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    1745 results match your criteria BMC Neuroscience [Journal]

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    Extremely low frequency electromagnetic field exposure and restraint stress induce changes on the brain lipid profile of Wistar rats.
    BMC Neurosci 2018 May 21;19(1):31. Epub 2018 May 21.
    Departamento de Bioquímica, Facultad de Medicina, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Circuito Escolar s/n, Ciudad Universitaria, C.P. 04510, Mexico City, Mexico.
    Background: Exposure to electromagnetic fields can affect human health, damaging tissues and cell homeostasis. Stress modulates neuronal responses and composition of brain lipids. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of chronic extremely low frequency electromagnetic field (ELF-EMF) exposure, restraint stress (RS) or both (RS + ELF-EMF) on lipid profile and lipid peroxidation in Wistar rat brain. Read More

    Limited effects of dysfunctional macroautophagy on the accumulation of extracellularly derived α-synuclein in oligodendroglia: implications for MSA pathogenesis.
    BMC Neurosci 2018 May 21;19(1):32. Epub 2018 May 21.
    Department of Neurology, Medical University of Innsbruck, Innrain 66, G2, 6020, Innsbruck, Austria.
    Background: The progressive neurodegenerative disorder multiple system atrophy (MSA) is characterized by α-synuclein-positive (oligodendro-) glial cytoplasmic inclusions (GCIs). A connection between the abnormal accumulation of α-synuclein in GCIs and disease initiation and progression has been postulated. Mechanisms involved in the formation of GCIs are unclear. Read More

    A method for estimating relative changes in the synaptic density in Drosophila central nervous system.
    BMC Neurosci 2018 May 16;19(1):30. Epub 2018 May 16.
    Department of Biological Sciences, Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, Mumbai, 400005, India.
    Background: Synapse density is an essential indicator of development and functioning of the central nervous system. It is estimated indirectly through the accumulation of pre and postsynaptic proteins in tissue sections. 3D reconstruction of the electron microscopic images in serial sections is one of the most definitive means of estimating the formation of active synapses in the brain. Read More

    Modulation of the expression of genes related to the system of amyloid-beta metabolism in the brain as a novel mechanism of ceftriaxone neuroprotective properties.
    BMC Neurosci 2018 Apr 19;19(Suppl 1):13. Epub 2018 Apr 19.
    Federal State Budgetary Scientific Institution "Scientific Research Institute of Physiology and Basic Medicine" (SRIPhBM), Timakov St., 4, Novosibirsk, 630117, Russia.
    Background: The dominant hypothesis about the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the "amyloid cascade" concept and modulating the expression of proteins involved in the metabolism of amyloid-beta (Aβ) is proposed as an effective strategy for the prevention and therapy of AD. Recently, we found that an antibiotic ceftriaxone (CEF), which possesses neuroprotective activity, reduced cognitive deficits and neurodegenerative changes in OXYS rats, a model of sporadic AD. The molecular mechanisms of this effect are not completely clear, we suggested that the drug might serve as the regulator of the expression of the genes involved in the metabolism of Aβ and the pathogenesis of AD. Read More

    Novel functional variants at the GWAS-implicated loci might confer risk to major depressive disorder, bipolar affective disorder and schizophrenia.
    BMC Neurosci 2018 Apr 19;19(Suppl 1):22. Epub 2018 Apr 19.
    The Federal Research Center Institute of Cytology and Genetics, The Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Science, 10 Lavrentyeva Prospekt, Novosibirsk, Russian Federation, 630090.
    Background: A challenge of understanding the mechanisms underlying cognition including neurodevelopmental and neuropsychiatric disorders is mainly given by the potential severity of cognitive disorders for the quality of life and their prevalence. However, the field has been focused predominantly on protein coding variation until recently. Given the importance of tightly controlled gene expression for normal brain function, the goal of the study was to assess the functional variation including non-coding variation in human genome that is likely to play an important role in cognitive functions. Read More

    Optogenetic regulation of transcription.
    BMC Neurosci 2018 Apr 19;19(Suppl 1):12. Epub 2018 Apr 19.
    Localized Therapeutics, LLC, San Diego, CA, USA.
    Optogenetics has become widely recognized for its success in real-time control of brain neurons by utilizing non-mammalian photosensitive proteins to open or close membrane channels. Here we review a less well known type of optogenetic constructs that employs photosensitive proteins to transduce the signal to regulate gene transcription, and its possible use in medicine. One of the problems with existing gene therapies is that they could remain active indefinitely while not allowing regulated transgene production on demand. Read More

