GAS pharyngitis, but administering antibiotics to children with viral pharyngitis is ineffective and costly. We evaluated adherence to guidelines that were developed to help clinicians distinguish between viral and GAS pharyngitis and guide management. Read More

    The relationship of undernutrition/psychosocial factors and developmental outcomes of children in extreme poverty in Ethiopia.
    BMC Pediatr 2018 02 9;18(1):45. Epub 2018 Feb 9.
    REVAL Rehabilitation Research Centre, Biomedical Research Institute, Faculty of Medicine & Life Sciences, Hasselt University, Hasselt, Belgium.
    Background: Extreme poverty is severe deprivation of basic needs and services. Children living in extreme poverty may lack adequate parental care and face increased developmental and health risks. However, there is a paucity of literature on the combined influences of undernutrition and psychosocial factors (such as limited play materials, playground, playtime, interactions of children with their peers and mother-child interaction) on children's developmental outcomes. Read More

    Paediatric pancreaticobiliary endoscopy: a 21-year experience from a tertiary hepatobiliary centre and systematic literature review.
    BMC Pediatr 2018 02 9;18(1):42. Epub 2018 Feb 9.
    Institute for Liver and Digestive Health, University College London, Royal Free Campus, Pond St, London, NW3 2PF, UK.
    Background: In adults ERCP and endoscopic ultrasound (EUS) are standard methods of evaluating and treating many hepatopancreaticobiliary (HPB) conditions. HPB disease is being diagnosed with increasing frequency in children but information about role of ERCP and EUS and their outcomes in this population remain limited. Therefore the aims of this study were to describe the paediatric ERCP and EUS experience from a large tertiary referral HPB centre, and to systematically compare outcomes with those of other published series. Read More

    A physical activity intervention for children with type 1 diabetes- steps to active kids with diabetes (STAK-D): a feasibility study.
    BMC Pediatr 2018 02 7;18(1):37. Epub 2018 Feb 7.
    School of Health Sciences, A Floor, South Block Link, Queen's Medical Centre, University of Nottingham, Nottingham, NG7 2HA, UK.
    Background: This study describes the development and feasibility evaluation of a physical activity intervention for children with type 1 diabetes called 'Steps to Active Kids with Diabetes' (STAK-D). It aims to explore the feasibility and acceptability of the intervention and study design.

    Methods: Thirteen children aged 9-11 years and their parents were recruited from one paediatric diabetes clinic. Read More

    Prenatal and accurate perinatal diagnosis of type 2 H or ductular duplicate gallbladder.
    BMC Pediatr 2018 02 7;18(1):38. Epub 2018 Feb 7.
    UOC Chirurgia Pediatrica, Centro Trapianti Fegato - Fondazione IRCCS Ca' Granda, Ospedale Maggiore Policlinico di Milano, V Francesco Sforza 35, 20121, Milan, Italy.
    Background: Double gallbladder is a rare biliary anomaly. Perinatal diagnosis of the disorder has been reported in only 6 cases, and in 5 of them the diagnosis was based on ultrasound imaging only. However, the ultrasound technique alone does not provide a sufficiently precise description of cystic ducts and biliary anatomy, an information that is crucial for a correct classification and for a possible future surgery. Read More

    Gluten-free diet may improve obstructive sleep apnea-related symptoms in children with celiac disease.
    BMC Pediatr 2018 02 7;18(1):35. Epub 2018 Feb 7.
    Pediatric Gastroenterology Unit, "Dana-Dwek" Children's Hospital, Tel Aviv Sourasky Medical Center, Tel Aviv, Israel.
    Background: Enlarged tonsils and adenoids are the major etiology of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) in children. Lymphatic hyperplasia is common to both OSA and celiac disease. We aimed to investigate the effect of a gluten-free diet on OSA symptoms in children with celiac disease. Read More

    Effects of combat training on visuomotor performance in children aged 9 to 12 years - an eye-tracking study.
    BMC Pediatr 2018 02 7;18(1):39. Epub 2018 Feb 7.
    Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, 5 Fu-Hsing Street, Kwei-Shan, Taoyuan, 333, Taiwan, Republic of China.
    Background: Data on visuomotor performance in combat training and the effects of combat training on visuomotor performance are limited. This study aimed to investigate the effects of a specially designed combat sports (CS) training program on the visuomotor performance levels of children.

    Methods: A pre-post comparative design was implemented. Read More

    Effects of eating dinner alone on overweight in Japanese adolescents: a cross-sectional survey.
    BMC Pediatr 2018 02 7;18(1):36. Epub 2018 Feb 7.
    Department of Public Health, Showa University School of Medicine, 1-5-8 Hatanodai, Shinagawa-ku, Tokyo, 142-8555, Japan.
    Background: The decrease in the frequency of family meals among Asian youth is often lamented. In Japan, adolescents who eat breakfast alone might have an unhealthy diet, which increases the risk of overweight or obese. However, there are few studies on the relationship between eating dinner alone and overweight in Japanese adolescents. Read More

    Prenatal and perinatal risks for late language emergence in a population-level sample of twins at age 2.
    BMC Pediatr 2018 02 7;18(1):41. Epub 2018 Feb 7.
    Telethon Kids Institute, 100 Roberts Rd, Subiaco, WA, 6008, Australia.
    Background: Late Language Emergence (LLE) in the first two years of life is one of the most common parental concerns about child development and reasons for seeking advice from health professionals. LLE is much more prevalent in twins (38%) than singletons (20%). In studies of language development in twins without overt disability, adverse prenatal and perinatal environments have been reported to play a lesser role in the etiology of LLE than adverse postnatal environments. Read More

    Downstream consequences of diagnostic error in pediatric anaphylaxis.
    BMC Pediatr 2018 02 7;18(1):40. Epub 2018 Feb 7.
    School of Clinical Sciences at Monash Health, Monash University, Clayton, Australia.
    Background: Pediatric anaphylaxis is commonly misdiagnosed in the Emergency Department (ED). We aimed to determine the impact of inaccurate diagnosis on the management and follow-up of pediatric anaphylaxis presenting to the ED.

