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    Effect of vitamin A supplementation on gut microbiota in children with autism spectrum disorders - a pilot study.
    BMC Microbiol 2017 Sep 22;17(1):204. Epub 2017 Sep 22.
    Department of Child Health Care, Children's Hospital of Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing, China.
    Background: Dysbiosis of gut microbiota are commonly reported in autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and may contribute to behavioral impairment. Vitamin A (VA) plays a role in regulation of gut microbiota. This study was performed to investigate the role of VA in the changes of gut microbiota and changes of autism functions in children with ASD. Read More

    Evaluation of prokaryotic diversity of five hot springs in Eritrea.
    BMC Microbiol 2017 Sep 22;17(1):203. Epub 2017 Sep 22.
    Taita Taveta University, P.O. Box 635-80300, Voi, Kenya.
    Background: Total community rDNA was used to determine the diversity of bacteria and archaea from water, wet sediment and microbial mats samples of hot springs in the Eastern lowlands of Eritrea. The temperatures of the springs range from 49.5 °C to 100 °C while pH levels varied from 6. Read More

    (1)H NMR spectroscopy-based metabolomics analysis for the diagnosis of symptomatic E. coli-associated urinary tract infection (UTI).
    BMC Microbiol 2017 Sep 21;17(1):201. Epub 2017 Sep 21.
    Department of Biomedical Sciences, Microbiology and Virology Unit, University of Cagliari, S.S. 554, Bivio per Sestu, I-09042, Monserrato, Cagliari, Italy.
    Background: Urinary tract infection (UTI) is one of the most common diagnoses in girls and women, and to a lesser extent in boys and men younger than 50 years. Escherichia coli, followed by Klebsiella spp. and Proteus spp. Read More

    Identification of new Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis antigens by immunoscreening of gene expression library.
    BMC Microbiol 2017 Sep 21;17(1):202. Epub 2017 Sep 21.
    Embrapa Beef Cattle, Animal Health - Animal Genetic Engineering Laboratory, Campo Grande, MS, Brazil.
    Background: Caseous lymphadenitis (CLA) is a disease that affects sheep, goats and occasionally humans. The etiologic agent is the Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis bacillus. The objective of this study was to build a gene expression library from C. Read More

    A rapid seamless method for gene knockout in Pseudomonas aeruginosa.
    BMC Microbiol 2017 Sep 19;17(1):199. Epub 2017 Sep 19.
    Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, School of Pharmacy, University of Maryland, Baltimore, MD, USA.
    Background: Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a model organism for the study of quorum sensing, biofilm formation, and also leading cause of nosocomial infections in immune compromised patients. As such P. aeruginosa is one of the most well studied organisms in terms of its genetics. Read More

    Regulation of bacteria population behaviors by AI-2 "consumer cells" and "supplier cells".
    BMC Microbiol 2017 Sep 19;17(1):198. Epub 2017 Sep 19.
    Key Laboratory of Molecular Microbiology and Technology for Ministry of Education, Nankai University, Tianjin, 300071, China.
    Background: Autoinducer-2 (AI-2) is a universal signal molecule and enables an individual bacteria to communicate with each other and ultimately control behaviors of the population. Harnessing the character of AI-2, two kinds of AI-2 "controller cells" ("consumer cells" and "supplier cells") were designed to "reprogram" the behaviors of entire population.

    Results: For the consumer cells, genes associated with the uptake and processing of AI-2, which includes LsrACDB, LsrFG, LsrK, were overexpressed in varying combinations. Read More

    The role of the two-component systems Cpx and Arc in protein alterations upon gentamicin treatment in Escherichia coli.
    BMC Microbiol 2017 Sep 18;17(1):197. Epub 2017 Sep 18.
    FB 5 Microbiology, Department of Biology/Chemistry, University Osnabrück, Barbarastraße 11, 49076, Osnabrück, Germany.
    Background: The aminoglycoside antibiotic gentamicin was supposed to induce a crosstalk between the Cpx- and the Arc-two-component systems (TCS). Here, we investigated the physical interaction of the respective TCS components and compared the results with their respective gene expression and protein abundance. The findings were interpreted in relation to the global proteome profile upon gentamicin treatment. Read More

