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    1707 results match your criteria BMC Neuroscience [Journal]

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    In silico repurposing of antipsychotic drugs for Alzheimer's disease.
    BMC Neurosci 2017 Oct 27;18(1):76. Epub 2017 Oct 27.
    University School of Biotechnology, GGS Indraprastha University, Sector-16C, Dwarka, New Delhi, 110075, India.
    Background: Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most prevalent form of dementia and represents one of the highest unmet requirements in medicine today. There is shortage of novel molecules entering into market because of poor pharmacokinetic properties and safety issues. Drug repurposing offers an opportunity to reinvigorate the slowing drug discovery process by finding new uses for existing drugs. Read More

    Activity-dependent formation of a vesicular inhibitory amino acid transporter gradient in the superior olivary complex of NMRI mice.
    BMC Neurosci 2017 Oct 26;18(1):75. Epub 2017 Oct 26.
    Neurogenetics Group, Center of Excellence Hearing4All, School of Medicine and Health Sciences, Carl von Ossietzky University Oldenburg, 26111, Oldenburg, Germany.
    Background: In the mammalian superior olivary complex (SOC), synaptic inhibition contributes to the processing of binaural sound cues important for sound localization. Previous analyses demonstrated a tonotopic gradient for postsynaptic proteins mediating inhibitory neurotransmission in the lateral superior olive (LSO), a major nucleus of the SOC. To probe, whether a presynaptic molecular gradient exists as well, we investigated immunoreactivity against the vesicular inhibitory amino acid transporter (VIAAT) in the mouse auditory brainstem. Read More

    From provocation to aggression: the neural network.
    BMC Neurosci 2017 Oct 17;18(1):73. Epub 2017 Oct 17.
    Department of Psychiatry, Psychotherapy and Psychosomatics, Medical School, RWTH Aachen University, Pauwelsstraße 30, 52074, Aachen, Germany.
    Background: In-vivo observations of neural processes during human aggressive behavior are difficult to obtain, limiting the number of studies in this area. To address this gap, the present study implemented a social reactive aggression paradigm in 29 healthy men, employing non-violent provocation in a two-player game to elicit aggressive behavior in fMRI settings.

    Results: Participants responded more aggressively after high provocation reflected in taking more money from their opponents. Read More

    Shift in the function of netrin-1 from axon outgrowth to axon branching in developing cerebral cortical neurons.
    BMC Neurosci 2017 Oct 17;18(1):74. Epub 2017 Oct 17.
    Department of Anatomy, Faculty of Medicine, Saitama Medical University, 38 Morohongo, Moroyama-machi, Iruma-gun, Saitama, 350-0495, Japan.
    Background: Netrin-1, a multifunctional axon guidance cue, elicits axon outgrowth via one of its receptors deleted in colorectal cancer (DCC) in several types of neurons, including cerebral cortical neurons of embryonic mice. However, we and others have observed de novo formation of axon branches without axon outgrowth induced by netrin-1 in cortical culture of neonatal hamsters. These previous reports suggested the possibility that netrin-1 function might alter during development, which we here investigated using dissociated culture prepared from cerebral cortices of embryonic mice. Read More

    PeakCaller: an automated graphical interface for the quantification of intracellular calcium obtained by high-content screening.
    BMC Neurosci 2017 Oct 16;18(1):72. Epub 2017 Oct 16.
    The Hussman Institute for Autism, Baltimore, MD, USA.
    Background: Intracellular calcium is an important ion involved in the regulation and modulation of many neuronal functions. From regulating cell cycle and proliferation to initiating signaling cascades and regulating presynaptic neurotransmitter release, the concentration and timing of calcium activity governs the function and fate of neurons. Changes in calcium transients can be used in high-throughput screening applications as a basic measure of neuronal maturity, especially in developing or immature neuronal cultures derived from stem cells. Read More

    A convenient UHPLC-MS/MS method for routine monitoring of plasma and brain levels of nicotine and cotinine as a tool to validate newly developed preclinical smoking model in mouse.
    BMC Neurosci 2017 Oct 11;18(1):71. Epub 2017 Oct 11.
    Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, School of Pharmacy, Texas Tech University Health Sciences Center, 1300 S. Coulter Street, Amarillo, TX, 79106, USA.
    Background: A sensitive, rapid and selective UHPLC-MS/MS method has been developed and validated for the quantification of Nicotine (NT) and Cotinine (CN) using Continine-d 3 as internal standard (IS) as per FDA guidelines. Sample preparation involved simple protein precipitation of 20 µL mouse plasma or brain homogenate using acetonitrile at 1:8 ratio. Mass Spectrometer was operated in positive polarity under the multiple reaction-monitoring mode using electro spray ionization technique and the transitions of m/z 163. Read More