    Methods: Retrospective chart review of ED management of children aged 0-18 years with allergic presentations to three EDs in Melbourne, Australia in 2014. Read More

    Chiari malformation type 1 presenting as unilateral progressive foot drop: a case report and review of literature.
    BMC Pediatr 2018 02 7;18(1):34. Epub 2018 Feb 7.
    University of Kelaniya, Kelaniya, Sri Lanka.
    Background: Foot drop is a disabling clinical condition with multiplicity of causes, which requires detailed evaluation to identify the exact aetiology. Here, we report an extremely rare cause of foot drop in a child, which if not recognized early, could lead to multiple complications.

    Case Presentation: A 6-year-old girl presented with difficulty in walking and left sided foot droop for1-month duration. Read More

    Teaching children road safety through storybooks: an approach to child health literacy in Pakistan.
    BMC Pediatr 2018 02 7;18(1):31. Epub 2018 Feb 7.
    Aga Khan University Hospital, Karachi, Pakistan.
    Background: Road traffic injuries (RTIs) commonly affect the younger population in low- and-middle-income countries. School children may be educated about road safety using storybooks with colorful pictures, which tends to increase the child's interest in the text. Therefore, this study assessed the use of bilingual pictorial storybooks to improve RTI prevention knowledge among school children. Read More

    Observations on the health of infants at a time of rapid societal change: a longitudinal study from birth to fifteen months in Abu Dhabi.
    BMC Pediatr 2018 02 7;18(1):32. Epub 2018 Feb 7.
    School of Molecular Sciences, University of Western Australia, Crawley, WA, 6009, Australia.
    Background: Rapid economic and cultural transition in the United Arab Emirates has been accompanied by a rise in chronic disease. Early childhood is known to affect health outcomes in adulthood. This prospective longitudinal study examined the general health of Emirati infants born in a government maternity hospital in the Emirate of Abu Dhabi in October 2002. Read More

    Performance of anthropometric indicators as predictors of metabolic syndrome in Brazilian adolescents.
    BMC Pediatr 2018 02 7;18(1):33. Epub 2018 Feb 7.
    Universidade Norte do Paraná (UNOPAR), Centro de Pesquisa em Ciências da Saúde. Rua Marselha, 591, Bairro Piza, CEP: 86.041-140, Londrina, PR, Brasil.
    Background: It is not clear which is the best anthropometric indicator to predict metabolic syndrome (MetS) in adolescents. Our objective was to identify the predictive power, with respective cut-off points, of anthropometric indicators associated with the quantity and distribution of body fat for the presence of MetS and to determine the strength of the association between the proposed cut-off points and MetS in adolescents.

    Methods: The sample consisted of 1035 adolescents (565 girls and 470 boys) aged between 12 and 20 years. Read More

    Effect of the 2015 earthquake on pediatric inpatient pattern at a tertiary care hospital in Nepal.
    BMC Pediatr 2018 02 5;18(1):28. Epub 2018 Feb 5.
    American International Medical University, Gros Islet, Saint Lucia.
    Background: Earthquakes impact child health in many ways. Diseases occurring immediately following an earthquake have been studied in field based hospitals but studies on the inpatient disease pattern among children without trauma in a permanent hospital setup is lacking.

    Methods: We examined the diagnoses of all children without trauma, admitted to Kanti Children's Hospital, Kathmandu for fifteen-week duration (from 4th week to end of the 18th week) following the 7. Read More

    Effects of home-based play-assisted stimulation on developmental performances of children living in extreme poverty: a randomized single-blind controlled trial.
    BMC Pediatr 2018 02 5;18(1):29. Epub 2018 Feb 5.
    REVAL Rehabilitation Research Centre, Biomedical Research Institute, Faculty of Medicine & Life Sciences, Hasselt University, Hasselt, Belgium.
    Background: Children living with foster families in a resource-limited setting such as Ethiopia are at risk of developmental problems. It is not yet clear whether intensive home-based developmental stimulation assisted by play can reduce these problems. The main objective of this study was to examine the effects of play-assisted intervention integrated into basic services on the developmental performance of children living with foster families in extreme poverty. Read More

    Prevalence and factors associated with sleep disorders among children with cerebral palsy in Uganda; a cross-sectional study.
    BMC Pediatr 2018 02 5;18(1):26. Epub 2018 Feb 5.
    Department of Pediatrics, School of Medicine, Makerere University College of Health Sciences, P.O. Box 7072, Kampala, Uganda.
    Background: Sleep plays a prominent role in the growth and development of children. Children with cerebral palsy (CP) are more prone to sleep disorders (SDs) than their peers. Children with CP, have a higher prevalence of disorders involving; initiation and maintenance of sleep, sleep-wake transition, excessive sleepiness and arousal. Read More

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