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    Increased prevalence of renal cysts in patients with sickle cell disease.
    BMC Nephrol 2017 Sep 21;18(1):298. Epub 2017 Sep 21.
    Department of Renal Sciences, Division of Transplantation Immunology and Mucosal Biology, Faculty of Life Sciences and Medicine, King's College London, London, SE5 9RJ, UK.
    Background: Early detection and interventions have enabled patients with sickle cell disease (SCD) to live well into adulthood. Consequently, the chronicity of SCD allows for the insidious manifestation of multisystem complications, including renal damage. Cystic renal lesions are commonly incidentally discovered on ultrasound and computerised tomography (CT) imaging of the abdomen. Read More

    Transitional cell carcinoma involving graft kidney in a kidney transplant recipient: a case report.
    BMC Nephrol 2017 Sep 21;18(1):299. Epub 2017 Sep 21.
    Department of Internal Medicine, College of Medicine, The Catholic University of Korea, Daejeon St. Mary's Hospital 64, Daeheung-ro, Jung-gu, Daejeon, 34943, Republic of Korea.
    Background: Kidney transplantation (KT) is the treatment option for patients with end stage renal disease (ESRD) to prolong survival and improve quality of life. Although the use of potent immunosuppressive agents increases graft survival in kidney transplantation recipients (KTRs), it may lead to the development of malignancy, including transitional cell carcinoma (TCC). TCC developing in the pelvis of graft kidney is very rare in KTRs. Read More

    Lifestyle intervention to improve quality of life and prevent weight gain after renal transplantation: Design of the Active Care after Transplantation (ACT) randomized controlled trial.
    BMC Nephrol 2017 Sep 15;18(1):296. Epub 2017 Sep 15.
    Department of Epidemiology, University Medical Center Groningen, University of Groningen, Groningen, the Netherlands.
    Background: Low physical activity and reduced physical functioning are common after renal transplantation, resulting in a reduced quality of life. Another common post-transplantation complication is poor cardio-metabolic health, which plays a main role in long-term outcomes in renal transplant recipients (RTR). It is increasingly recognized that weight gain in the first year after transplantation, especially an increase in fat mass, is a highly common contributor to cardio-metabolic risk. Read More

    Validity and reproducibility of a short food frequency questionnaire among patients with chronic kidney disease.
    BMC Nephrol 2017 Sep 15;18(1):297. Epub 2017 Sep 15.
    Inserm U1018, Center for Research in Epidemiology and Population Health (CESP), Villejuif, France.
    Background: A balanced diet is essential to slowing the progression of chronic kidney disease (CKD) and managing the symptoms. Currently, no tool is available to easily and quickly assess energy and macronutrient intake in patients with non end-stage CKD. We aimed to develop and evaluate the validity and reproducibility of a new short 49-item food frequency questionnaire (SFFQ) adapted to patients with CKD. Read More

    Association of plasma potassium with mortality and end-stage kidney disease in patients with chronic kidney disease under nephrologist care - The NephroTest study.
    BMC Nephrol 2017 Sep 12;18(1):295. Epub 2017 Sep 12.
    FCRIN INI-CRCT, Paris, France.
    Background: Low and high blood potassium levels are common and were both associated with poor outcomes in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). Whether such relationships may be altered in CKD patients receiving optimized nephrologist care is unknown.

    Methods: NephroTest is a hospital-based prospective cohort study that enrolled 2078 nondialysis patients (mean age: 59 ± 15 years, 66% men) in CKD stages 1 to 5 who underwent repeated extensive renal tests including plasma potassium (PK) and glomerular filtration rate (GFR) measured (mGFR) by (51)Cr-EDTA renal clearance. Read More

    Efficacy of blood flow restriction exercise during dialysis for end stage kidney disease patients: protocol of a randomised controlled trial.
    BMC Nephrol 2017 Sep 11;18(1):294. Epub 2017 Sep 11.
    Institute for Physical Activity and Nutrition, School of Exercise and Nutrition Sciences, Deakin University, 221 Burwood Highway, Burwood, 3125, Australia.
    Background: Exercise during haemodialysis improves strength and physical function. However, both patients and clinicians are time poor, and current exercise recommendations add an excessive time burden making exercise a rare addition to standard care. Hypothetically, blood flow restriction exercise performed during haemodialysis can provide greater value for time spent exercising, reducing this time burden while producing similar or greater outcomes. Read More

    Factors associated with foot ulceration and amputation in adults on dialysis: a cross-sectional observational study.
    BMC Nephrol 2017 Sep 8;18(1):293. Epub 2017 Sep 8.
    Discipline of Podiatry, School of Allied Health, La Trobe University, Melbourne, VIC, 3086, Australia.
    Background: Adults on dialysis are at increased risk of foot ulceration, which commonly precedes more serious lower limb complications, including amputation. Limited data exist regarding the prevalence and factors associated with foot disease in this population. Hence, this study set out to investigate factors associated with foot ulceration and amputation in a dialysis cohort. Read More