    Unhealthy smokers: scopes for prophylactic intervention and clinical treatment.
    BMC Neurosci 2017 Oct 4;18(1):70. Epub 2017 Oct 4.
    Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, School of Pharmacy, Texas Tech University Health Sciences Center, 1300 S. Coulter Street, Amarillo, TX, 79106, USA.
    Background: Globally, tobacco use causes approximately 6 million deaths per year, and predictions report that with current trends; more than 8 million deaths are expected annually by 2030. Cigarette smokings is currently accountable for more than 480,000 deaths each year in United States (US) and is the leading cause of preventable death in the US. On average, smokers die 10 years earlier than nonsmokers and if smoking continues at its current proportion among adolescents, one in every 13 Americans aged 17 years or younger is expected to die prematurely from a smoking-related illness. Read More

    PPARγ coactivator-1α (PGC-1α) protects neuroblastoma cells against amyloid-beta (Aβ) induced cell death and neuroinflammation via NF-κB pathway.
    BMC Neurosci 2017 Sep 25;18(1):69. Epub 2017 Sep 25.
    Department of Neurology, The First Affiliated Hospital of Anhui Medical University, Hefei, 230032, Anhui, China.
    Background: Alzheimer's disease is characterized by the accumulation of amyloid beta (Aβ) and the formation of neurofibrillary tangles. Aβ is the main constituent of senile plaques and is largely involved in neuronal death and neuroinflammation. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator-1 alpha (PGC-1α) is one of the main transcriptional coactivator and has been related to many fields such as energy metabolism, cardiovascular disease, neurodegenerative disorders, and so on. Read More

    Why to cooperate is better than to compete: brain and personality components.
    BMC Neurosci 2017 Sep 20;18(1):68. Epub 2017 Sep 20.
    Research Unit in Affective and Social Neuroscience, Catholic University of the Sacred Heart, Milan, Italy.
    Background: Cooperation and competition were compared in the present study. Brain correlates (electroencephalography, EEG frequency band, delta, theta, alpha, and beta) and hemodynamic measure of functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS, O2Hb) were acquired during a joined cooperative (Experiment 1) or competitive (Experiment 2) task. Subjects were required to match each other's cognitive performance (cooperation) or to make better than others (competition) in terms of accuracy (error rate, ER) and response time (RT). Read More

    The loss-of-function disease-mutation G301R in the Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase α2 isoform decreases lesion volume and improves functional outcome after acute spinal cord injury in mice.
    BMC Neurosci 2017 Sep 8;18(1):66. Epub 2017 Sep 8.
    Neurobiology Research, Institute of Molecular Medicine, University of Southern Denmark, 5000, Odense C, Denmark.
    Background: The Na(+)/K(+)-ATPases are transmembrane ion pumps important for maintenance of ion gradients across the plasma membrane that serve to support multiple cellular functions, such as membrane potentials, regulation of cellular volume and pH, and co-transport of signaling transmitters in all animal cells. The α2Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase subunit isoform is predominantly expressed in astrocytes, which us the sharp Na(+)-gradient maintained by the sodium pump necessary for astroglial metabolism. Prolonged ischemia induces an elevation of [Na(+)]i, decreased ATP levels and intracellular pH owing to anaerobic metabolism and lactate accumulation. Read More

    Cerebral microvascular dysfunction in metabolic syndrome is exacerbated by ischemia-reperfusion injury.
    BMC Neurosci 2017 Sep 8;18(1):67. Epub 2017 Sep 8.
    Laboratory of Cardiovascular Investigation, Oswaldo Cruz Foundation, Avenida Brasil, 4365, Rio de Janeiro, RJ, 21045-900, Brazil.
    Background: Metabolic syndrome (MetS) is associated with an increased risk of cerebrovascular diseases, including cerebral ischemia. Microvascular dysfunction is an important feature underlying the pathophysiology of cerebrovascular diseases. In this study, we aimed to investigate the impacts of ischemia and reperfusion (IR) injury on the cerebral microvascular function of rats with high-fat diet-induced MetS. Read More

    Day2day: investigating daily variability of magnetic resonance imaging measures over half a year.
    BMC Neurosci 2017 Aug 24;18(1):65. Epub 2017 Aug 24.
    Center for Lifespan Psychology, Max Planck Institute for Human Development, Lentzeallee 94, 14195, Berlin, Germany.
    Background: Most studies of brain structure and function, and their relationships to cognitive ability, have relied on inter-individual variability in magnetic resonance (MR) images. Intra-individual variability is often ignored or implicitly assumed to be equivalent to the former. Testing this assumption empirically by collecting enough data on single individuals is cumbersome and costly. Read More

