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    Ultrasonographic parameters of the liver, spleen and kidneys among a cohort of school children in Sri Lanka.
    BMC Pediatr 2017 Nov 16;17(1):192. Epub 2017 Nov 16.
    Department of Public Health, Faculty of Medicine, University of Kelaniya, Thalagolla, Ragama, 11010, Sri Lanka.
    Background: Liver, spleen and kidney dimensions on ultrasonography vary with the age, weight and ethnicity. Reference standards of these parameters for normal Sri Lankan children are not available. Our aim was to establish normative data for longitudinal length of liver, spleen and kidneys in healthy children. Read More

    Hepatic paragonimiasis in a 15-month-old girl: a case report.
    BMC Pediatr 2017 Nov 15;17(1):190. Epub 2017 Nov 15.
    Department of Pediatrics, West China Second University Hospital, Sichuan University, No. 20,3rd Section of Renmin South Road, Chengdu, 610041, China.
    Background: Paragonimiasis, particularly hepatic paragonimiasis (HP), is a type of zoonotic parasitic disease rarely encountered in infants. There have been only a few reports of HP, and no case of HP has been reported in an infant.

    Case Presentation: A 15-month-old girl presented with persistent mild fever with a duration of 1 month, hepatomegaly, and low-density lesions in the right hepatic lobe on abdominal ultrasound and computer tomography. Read More

    Health, nutrition, and development of children born preterm and low birth weight in rural Rwanda: a cross-sectional study.
    BMC Pediatr 2017 Nov 15;17(1):191. Epub 2017 Nov 15.
    Partners In Health/Inshuti Mu Buzima, Rwinkwavu, Rwanda.
    Background: As care for preterm and low birth weight (LBW) infants improves in resource-limited settings, more infants are surviving the neonatal period. Preterm and (LBW) infants are at high-risk of nutritional and medical comorbidities, yet little is known about their developmental outcomes in low-income countries. This study evaluated the health, nutritional, and developmental status of preterm/LBW children at ages 1-3 years in Rwanda. Read More

    Improved referral and survival of newborns after scaling up of intensive care in Suriname.
    BMC Pediatr 2017 Nov 14;17(1):189. Epub 2017 Nov 14.
    Academic Pediatric Center Suriname, Academic Hospital Paramaribo, Flustraat 1, Paramaribo, Suriname.
    Background: Scaling up neonatal care facilities in developing countries can improve survival of newborns. Recently, the only tertiary neonatal care facility in Suriname transitioned to a modern environment in which interventions to improve intensive care were performed. This study evaluates impact of this transition on referral pattern and outcomes of newborns. Read More

    Trends in diagnostic approaches for pediatric appendicitis: nationwide population-based study.
    BMC Pediatr 2017 Nov 3;17(1):188. Epub 2017 Nov 3.
    Division of Pediatric Gastroenterology, Department of Pediatrics, Chang Gung Children's Medical Center, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Chang Gung University College of Medicine, 5 Fu-Hsing Street, Guishan Dist, Taoyuan City, 33305, Taiwan.
    Background: To define the benefits of different methods for diagnosis of pediatric appendicitis in Taiwan, a nationwide cohort study was used for analysis.

    Methods: We identified 44,529 patients under 18 years old who had been hospitalized with a diagnosis of acute appendicitis between 2003 and 2012. We analyzed the percentages of cases in which ultrasound (US) and/or computed tomography (CT) were performed and non-perforated and perforated appendicitis were diagnosed for each year. Read More

    Knowledge, attitudes, and practices of pediatricians on infantile colic in the Middle East and North Africa region.
    BMC Pediatr 2017 Oct 23;17(1):187. Epub 2017 Oct 23.
    Department of Pediatric University of Bari Ospedale Pediatrico Giovanni XXIII Hospital, Via Amendola 270, 70126, Bari, Italy.
    Background: Regional evidence-based guidelines for the prophylaxis and management of infantile colic are not available for the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) region. The Allied Against Infantile Functional GI Disorders (ACT) Working Group was created in January, 2015 to determine the knowledge gaps and the current management practices of infantile colic by physicians in the MENA region. The ACT group determined the need for a survey to address these questions. Read More