    Haplotype analysis of APOE intragenic SNPs.
    BMC Neurosci 2018 Apr 19;19(Suppl 1):16. Epub 2018 Apr 19.
    The Federal Research Center Institute of Cytology and Genetics of Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Center of Neurobiology and Neurogenetics, Lavrentieva str. 10, Novosibirsk, Russia, 630090.
    Background: APOE ε4 allele is most common genetic risk factor for Alzheimer's disease (AD) and cognitive decline. However, it remains poorly understood why only some carriers of APOE ε4 develop AD and how ethnic variabilities in APOE locus contribute to AD risk. Here, to address the role of APOE haplotypes, we reassessed the diversity of APOE locus in major ethnic groups and in Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative (ADNI) dataset on patients with AD, and subjects with mild cognitive impairment (MCI), and control non-demented individuals. Read More

    Zinc and linoleic acid pre-treatment attenuates biochemical and histological changes in the midbrain of rats with rotenone-induced Parkinsonism.
    BMC Neurosci 2018 May 9;19(1):29. Epub 2018 May 9.
    Department of Biochemistry and Physiological Sciences, Faculty of Medicine and Biomedical Sciences, University of Yaounde I, Yaounde, Cameroon.
    Background: Studies have suggested the supplementation of Zinc and Linoleic acid in the management of neurodegenerative disorders but none has investigated the combined effects. Little is known about the neuroprotective effects of either Zinc or Linoleic acid or their combination against development of Parkinsonism. This study was designed to investigate the neuroprotective effects of Zinc and Linoleic acid in rotenone-induced Parkinsonism in rats. Read More

    Cochlear morphology in the developing inner ear of the porcine model of spontaneous deafness.
    BMC Neurosci 2018 May 2;19(1):28. Epub 2018 May 2.
    Department of Otolaryngology, Head & Neck Surgery, Institute of Otolaryngology, Chinese PLA General Hospital, Beijing Key Laboratory of Hearing Impairment Prevention and Treatment, Key Laboratory of Hearing Impairment Science, Chinese PLA Medical School,Ministry of Education, Beijng, China.
    Background: Auditory function and cochlear morphology have previously been described in a porcine model with spontaneous WS2-like phenotype. In the present study, cochlear histopathology was further investigated in the inner ear of the developing spontaneous deafness pig.

    Results: We found that the stria vascularis transformed into a complex tri-laminar tissue at embryonic 85 days (E85) in normal pigs, but not in the MITF pigs. Read More

    Mice lacking galectin-3 (Lgals3) function have decreased home cage movement.
    BMC Neurosci 2018 May 2;19(1):27. Epub 2018 May 2.
    Division of Geriatrics, Department of Internal Medicine, University of Nebraska Medical Center, 3028 Durham Research Center II, Omaha, NE, 68198-5039, USA.
    Background: Galectins are a large family of proteins evolved to recognize specific carbohydrate moieties. Given the importance of pattern recognition processes for multiple biological tasks, including CNS development and immune recognition, we examined the home cage behavioral phenotype of mice lacking galectin-3 (Lgals3) function. Using a sophisticated monitoring apparatus capable of examining feeding, drinking, and movement at millisecond temporal and 0. Read More

    Clinical features and risk factors of neurological involvement in Sjögren's syndrome.
    BMC Neurosci 2018 Apr 27;19(1):26. Epub 2018 Apr 27.
    Rheumatology Department, The First Affiliated Hospital of Wenzhou Medical University, Wenzhou, China.
    Background: To investigated distinct manifestations of Sjögren's syndrome (SS) patients with neurological complications and the potential risk factors associated with neurological complications in SS, and to produce a disease evaluation and neurological involvement prediction for SS.

    Methods: 566 patients who fulfilled the 2002 classification criteria for SS from the Rheumatology Department of the First Affiliated Hospital of Wenzhou Medical University were included in the cross-sectional study. Clinical, immunological and histological characteristics were surveyed, and potential risk factors for neurological complications were examined by multivariate analysis. Read More

    Effect of laser Doppler flowmetry and occlusion time on outcome variability and mortality in rat middle cerebral artery occlusion: inconclusive results.
    BMC Neurosci 2018 Apr 19;19(1):24. Epub 2018 Apr 19.
    Department of Clinical Chemistry and Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden.
    Background: Stroke is among the leading causes of death and disability. Although intense research efforts have provided promising treatment options in animals, most clinical trials in humans have failed and the therapeutic options are few. Several factors have been suggested to explain this translational difficulty, particularly concerning methodology and study design. Read More