    Hippocampus and amygdala radiomic biomarkers for the study of autism spectrum disorder.
    BMC Neurosci 2017 Jul 11;18(1):52. Epub 2017 Jul 11.
    Laboratory of Conception, Optimization and Modeling of Systems, University of Lorraine, Metz, France.
    Background: Emerging evidence suggests the presence of neuroanatomical abnormalities in subjects with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Identifying anatomical correlates could thus prove useful for the automated diagnosis of ASD. Radiomic analyses based on MRI texture features have shown a great potential for characterizing differences occurring from tissue heterogeneity, and for identifying abnormalities related to these differences. Read More

    Musashi-1 is the candidate of the regulator of hair cell progenitors during inner ear regeneration.
    BMC Neurosci 2017 Aug 16;18(1):64. Epub 2017 Aug 16.
    Department of Medicine and Biosystemic Science, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Kyushu University, Fukuoka, Japan.
    Background: Hair cell loss in the cochlea is caused by ototoxic drugs, aging, and environmental stresses and could potentially lead to devastating pathophysiological effects. In adult mammals, hair cell loss is irreversible and may result in hearing and balance deficits. In contrast, nonmammalian vertebrates, including birds, can regenerate hair cells through differentiation of supporting cells and restore inner ear function, suggesting that hair cell progenitors are present in the population of supporting cells. Read More

    Myelination is delayed during postnatal brain development in the mdx mouse model of Duchenne muscular dystrophy.
    BMC Neurosci 2017 Aug 14;18(1):63. Epub 2017 Aug 14.
    Department of Pharmacological Sciences, Stony Brook University, Stony Brook, NY, 11794-8651, USA.
    Background: In Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD), the loss of the dystrophin component of the dystrophin-glycoprotein complex (DGC) compromises plasma membrane integrity in skeletal muscle, resulting in extensive muscle degeneration. In addition, many DMD patients exhibit brain deficits in which the cellular etiology remains poorly understood. We recently found that dystroglycan, a receptor component of the DGC that binds intracellularly to dystrophin, regulates the development of oligodendrocytes, the myelinating glial cells of the brain. Read More

    Specific ion channels contribute to key elements of pathology during secondary degeneration following neurotrauma.
    BMC Neurosci 2017 Aug 14;18(1):62. Epub 2017 Aug 14.
    Experimental and Regenerative Neurosciences, School of Biological Sciences, The University of Western Australia, Crawley, WA, 6009, Australia.
    Background: Following partial injury to the central nervous system, cells beyond the initial injury site undergo secondary degeneration, exacerbating loss of neurons, compact myelin and function. Changes in Ca(2+) flux are associated with metabolic and structural changes, but it is not yet clear how flux through specific ion channels contributes to the various pathologies. Here, partial optic nerve transection in adult female rats was used to model secondary degeneration. Read More

    A CLCA regulatory protein present in the chemosensory cilia of olfactory sensory neurons induces a Ca(2+)-activated Cl(-) current when transfected into HEK293.
    BMC Neurosci 2017 Aug 11;18(1):61. Epub 2017 Aug 11.
    Department of Biology, Faculty of Sciences, University of Chile, Las Palmeras 3425, Ñuñoa, 7800024, Santiago, Chile.
    Background: CLCA is a family of metalloproteases that regulate Ca(2+)-activated Cl(-) fluxes in epithelial tissues. In HEK293 cells, CLCA1 promotes membrane expression of an endogenous Anoctamin 1 (ANO1, also termed TMEM16A)-dependent Ca(2+)-activated Cl(-) current. Motif architecture similarity with CLCA2, 3 and 4 suggested that they have similar functions. Read More

    Sesamin protects SH-SY5Y cells against mechanical stretch injury and promoting cell survival.
    BMC Neurosci 2017 Aug 7;18(1):57. Epub 2017 Aug 7.
    Department of Neurosurgery, Shanghai Jiao Tong University Affiliated Sixth People's Hospital, NO. 600, Yi Shan Road, Xuhui District, Shanghai, 200030, China.
    Background: Sesamin is a well-known antioxidant extracted from sesame seeds that exhibits various curative effects. The present study investigated whether sesamin would protect neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells against mechanical stretch injury-induced increases in reactive oxygen species (ROS) and apoptosis. Additionally, the mechanisms underlying these actives were investigated. Read More