    The process-related dynamics of microbial community during a simulated fermentation of Chinese strong-flavored liquor.
    BMC Microbiol 2017 Sep 15;17(1):196. Epub 2017 Sep 15.
    Key Laboratory of Environmental and Applied Microbiology, Chinese Academy of Sciences & Environmental Microbiology Key Laboratory of Sichuan Province, Chengdu Institute of Biology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Chengdu, 610041, People's Republic of China.
    Background: Famous Chinese strong-flavored liquor (CSFL) is brewed by microbial consortia in a special fermentation pit (FT). However, the fermentation process was not fully understood owing to the complicate community structure and metabolism. In this study, the process-related dynamics of microbial communities and main flavor compounds during the 70-day fermentation process were investigated in a simulated fermentation system. Read More

    A comparison of sequencing platforms and bioinformatics pipelines for compositional analysis of the gut microbiome.
    BMC Microbiol 2017 Sep 13;17(1):194. Epub 2017 Sep 13.
    Department of Medicine, Division of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, and Microbiome Core Facility, Center for Gastrointestinal Biology and Disease, School of Medicine, University of North Carolina, Campus Box 7555, 332 Isaac Taylor Hall, Chapel Hill, NC, 27599-7545, USA.
    Background: Advancements in Next Generation Sequencing (NGS) technologies regarding throughput, read length and accuracy had a major impact on microbiome research by significantly improving 16S rRNA amplicon sequencing. As rapid improvements in sequencing platforms and new data analysis pipelines are introduced, it is essential to evaluate their capabilities in specific applications. The aim of this study was to assess whether the same project-specific biological conclusions regarding microbiome composition could be reached using different sequencing platforms and bioinformatics pipelines. Read More

    Increased survival and proliferation of the epidemic strain Mycobacterium abscessus subsp. massiliense CRM0019 in alveolar epithelial cells.
    BMC Microbiol 2017 Sep 13;17(1):195. Epub 2017 Sep 13.
    Departamento de Microbiologia, Imunologia e Parasitologia, Escola Paulista de Medicina, Universidade Federal de São Paulo, São Paulo, SP, Brazil.
    Background: Outbreaks of infections caused by rapidly growing mycobacteria have been reported worldwide generally associated with medical procedures. Mycobacterium abscessus subsp. massiliense CRM0019 was obtained during an epidemic of postsurgical infections and was characterized by increased persistence in vivo. Read More

    Transcript profiling of the immunological interactions between Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae serotype 7 and the host by dual RNA-seq.
    BMC Microbiol 2017 Sep 12;17(1):193. Epub 2017 Sep 12.
    College of Veterinary Medicine, Sichuan Agricultural University, Huimin Road 211, Weenjiang District, Chengdu, Sichuan, China.
    Background: The complexity of the pathogenic mechanism underlying the host immune response to Actinobacillus pleuropneumonia (App) makes the use of preventive measures difficult, and a more global view of the host-pathogen interactions and new insights into this process are urgently needed to reveal the pathogenic and immune mechanisms underlying App infection. Here, we infected specific pathogen-free Mus musculus with App serotype 7 by intranasal inoculation to construct an acute hemorrhagic pneumonia infection model and isolated the infected lungs for analysis of the interactions by dual RNA-seq.