    The spatio-temporal dynamics of deviance and target detection in the passive and active auditory oddball paradigm: a sLORETA study.
    BMC Neurosci 2018 Apr 19;19(1):25. Epub 2018 Apr 19.
    Institute of Psychology and Education, Applied Emotion and Motivation Research, University of Ulm, Ulm, Germany.
    Background: Numerous studies have investigated the neural underpinnings of passive and active deviance and target detection in the well-known auditory oddball paradigm by means of event-related potentials (ERPs) or functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). The present auditory oddball study investigates the spatio-temporal dynamics of passive versus active deviance and target detection by analyzing amplitude modulations of early and late ERPs while at the same time exploring the neural sources underling this modulation with standardized low-resolution brain electromagnetic tomography (sLORETA) .

    Methods: A 64-channel EEG was recorded from twelve healthy right-handed participants while listening to 'standards' and 'deviants' (500 vs. Read More

    Association between serum levels of caspase-cleaved cytokeratin-18 and early mortality in patients with severe spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage.
    BMC Neurosci 2018 Apr 16;19(1):23. Epub 2018 Apr 16.
    Department of Neurosurgery, Hospital Universitario de Canarias, Ofra, s/n, La Laguna, 38320, Santa Cruz de Tenerife, Spain.
    Background: Apoptotic changes after cerebral hemorrhage in brain samples of humans have been found. Caspase-cleaved cytokeratin (CCCK)-18 could be detected in the bloodstream during apoptosis. Higher circulating CCCK-18 levels have been associated with 6-month mortality in patients with basal ganglia hemorrhage. Read More

    NCX-DB: a unified resource for integrative analysis of the sodium calcium exchanger super-family.
    BMC Neurosci 2018 Apr 13;19(1):19. Epub 2018 Apr 13.
    Department of Biological Sciences, The George Washington University, Science and Engineering Hall 6000, 800 22nd St. N.W., Washington, DC, 20052, USA.
    Na/Ca exchangers are low-affinity high-capacity transporters that mediate Ca extrusion by coupling Ca efflux to the influx of Na ions. The Na/Ca exchangers form a super-family comprised of three branches each differing in ion-substrate selectivity: Na/Ca exchangers (NCX), Na/Ca/K exchangers, and Ca/cation exchangers. Their primary function is to maintain Ca homeostasis and play a particularly important role in excitable cells that experience transient Ca fluxes. Read More

    Delayed and repeated intranasal delivery of bone marrow stromal cells increases regeneration and functional recovery after ischemic stroke in mice.
    BMC Neurosci 2018 Apr 12;19(1):20. Epub 2018 Apr 12.
    Department of Anesthesiology, Emory University School of Medicine, Atlanta, GA, 30322, USA.
    Background: Stroke is a leading cause of death and disability worldwide, yet there are limited treatments available. Intranasal administration is a novel non-invasive strategy to deliver cell therapy into the brain. Cells delivered via the intranasal route can migrate from the nasal mucosa to the ischemic infarct and show acute neuroprotection as well as functional benefits. Read More

    Magnetic resonance imaging for assessment of cerebrovascular reactivity and its relationship to cognition: a systematic review.
    BMC Neurosci 2018 Apr 12;19(1):21. Epub 2018 Apr 12.
    Institute for Physical Activity and Nutrition, Deakin University, Geelong, Australia.
    Background: Cerebrovascular reactivity (CVR) refers to the responsiveness of cerebral vasculature to vasoactive stimuli. CVR is an indicator of brain health and can be assessed using vasodilatory techniques and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Using such approaches, some researchers have explored the relationship between CVR and cognition; here we systematically review this work. Read More

    Impact of brain arousal and time-on-task on autonomic nervous system activity in the wake-sleep transition.
    BMC Neurosci 2018 Apr 11;19(1):18. Epub 2018 Apr 11.
    Department of Psychiatry and Psychotherapy, University of Leipzig, Semmelweisstrasse 10, 04103, Leipzig, Germany.
    Background: Autonomic nervous system (ANS) activity has been shown to vary with the state of brain arousal. In a previous study, this association of ANS activity with distinct states of brain arousal was demonstrated using 15-min EEG data, but without directly controlling for possible time-on-task effects. In the current study we examine ANS-activity in fine-graded EEG-vigilance stages (indicating states of brain arousal) during two conditions of a 2-h oddball task while controlling for time-on-task. Read More