    Predictors of Acute Renal Injury Study (PARIS) among HIV-positive individuals: design and methods.
    BMC Nephrol 2017 Sep 7;18(1):289. Epub 2017 Sep 7.
    San Francisco and San Francisco VA Health Care System, Kidney Health Research Collaborative, University of California, 1450 Clement St., 111A1, San Francisco, 94121, CA, USA.
    Background: Acute kidney injury (AKI), which is common among HIV-positive individuals, may contribute to the excess burden of chronic kidney disease (CKD) in this patient population; however, conventional clinical methods to detect AKI do not capture kidney injury sufficiently early to prevent irreversible damage. Further, large observational and interventional studies of AKI generally exclude HIV-positive persons in spite of their disproportionate risk.

    Methods: The Predictors of Acute Renal Injury Study (PARIS) is a prospective observational cohort study among HIV-positive individuals established to determine the ability of candidate kidney injury biomarkers to predict future hospitalized clinical AKI, to characterize hospitalized subclinical AKI, and to discern the risk of progressive kidney disease following subclinical and clinical AKI. Read More

    Associations of genetic variants of endothelin with cardiovascular complications in patients with renal failure.
    BMC Nephrol 2017 Sep 7;18(1):291. Epub 2017 Sep 7.
    Department of Clinical Pharmacy, School of Pharmacy, Taipei Medical University, Taipei, Taiwan.
    Background: Cardiovascular (CV) complications are the main cause of death in end-stage renal disease (ESRD) patients. The high CV risks are attributable to the additive effects of multiple factors. Endothelin (EDN) is a potent vasoconstrictor and plays a role in regulating vascular homeostasis. Read More

    Identification of adenylyl cyclase isoforms mediating parathyroid hormone- and calcitonin-stimulated cyclic AMP accumulation in distal tubule cells.
    BMC Nephrol 2017 Sep 7;18(1):292. Epub 2017 Sep 7.
    Division of Nephrology, University of Utah Health Sciences Center, 1900 E 30 N, Salt Lake City, UT, 84132, USA.
    Background: The distal convoluted tubule (DCT) is an important nephron site for parathyroid hormone (PTH) and calcitonin regulation of urinary divalent cation excretion. These hormones exert their effects on the DCT in substantial part through activation of adenylyl cyclase (AC); however, it is unknown which AC isoforms are involved.

    Methods: To examine this, two mouse DCT cell lines were studied: 209 and D1 cells. Read More

    Serum osteoprotegerin in prevalent hemodialysis patients: associations with mortality, atherosclerosis and cardiac function.
    BMC Nephrol 2017 Sep 7;18(1):290. Epub 2017 Sep 7.
    Nephrology Department, Hospital Clínic, Universitat de Barcelona, IDIBAPS, Barcelona, Spain.
    Background: To assess whether serum osteoprotegerin (OPG) and/or fetuin-A predict mortality and cardiovascular (CV) morbidity and mortality in hemodialysis patients.

    Methods: Multicenter, observational, prospective study that included 220 hemodialysis patients followed up for up to 6 years. Serum OPG and fetuin-A levels were measured at baseline and their possible association with clinical characteristics, CV risk biomarkers, carotid ultrasonographic findings, as well as their association with overall and CV mortality and CV events were assessed. Read More

    Fibronectin glomerulopathy complicated with persistent cloaca and congenital esophageal atresia: a case report and literature review.
    BMC Nephrol 2017 Sep 6;18(1):288. Epub 2017 Sep 6.
    Kidney Unit, National Fukuoka-Higashi Medical Center, Fukuoka, Japan.
    Background: Fibronectin glomerulopathy is a rare, inherited, autosomal dominant, glomerular disease characterized by proteinuria, microscopic hematuria, hypertension, massive glomerular deposits of fibronectin, and slow progression to end-stage renal failure. Because the incident of fibronectin glomerulopathy is extremely low, the pathophysiology, genetic abnormalities, epidemiology, and mechanisms remain to be elucidated.