    Results: Four cDNA libraries were constructed, and 2428 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) of the host and 333 DEGs of App were detected. Read More

    Ciliate diversity and distribution patterns in the sediments of a seamount and adjacent abyssal plains in the tropical Western Pacific Ocean.
    BMC Microbiol 2017 Sep 12;17(1):192. Epub 2017 Sep 12.
    Department of Marine Organism Taxonomy and Phylogeny, Institute of Oceanology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 7 Nanhai Road, Qingdao, 266071, People's Republic of China.
    Background: Benthic ciliates and the environmental factors shaping their distribution are far from being completely understood. Likewise, deep-sea systems are amongst the least understood ecosystems on Earth. In this study, using high-throughput DNA sequencing, we investigated the diversity and community composition of benthic ciliates in different sediment layers of a seamount and an adjacent abyssal plain in the tropical Western Pacific Ocean with water depths ranging between 813 m and 4566 m. Read More

    Annexin A2 (ANXA2) interacts with nonstructural protein 1 and promotes the replication of highly pathogenic H5N1 avian influenza virus.
    BMC Microbiol 2017 Sep 11;17(1):191. Epub 2017 Sep 11.
    State Avian Influenza Reference Laboratory, State Key Laboratory of Veterinary Biotechnology, Harbin Veterinary Research Institute, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Harbin, 150001, China.
    Background: Non-structural protein 1 (NS1) is a multifunctional protein and a crucial regulatory factor in the replication and pathogenesis of avian influenza virus (AIV). Studies have shown that NS1 can interact with a variety of host proteins to modulate the viral life cycle. We previously generated a monoclonal antibody against NS1 protein; In the current research study, using this antibody, we immunoprecipitated host proteins that interact with NS1 to better understand the roles played by NS1 in communications between virus and host. Read More

    Comparison of rumen bacterial communities in dairy herds of different production.
    BMC Microbiol 2017 Aug 30;17(1):190. Epub 2017 Aug 30.
    Department of Clinical Studies, School of Veterinary Medicine, New Bolton Center, University of Pennsylvania, Kennett Square, PA, 19348, USA.
    Background: The purpose of this study was to compare the rumen bacterial composition in high and low yielding dairy cows within and between two dairy herds. Eighty five Holstein dairy cows in mid-lactation (79-179 days in milk) were selected from two farms: Farm 12 (M305 = 12,300 kg; n = 47; 24 primiparous cows, 23 multiparous cows) and Farm 9 (M305 = 9700 kg; n = 38; 19 primiparous cows, 19 multiparous cows). Each study cow was sampled once using the stomach tube method and processed for 16S rRNA gene amplicon sequencing using the Ion Torrent (PGM) platform. Read More

    Evaluation of microplate immunocapture method for detection of Vibrio cholerae, Salmonella Typhi and Shigella flexneri from food.
    BMC Microbiol 2017 Aug 29;17(1):189. Epub 2017 Aug 29.
    Industrial Microbiology Laboratory, Institute of Food Science and Technology (IFST), Bangladesh Council of Scientific and Industrial Research (BCSIR), Dhaka, 1205, Bangladesh.
    Background: Improved methods with better separation and concentration ability for detection of foodborne pathogens are in constant need. The aim of this study was to evaluate microplate immunocapture (IC) method for detection of Salmonella Typhi, Shigella flexneri and Vibrio cholerae from food samples to provide a better alternative to conventional culture based methods.

    Results: The IC method was optimized for incubation time, bacterial concentration, and capture efficiency. Read More

    Growth phase-dependent expression profiles of three vital H-NS family proteins encoded on the chromosome of Pseudomonas putida KT2440 and on the pCAR1 plasmid.
    BMC Microbiol 2017 Aug 29;17(1):188. Epub 2017 Aug 29.
    Research Center of Bioenergy & Bioremediation, College of Resources and Environment, Southwest University, No.2 Tiansheng Road, BeiBei District, Chongqing, 400715, China.
    Background: H-NS family proteins are nucleoid-associated proteins that form oligomers on DNA and function as global regulators. They are found in both bacterial chromosomes and plasmids, and were suggested to be candidate effectors of the interaction between them. TurA and TurB are the predominantly expressed H-NS family proteins encoded on the chromosome of Pseudomonas putida KT2440, while Pmr is encoded on the carbazole-degradative incompatibility group P-7 plasmid pCAR1. Read More