    27-Hydroxycholesterol increases α-synuclein protein levels through proteasomal inhibition in human dopaminergic neurons.
    BMC Neurosci 2018 Apr 3;19(1):17. Epub 2018 Apr 3.
    Department of Biomedical Sciences, School of Medicine and Health Sciences, University of North Dakota, 1301 N Columbia Rd Stop 9037, Grand Forks, ND, 58202, USA.
    Background: Accumulation of the α-synuclein (α-syn) protein is a hallmark of a group of brain disorders collectively known as synucleinopathies. The mechanisms responsible for α-syn accumulation are not well understood. Several studies suggest a link between synucleinopathies and the cholesterol metabolite 27-hydroxycholesterol (27-OHC). Read More

    Chronic oxycodone induces axonal degeneration in rat brain.
    BMC Neurosci 2018 Mar 23;19(1):15. Epub 2018 Mar 23.
    Department of Emergency Medicine, Louisiana State University Health Sciences Center, 1501 Kings Highway, Shreveport, USA.
    Background: Chronic opioid therapy for non-malignant pain conditions has significantly increased over the last 15 years. Recently, the correlation between opioid analgesics and alternations in brain structure, such as leukoencephalopathy, axon demyelination, and white matter lesions, has been demonstrated in patients with a history of long-term use of prescription opioids. The exact mechanisms underlying the neurotoxic effect of opioids on the central nervous system are still not fully understood. Read More

    Dissecting the pathobiology of altered MRI signal in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis: A post mortem whole brain sampling strategy for the integration of ultra-high-field MRI and quantitative neuropathology.
    BMC Neurosci 2018 Mar 13;19(1):11. Epub 2018 Mar 13.
    Nuffield Department of Clinical Neurosciences, University of Oxford, Oxford, UK.
    Background: Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a clinically and histopathologically heterogeneous neurodegenerative disorder, in which therapy is hindered by the rapid progression of disease and lack of biomarkers. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has demonstrated its potential for detecting the pathological signature and tracking disease progression in ALS. However, the microstructural and molecular pathological substrate is poorly understood and generally defined histologically. Read More

    AxonTracer: a novel ImageJ plugin for automated quantification of axon regeneration in spinal cord tissue.
    BMC Neurosci 2018 Mar 9;19(1). Epub 2018 Mar 9.
    Department of Neurosciences, 0626, University of California - San Diego, La Jolla, CA, 92093, USA.
    Background: Quantification of axon regeneration in spinal cord tissue sections is a fundamental step to adequately determine if an applied treatment leads to an anatomical benefit following spinal cord injury. Recent advances have led to the development of therapies that can promote regeneration of thousands of injured axons in vivo. Axon labeling methods and in the application of regeneration-enabling stem cell grafts have increased the number of detectable regenerating axons by orders of magnitudes. Read More

    Normal sleep bouts are not essential for C. elegans survival and FoxO is important for compensatory changes in sleep.
    BMC Neurosci 2018 Mar 9;19(1):10. Epub 2018 Mar 9.
    Department of Neuroscience, Brown University, 185 Meeting Street, Box GL-N, Providence, RI, 02912, USA.
    Background: Sleep deprivation impairs learning, causes stress, and can lead to death. Notch and JNK-1 pathways impact C. elegans sleep in complex ways; these have been hypothesized to involve compensatory sleep. Read More

    Neuroprotective dobutamine treatment upregulates superoxide dismutase 3, anti-oxidant and survival genes and attenuates genes mediating inflammation.
    BMC Neurosci 2018 Mar 9;19(1). Epub 2018 Mar 9.
    Laboratory for Experimental Brain Research, Division of Neurosurgery, Department of Clinical Sciences, Lund University, 22184, Lund, Sweden.
    Background: Labor subjects the fetus to an hypoxic episode and concomitant adrenomodullary catecholamine surge that may provide protection against the hypoxic insult. The beta1-adrenergic agonist dobutamine protects against hypoxia/aglycemia induced neuronal damage. We aimed to identify the associated protective biological processes involved. Read More

    Metabolomics analysis of serum in a rat heroin self-administration model undergoing reinforcement based on H-nuclear magnetic resonance spectra.
    BMC Neurosci 2018 Mar 5;19(1). Epub 2018 Mar 5.
    Wuhan Institute of Biomedical Science, Jianghan University, Wuhan, 430056, China.
    Background: Understanding the process of relapse to abused drugs and ultimately developing treatments that can reduce the incidence of relapse remains the primary goal for the study of substance dependence. Therefore, exploring the metabolite characteristics during the relapse stage is valuable.