    Umbilical cord bilirubin as a predictor of neonatal jaundice: a retrospective cohort study.
    BMC Pediatr 2017 Sep 20;17(1):186. Epub 2017 Sep 20.
    Neonatal Unit, Homerton University Hospital NHS Foundation Trust, London, UK.
    Background: Hyperbilirubinaemia is a major cause of neonatal morbidity. Early identification of those infants most at risk might allow the development of targeted primary preventative therapy and follow-up. The objective of this study was to assess whether arterial umbilical cord bilirubin (aUCB) level at delivery predicts the development of neonatal jaundice in term deliveries. Read More

    The influence of socioeconomic factors on choice of infant male circumcision provider in rural Ghana; a community level population based study.
    BMC Pediatr 2017 Aug 29;17(1):185. Epub 2017 Aug 29.
    Division of Paediatrics, Faculty of Health and Medical Sciences, University of Western Australia, Level 4, Administration Building, Princess Margaret Hospital for Children, Perth, WA, 6008, Australia.
    Background: The influence of socio-economic determinants on choice of infant male circumcision provider is not known in areas with high population coverage such as rural Africa. The overall aim of this study was to determine the key socio-economic factors which influence the choice of infant male circumcision provider in rural Ghana.

    Methods: The study investigated the effect of family income, distance to health facility, and cost of the circumcision on choice of infant male circumcision provider in rural Ghana. Read More

    Gestational age at birth and behavioral problems from four to 11 years of age: birth cohort study.
    BMC Pediatr 2017 Aug 23;17(1):184. Epub 2017 Aug 23.
    Department of Preventive Medicine, University of São Paulo, São Paulo, SP, Brazil.
    Background: Studies conducted mainly in high-income countries have shown that preterm births are associated with increased risk of behavioral problems and psychiatric disorders. The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of behavioral problems from middle-childhood to early-adolescence according to gestational age at birth in a middle-income setting.

    Methods: A population-based birth cohort (n = 4231) in Pelotas, Brazil, was followed-up in several occasions from birth to 11 years. Read More

    Quality of life and trust among young people with narcolepsy and their families, after the Pandemrix® vaccination: protocol for a case-control study.
    BMC Pediatr 2017 Aug 23;17(1):183. Epub 2017 Aug 23.
    Faculty of Medicine and Health, School of Health Sciences, Örebro University, S-70182, Örebro, Sweden.
    Background: The extensive vaccination programme against swine flu resulted in an increased incidence of narcolepsy among children and adolescents. There is a need to explore if these young persons' experiences have affected their trust in healthcare, their willingness to participate in future prevention programmes, and their contacts with the healthcare system. The overall aim is to identify factors important for the life-situation of children and adolescents with narcolepsy and their families, and factors that correlate with trust in healthcare. Read More

    Emerging (val)ganciclovir resistance during treatment of congenital CMV infection: a case report and review of the literature.
    BMC Pediatr 2017 Aug 22;17(1):181. Epub 2017 Aug 22.
    Paediatric Infectious Diseases and Immunology Department, Great North Children's Hospital, Queen Victoria Road, Newcastle upon Tyne, NE1 4LP, UK.
    Background: Congenital cytomegalovirus (cCMV) infection is an important illness that is a common cause of hearing loss in newborn infants and a major cause of disability in children. For that reason, treatment of symptomatic patients with either ganciclovir or its pro-drug valganciclovir is recommended. Treatment duration of 6 months has been shown to be more beneficial than shorter courses; however, there is uncertainty regarding emergence of resistance strains, secondary effects and long term sequelae. Read More

    Factors associated with diarrheal morbidity among under-five children in Jigjiga town, Somali Regional State, eastern Ethiopia: a cross-sectional study.
    BMC Pediatr 2017 Aug 23;17(1):182. Epub 2017 Aug 23.
    Epidemiology and Biostatistics Unit, Department of Public Health, College of Medicine and Health Sciences, Jigjiga University, Jigjiga, Somali Regional State, Ethiopia.
    Background: The prevalence of underfive diarrhea in Somali Regional State, Ethiopia is one of the highest in the country. This study attempted to examine the multiple factors associated with underfive diarrhea and how they might influence its prevalence in Jigjiga, Somali regional state, Ethiopia.

    Methods: A community based cross-sectional study was conducted from February 15 to 28, 2015. Read More

    Sclerosing mesenteritis in a 5-year-old Chinese boy: a case report.
    BMC Pediatr 2017 Aug 1;17(1):179. Epub 2017 Aug 1.
    Department of Gastroenterology, Guangzhou Women and Children's Medical Center, 9 Jinsui Road, Guangzhou, 510623, China.
    Background: Sclerosing mesenteritis is a rare fibroinflammatory disorder of unknown etiology that primarily affects the mesentery of the small intestine during late adult life. Only about twenty pediatric cases have been reported to date, but none has been reported in Chinese children.