    Neuroplasticity pathways and protein-interaction networks are modulated by vortioxetine in rodents.
    BMC Neurosci 2017 Aug 4;18(1):56. Epub 2017 Aug 4.
    Intomics A/S, Diplomvej 377, 2800, Lyngby, Denmark.
    Background: The identification of biomarkers that predict susceptibility to major depressive disorder and treatment response to antidepressants is a major challenge. Vortioxetine is a novel multimodal antidepressant that possesses pro-cognitive properties and differentiates from other conventional antidepressants on various cognitive and plasticity measures. The aim of the present study was to identify biological systems rather than single biomarkers that may underlie vortioxetine's treatment effects. Read More

    Immunocytochemistry and fluorescence imaging efficiently identify individual neurons with CRISPR/Cas9-mediated gene disruption in primary cortical cultures.
    BMC Neurosci 2017 Aug 1;18(1):55. Epub 2017 Aug 1.
    Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology, Graduate School of Frontier Biosciences, Osaka University, 1-3 Yamadaoka, Suita, Osaka, 565-0871, Japan.
    Background: CRISPR/Cas9 system is a powerful method to investigate the role of genes by introducing a mutation selectively and efficiently to specific genome positions in cell and animal lines. However, in primary neuron cultures, this method is affected by the issue that the effectiveness of CRISPR/Cas9 is different in each neuron. Here, we report an easy, quick and reliable method to identify mutants induced by the CRISPR/Cas9 system at a single neuron level, using immunocytochemistry (ICC) and fluorescence imaging. Read More

    Difference in the functional connectivity of the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex between smokers with nicotine dependence and individuals with internet gaming disorder.
    BMC Neurosci 2017 Jul 27;18(1):54. Epub 2017 Jul 27.
    Department of Radiology, Ren Ji Hospital, School of Medicine, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai, 200127, People's Republic of China.
    Background: It has been reported that internet gaming disorder (IGD) and smokers with nicotine dependence (SND) share clinical characteristics, such as over-engagement despite negative consequences and cravings. This study is to investigate the alterations in the resting-state functional connectivity (rsFC) of the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) observed in SND and IGD. In this study, 27 IGD, 29 SND, and 33 healthy controls (HC) underwent a resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI) scan. Read More

    Regeneration of long-distance peripheral nerve defects after delayed reconstruction in healthy and diabetic rats is supported by immunomodulatory chitosan nerve guides.
    BMC Neurosci 2017 Jul 18;18(1):53. Epub 2017 Jul 18.
    Institute of Neuroanatomy and Cell Biology, Hannover Medical School, 30625, Hannover, Germany.
    Background: Delayed reconstruction of transection or laceration injuries of peripheral nerves is inflicted by a reduced regeneration capacity. Diabetic conditions, more frequently encountered in clinical practice, are known to further impair regeneration in peripheral nerves. Chitosan nerve guides (CNGs) have recently been introduced as a new generation of medical devices for immediate peripheral nerve reconstruction. Read More

    Iron oxide nanoparticles may damage to the neural tissue through iron accumulation, oxidative stress, and protein aggregation.
    BMC Neurosci 2017 Jun 26;18(1):51. Epub 2017 Jun 26.
    Department of Biotechnology, Faculty of Advanced Sciences and Technologies, University of Isfahan, Hezar Jerib Ave., Azadi Square, Isfahan, 81746-73441, Iran.
    Background: In the recent decade, iron oxide nanoparticles (IONPs) have been proposed for several applications in the central nervous system (CNS), including targeting amyloid beta (Aβ) in the arteries, inhibiting the microglial cells, delivering drugs, and increasing contrast in magnetic resonance imaging. Conversely, a notable number of studies have reported the role of iron in neurodegenerative diseases. Therefore, this study has reviewed the recent studies to determine whether IONPs iron can threaten the cellular viability same as iron. Read More

    Investigating the impact of electrical stimulation temporal distribution on cortical network responses.
    BMC Neurosci 2017 Jun 12;18(1):49. Epub 2017 Jun 12.
    Department of Neuroscience and Brain Technologies (NBT), Istituto Italiano di Tecnologia (IIT), Via Morego 30, 16163, Genoa, Italy.
    Background: The brain is continuously targeted by a wealth of stimuli with complex spatio-temporal patterns and has presumably evolved in order to cope with those inputs in an optimal way. Previous studies investigating the response capabilities of either single neurons or intact sensory systems to external stimulation demonstrated that stimuli temporal distribution is an important, if often overlooked, parameter.