    IL-8 and IP-10 expression from human bronchial epithelial cells BEAS-2B are promoted by Streptococcus pneumoniae endopeptidase O (PepO).
    BMC Microbiol 2017 Aug 24;17(1):187. Epub 2017 Aug 24.
    Department of Laboratory Medicine, The Affiliated Hospital of North Sichuan Medical College, 63 Wenhua Road, Shunqing District, Nanchong, Sichuan, 637000, China.
    Background: The bronchial epithelium serves as the first defendant line of host against respiratory inhaled pathogens, mainly through releasing chemokines (e.g. interleukin-8 (IL-8), interferon-induced protein 10 (IP-10) etc. Read More

    Upper and lower respiratory tract microbiota in horses: bacterial communities associated with health and mild asthma (inflammatory airway disease) and effects of dexamethasone.
    BMC Microbiol 2017 Aug 23;17(1):184. Epub 2017 Aug 23.
    Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Calgary, Calgary, AB, Canada.
    Background: The microbial composition of the equine respiratory tract, and differences due to mild equine asthma (also called Inflammatory Airway Disease (IAD)) have not been reported. The primary treatment for control of IAD in horses are corticosteroids. The objectives were to characterize the upper and lower respiratory tract microbiota associated with respiratory health and IAD, and to investigate the effects of dexamethasone on these bacterial communities using high throughput sequencing. Read More

    IRAK-M alters the polarity of macrophages to facilitate the survival of Mycobacterium tuberculosis.
    BMC Microbiol 2017 Aug 23;17(1):185. Epub 2017 Aug 23.
    Department of Pathogen Biology, School of Basic Medicine, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, 430030, People's Republic of China.
    Background: Intracellular bacterium, Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M. tb), infects specifically macrophages as host cells. IRAK-M, a member of IRAK family, is a negative regulator in TLR signaling and specifically expresses in monocytes and macrophages. Read More

    Genome sequencing and comparative genomics of enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli O145:H25 and O145:H28 reveal distinct evolutionary paths and marked variations in traits associated with virulence & colonization.
    BMC Microbiol 2017 Aug 22;17(1):183. Epub 2017 Aug 22.
    U.S. Food and Drug Administration, Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition, Division of Microbiology, College Park, MD, 20740, USA.
    Background: Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) O145 are among the top non-O157 serogroups associated with severe human disease worldwide. Two serotypes, O145:H25 and O145:H28 have been isolated from human patients but little information is available regarding the virulence repertoire, origin and evolutionary relatedness of O145:H25. Hence, we sequenced the complete genome of two O145:H25 strains associated with hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS) and compared the genomes with those of previously sequenced O145:H28 and other EHEC strains. Read More

    Evaluation of trypan blue stain in a haemocytometer for rapid detection of cerebrospinal fluid sterility in HIV patients with cryptococcal meningitis.
    BMC Microbiol 2017 Aug 22;17(1):182. Epub 2017 Aug 22.
    Infectious Diseases Institute, College of Health Sciences, Makerere University, P.O.BOX 22418, Kampala, Uganda.
    Background: Quantitative culture is the most common method to determine the fungal burden and sterility of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) among persons with cryptococcal meningitis. A major drawback of cultures is a long turnaround-time. Recent evidence demonstrates that live and dead Cryptococcus yeasts can be distinguished using trypan blue staining. Read More

    Tum1 is involved in the metabolism of sterol esters in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.
    BMC Microbiol 2017 Aug 22;17(1):181. Epub 2017 Aug 22.
    Jožef Stefan Institute, Department of Molecular and Biomedical Sciences, Jamova cesta 39, 1000, Ljubljana, Slovenia.
    Background: The only hitherto known biological role of yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae Tum1 protein is in the tRNA thiolation pathway. The mammalian homologue of the yeast TUM1 gene, the thiosulfate sulfurtransferase (a.k. Read More