    Case Presentation: A 5-year-old Chinese male presented with a 4-week history of recurrent bloating, abdominal pain, anorexia and vomiting. Read More

    The role of cognitive stimulation at home in low-income preschoolers' nutrition, physical activity and body mass index.
    BMC Pediatr 2017 Aug 1;17(1):178. Epub 2017 Aug 1.
    Mailman School of Public Health, Columbia University, New York, NY, USA.
    Background: Early childhood obesity disproportionately affects children of low socioeconomic status. Children attending Head Start are reported to have an obesity rate of 17.9%. Read More

    Determinants of overweight with concurrent stunting among Ghanaian children.
    BMC Pediatr 2017 Jul 27;17(1):177. Epub 2017 Jul 27.
    Department of Population, Family and Reproductive Health, School of Public Health, College of Health Sciences, University of Ghana, Accra, Ghana.
    Background: Malnutrition (undernutrition and overnutrition) is a major public health problem in Ghana -affecting growth and development of individuals and the nation. Stunting and overweight are of particular interest, as recent national surveys show a rising trend of overnutrition and stubbornly high burden of stunting among Ghanaian children. There are currently no data on the simultaneous occurrence of overweight and stunting within individuals in Ghana. Read More

    Determinants of stunting and severe stunting among Burundian children aged 6-23 months: evidence from a national cross-sectional household survey, 2014.
    BMC Pediatr 2017 Jul 25;17(1):176. Epub 2017 Jul 25.
    Health Economics Unit, Department of Public Health, Institute of Tropical Medicine, Nationalestraat 155, 2000, Antwerp, Belgium.
    Background: Burundi is one of the poorest countries and is among the four countries with the highest prevalence of stunting (58%) among children aged less than 5 years. This situation undermines the economic growth of the country as undernutrition is strongly associated with less schooling and reduced economic productivity. Identifying the determinants of stunting and severe stunting may help policy-makers to direct the limited Burundian resources to the most vulnerable segments of the population, and thus make it more cost effective. Read More

    Recurrent c.G1636A (p.G546S) mutation of COL2A1 in a Chinese family with skeletal dysplasia and different metaphyseal changes: a case report.
    BMC Pediatr 2017 Jul 24;17(1):175. Epub 2017 Jul 24.
    United Diagnostic and Research Center for Clinical Genetics, School of Public Health of Xiamen University & Xiamen Maternal and Child Health Hospital, Xiamen, Fujian, China.
    Background: Mutations in the COL2A1 gene cause type II collagenopathies characterized by skeletal dysplasia with a wide spectrum of phenotypic severity. Most COL2A1 mutations located in the triple-helical region, and the glycine to bulky amino acid substitutions (e.g. Read More

    Brain biomarkers and pre-injury cognition are associated with long-term cognitive outcome in children with traumatic brain injury.
    BMC Pediatr 2017 Jul 24;17(1):173. Epub 2017 Jul 24.
    Program in Neuroscience & Mental Health, The Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto, Canada.
    Background: Children with traumatic brain injury (TBI) are frequently at risk of long-term impairments of attention and executive functioning but these problems are difficult to predict. Although deficits have been reported to vary with injury severity, age at injury and sex, prognostication of outcome remains imperfect at a patient-specific level. The objective of this proof of principle study was to evaluate a variety of patient variables, along with six brain-specific and inflammatory serum protein biomarkers, as predictors of long-term cognitive outcome following paediatric TBI. Read More

    Health-related quality of life and pain in children and adolescents: a school survey.
    BMC Pediatr 2017 Jul 24;17(1):174. Epub 2017 Jul 24.
    Faculty of Health- and Sport Sciences, University of Agder, P.O box 422, 4604, Kristiansand, Norway.
    Background: Pain problems are common in children and adolescents. Measures of health-related quality of life (HRQoL) can be used to assess children's subjective perspectives of pain experience and its impact on their life. The aims of the study were to describe HRQoL and the prevalence of pain in a nonclinical population of children and adolescents, and to analyze the relationships between HRQoL, pain, sex, and age in a sample of children and adolescents aged 8-18 years. Read More

    Reduced glutathione and glutathione disulfide in the blood of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase-deficient newborns.
    BMC Pediatr 2017 Jul 20;17(1):172. Epub 2017 Jul 20.
    Neonatal screening center, Shanghai Children's Hospital, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai, China.
    Background: Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency is commonly detected during mass screening for neonatal disease. We developed a method to measure reduced glutathione (GSH) and glutathione disulfide (GSSG) using tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) for detecting G6PD deficiency.