    Results: In this study we investigated how cortical networks plated over micro-electrode arrays respond to different stimulation sequences in which inter-pulse intervals followed a 1/f (β) distribution, for different values of β ranging from 0 to ∞. Read More

    White matter damage and systemic inflammation in Parkinson's disease.
    BMC Neurosci 2017 Jun 8;18(1):48. Epub 2017 Jun 8.
    Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Kaohsiung Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Chang Gung University College of Medicine, 123 Ta-Pei Road, Niao-Sung, Kaohsiung, 83305, Taiwan.
    Background: Systemic inflammation and white matter (WM) alterations have been noted as effects of Parkinson's disease (PD). This study sought to evaluate WM integrity in PD patients using diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) and to assess its relationship with systemic inflammation.

    Methods: Sixty-six patients with PD (23 men and 43 women) and 67 healthy volunteers (29 men and 38 women) underwent blood sampling to quantify inflammatory markers and DTI scans to determine fiber integrity. Read More

    Lateral cortical Cdca7 expression levels are regulated by Pax6 and influence the production of intermediate progenitors.
    BMC Neurosci 2017 Jun 5;18(1):47. Epub 2017 Jun 5.
    Centre for Integrative Physiology, University of Edinburgh, Hugh Robson Building, George Square, Edinburgh, EH8 9XD, UK.
    Background: We studied whether regulation of Cdca7 (Cell division cycle associated 7) expression by transcription factor Pax6 contributes to Pax6's cellular actions during corticogenesis. The function of Cdca7 in mediating Pax6's effects during corticogenesis has not been explored. Pax6 is expressed by radial glial progenitors in the ventricular zone of the embryonic cortical neuroepithelium, where it is required for the development of a normal complement of Tbr2-expressing intermediate progenitor cells in the subventricular zone. Read More

    SIRT1 ameliorates oxidative stress induced neural cell death and is down-regulated in Parkinson's disease.
    BMC Neurosci 2017 Jun 2;18(1):46. Epub 2017 Jun 2.
    Medical Toxicology Centre, and NIHR Health Protection Research Unit in Chemical and Radiation Threats and Hazards, Newcastle University, Wolfson Building, Claremont Place, Newcastle upon Tyne, NE2 4AA, UK.
    Background: Sirtuins (SIRTs) are NAD(+) dependent lysine deacetylases which are conserved from bacteria to humans and have been associated with longevity and lifespan extension. SIRT1, the best studied mammalian SIRT is involved in many physiological and pathological processes and changes in SIRT1 have been implicated in neurodegenerative disorders, with SIRT1 having a suggested protective role in Parkinson's disease. In this study, we determined the effect of SIRT1 on cell survival and α-synuclein aggregate formation in SH-SY5Y cells following oxidative stress. Read More

    Using Kalirin conditional knockout mice to distinguish its role in dopamine receptor mediated behaviors.
    BMC Neurosci 2017 May 23;18(1):45. Epub 2017 May 23.
    Department of Neuroscience, University of Connecticut Health Center, Farmington, CT, 06030-3401, USA.
    Background: Mice lacking Kalirin-7 (Kal7(KO)), a Rho GDP/GTP exchange factor, self-administer cocaine at a higher rate than wildtype mice, and show an exaggerated locomotor response to experimenter-administered cocaine. Kal7, which localizes to post-synaptic densities at glutamatergic synapses, interacts directly with the GluN2B subunit of the N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA; GluN) receptor. Consistent with these observations, Kal7 plays an essential role in NMDA receptor dependent long term potentiation and depression, and glutamatergic transmission plays a key role in the response to chronic cocaine. Read More

    Antagonistic action on NMDA/GluN2B mediated currents of two peptides that were conantokin-G structure-based designed.
    BMC Neurosci 2017 May 16;18(1):44. Epub 2017 May 16.
    Department of Anesthesiology, Perioperative Care and Pain Medicine, NYU Langone Medical Center, 180 Varick Street, Room 677, New York, NY, 10014, USA.
    Background: The GluN2B subunit of the N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAr) modulates many physiological processes including learning, memory, and pain. Excessive increase in NMDAr/GluN2B activity has been associated with various disorders such neuropathic pain and neuronal death following hypoxia. Thus there is an interest in identifying NMDAr antagonists that interact specifically with the GluN2B subunit. Read More