    Methods: A heroin self-administered rat model was employed, and analysis of the H-nuclear magnetic resonance-based metabolomics was performed to investigate the characteristic metabolite profile upon reintroduction to the drug after abstinence. Read More

    Modelling physiological and pathological conditions to study pericyte biology in brain function and dysfunction.
    BMC Neurosci 2018 Feb 22;19(1). Epub 2018 Feb 22.
    Centre for Brain Research, Faculty of Medical and Health Sciences, University of Auckland, 85 Park Rd, Grafton, Auckland, 1023, New Zealand.
    Background: Brain pericytes ensheathe the endothelium and contribute to formation and maintenance of the blood-brain-barrier. Additionally, pericytes are involved in several aspects of the CNS immune response including scarring, adhesion molecule expression, chemokine secretion, and phagocytosis. In vitro cultures are routinely used to investigate these functions of brain pericytes, however, these are highly plastic cells and can display differing phenotypes and functional responses depending on their culture conditions. Read More

    Solid lipid curcumin particles provide greater anti-amyloid, anti-inflammatory and neuroprotective effects than curcumin in the 5xFAD mouse model of Alzheimer's disease.
    BMC Neurosci 2018 Feb 23;19(1). Epub 2018 Feb 23.
    Field Neurosciences Institute Laboratory for Restorative Neurology, Central Michigan University, Mt. Pleasant, MI, 48859, USA.
    Background: Neuroinflammation and the presence of amyloid beta protein (Aβ) and neurofibrillary tangles are key pathologies in Alzheimer's disease (AD). As a potent anti-amyloid and anti-inflammatory natural polyphenol, curcumin (Cur) could be potential therapies for AD. Unfortunately, poor solubility, instability in physiological fluids, and low bioavailability limit its clinical utility. Read More

    Characterisation of Zika virus infection in primary human astrocytes.
    BMC Neurosci 2018 Feb 20;19(1). Epub 2018 Feb 20.
    Department of Virology, Veterinary Research Institute, Hudcova 70, 62100, Brno, Czech Republic.
    Background: The recent Zika virus (ZIKV) outbreak has linked ZIKV with microcephaly and other central nervous system pathologies in humans. Astrocytes are among the first cells to respond to ZIKV infection in the brain and are also targets for virus infection. In this study, we investigated the interaction between ZIKV and primary human brain cortical astrocytes (HBCA). Read More

    Evaluation of reference genes for gene expression studies in mouse and N2a cell ischemic stroke models using quantitative real-time PCR.
    BMC Neurosci 2018 Feb 1;19(1). Epub 2018 Feb 1.
    Department of Pharmacy, The First Affiliated Hospital of Shantou University Medical College, Shantou, 515041, Guangdong, China.
    Background: Real-time reverse transcription quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) is a critical tool for evaluating the levels of mRNA transcribed from genes. Reliable RT-qPCR results largely depend on normalization to suitable reference genes. Middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) and oxygen-glucose deprivation/reoxygenation (OGD/R) are models that are commonly used to study ischemic stroke. Read More

    Intraventricular infusion of clusterin ameliorated cognition and pathology in Tg6799 model of Alzheimer's disease.
    BMC Neurosci 2018 Jan 25;19(1). Epub 2018 Jan 25.
    Department of Neurology and Institute of Neurology, Ruijin Hospital Affiliated to Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, No. 197, Road Ruijin Second, Shanghai, 200025, People's Republic of China.
    Background: Alzheimer's disease (AD) is characterized by the deposition of amyloid-β (Aβ) in brain parenchyma and cerebral blood vessels as cerebral amyloid angiopathy (CAA). Clusterin, a chaperon protein associated with Aβ aggregation, toxicity and transport through blood-brain barrier, may play a key role in the development of AD. Recently, clusterin peptide D-[113-122] was shown to mimic clusterin's function and exerted therapeutic effect in atherosclerosis. Read More

    Emerging roles for microRNA in the regulation of Drosophila circadian clock.
    BMC Neurosci 2018 Jan 16;19(1). Epub 2018 Jan 16.
    Department of Biology, University of Nevada, Reno, 1664 North Virginia St., Reno, NV, 89557-0315, USA.
    Background: The circadian clock, which operates within an approximately 24-h period, is closely linked to the survival and fitness of almost all living organisms. The circadian clock is generated through a negative transcription-translation feedback loop. microRNAs (miRNAs) are small non-coding RNAs comprised of approximately 22 nucleotides that post-transcriptionally regulate target mRNA by either inducing mRNA degradation or inhibiting translation. Read More

    N,N-disubstituted azines attenuate LPS-mediated neuroinflammation in microglia and neuronal apoptosis via inhibiting MAPK signaling pathways.
    BMC Neurosci 2017 12 28;18(1):82. Epub 2017 Dec 28.
    College of Pharmacy, Gachon University, #191, Hambakmoero, Yeonsu-gu, Incheon, 21936, Republic of Korea.
    Background: Activated microglia interact with astrocytes and neuronal cells to induce neuroinflammation, which can contribute to the pathogenesis and progression of Alzheimer's and Parkinson's disease. To identify the most effective anti-neuroinflammatory agent, we designed and synthesized a family of 13 new azine derivatives and investigated their anti-neuroinflammatory activities in LPS-activated BV-2 microglial cells.