    Methods: The concentration of GSH and the GSH/GSSG ratio in newborn dry-blood-spot (DBS) screening and in blood plus sodium citrate for test confirmation were examined by MS/MS using labeled glycine as an internal standard. Read More

    Individual contextual factors in the validation of the Bernese pain scale for neonates: protocol for a prospective observational study.
    BMC Pediatr 2017 Jul 19;17(1):171. Epub 2017 Jul 19.
    Department of Neonatology, Children's University Hospital, Bern, Switzerland.
    Background: The Bernese Pain Scale for Neonates (BPSN) is a multidimensional pain assessment tool that is already widely used in clinical settings in the German speaking areas of Europe. Recent findings indicate that pain responses in preterm neonates are influenced by individual contextual factors, such as gestational age (GA), gender and the number of painful procedures experienced. Currently, the BPSN does not consider individual contextual factors. Read More

    The role of peer victimization in the physical activity and screen time of adolescents: a cross-sectional study.
    BMC Pediatr 2017 Jul 19;17(1):170. Epub 2017 Jul 19.
    School of Public Health and Health Systems, University of Waterloo, Waterloo, Canada.
    Background: Negative peer experiences may lead adolescents with overweight and obesity to be less active and engage in more sitting-related behaviors. Our study is among the first to empirically test these associations and hypothesized that 1) peer victimization would mediate the negative association between body weight status and moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA), and 2) peer victimization would mediate the positive association between body weight status and screen time. Differences by gender were also explored. Read More

    My child cannot breathe while sleeping: a report of three cases and review.
    BMC Pediatr 2017 Jul 18;17(1):169. Epub 2017 Jul 18.
    Department of Pediatrics, CHA Bundang Medical Center, CHA University, 59 Yatapro, Seongnam, 13496 GyungGi Province, Korea.
    Background: Sudden breath-holding episodes during sleep in young children are potentially related to sudden infant death syndrome and other life-threatening events. Additionally, these episodes can negatively affect child's growth and development.

    Case Presentation: Here, we present 3 cases of preschool children with similar paroxysmal nocturnal waking events associated with choking that had different etiologies (nocturnal frontal lobe epilepsy, nocturnal gastroesophageal reflux disease, and parasomnia, respectively). Read More

    Impact of a nurse led telephone intervention on satisfaction and health outcomes of children with inflammatory rheumatic diseases and their families: a crossover randomized clinical trial.
    BMC Pediatr 2017 Jul 17;17(1):168. Epub 2017 Jul 17.
    Pediatric Medico-chirurgical Department of University Hospital of Lausanne, CHUV, Rue du Bugnon 21, 1011, Lausanne, Switzerland.
    Background: Children suffering from rheumatic disease are faced with multidimensional challenges that affect their quality of life and family dynamics. Symptom management and monitoring of the course of the disease over time are important to minimize disability and pain. Poor disease control and anticipation of the need for treatment changes may be prompted by specialist medical follow-up and regular nurse-led consultations with the patient and families, in which information and support is provided. Read More

    Prediction of Extubation readiness in extremely preterm infants by the automated analysis of cardiorespiratory behavior: study protocol.
    BMC Pediatr 2017 Jul 17;17(1):167. Epub 2017 Jul 17.
    Department of Pediatrics, Division of Neonatology, Montreal Children's Hospital, McGill University, 1001 Boul. Décarie, room B05.2714. Montreal, Quebec, H4A 3J1, Canada.
    Background: Extremely preterm infants (≤ 28 weeks gestation) commonly require endotracheal intubation and mechanical ventilation (MV) to maintain adequate oxygenation and gas exchange. Given that MV is independently associated with important adverse outcomes, efforts should be made to limit its duration. However, current methods for determining extubation readiness are inaccurate and a significant number of infants fail extubation and require reintubation, an intervention that may be associated with increased morbidities. Read More

    Comparing very low birth weight versus very low gestation cohort methods for outcome analysis of high risk preterm infants.
    BMC Pediatr 2017 Jul 14;17(1):166. Epub 2017 Jul 14.
    Faculty of Health Science, University of Technology Sydney, Sydney, NSW, Australia.
    Background: Compared to very low gestational age (<32 weeks, VLGA) cohorts, very low birth weight (<1500 g; VLBW) cohorts are more prone to selection bias toward small-for-gestational age (SGA) infants, which may impact upon the validity of data for benchmarking purposes.