    Normobaric hypoxia overnight impairs cognitive reaction time.
    BMC Neurosci 2017 May 15;18(1):43. Epub 2017 May 15.
    Hermann Buhl Institute for Hypoxia and Sleep Medicine Research, Ghersburgstr. 9, 83043, Bad Aibling, Germany.
    Background: Impaired reaction time in patients suffering from hypoxia during sleep, caused by sleep breathing disorders, is a well-described phenomenon. High altitude sleep is known to induce periodic breathing with central apneas and oxygen desaturations, even in perfectly healthy subjects. However, deficits in reaction time in mountaineers or workers after just some nights of hypoxia exposure are not sufficiently explored. Read More

    Astaxanthin protects astrocytes against trauma-induced apoptosis through inhibition of NKCC1 expression via the NF-κB signaling pathway.
    BMC Neurosci 2017 May 10;18(1):42. Epub 2017 May 10.
    Department of Neurosurgery, East Hospital, Tongji University School of Medicine, 150 Jimo Road, Shanghai, 200120, China.
    Background: Astaxanthin (ATX) is a carotenoid pigment with pleiotropic pharmacological properties that is seen as a possible drug for treating cerebral ischemic injury and subarachnoid hemorrhage. Na(+)-K(+)-2Cl(-) co-transporter-1 (NKCC1), an intrinsic membrane protein expressed by many cell types, is activated by various insults, leading to the formation of cell swelling and brain edema. We previously established that ATX attenuated brain edema and improved neurological outcomes by modulating NKCC1 expression after traumatic brain injury in mice. Read More

    Retraction Note to: Dose-dependent changes in neuroinflammatory and arachidonic acid cascade markers with synaptic marker loss in rat lipopolysaccharide infusion model of neuroinflammation.
    BMC Neurosci 2017 05 9;18(1):40. Epub 2017 May 9.
    Brain Physiology and Metabolism Section, National Institute on Aging, National Institutes of Health, 9000 Rockville Pike, Bldg. 9, 1S-126, Bethesda, MD, USA.

    Effects of escitalopram and paroxetine on mTORC1 signaling in the rat hippocampus under chronic restraint stress.
    BMC Neurosci 2017 Apr 26;18(1):39. Epub 2017 Apr 26.
    Paik Institute for Clinical Research, Inje University, 633-165 Gaegum-dong, Jin-gu, Busan, 614-735, Republic of Korea.
    Background: Recent studies have suggested that the activation of mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling may be related to antidepressant action. Therefore, the present study evaluated whether antidepressant drugs would exert differential effects on mTOR signaling in the rat hippocampus under conditions of chronic restraint stress. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were subjected to restraint stress for 6 h/days for 21 days with either escitalopram (10 mg/kg) or paroxetine (10 mg/kg) administered after the chronic stress procedure. Read More

    Linoleic acid: Is this the key that unlocks the quantum brain? Insights linking broken symmetries in molecular biology, mood disorders and personalistic emergentism.
    BMC Neurosci 2017 Apr 19;18(1):38. Epub 2017 Apr 19.
    Department of Physiology & Biophysics and Psychiatry, University of Illinois College of Medicine, Chicago, IL, USA.
    In this paper we present a mechanistic model that integrates subneuronal structures, namely ion channels, membrane fatty acids, lipid rafts, G proteins and the cytoskeleton in a dynamic system that is finely tuned in a healthy brain. We also argue that subtle changes in the composition of the membrane's fatty acids may lead to down-stream effects causing dysregulation of the membrane, cytoskeleton and their interface. Such exquisite sensitivity to minor changes is known to occur in physical systems undergoing phase transitions, the simplest and most studied of them is the so-called Ising model, which exhibits a phase transition at a finite temperature between an ordered and disordered state in 2- or 3-dimensional space. Read More

    Transcriptional signatures of steroid hormones in the striatal neurons and astrocytes.
    BMC Neurosci 2017 Apr 5;18(1):37. Epub 2017 Apr 5.
    Department of Molecular Neuropharmacology, Institute of Pharmacology Polish Academy of Sciences, Smetna 12, 31-343, Kraków, Poland.
    Background: The mechanisms of steroids actions in the brain mainly involve the binding and nuclear translocation of specific cytoplasmic receptors. These receptors can act as transcription factors and regulate gene expression. However, steroid-dependent transcriptional regulation in different types of neural cells is not yet fully understood. Read More