    Results: Out of 13 derivatives, compound 3 [4,4'-(1E,1'E,3E,3'E)-3,3'-(hydrazine-1,2-diylidene) bis-(prop-1-ene-1-yl-3-ylidene) bis-(2-methoxyphenol)] exhibited excellent anti-neuroinflammatory activities (IC = 12. Read More

    The effects of vitamin D administration on brain inflammatory markers in high fat diet induced obese rats.
    BMC Neurosci 2017 12 28;18(1):81. Epub 2017 Dec 28.
    Drug Applied Research Center, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, Iran.
    Background: Obesity induced brain inflammation is associated with cognitive disorders. We aimed to investigate the influence of vitamin D on hypothalamus and hippocampus inflammatory response in high-fat diet induced obese rats.

    Methods: In the beginning of the study, 40 rats were divided into two groups: control diet and high fat diet (HFD) for 16 weeks; then each group subdivided into two groups including: N, ND + vitamin D, HFD and HFD + vitamin D. Read More

    Stereoscopic processing of crossed and uncrossed disparities in the human visual cortex.
    BMC Neurosci 2017 12 21;18(1):80. Epub 2017 Dec 21.
    State Key Laboratory of Cognitive Neuroscience and Learning, Beijing Normal University, Beijing, China.
    Background: Binocular disparity provides a powerful cue for depth perception in a stereoscopic environment. Despite increasing knowledge of the cortical areas that process disparity from neuroimaging studies, the neural mechanism underlying disparity sign processing [crossed disparity (CD)/uncrossed disparity (UD)] is still poorly understood. In the present study, functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) was used to explore different neural features that are relevant to disparity-sign processing. Read More

    A gradient of frequency-dependent synaptic properties along the longitudinal hippocampal axis.
    BMC Neurosci 2017 Dec 12;18(1):79. Epub 2017 Dec 12.
    Department of Medicine, Laboratory of Physiology, University of Patras, 26504, Rion, Greece.
    Background: The hippocampus is a functionally heterogeneous brain structure and specializations of the intrinsic neuronal network may crucially support the functional segregation along the longitudinal axis of the hippocampus. Short-term synaptic plasticity plays fundamental roles in information processing and may be importantly involved in diversifying the properties of local neuronal network along the hippocampus long axis. Therefore, we aimed to examine the properties of the cornu ammonis 1 (CA1) synapses along the entire dorsoventral axis of the rat hippocampus using field excitatory postsynaptic potentials from transverse rat hippocampal slices and a frequency stimulation paradigm. Read More

    Downstream mediators of Ten-m3 signalling in the developing visual pathway.
    BMC Neurosci 2017 Dec 6;18(1):78. Epub 2017 Dec 6.
    Discipline of Physiology, School of Medical Sciences and Bosch Institute, F13, University of Sydney, Sydney, NSW, 2006, Australia.
    Background: The formation of visuotopically-aligned projections in the brain is required for the generation of functional binocular circuits. The mechanisms which underlie this process are unknown. Ten-m3 is expressed in a broad high-ventral to low-dorsal gradient across the retina and in topographically-corresponding gradients in primary visual centres. Read More

    Altered phosphorylation, electrophysiology, and behavior on attenuation of PDE4B action in hippocampus.
    BMC Neurosci 2017 Dec 2;18(1):77. Epub 2017 Dec 2.
    Department of Pharmacology, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL, 35294, USA.
    Background: PDE4 cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterases regulate 3', 5' cAMP abundance in the CNS and thereby regulate PKA activity and phosphorylation of CREB, which has been implicated in learning and memory, depression and other functions. The PDE4 isoform PDE4B1 also interacts with the DISC1 protein, implicated in neural development and behavioral disorders. The cellular functions of PDE4B1 have been investigated extensively, but its function(s) in the intact organism remained unexplored. Read More