    Case Presentation: We report a 21-year-old woman with fibronectin glomerulopathy, who had been diagnosed with persistent cloaca and congenital esophageal atresia at birth. Read More

    Indoleamine 2, 3-dioxygenase (IDO) increases during renal fibrogenesis and its inhibition potentiates TGF-β 1-induced epithelial to mesenchymal transition.
    BMC Nephrol 2017 Sep 6;18(1):287. Epub 2017 Sep 6.
    Postgraduate Program in Medicine, Universidade Nove de Julho (UNINOVE), Rua Vergueiro, 235, 2º subsolo, São Paulo, 01504-001, São Paulo, Brazil.
    Background: Indoleamine 2, 3-dioxygenase (IDO) is an immunomodulatory molecule that has been implicated in several biological processes. Although IDO has been linked with some renal diseases, its role in renal fibrosis is still unclear. Because IDO may be modulated by TGF-β1, a potent fibrogenic molecule, we hypothesized that IDO could be involved in renal fibrosis, especially acting in the TGF-β1-induced tubular epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT). Read More

    Bone turnover markers are associated with bone density, but not with fracture in end stage kidney disease: a cross-sectional study.
    BMC Nephrol 2017 Sep 6;18(1):284. Epub 2017 Sep 6.
    Department of Renal Medicine, Aarhus University Hospital, Palle Juul-Jensens Boulevard 99, 8200, Aarhus N, Denmark.
    Background: Fracture risk is increased in chronic kidney disease (CKD), but assessment of bone fragility remains controversial in these patients. This study investigated the associations between bone turnover markers, bone mineral density (BMD), and prevalent fragility fracture in a cohort of kidney transplantation candidates.

    Methods: Volumetric BMD of spine and hip was measured by quantitative computed tomography. Read More

    A chronic hemodialysis patient with isolated pulmonary valve infective endocarditis caused by non-albicans Candida: a rare case and literature review.
    BMC Nephrol 2017 Sep 6;18(1):286. Epub 2017 Sep 6.
    Department of Internal Medicine, Cardinal Tien Hospital An-Kang branch, School of Medicine, Fu-Jen Catholic University, No. 15, Chezi Road., Hsin-Tien District, New Taipei City, 23155, Taiwan, Republic of China.
    Background: Isolated pulmonary valve infective endocarditis caused by Candida is rare in chronic hemodialysis patients. The 2009 Infectious Diseases Society of America guidelines suggest the combined use of surgery and antibiotics to treat candidiasis; however, successful nonsurgical treatment of Candida endocarditis has been reported.

    Case Presentation: A 63-year-old woman with end-stage kidney disease was admitted to our hospital after experiencing disorientation for 5 days. Read More

    Doxycycline treatment in dialysis related amyloidosis: discrepancy between antalgic effect and inflammation, studied with FDG-positron emission tomography: a case report.
    BMC Nephrol 2017 Sep 6;18(1):285. Epub 2017 Sep 6.
    Nuclear Medicine Centre Hospitalier Le Mans, 72000, Le Mans, France.
    Background: No effective treatment is currently available and dialysis related amyloidosis continues to be invalidating in long-term dialysis patients. A recent case series reported reduction of osteoarticular pain on doxycycline treatment, extending the indications of this drug, used in other uncommon forms of amyloidosis, to dialysis patients. Explanations of the antalgic effect were the anti-inflammatory properties and anti-coiling effects of tetracycline. Read More

    Local CD34-positive capillaries decrease in mouse models of kidney disease associating with the severity of glomerular and tubulointerstitial lesions.
    BMC Nephrol 2017 Sep 4;18(1):280. Epub 2017 Sep 4.
    Laboratory of Anatomy, Graduate School of Veterinary Medicine, Hokkaido University, Kita 18, Nishi 9, Kita-ku, Sapporo, Japan.
    Background: The renal vasculature plays important roles in both homeostasis and pathology. In this study, we examined pathological changes in the renal microvascular in mouse models of kidney diseases.

    Methods: Glomerular lesions (GLs) in autoimmune disease-prone male BXSB/MpJ-Yaa (Yaa) mice and tubulointerstitial lesions (TILs) in male C57BL/6 mice subjected to unilateral ureteral obstruction (UUO) for 7 days were studied. Read More

    Chronic dialysis, NAT2 polymorphisms, and the risk of isoniazid-induced encephalopathy - case report and literature review.
    BMC Nephrol 2017 Sep 4;18(1):282. Epub 2017 Sep 4.
    Division of Nephrology, Cliniques universitaires Saint-Luc, Avenue Hippocrate 10, B-1200, Brussels, Belgium.
    Background: Isoniazid is the most widely used anti-tuberculosis agent, yet it may lead to life-threatening complications.

    Case Presentation: Here we report the case of a chronic hemodialysis patient who developed severe encephalopathy after the start of isoniazid. Blood levels of isoniazid were elevated, and acetyl-isoniazid over isoniazid ratio was decreased 3 h after intake of the medication, suggesting that a slow acetylator phenotype may have contributed to drug toxicity, in addition to pyridoxal phosphate removal by dialysis. Read More

    Projecting prevalence, costs and evaluating simulated interventions for diabetic end stage renal disease in a Canadian population of aboriginal and non-aboriginal people: an agent based approach.
    BMC Nephrol 2017 Sep 4;18(1):283. Epub 2017 Sep 4.
    Department of Medicine (Canadian Center for Health and Safety in Agriculture), University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, Canada.
    Background: Diabetes-related end stage renal disease (DM-ESRD) is a devastating consequence of the type 2 diabetes epidemic, both of which disproportionately affect Indigenous peoples. Projecting case numbers and costs into future decades would help to predict resource requirements, and simulating hypothetical interventions could guide the choice of best practices to mitigate current trends.