    Effectiveness of conservative interventions for sickness and pain behaviors induced by a high repetition high force upper extremity task.
    BMC Neurosci 2017 Mar 29;18(1):36. Epub 2017 Mar 29.
    Department of Anatomy and Cell Biology, Temple University School of Medicine, 3500 North Broad St., Philadelphia, PA, 19140, USA.
    Background: Systemic inflammation is known to induce sickness behaviors, including decreased social interaction and pain. We have reported increased serum inflammatory cytokines in a rat model of repetitive strain injury (rats perform an upper extremity reaching task for prolonged periods). Here, we sought to determine if sickness behaviors are induced in this model and the effectiveness of conservative treatments. Read More

    An immunohistochemical, enzymatic, and behavioral study of CD157/BST-1 as a neuroregulator.
    BMC Neurosci 2017 Mar 24;18(1):35. Epub 2017 Mar 24.
    Research Centre for Child Mental Development, Kanazawa University, Kanazawa, 920-8640, Japan.
    Background: Recent rodent and human studies provide evidence in support of the fact that CD157, well known as bone marrow stromal cell antigen-1 (BST-1) and a risk factor in Parkinson's disease, also meaningfully acts in the brain as a neuroregulator and affects social behaviors. It has been shown that social behaviors are impaired in CD157 knockout mice without severe motor dysfunction and that CD157/BST1 gene single nucleotide polymorphisms are associated with autism spectrum disorder in humans. However, it is still necessary to determine how this molecule contributes to the brain's physiological and pathophysiological functions. Read More

    Spectral-temporal EEG dynamics of speech discrimination processing in infants during sleep.
    BMC Neurosci 2017 Mar 22;18(1):34. Epub 2017 Mar 22.
    Institute of Cognitive Science, University of Colorado, Boulder, Boulder, CO, USA.
    Background: Oddball paradigms are frequently used to study auditory discrimination by comparing event-related potential (ERP) responses from a standard, high probability sound and to a deviant, low probability sound. Previous research has established that such paradigms, such as the mismatch response or mismatch negativity, are useful for examining auditory processes in young children and infants across various sleep and attention states. The extent to which oddball ERP responses may reflect subtle discrimination effects, such as speech discrimination, is largely unknown, especially in infants that have not yet acquired speech and language. Read More

    A receptor-based analysis of local ecosystems in the human brain.
    BMC Neurosci 2017 Mar 20;18(1):33. Epub 2017 Mar 20.
    Department of Psychological and Brain Sciences, University of California, Santa Barbara, CA, 93106-9660, USA.
    Background: As a complex system, the brain is a self-organizing entity that depends on local interactions among cells. Its regions (anatomically defined nuclei and areas) can be conceptualized as cellular ecosystems, but the similarity of their functional profiles is poorly understood. The study used the Allen Human Brain Atlas to classify 169 brain regions into hierarchically-organized environments based on their expression of 100 G protein-coupled neurotransmitter receptors, with no a priori reference to the regions' positions in the brain's anatomy or function. Read More

    Hypertonic saline attenuates expression of Notch signaling and proinflammatory mediators in activated microglia in experimentally induced cerebral ischemia and hypoxic BV-2 microglia.
    BMC Neurosci 2017 Mar 14;18(1):32. Epub 2017 Mar 14.
    Department of Emergency and Critical Care Medicine, Guangdong General Hospital, Guangdong Academy of Medical Sciences, Guangzhou, 510080, People's Republic of China.
    Background: Ischemic stroke is a major disease that threatens human health in ageing population. Increasing evidence has shown that neuroinflammatory mediators play crucial roles in the pathophysiology of cerebral ischemia injury. Notch signaling is recognized as the cell fate signaling but recent evidence indicates that it may be involved in the inflammatory response in activated microglia in cerebral ischemia. Read More

    Effect of skilled reaching training and enriched environment on generation of oligodendrocytes in the adult sensorimotor cortex and corpus callosum.
    BMC Neurosci 2017 Mar 9;18(1):31. Epub 2017 Mar 9.
    Hans Berger Department of Neurology, Jena University Hospital, Am Klinikum 1, 07747, Jena, Germany.
    Background: Increased motor activity or social interactions through enriched environment are strong stimulators of grey and white matter plasticity in the adult rodent brain. In the present study we evaluated whether specific reaching training of the dominant forelimb (RT) and stimulation of unspecific motor activity through enriched environment (EE) influence the generation of distinct oligodendrocyte subpopulations in the sensorimotor cortex and corpus callosum of the adult rat brain. Animals were placed in three different housing conditions: one group was transferred to an EE, a second group received daily RT, whereas a third group remained in the standard cage. Read More