    Method: Data from all VLGA or VLBW infants admitted in the 3 Networks between 2008 and 2011 were used. Two-thirds of each network cohort was randomly selected to develop prediction models for mortality and composite adverse outcome (CAO: mortality or cerebral injuries, chronic lung disease, severe retinopathy or necrotizing enterocolitis) and the remaining for internal validation. Read More

    Study protocol: safety and efficacy of propranolol 0.2% eye drops in newborns with a precocious stage of retinopathy of prematurity (DROP-ROP-0.2%): a multicenter, open-label, single arm, phase II trial.
    BMC Pediatr 2017 Jul 14;17(1):165. Epub 2017 Jul 14.
    Neonatal Intensive Care Unit, Fondazione IRCCS Cà Granda Ospedale Maggiore Policlinico, Università degli Studi di Milano, Milan, Italy.
    Background: Retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) still represents one of the leading causes of visual impairment in childhood. Systemic propranolol has proven to be effective in reducing ROP progression in preterm newborns, although safety was not sufficiently guaranteed. On the contrary, topical treatment with propranolol eye micro-drops at a concentration of 0. Read More

    Changes in hepatitis B virus antibody titers over time among children: a single center study from 2012 to 2015 in an urban of South Korea.
    BMC Pediatr 2017 Jul 14;17(1):164. Epub 2017 Jul 14.
    Department of Pediatrics, Chung-Ang University Hospital, 102 Heukseok-ro, Dongjak-gu, Seoul, 06973, Republic of Korea.
    Background: Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is the most common cause of liver disease in endemic areas such as South Korea. After HBV vaccination, hepatitis B surface antibody (HBsAb) titers gradually decrease. Trends in HBsAb titers have not been evaluated among children in South Korea over the past decade. Read More

    Nursing & parental perceptions of neonatal care in Central Vietnam: a longitudinal qualitative study.
    BMC Pediatr 2017 Jul 11;17(1):161. Epub 2017 Jul 11.
    Pediatric Intensive Care, Royal Brompton and Harefield NHS Trust, London, UK.
    Background: Neonatal mortality accounts for nearly three quarters of all infant deaths in Vietnam. The nursing team are the largest professional group working with newborns, however do not routinely receive neonatal training and there is a lack of research into the impact of educational provision. This study explored changes in nursing perceptions towards their role following a neonatal educational intervention. Read More

    Using LMS tables to determine waist circumference and waist-to-height ratios in Colombian children and adolescents: the FUPRECOL study.
    BMC Pediatr 2017 Jul 11;17(1):162. Epub 2017 Jul 11.
    Laboratorio de Ciencias de la Actividad Física, el Deporte y la Salud, Facultad de Ciencias Médicas, Universidad de Santiago de Chile, USACH, Santiago, Chile.
    Background: Waist circumference (WC) and waist-to-height ratio (WHtR) are often used as indices predictive of central obesity. The aims of this study were: 1) to obtain smoothed centile charts and LMS tables for WC and WHtR among Colombian children and adolescents; 2) to evaluate the utility of these parameters as predictors of overweight and obesity.

    Method: A cross-sectional study was conducted of a sample population of 7954 healthy Colombian schoolchildren [3460 boys and 4494 girls, mean age 12. Read More

    The role of family and school-level factors in bullying and cyberbullying: a cross-sectional study.
    BMC Pediatr 2017 Jul 11;17(1):160. Epub 2017 Jul 11.
    UCL Institute of Child Health, Population, Policy and Practice Programme, 30 Guilford Street, WC1N 1EH, London, UK.
    Background: Bullying and cyberbullying are common phenomena in schools. These negative behaviours can have a significant impact on the health and particularly mental health of those involved in such behaviours, both as victims and as bullies. This UK study aims to investigate student-level and school-level characteristics of those who become involved in bullying and cyberbullying behaviours as victims or perpetrators. Read More