    Genetic diversity and virulence potential of clinical and environmental Aeromonas spp. isolates from a diarrhea outbreak.
    BMC Microbiol 2017 Aug 18;17(1):179. Epub 2017 Aug 18.
    Instituto Aggeu Magalhães (IAM/Fiocruz PE), Avenida Professor Moraes Rego, s/n. Cidade Universitária, Recife, Pernambuco, 50740-465, Brazil.
    Background: Aeromonas spp. are gram-negative bacteria that can cause a variety of infections in both humans and animals and play a controversial role in diarrhea outbreaks. Our aim was to identify clinical and environmental Aeromonas isolates associated with a cholera outbreak in a northeast county of Brazil at the species level. Read More

    Differences in survival, virulence and biofilm formation between sialidase-deficient and W83 wild-type Porphyromonas gingivalis strains under stressful environmental conditions.
    BMC Microbiol 2017 Aug 18;17(1):178. Epub 2017 Aug 18.
    Department of Periodontics, School of Stomatology, China Medical University, No.117 Nanjing North Street, Heping District, Shenyang, Liaoning, China.
    Background: Porphyromonas gingivalis is a major causative pathogen of chronic periodontitis. Within the inflammatory microenvironment, there exists extreme pH values, elevated temperatures and oxidative stress. Pathogens adapt to these stressful environmental conditions by regulating the transcription of virulence genes, modifying themselves with macromolecules and by aggregating and entering into a biofilm growth phase. Read More

    Acute Penicillium marneffei infection stimulates host M1/M2a macrophages polarization in BALB/C mice.
    BMC Microbiol 2017 Aug 18;17(1):177. Epub 2017 Aug 18.
    Department of Respiratory Medicine, The First Affiliated Hospital of Guangxi Medical University, Nanning, Guangxi, 530021, China.
    Background: Penicillium marneffei (P. marneffei) is a thermally dimorphic fungus pathogen that causes fatal infection. Alveolar macrophages are innate immune cells that have critical roles in protection against pulmonary fungal pathogens and the macrophage polarization state has the potential to be a deciding factor in disease progression or resolution. Read More

    Proteomic analysis during of spore germination of Moniliophthora perniciosa, the causal agent of witches' broom disease in cacao.
    BMC Microbiol 2017 Aug 17;17(1):176. Epub 2017 Aug 17.
    Laboratory of Proteomics, Center of Biotechnology and Genetics, State University of Santa Cruz (UESC), Ilhéus, Bahia, Brazil.
    Background: Moniliophthora perniciosa is a phytopathogenic fungus responsible for witches' broom disease of cacao trees (Theobroma cacao L.). Understanding the molecular events during germination of the pathogen may enable the development of strategies for disease control in these economically important plants. Read More

    Administration of two probiotic strains during early childhood does not affect the endogenous gut microbiota composition despite probiotic proliferation.
    BMC Microbiol 2017 Aug 17;17(1):175. Epub 2017 Aug 17.
    National Food Institute, Technical University of Denmark, Kemitorvet, DK-2800, Lyngby, Denmark.
    Background: Probiotics are increasingly applied to prevent and treat a range of infectious, immune related and gastrointestinal diseases. Despite this, the mechanisms behind the putative effects of probiotics are poorly understood. One of the suggested modes of probiotic action is modulation of the endogenous gut microbiota, however probiotic intervention studies in adults have failed to show significant effects on gut microbiota composition. Read More

    Association of coral algal symbionts with a diverse viral community responsive to heat shock.
    BMC Microbiol 2017 Aug 17;17(1):174. Epub 2017 Aug 17.
    Red Sea Research Center, Division of Biological and Environmental Science and Engineering (BESE), King Abdullah University of Science and Technology (KAUST), Thuwal, 23955-6900, Saudi Arabia.
    Background: Stony corals provide the structural foundation of coral reef ecosystems and are termed holobionts given they engage in symbioses, in particular with photosynthetic dinoflagellates of the genus Symbiodinium. Besides Symbiodinium, corals also engage with bacteria affecting metabolism, immunity, and resilience of the coral holobiont, but the role of associated viruses is largely unknown. In this regard, the increase of studies using RNA sequencing (RNA-Seq) to assess gene expression provides an opportunity to elucidate viral signatures encompassed within the data via careful delineation of sequence reads and their source of origin. Read More