    Methods: An agent based model (ABM) was built to forecast First Nations and non-First Nations cases of DM-ESRD in Saskatchewan from 1980 to 2025 and to simulate two hypothetical interventions. Read More

    Progression of arterial stiffness is associated with changes in bone mineral markers in advanced CKD.
    BMC Nephrol 2017 Sep 4;18(1):281. Epub 2017 Sep 4.
    Faculty of Medicine, The University of Queensland, Brisbane, Australia.
    Background: Arterial stiffness is an independent predictor of all-cause and cardiovascular mortality in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). There are limited prospective data however on progression of arterial stiffness in CKD, including evaluating associations with bone mineral markers such as fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23) and soluble α-klotho (sKl).

    Methods: In this prospective, single-center, observational study, arterial stiffness [measured by pulse wave velocity (PWV)] and hormones influencing mineral homeostasis, including serum FGF23 and sKl, were compared between non-dialysis CKD stages 4/5 and healthy controls at baseline and 12 months (12 m). Read More

    A mixed-methods investigation of incident Hemodialysis access in a safety-net population.
    BMC Nephrol 2017 Sep 2;18(1):279. Epub 2017 Sep 2.
    Department of Medicine, Division of Nephrology, U.C. San Francisco, 505 Parnassus Ave, San Francisco, CA, 94143, USA.
    Background: Despite improved health outcomes associated with arteriovenous fistulas, 80% of Americans initiate hemodialysis using a catheter, influenced by low socioeconomic status among other factors. Risk factors for incident catheter use in safety-net populations are unknown. Our objective was to identify factors associated with incident catheter use among hemodialysis patients at one safety-net hospital, with a goal of informing fistula placement initiatives targeted at safety-net populations more generally. Read More

    No increase in small-solute transport in peritoneal dialysis patients treated without hypertonic glucose for fifty-four months.
    BMC Nephrol 2017 Aug 31;18(1):278. Epub 2017 Aug 31.
    Univ. Lille, EA 2694 - Santé publique: épidémiologie et qualité des soins, F-59000, Lille, France.
    Background: Glucose is widely used as an osmotic agent in peritoneal dialysis (PD), but exerts untoward effects on the peritoneum. The potential protective effect of a reduced exposure to hypertonic glucose has never been investigated.

    Methods: The cohort of PD patients attending our center which tackled the challenge of a restricted use of hypertonic glucose solutions has been prospectively followed since 1992. Read More

    Reverse epidemiology of elevated blood pressure among chronic hemodialysis black patients with stroke: a historical cohort study.
    BMC Nephrol 2017 Aug 30;18(1):277. Epub 2017 Aug 30.
    Nephrology Unit, Department of Internal medicine, Faculty of Medicine, University of Kinshasa Hospital, University of Kinshasa, BP 123, Kinshasa, Democratic Republic of Congo.
    Background: Stroke is the third leading cause of cardiovascular mortality in dialysis patients. The objective of this study was to assess the extent of stroke in chronic hemodialysis patients.

    Methods: Historical cohort of patients enrolled in two hemodialysis (HD) centers from January 1, 2010 to December 31, 2011, including 191 patients (mean age 52 years, 68% men). Read More

    The dynamics of the metabolism of acetate and bicarbonate associated with use of hemodialysates in the ABChD trial: a phase IV, prospective, single center, single blind, randomized, cross-over, two week investigation.
    BMC Nephrol 2017 Aug 29;18(1):273. Epub 2017 Aug 29.
    Fresenius Medical Care North America, 920 Winter Street, Waltham, MA, 02451, USA.
    Background: In the United States, hemodialysis (HD) is generally performed via a bicarbonate dialysate. It is not known if small amounts of acid used in dialysate to buffer the bicarbonate can meaningfully contribute to overall buffering administered during HD. We aimed to investigate the metabolism of acetate with use of two different acid buffer concentrates and determine if it effects blood bicarbonate concentrations in HD patients. Read More