    Early characteristics of infants with pulmonary hypertension in a referral neonatal intensive care unit.
    BMC Pediatr 2017 Jul 11;17(1):163. Epub 2017 Jul 11.
    Pediatrics, Emory University School of Medicine, Atlanta, GA, USA.
    Background: Approximately 8-23% of premature infants develop pulmonary hypertension (PH), and this diagnosis confers a higher possibility of mortality. As a result, professional societies recommend PH screening in premature infants. However, the risk factors for and the outcomes of PH may differ depending on the timing of its diagnosis, and little evidence is available to determine at-risk infants in the referral neonatal population. Read More

    Effectiveness of rotavirus vaccines against hospitalisations in Japan.
    BMC Pediatr 2017 Jul 11;17(1):156. Epub 2017 Jul 11.
    Department of Pediatrics, Akita University Graduate School of Medicine, Hondo 1-1-1, Akita, 010-8543, Japan.
    Background: In Japan, rotavirus hospitalisation occurs at a rate from 2.8 to 13.7 per 1000 child-years among children age less than 5 years, and it imposes a substantial burden to the healthcare system in the country. Read More

    Knowledge and practice of immediate newborn care among health care providers in eastern zone public health facilities, Tigray, Ethiopia, 2016.
    BMC Pediatr 2017 Jul 11;17(1):157. Epub 2017 Jul 11.
    Department of Midwifery, College of Medicine and Health Sciences, Adigrat University, Adigrat, Ethiopia.
    Background: According to WHO (2013) report the number of under five-year mortality in Ethiopia was 195,504, out of this 84,437 was from neonatal death and this mortality is related to immediate obstetric and newborn care of babies provided by health care providers; But little was known about the level of knowledge and practice related to immediate newborn care and their associated factors among health care providers generally in Tigray region and specifically in the Eastern Zone so the aim of this study was to assess knowledge and practice of immediate newborn care and associated factors among health care providers in the Eastern zone public health facilities, Tigray, Ethiopia.

    Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted from December 2015 to February 2016. A total of 16 health care facilities were selected for study using simple random sampling techniques and all health care providers in the selected health care facilities who participated in immediate newborn care were involved in the study. Read More

    Descriptive analysis of cochrane child-relevant systematic reviews: an update and comparison between 2009 and 2013.
    BMC Pediatr 2017 Jul 11;17(1):155. Epub 2017 Jul 11.
    Cochrane Child Health, The Cochrane Collaboration, Department of Pediatrics, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Canada.
    Background: Systematic reviews support health systems and clinical decision-making by identifying and summarizing all existing studies on a particular topic. In 2009, a comprehensive description of child-relevant systematic reviews published in the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews was compiled. This study aims to provide an update, and to describe these systematic reviews according to their content and methodological approaches. Read More

    Screening for glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency in neonates: a comparison between cord and peripheral blood samples.
    BMC Pediatr 2017 Jul 11;17(1):159. Epub 2017 Jul 11.
    Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, King Abdulaziz Medical City, Ministry of National Guard Health Affairs, P.O. Box 22490, Riyadh, 11426, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.
    Background: The use of cord blood in the neonatal screening for glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency is being done with increasing frequency but has yet to be adequately evaluated against the use of peripheral blood sample which is usually employed for confirmation. We sought to determine the incidence and gender distribution of G6PD deficiency, and compare the results of cord against peripheral blood in identifying G6PD DEFICIENCY neonates using quantitative enzyme activity assay.

    Methods: We carried out a retrospective and cross-sectional study employing review of primary hospital data of neonates born in a tertiary care center from January to December 2008. Read More

    Transition to parenthood in the neonatal care unit: a qualitative study and conceptual model designed to illuminate parent and professional views of the impact of webcam technology.
    BMC Pediatr 2017 Jul 11;17(1):158. Epub 2017 Jul 11.
    Victoria Hospital, NHS Fife, Hayfield Road, Kirkcaldy, KY2 5AH, Scotland.
    Background: Complications during pregnancy, childbirth and/or the postnatal period may result in the admission of a baby to a neonatal unit (NNU). While the survival and long-term prospects of high-risk infants are enhanced by admission, the enforced separation of the parent and child may have psychological consequences for both. There is a need to develop and evaluate interventions to help parents 'feel closer' to their infants in circumstances where they are physically separated from them. Read More