    Environmentally triggered genomic plasticity and capsular polysaccharide formation are involved in increased ethanol and acetic acid tolerance in Kozakia baliensis NBRC 16680.
    BMC Microbiol 2017 Aug 10;17(1):172. Epub 2017 Aug 10.
    Technische Universität München, Lehrstuhl für Technische Mikrobiologie, Gregor-Mendel-Straße 4, 85354, Freising, Germany.
    Background: Kozakia baliensis NBRC 16680 secretes a gum-cluster derived heteropolysaccharide and forms a surface pellicle composed of polysaccharides during static cultivation. Furthermore, this strain exhibits two colony types on agar plates; smooth wild-type (S) and rough mutant colonies (R). This switch is caused by a spontaneous transposon insertion into the gumD gene of the gum-cluster, resulting in a heteropolysaccharide secretion deficient, rough phenotype. Read More

    RpoN2- and FliA-regulated fliTX is indispensible for flagellar motility and virulence in Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae.
    BMC Microbiol 2017 Aug 9;17(1):171. Epub 2017 Aug 9.
    State Key Laboratory for Biology of Plant Diseases and Insect Pests, Institute of Plant Protection, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Beijing, 100193, China.
    Background: Bacterial blight of rice caused by Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae (Xoo) is one of the most important crop diseases in the world. More insights into the mechanistic regulation of bacterial pathogenesis will help us identify novel molecular targets for developing effective disease control strategies. Read More

    Development of a new fluorescent reporter:operator system: location of AraC regulated genes in Escherichia coli K-12.
    BMC Microbiol 2017 Aug 3;17(1):170. Epub 2017 Aug 3.
    Institute of Microbiology and Infection, School of Biosciences, University of Birmingham, Edgbaston, Birmingham, B15 2TT, UK.
    Background: In bacteria, many transcription activator and repressor proteins regulate multiple transcription units that are often distally distributed on the bacterial genome. To investigate the subcellular location of DNA bound proteins in the folded bacterial nucleoid, fluorescent reporters have been developed which can be targeted to specific DNA operator sites. Such Fluorescent Reporter-Operator System (FROS) probes consist of a fluorescent protein fused to a DNA binding protein, which binds to an array of DNA operator sites located within the genome. Read More

    Biogeographical distribution analysis of hydrocarbon degrading and biosurfactant producing genes suggests that near-equatorial biomes have higher abundance of genes with potential for bioremediation.
    BMC Microbiol 2017 Jul 27;17(1):168. Epub 2017 Jul 27.
    Laboratório de Biologia Molecular e Genômica, Departamento de Biologia Celular e Genética, Centro de Biociências, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte, Natal, RN, Brazil.
    Background: Bacterial and Archaeal communities have a complex, symbiotic role in crude oil bioremediation. Their biosurfactants and degradation enzymes have been in the spotlight, mainly due to the awareness of ecosystem pollution caused by crude oil accidents and their use. Initially, the scientific community studied the role of individual microbial species by characterizing and optimizing their biosurfactant and oil degradation genes, studying their individual distribution. Read More

    Re-classification within the serogroups O3 and O8 of Citrobacter strains.
    BMC Microbiol 2017 Jul 27;17(1):169. Epub 2017 Jul 27.
    Hirszfeld Institute of Immunology and Experimental Therapy, Polish Academy of Sciences, Weigla 12, 53-114, Wrocław, Poland.
    Background: Citrobacter strains are opportunistic pathogens often responsible for serious enteric as well as extra-intestinal diseases, and therefore the O-antigenic scheme, still in use in diagnostic identification, should be set for proper serotyping. The structures of more than 30 different Citrobacter O-antigens (O-polysaccharide chains of the lipopolysaccharides) of 43 Citrobacter O-serogroups have been elucidated so far. However, relationships between strains in several heterogeneous serogroups still need to be clarified by immunochemical studies. Read More

    Anaerobic bacteria growth in the presence of cathelicidin LL-37 and selected ceragenins delivered as magnetic nanoparticles cargo.
    BMC Microbiol 2017 Jul 26;17(1):167. Epub 2017 Jul 26.
    Department of Microbiological and Nanobiomedical Engineering, Medical University of Białystok, Mickiewicza 2C, Białystok, Poland.
    Background: Cationic antibacterial peptides (CAPs) and synthetic molecules mimicking the amphiphilic structure of CAPs, such as ceragenins, are promising compounds for the development of new antimicrobials.