    In silico repurposing of antipsychotic drugs for Alzheimer's disease.
    BMC Neurosci 2017 Oct 27;18(1):76. Epub 2017 Oct 27.
    University School of Biotechnology, GGS Indraprastha University, Sector-16C, Dwarka, New Delhi, 110075, India.
    Background: Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most prevalent form of dementia and represents one of the highest unmet requirements in medicine today. There is shortage of novel molecules entering into market because of poor pharmacokinetic properties and safety issues. Drug repurposing offers an opportunity to reinvigorate the slowing drug discovery process by finding new uses for existing drugs. Read More

    Activity-dependent formation of a vesicular inhibitory amino acid transporter gradient in the superior olivary complex of NMRI mice.
    BMC Neurosci 2017 Oct 26;18(1):75. Epub 2017 Oct 26.
    Neurogenetics Group, Center of Excellence Hearing4All, School of Medicine and Health Sciences, Carl von Ossietzky University Oldenburg, 26111, Oldenburg, Germany.
    Background: In the mammalian superior olivary complex (SOC), synaptic inhibition contributes to the processing of binaural sound cues important for sound localization. Previous analyses demonstrated a tonotopic gradient for postsynaptic proteins mediating inhibitory neurotransmission in the lateral superior olive (LSO), a major nucleus of the SOC. To probe, whether a presynaptic molecular gradient exists as well, we investigated immunoreactivity against the vesicular inhibitory amino acid transporter (VIAAT) in the mouse auditory brainstem. Read More

    From provocation to aggression: the neural network.
    BMC Neurosci 2017 Oct 17;18(1):73. Epub 2017 Oct 17.
    Department of Psychiatry, Psychotherapy and Psychosomatics, Medical School, RWTH Aachen University, Pauwelsstraße 30, 52074, Aachen, Germany.
    Background: In-vivo observations of neural processes during human aggressive behavior are difficult to obtain, limiting the number of studies in this area. To address this gap, the present study implemented a social reactive aggression paradigm in 29 healthy men, employing non-violent provocation in a two-player game to elicit aggressive behavior in fMRI settings.

    Results: Participants responded more aggressively after high provocation reflected in taking more money from their opponents. Read More

    Shift in the function of netrin-1 from axon outgrowth to axon branching in developing cerebral cortical neurons.
    BMC Neurosci 2017 Oct 17;18(1):74. Epub 2017 Oct 17.
    Department of Anatomy, Faculty of Medicine, Saitama Medical University, 38 Morohongo, Moroyama-machi, Iruma-gun, Saitama, 350-0495, Japan.
    Background: Netrin-1, a multifunctional axon guidance cue, elicits axon outgrowth via one of its receptors deleted in colorectal cancer (DCC) in several types of neurons, including cerebral cortical neurons of embryonic mice. However, we and others have observed de novo formation of axon branches without axon outgrowth induced by netrin-1 in cortical culture of neonatal hamsters. These previous reports suggested the possibility that netrin-1 function might alter during development, which we here investigated using dissociated culture prepared from cerebral cortices of embryonic mice. Read More

    PeakCaller: an automated graphical interface for the quantification of intracellular calcium obtained by high-content screening.
    BMC Neurosci 2017 Oct 16;18(1):72. Epub 2017 Oct 16.
    The Hussman Institute for Autism, Baltimore, MD, USA.
    Background: Intracellular calcium is an important ion involved in the regulation and modulation of many neuronal functions. From regulating cell cycle and proliferation to initiating signaling cascades and regulating presynaptic neurotransmitter release, the concentration and timing of calcium activity governs the function and fate of neurons. Changes in calcium transients can be used in high-throughput screening applications as a basic measure of neuronal maturity, especially in developing or immature neuronal cultures derived from stem cells. Read More

    A convenient UHPLC-MS/MS method for routine monitoring of plasma and brain levels of nicotine and cotinine as a tool to validate newly developed preclinical smoking model in mouse.
    BMC Neurosci 2017 Oct 11;18(1):71. Epub 2017 Oct 11.
    Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, School of Pharmacy, Texas Tech University Health Sciences Center, 1300 S. Coulter Street, Amarillo, TX, 79106, USA.
    Background: A sensitive, rapid and selective UHPLC-MS/MS method has been developed and validated for the quantification of Nicotine (NT) and Cotinine (CN) using Continine-d as internal standard (IS) as per FDA guidelines. Sample preparation involved simple protein precipitation of 20 µL mouse plasma or brain homogenate using acetonitrile at 1:8 ratio. Mass Spectrometer was operated in positive polarity under the multiple reaction-monitoring mode using electro spray ionization technique and the transitions of m/z 163. Read More