    Effectiveness of skin-to-skin contact versus care-as-usual in mothers and their full-term infants: study protocol for a parallel-group randomized controlled trial.
    BMC Pediatr 2017 Jul 6;17(1):154. Epub 2017 Jul 6.
    Department of Developmental Psychology, Behavioural Science Institute, Radboud University, P.O. Box 9140, 6500 HE, Nijmegen, The Netherlands.
    Background: Twenty-to-forty percent of women experience postpartum depressive symptoms, which can affect both the mother and infant. In preterm infants, daily skin-to-skin contact (SSC) between the mother and her infant has been shown to decrease maternal postpartum depressive symptoms. In full-term infants, only two studies investigated SSC effects on maternal depressive symptoms and found similar results. Read More

    Study protocol: families and childhood transitions study (FACTS) - a longitudinal investigation of the role of the family environment in brain development and risk for mental health disorders in community based children.
    BMC Pediatr 2017 Jun 30;17(1):153. Epub 2017 Jun 30.
    Melbourne School of Psychological Sciences, The University of Melbourne, Parkville, Australia.
    Background: Extant research has demonstrated that parenting behaviour can be a significant contributor to the development of brain structure and mental health during adolescence. Nonetheless, there is limited research examining these relationships during late childhood, and particularly in the critical period of brain development occurring between 8 and 10 years of age. The effects of the family environment on the brain during late childhood may have significant implications for later functioning, and particularly mental health. Read More

    A multicentre randomised controlled trial of levetiracetam versus phenytoin for convulsive status epilepticus in children (protocol): Convulsive Status Epilepticus Paediatric Trial (ConSEPT) - a PREDICT study.
    BMC Pediatr 2017 Jun 22;17(1):152. Epub 2017 Jun 22.
    Royal Children's Hospital, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia.
    Background: Convulsive status epilepticus (CSE) is the most common life-threatening childhood neurological emergency. Despite this, there is a lack of high quality evidence supporting medication use after first line benzodiazepines, with current treatment protocols based solely on non-experimental evidence and expert opinion. The current standard of care, phenytoin, is only 60% effective, and associated with considerable adverse effects. Read More

    Intermittent low platelet counts hampering diagnosis of X-linked thrombocytopenia in children: report of two unrelated cases and a novel mutation in the gene coding for the Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome protein.
    BMC Pediatr 2017 Jun 22;17(1):151. Epub 2017 Jun 22.
    Instituto Nacional de Ciência e Tecnologia do Sangue, Hemocentro de Campinas, University of Campinas (Unicamp), Rua Carlos Chagas 480, Cidade Universitária "Zeferino Vaz", Campinas, SP, 13.083-878, Brazil.
    Background: Thrombocytopenia can occur in different circumstances during childhood and although immune thrombocytopenia is its most frequent cause, it is important to consider other conditions, especially when there is a persistent or recurrent low platelet count. We report two cases of intermittent thrombocytopenia, previously misdiagnosed as immune thrombocytopenia.

    Cases Presentation: Both cases described were boys who presented with an intermittent pattern of thrombocytopenia, with a persistently low mean platelet volume. Read More

    Prevalence and incidence of overweight and obesity among Vietnamese preschool children: a longitudinal cohort study.
    BMC Pediatr 2017 Jun 19;17(1):150. Epub 2017 Jun 19.
    Section for Epidemiology and Social Medicine (EPSO), Department of Public Health and Community Medicine, Institute of Medicine at the Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg, PO Box 453, -405 30, Gothenburg, SE, Sweden.
    Background: A plateau in childhood overweight and obesity has been reported in some developed countries while in almost all developing countries this problem is on the rise. The aim of this paper is to describe the changes in prevalence of overweight and obesity within a cohort of preschool children followed for 3 years, and to estimate and compare the incidences in urban and rural children of Hanoi, Vietnam.

    Methods: A longitudinal study of a cohort of 2677 children aged 3 to 6 years old at the beginning of the study was conducted in urban DodaLab and rural FilaBavi, Hanoi, Vietnam. Read More

    Validity and reliability of electroacoustic probe for diagnosis of developmental dysplasia of the hip.
    BMC Pediatr 2017 Jun 19;17(1):149. Epub 2017 Jun 19.
    Department of Clinical Nursing, Division of Health Sciences and Engineering, Campus Celaya Salvatierra, University of Guanajuato, Av. Ing. Javier Barros Sierra 201, Celaya, 38140, Guanajuato, México.
    Background: Sound transmission is used in the diagnosis of hip dysplasia since the end of the 80's. Aim of this study is to quantify the validity and reliability of electroacoustic probe for the diagnosis of hip dysplasia in neonates.