    Minding the gap and overlap: a literature review of fragmentation of primary care for chronic dialysis patients.
    BMC Nephrol 2017 Aug 29;18(1):274. Epub 2017 Aug 29.
    Division of General Internal Medicine, Department of Medicine, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD, USA.
    Background: Care coordination is a challenge for patients with kidney disease, who often see multiple providers to manage their associated complex chronic conditions. Much of the focus has been on primary care physician (PCP) and nephrologist collaboration in the early stages of chronic kidney disease, but less is known about the co-management of the patients in the end-stage of renal disease. We conducted a systematic review and synthesis of empirical studies on primary care services for dialysis patients. Read More

    Urbanization and kidney function decline in low and middle income countries.
    BMC Nephrol 2017 Aug 29;18(1):276. Epub 2017 Aug 29.
    Department of Surgery, Division of Transplantation, Emory University School of Medicine, 101 Woodruff Circle, 5101 Woodruff Memorial Research Building, Atlanta, GA, USA.
    Urbanization is expected to increase in low and middle-income countries (LMICs), and might contribute to the increased disease burden. The association between urbanization and CKD is incompletely understood among LMICs. Recently, Inoue et al. Read More

    Nephrolithiasis and Osteomalacia associated with adefovir-induced Fanconi syndrome in a patient with hepatitis B.
    BMC Nephrol 2017 Aug 29;18(1):275. Epub 2017 Aug 29.
    Department of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Zhong Shan Hospital Xiamen University, No. 201 Hubin nan Road, Xiamen, Fujian, 361004, China.
    Background: An increasing number of case reports suggest that acquired renal Fanconi syndrome may be associated with prolonged use of adefovir against hepatitis B virus. Renal Fanconi syndrome is an uncommon disease, and its complication with nephrolithiasis is quite rare. Herein, we report a rare coexistence of nephrolithiasis and acquired renal Fanconi syndrome in a chronic hepatitis B-positive patient with prolonged adefovir therapy. Read More

    Comparative efficacy and safety of paricalcitol versus vitamin D receptor activators for dialysis patients with secondary hyperparathyroidism: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials.
    BMC Nephrol 2017 Aug 25;18(1):272. Epub 2017 Aug 25.
    Department of Nephrology, The Third Affiliated Hospital of Guangxi University of Chinese medicine, No.32, Jie-Fang-Bei Road, Cheng-Zhong District, Liuzhou, Guangxi, 545001, People's Republic of China.
    Background: Secondary hyperparathyroidism (SHPT) is a severe complication for dialysis patients. Vitamin D receptor activators (VDRAs) are used to treat SHPT, but the comparative efficacy and safety between paricalcitol and other vitamin D receptor activators for management of SHPT in dialysis patients has been unproven.

    Methods: We searched PubMed, Embase, and the Cochrane Library for the time period through June 2017 to identify randomized controlled trials that evaluated paricalcitol compared with other VDRAs for treatment of SHPT. Read More

    Epidemiology and outcomes of Endophthalmitis in chronic dialysis patients: a 13-year experience in a tertiary referral center in Taiwan.
    BMC Nephrol 2017 Aug 16;18(1):270. Epub 2017 Aug 16.
    Department of Nephrology, Kidney Research Center, Linkou Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Chang Gung University, College of Medicine, No.5 Fu-Shin Street, Kwei-shan, Taoyuan, 333, Taiwan.
    Background: Endophthalmitis is a severe eye infection leading to disabling outcome. Because there were only a few case report illustrating endophthalmitis in chronic dialysis patient, we would like to investigate the epidemiology and clinical features of endophthalmitis in chronic dialysis patient in a tertiary referral center.

    Methods: We searched the health information system in the study hospital with ICD9 encoding endophthalmitis during Jan. Read More

    Association between periodontal disease and mortality in people with CKD: a meta-analysis of cohort studies.
    BMC Nephrol 2017 Aug 16;18(1):269. Epub 2017 Aug 16.
    Kidney Disease Center, The First Affiliated Hospital, College of Medicine, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, 310003, People's Republic of China.
    Background: Periodontal disease occurs relatively prevalently in people with chronic kidney disease (CKD), but it remains indeterminate whether periodontal disease is an independent risk factor for premature death in this population. Interventions to reduce mortality in CKD population consistently yield to unsatisfactory results and new targets are necessitated. So this meta-analysis aimed to evaluate the association between periodontal disease and mortality in the CKD population. Read More

    Effect of tolvaptan on renal handling of water and sodium, GFR and central hemodynamics in autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease during inhibition of the nitric oxide system: a randomized, placebo-controlled, double blind, crossover study.
    BMC Nephrol 2017 Aug 15;18(1):268. Epub 2017 Aug 15.
    University Clinic in Nephrology and Hypertension, Department of Medical Research, Holstebro Hospital and Aarhus University, Hospital Unit Jutland West, Laegaardvej 12, 7500, Holstebro, Denmark.
    Background: Tolvaptan slows progression of autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) by antagonizing the vasopressin-cAMP axis. Nitric oxide (NO) stimulates natriuresis and diuresis, but its role is unknown during tolvaptan treatment in ADPKD.