    Effect of Spp1 on nerve degeneration and regeneration after rat sciatic nerve injury.
    BMC Neurosci 2017 Mar 7;18(1):30. Epub 2017 Mar 7.
    School of Life Sciences, Jiangsu Key Laboratory of Neuroregeneration, Co-Innovation Center of Neuroregeneration, Nantong University, 19 Qixiu Road, Nnatong, 226001, Jiangsu, People's Republic of China.
    Background: Wallerian degeneration (WD) in injured peripheral nerves is associated with a large number of up- or down-regulated genes, but the effects of these changes are poorly understood. In our previous studies, we reported some key factors that are differentially expressed to activate nerve degeneration and regeneration during WD. Here, we determined the effects of secreted phosphoprotein 1 (Spp1) on WD after rat sciatic nerve injury. Read More

    Identifying the appropriate time for deep brain stimulation to achieve spatial memory improvement on the Morris water maze.
    BMC Neurosci 2017 Mar 7;18(1):29. Epub 2017 Mar 7.
    Brain Korea 21 PLUS Project for Medical Science and Brain Research Institute, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul, Korea.
    Background: The possibility of using deep brain stimulation (DBS) for memory enhancement has recently been reported, but the precise underlying mechanisms of its effects remain unknown. Our previous study suggested that spatial memory improvement by medial septum (MS)-DBS may be associated with cholinergic regulation and neurogenesis. However, the affected stage of memory could not be distinguished because the stimulation was delivered during the execution of all memory processes. Read More

    Experience-dependent modulation of alpha and beta during action observation and motor imagery.
    BMC Neurosci 2017 Mar 6;18(1):28. Epub 2017 Mar 6.
    Department of Psychology, York University, Toronto, ON, M3J 1P3, Canada.
    Background: EEG studies investigating the neural networks that facilitate action observation (AO) and kinaesthetic motor imagery (KMI) have shown reduced, or desynchronized, power in the alpha (8-12 Hz) and beta (13-30 Hz) frequency bands relative to rest, reflecting efficient activation of task-relevant areas. Functional modulation of these networks through expertise in dance has been established using fMRI, with greater activation among experts during AO. While there is evidence for experience-dependent plasticity of alpha power during AO of dance, the influence of familiarity on beta power during AO, and alpha and beta activity during KMI, remain unclear. Read More

    Upregulation of the endothelin A (ETA) receptor and its association with neurodegeneration in a rodent model of glaucoma.
    BMC Neurosci 2017 Mar 1;18(1):27. Epub 2017 Mar 1.
    North Texas Eye Research Institute, University of North Texas Health Science Center, 3500 Camp Bowie Blvd, Fort Worth, TX, 76107, USA.
    Background: Primary open angle glaucoma is a heterogeneous group of optic neuropathies that results in optic nerve degeneration and a loss of retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) ultimately causing blindness if allowed to progress. Elevation of intraocular pressure (IOP) is the most attributable risk factor for developing glaucoma and lowering of IOP is currently the only available therapy. However, despite lowering IOP, neurodegenerative effects persist in some patients. Read More

    EEG correlates of working memory performance in females.
    BMC Neurosci 2017 Feb 13;18(1):26. Epub 2017 Feb 13.
    Institute of Medical Psychology and Behavioural Neurobiology, University of Tübingen, Tübingen, Germany.
    Background: The study investigates oscillatory brain activity during working memory (WM) tasks. The tasks employed varied in two dimensions. First, they differed in complexity from average to highly demanding. Read More

    Quantitative analysis of axon collaterals of single pyramidal cells of the anterior piriform cortex of the guinea pig.
    BMC Neurosci 2017 Feb 8;18(1):25. Epub 2017 Feb 8.
    Department of Anatomy, School of Medicine, Toho University, Tokyo, 143-8540, Japan.
    Background: The role of the piriform cortex (PC) in olfactory information processing remains largely unknown. The anterior part of the piriform cortex (APC) has been the focus of cortical-level studies of olfactory coding, and associative processes have attracted considerable attention as an important part in odor discrimination and olfactory information processing. Associational connections of pyramidal cells in the guinea pig APC were studied by direct visualization of axons stained and quantitatively analyzed by intracellular biocytin injection in vivo. Read More

    Sleep/wake movement velocities, trajectories and micro-arousals during maturation in rats.
    BMC Neurosci 2017 Feb 7;18(1):24. Epub 2017 Feb 7.
    Child Development Center, University Children's Hospital Zurich, Zurich, Switzerland.
    Background: Sleep is regulated by two main processes. The circadian process provides a 24-h rhythm and the homeostatic process reflects sleep pressure, which increases in the course of wakefulness and decreases during sleep. Both of these processes undergo major changes during development. Read More

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