    Unhealthy smokers: scopes for prophylactic intervention and clinical treatment.
    BMC Neurosci 2017 Oct 4;18(1):70. Epub 2017 Oct 4.
    Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, School of Pharmacy, Texas Tech University Health Sciences Center, 1300 S. Coulter Street, Amarillo, TX, 79106, USA.
    Background: Globally, tobacco use causes approximately 6 million deaths per year, and predictions report that with current trends; more than 8 million deaths are expected annually by 2030. Cigarette smokings is currently accountable for more than 480,000 deaths each year in United States (US) and is the leading cause of preventable death in the US. On average, smokers die 10 years earlier than nonsmokers and if smoking continues at its current proportion among adolescents, one in every 13 Americans aged 17 years or younger is expected to die prematurely from a smoking-related illness. Read More

    PPARγ coactivator-1α (PGC-1α) protects neuroblastoma cells against amyloid-beta (Aβ) induced cell death and neuroinflammation via NF-κB pathway.
    BMC Neurosci 2017 Sep 25;18(1):69. Epub 2017 Sep 25.
    Department of Neurology, The First Affiliated Hospital of Anhui Medical University, Hefei, 230032, Anhui, China.
    Background: Alzheimer's disease is characterized by the accumulation of amyloid beta (Aβ) and the formation of neurofibrillary tangles. Aβ is the main constituent of senile plaques and is largely involved in neuronal death and neuroinflammation. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator-1 alpha (PGC-1α) is one of the main transcriptional coactivator and has been related to many fields such as energy metabolism, cardiovascular disease, neurodegenerative disorders, and so on. Read More

    Why to cooperate is better than to compete: brain and personality components.
    BMC Neurosci 2017 Sep 20;18(1):68. Epub 2017 Sep 20.
    Research Unit in Affective and Social Neuroscience, Catholic University of the Sacred Heart, Milan, Italy.
    Background: Cooperation and competition were compared in the present study. Brain correlates (electroencephalography, EEG frequency band, delta, theta, alpha, and beta) and hemodynamic measure of functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS, O2Hb) were acquired during a joined cooperative (Experiment 1) or competitive (Experiment 2) task. Subjects were required to match each other's cognitive performance (cooperation) or to make better than others (competition) in terms of accuracy (error rate, ER) and response time (RT). Read More

    The loss-of-function disease-mutation G301R in the Na/K-ATPase α isoform decreases lesion volume and improves functional outcome after acute spinal cord injury in mice.
    BMC Neurosci 2017 Sep 8;18(1):66. Epub 2017 Sep 8.
    Neurobiology Research, Institute of Molecular Medicine, University of Southern Denmark, 5000, Odense C, Denmark.
    Background: The Na/K-ATPases are transmembrane ion pumps important for maintenance of ion gradients across the plasma membrane that serve to support multiple cellular functions, such as membrane potentials, regulation of cellular volume and pH, and co-transport of signaling transmitters in all animal cells. The αNa/K-ATPase subunit isoform is predominantly expressed in astrocytes, which us the sharp Na-gradient maintained by the sodium pump necessary for astroglial metabolism. Prolonged ischemia induces an elevation of [Na], decreased ATP levels and intracellular pH owing to anaerobic metabolism and lactate accumulation. Read More

    Cerebral microvascular dysfunction in metabolic syndrome is exacerbated by ischemia-reperfusion injury.
    BMC Neurosci 2017 Sep 8;18(1):67. Epub 2017 Sep 8.
    Laboratory of Cardiovascular Investigation, Oswaldo Cruz Foundation, Avenida Brasil, 4365, Rio de Janeiro, RJ, 21045-900, Brazil.
    Background: Metabolic syndrome (MetS) is associated with an increased risk of cerebrovascular diseases, including cerebral ischemia. Microvascular dysfunction is an important feature underlying the pathophysiology of cerebrovascular diseases. In this study, we aimed to investigate the impacts of ischemia and reperfusion (IR) injury on the cerebral microvascular function of rats with high-fat diet-induced MetS. Read More

    Day2day: investigating daily variability of magnetic resonance imaging measures over half a year.
    BMC Neurosci 2017 Aug 24;18(1):65. Epub 2017 Aug 24.
    Center for Lifespan Psychology, Max Planck Institute for Human Development, Lentzeallee 94, 14195, Berlin, Germany.
    Background: Most studies of brain structure and function, and their relationships to cognitive ability, have relied on inter-individual variability in magnetic resonance (MR) images. Intra-individual variability is often ignored or implicitly assumed to be equivalent to the former. Testing this assumption empirically by collecting enough data on single individuals is cumbersome and costly. Read More

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