    Methods: Eighteen patients with ADPKD received tolvaptan 60 mg or placebo in a randomized, placebo-controlled, double blind, crossover study. Read More

    The analysis of APOL1 genetic variation and haplotype diversity provided by 1000 Genomes project.
    BMC Nephrol 2017 Aug 11;18(1):267. Epub 2017 Aug 11.
    Renal Division and Institute of Nephrology, Sichuan Academy of Medical Sciences and Sichuan Provincial People's Hospital, School of Medicine, University of Electronic Science and Technology of China, No. 32, West 2nd Duan, 1st Circle Road, Qingyang District, Chengdu, Sichuan, People's Republic of China, 610072.
    Background: The APOL1 gene variants has been shown to be associated with an increased risk of multiple kinds of diseases, particularly in African Americans, but not in Caucasians and Asians. In this study, we explored the single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) and haplotype diversity of APOL1 gene in different races provided by 1000 Genomes project.

    Methods: Variants of APOL1 gene in 1000 Genome Project were obtained and SNPs located in the regulatory region or coding region were selected for genetic variation analysis. Read More

    Diagnostic accuracy of contrast-enhanced ultrasound for characterization of kidney lesions in patients with and without chronic kidney disease.
    BMC Nephrol 2017 Aug 9;18(1):266. Epub 2017 Aug 9.
    Present address: Department of Medicine, Division of Hematology and Oncology, Vanderbilt University, 777 Preston Research Building, Nashville, TN, 37232, USA.
    Background: Patients with chronic kidney disease are at increased risk of cystic kidney disease that requires imaging monitoring in many cases. However, these same patients often have contraindications to contrast-enhanced computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging. This study evaluates the accuracy of contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS), which is safe for patients with chronic kidney disease, for the characterization of kidney lesions in patients with and without chronic kidney disease. Read More

    Effect of renal perfusion and structural heterogeneity on shear wave elastography of the kidney: an in vivo and ex vivo study.
    BMC Nephrol 2017 Aug 8;18(1):265. Epub 2017 Aug 8.
    Chinese PLA (People's Liberation Army) Medical School, Beijing, 100853, People's Republic of China.
    Background: To evaluate the effect of perfusion status on elasticity measurements of different compartments in the kidney using shear wave elastography (SWE) both in vivo and ex vivo.

    Methods: Thirty-two rabbit kidneys were used to observe the elasticity variation caused by renal artery stenosis and vein ligation in vivo, and six beagle kidneys were studied ex vivo to explore the effect of renal perfusion on elasticity. Supersonic SWE was applied to quantify the elasticity values of different renal compartments (cortex, medulla and sinus). Read More

    A comparison of early versus late initiation of renal replacement therapy for acute kidney injury in critically ill patients: an updated systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials.
    BMC Nephrol 2017 Aug 7;18(1):264. Epub 2017 Aug 7.
    Department of Critical Care Medicine, Zhongshan Hospital, Fudan University, Shanghai, 200032, People's Republic of China.
    Background: To investigate the impact of timing the initiation of renal replacement therapy (RRT) on clinical outcomes in critically ill patients with acute kidney injury (AKI), focusing on the randomized controlled trials (RCTs) in this field.

    Methods: The PubMed, EMBASE and Cochrane databases were searched between January 1, 1985, and June 30, 2016, to identify randomized trials that assessed the timing of initiation of RRT in patients with AKI.

    Results: Nine RCTs, with a total of 1636 patients, were enrolled in this meta-analysis. Read More

    Urine neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin to predict renal response after induction therapy in active lupus nephritis.
    BMC Nephrol 2017 Aug 4;18(1):263. Epub 2017 Aug 4.
    Division of Nephrology, Department of Medicine, Phramongkutklao Hospital and College of Medicine, 315 Rachavitee Road, Phyathai, Bangkok, 10400, Thailand.
    Background: Tubulointerstitial injury is important to predict the progression of lupus nephritis (LN). Urine neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL) has been reported to detect worsening LN disease activity. Thus, urine NGAL may predict renal outcomes among lupus patients. Read More

    The impact of IgM deposits on the outcome of Nephrotic syndrome in children.
    BMC Nephrol 2017 Aug 3;18(1):260. Epub 2017 Aug 3.
    Institute of Clinical Medicine, Faculty of medicine, Vilnius University, M.K.Ciurlionio srt. 21, 03101, Vilnius, Lithuania.
    Background: The significance of IgM deposits in glomerular mesangium has been controversial since they were first described due to the variations in the both the definitions used and described impact on clinical outcome. The aim of our study was to evaluate the significance of the IgM deposits in the glomerular mesangium for outcomes of nephrotic syndrome (NS) in children.