    Methods: Diagnostic study included neonates aged 4-28 days, whose parents signed an informed consent. Read More

    Validity of a family-centered approach for assessing infants' social-emotional wellbeing and their developmental context: a prospective cohort study.
    BMC Pediatr 2017 Jun 15;17(1):148. Epub 2017 Jun 15.
    Department of Health Sciences, University Medical Center Groningen, University of Groningen, Antonius Deusinglaan 1, 9713 AV Groningen, Groningen, The Netherlands.
    Background: Family-centered care seems promising in preventive pediatrics, but evidence is lacking as to whether this type of care is also valid as a means to identify risks to infants' social-emotional development. We aimed to examine the validity of such a family-centered approach.

    Methods: We conducted a prospective cohort study. Read More

    Patterns of objectively measured sedentary time in 10- to 12-year-old Belgian children: an observational study within the ENERGY-project.
    BMC Pediatr 2017 Jun 14;17(1):147. Epub 2017 Jun 14.
    Department of Movement and Sport Sciences, Ghent University, Watersportlaan 2, 9000, Ghent, Belgium.
    Background: This study examined the frequency of and differences in sedentary bouts of different durations and the total time spent in sedentary bouts on a weekday, a weekend day, during school hours, during after-school hours and in the evening period in a sample of 10- to 12-year-old Belgian children.

    Methods: Accelerometer data were collected as part of the ENERGY-project in Belgium (n = 577, 10.9 ± 0. Read More

    Parental decision making involvement and decisional conflict: a descriptive study.
    BMC Pediatr 2017 Jun 13;17(1):146. Epub 2017 Jun 13.
    Family Decision Services, CHEO Research Institute, Children's Hospital of Eastern Ontario, University of Ottawa, 401 Smyth Road, Ottawa, K1H 8L1, ON, Canada.
    Background: Decisional conflict is a state of uncertainty about the best treatment option among competing alternatives and is common among adult patients who are inadequately involved in the health decision making process. In pediatrics, research shows that many parents are insufficiently involved in decisions about their child's health. However, little is known about parents' experience of decisional conflict. Read More

    Exploring infant feeding practices: cross-sectional surveys of South Western Sydney, Singapore, and Ho Chi Minh City.
    BMC Pediatr 2017 Jun 13;17(1):145. Epub 2017 Jun 13.
    Department of Paediatrics, School of Medicine, Western Sydney University, Sydney, NSW, Australia.
    Background: Infant feeding practices are known to influence the child's long-term health. Studies have associated obesity and other diseases with reduced breastfeeding and early introduction of high calorie beverages (HCBs). The rising prevalence of obesity is already a problem in most developed countries, especially Australia, but cultural differences are influential. Read More

    Low birth weight and macrosomia in Tigray, Northern Ethiopia: who are the mothers at risk?
    BMC Pediatr 2017 Jun 12;17(1):144. Epub 2017 Jun 12.
    School of Public Health, Montgomery College, Rockville, MD, USA.
    Background: Infant birth weight, which is classified into low birth weight, normal birth weight and macrosomia, is associated with short and long-term health consequences, such as neonatal mortality and chronic disease in life. Macrosomia and low birth weight are double burden problems in developing counties, such as Ethiopia, but the paucity of evidence has made it difficult to assess the extent of this situation. As a result there has been inconsistency in the reported prevalence of low birth weight and macrosomia in Ethiopia. Read More

    Perceptions of measles, pneumonia, and meningitis vaccines among caregivers in Shanghai, China, and the health belief model: a cross-sectional study.
    BMC Pediatr 2017 Jun 12;17(1):143. Epub 2017 Jun 12.
    Department of Health Behavior and Health Education, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, 1415 Washington Heights, Ann Arbor, MI, 48109, USA.
    Background: In China, the measles vaccine is offered for free whereas the pneumococcal vaccine is a for-fee vaccine. This difference has the potential to influence how caregivers evaluate whether a vaccine is important or necessary for their child, but it is unclear if models of health behavior, such as the Health Belief Model, reveal the same associations for different diseases. This study compares caregiver perceptions of different diseases (measles, pneumonia and meningitis); and characterizes associations between Health Belief Model constructs and both pneumococcal vaccine uptake and perceived vaccine necessity for pneumonia, measles, and meningitis. Read More

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