    Methods: Forty-five children with NS who underwent renal biopsy at tertiary pediatric hospital from January 1st, 2000 to December 31st, 2015 and the pathology diagnosis of minimal change disease, focal segmental glomerulosclerosis and mesangial hypercellularity (MH) were retrospectively analyzed. Read More

    Successful treatment of highly advanced immunoglobulin G4-related kidney disease presenting renal mass-like regions with end-stage kidney failure: a case study.
    BMC Nephrol 2017 Aug 3;18(1):261. Epub 2017 Aug 3.
    Department of Nephrology, Tokushima University Graduate School, 3-18-15 Kuramoto, Tokushima, Tokushima, 770-8503, Japan.
    Background: Immunoglobulin G4-related kidney disease characterized by immunoglobulin G4-positive plasma cell-rich tubulointerstitial nephritis has distinctive serological and radiological findings. Renal prognosis is good because of a good response to glucocorticoids. Here we report a case of successful treatment of highly advanced immunoglobulin G4-related kidney disease presenting renal mass-like regions with end-stage kidney failure. Read More

    Thrombotic microangiopathy associated with Valproic acid toxicity.
    BMC Nephrol 2017 Aug 3;18(1):262. Epub 2017 Aug 3.
    Department of Pediatrics, Division of Nephrology, McGovern Medical School at The University of Texas Health Science Center at Houston (UTHealth), Children's Memorial Hermann Hospital, 6431 Fannin Street, MSB 3. 121, Houston, TX, USA.
    Background: Thrombotic microangiopathy (TMA) is a serious, sometimes life-threatening disorder marked by the presence of endothelial injury and microvascular thrombi. Drug-induced thrombotic microangiopathy (DI-TMA) is one specific TMA syndrome that occurs following drug exposure via drug-dependent antibodies or direct tissue toxicity. Common examples include calcineurin inhibitors Tacrolimus and Cyclosporine and antineoplastics Gemcitabine and Mitomycin. Read More

    Internet and social network users' profiles in Renal Transplant Recipients in France.
    BMC Nephrol 2017 Aug 3;18(1):259. Epub 2017 Aug 3.
    Laboratoire de Santé Publique, Faculté de Médecine, Université Aix-Marseille, 3279, Marseille, EA, France.
    Background: The use of the Internet for searching and sharing health information and for health care interactions may have a great potential for Renal Transplant Recipients (RTR). This study aims to determine the characteristics associated with Internet and social network use in a representative sample of RTR at the time of their inclusion in the study.

    Methods: Data of this cross-sectional design is retrieved from a longitudinal study conducted in five French kidney transplant centers in 2011, and included Renal Transplant Recipients aged 18 years with a functioning graft for at least 1 year. Read More

    Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug induced acute kidney injury in the community dwelling general population and people with chronic kidney disease: systematic review and meta-analysis.
    BMC Nephrol 2017 Aug 1;18(1):256. Epub 2017 Aug 1.
    Division of Population Health Sciences, University of Dundee, The Mackenzie Building, Kirsty Semple Way, Dundee, DD2 4BF, UK.
    Background: Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are a common cause of adverse drug events (ADEs), but renal risks of NSAIDs are less well quantified than gastrointestinal and cardiac risks. This paper reports a systematic review of published population-based observational studies examining the risk of acute kidney injury (AKI) associated with NSAIDs in community-dwelling adults and those with pre-existing chronic kidney disease (CKD).

    Methods: MEDLINE and EMBASE databases were searched until June 2016, and 3789 papers screened. Read More

    Association of restless legs syndrome and mortality in end-stage renal disease: an analysis of the United States Renal Data System (USRDS).
    BMC Nephrol 2017 Aug 1;18(1):258. Epub 2017 Aug 1.
    Division of Nephrology, Department of Medicine, SUNY Downstate Medical Center, 450 Clarkson Ave, Box 52, Brooklyn, NY, 11203, USA.
    Background: Objective of the study is to assess prevalence and survival among end stage renal disease patients with restless legs syndrome (RLS) within a national database (USRDS).

    Methods: A case-control, retrospective analysis was performed. Differences in characteristics between the groups, RLS and those with no sleep disorder (NSD), were determined using χ2 tests. Read More

    Prediction of new onset of end stage renal disease in Chinese patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus - a population-based retrospective cohort study.
    BMC Nephrol 2017 Aug 1;18(1):257. Epub 2017 Aug 1.
    Department of Family Medicine and Primary Care, the University of Hong Kong, 3/F Ap Lei Chau Clinic, 161 Main Street, Ap Lei Chau, Hong Kong.
    Background: Since diabetes mellitus (DM) is the leading cause of end stage renal disease (ESRD), this study aimed to develop a 5-year ESRD risk prediction model among Chinese patients with Type 2 DM (T2DM) in primary care.

    Methods: A retrospective cohort study was conducted on 149,333 Chinese adult T2DM primary care patients without ESRD in 2010. Using the derivation cohort over a median of 5 years follow-up, the gender-specific models including the interaction effect between predictors and age were derived using Cox regression with a forward stepwise approach. Read More

    Predictive factors and prevalence of microalbuminuria in HIV-infected patients: a cross-sectional analysis.
    BMC Nephrol 2017 Jul 28;18(1):255. Epub 2017 Jul 28.
    Clinic of Infectious Diseases, Department of Medicine and Science of Aging, "G. d'Annunzio" University, School of Medicine, Via dei Vestini, 66013, Chieti, Italy.
    Background: Renal dysfunction is a common problem in the HIV+ population, due to the effect of both the HIV virus and the several classes of ARV drugs such as tenofovir (TDF). It is also known that the presence of renal damage correlates with cardiovascular risk and therefore with the risk of mortality of the patients accordingly. The detection of early renal damage is very important. Read More

    Hemodialysis patients' preferences for the management of anemia.
    BMC Nephrol 2017 Jul 28;18(1):253. Epub 2017 Jul 28.
    Amgen, Thousand Oaks, CA, USA.
    Background: Patient engagement in end-stage renal disease (ESRD) is expected to result in a more patient-centered approach to care that aligns with patients' values, preferences, and goals for treatment. Nevertheless, no previous studies of which we are aware have evaluated patients' benefit-risk preferences for the management of anemia associated with ESRD. The primary objective of this study was to quantify the tradeoffs patients are willing to make between cardiovascular risks associated with some anemia medicines and red blood cell (RBC) transfusions. Read More

    Hemodialysis patients' preferences for the management of secondary hyperparathyroidism.
    BMC Nephrol 2017 Jul 28;18(1):254. Epub 2017 Jul 28.
    Amgen, Thousand Oaks, CA, USA.
    Background: Patient engagement and patient-centered care are critical in optimally managing patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD). Understanding patient preferences is a key element of patient-centered care and shared decision making. The objective of this study was to elicit patients' preferences for the treatment of secondary hyperparathyroidism (SHPT) associated with ESRD using a discrete-choice experiment survey. Read More

    CD133+ cells are associated with ADIPOCYTOKINES and endothelial dysfunction in hemodialysis patients.
    BMC Nephrol 2017 Jul 26;18(1):250. Epub 2017 Jul 26.
    Department of Nephrology, Istanbul University, Istanbul Faculty of Medicine, Istanbul, Turkey.
    Background: Hemodialysis (HD) patients have increased risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD). Impaired stem cell health and adipocytokine metabolism may play important roles in the complex pathophysiological mechanisms of CVD in this patient population. We aimed to investigate the relationships between CD133+ cell counts, adipocytokines and parameters of endothelial dysfunction and atherosclerosis in HD patients. Read More

    The biobank for the molecular classification of kidney disease: research translation and precision medicine in nephrology.
    BMC Nephrol 2017 Jul 26;18(1):252. Epub 2017 Jul 26.
    Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, University of Calgary and Calgary Laboratory Services, Calgary, AB, Canada.
    Background: Advances in technology and the ability to interrogate disease pathogenesis using systems biology approaches are exploding. As exemplified by the substantial progress in the personalized diagnosis and treatment of cancer, the application of systems biology to enable precision medicine in other disciplines such as Nephrology is well underway. Infrastructure that permits the integration of clinical data, patient biospecimens and advanced technologies is required for institutions to contribute to, and benefit from research in molecular disease classification and to devise specific and patient-oriented treatments. Read More

    Indole 3-acetic acid, indoxyl sulfate and paracresyl-sulfate do not influence anemia parameters in hemodialysis patients.
    BMC Nephrol 2017 Jul 26;18(1):251. Epub 2017 Jul 26.
    Centre de néphrologie et transplantation rénale, Assistance Publique des Hôpitaux de Marseille, Aix-Marseille University, Marseille, France.
    Background: The main reason for anemia in renal failure patients is the insufficient erythropoietin production by the kidneys. Beside erythropoietin deficiency, in vitro studies have incriminated uremic toxins in the pathophysiology of anemia but clinical data are sparse. In order to assess if indole 3-acetic acid (IAA), indoxyl sulfate (IS), and paracresyl sulfate (PCS) -three protein bound uremic toxins- are clinically implicated in end-stage renal disease anemia we studied the correlation between IAA, IS and PCS plasmatic concentrations with hemoglobin and Erythropoietin Stimulating Agents (ESA) use in hemodialysis patients. Read More

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