    Results: We tested the in vitro activity of ceragenins CSA-13 and CSA-131 against several anaerobic bacteria including Bacteroides spp. and Clostridium difficile. Read More

    Acid tolerance properties of dental biofilms in vivo.
    BMC Microbiol 2017 Jul 25;17(1):165. Epub 2017 Jul 25.
    Department of Oral Biology, Faculty of Odontology, Malmö University, Malmö, Sweden.
    Background: The ecological plaque hypothesis explains caries development as the result of the enrichment of acid tolerant bacteria in dental biofilms in response to prolonged periods of low pH. Acid production by an acid tolerant microflora causes demineralisation of tooth enamel and thus, individuals with a greater proportion of acid tolerant bacteria would be expected to be more prone to caries development. Biofilm acid tolerance could therefore be a possible biomarker for caries prediction. Read More

    Genome-wide comparative analysis of putative Pth11-related G protein-coupled receptors in fungi belonging to Pezizomycotina.
    BMC Microbiol 2017 Jul 25;17(1):166. Epub 2017 Jul 25.
    College of Life Sciences, Nanjing Agricultural University, Nanjing, 210095, China.
    Background: G-protein coupled receptors (GPCRs) are the largest family of transmembrane receptors in fungi, where they play important roles in signal transduction. Among them, the Pth11-related GPCRs form a large and divergent protein family, and are only found in fungi in Pezizomycotina. However, the evolutionary process and potential functions of Pth11-related GPCRs remain largely unknown. Read More

    Improved detection of genus-specific Alphavirus using a generic TaqMan® assay.
    BMC Microbiol 2017 Jul 24;17(1):164. Epub 2017 Jul 24.
    Centre National Arbovirus Associé, CHU de la Réunion-Site Nord, Saint-Denis, La Réunion, France.
    Background: Alphaviruses are arthropod borne RNA viruses of medical importance. Geographical expansion of mosquitoes of the Aedes genus in the past decades has been associated with major Alphavirus-associated outbreaks. Climate changes and intensification of air travels have favored vector expansion and virus dissemination in new territories leading to virus emergence not only in tropical areas but also in temperate regions. Read More

    An integrated computational-experimental approach reveals Yersinia pestis genes essential across a narrow or a broad range of environmental conditions.
    BMC Microbiol 2017 Jul 21;17(1):163. Epub 2017 Jul 21.
    College of Life and Environmental Sciences, University of Exeter, Exeter, EX4 4SB, UK.
    Background: The World Health Organization has categorized plague as a re-emerging disease and the potential for Yersinia pestis to also be used as a bioweapon makes the identification of new drug targets against this pathogen a priority. Environmental temperature is a key signal which regulates virulence of the bacterium. The bacterium normally grows outside the human host at 28 °C. Read More

    16S rRNA gene-based association study identified microbial taxa associated with pork intramuscular fat content in feces and cecum lumen.
    BMC Microbiol 2017 Jul 19;17(1):162. Epub 2017 Jul 19.
    State Key Laboratory of Pig Genetic Improvement and Production Technology, Jiangxi Agricultural University, Nanchang, 330045, China.
    Background: Intramuscular fat (IMF) that deposits among muscle fibers or within muscle cells is an important meat quality trait in pigs. Previous studies observed the effects of dietary nutrients and additives on improving the pork IMF. Gut microbiome plays an important role in host metabolism and energy harvest. Read More

    Sequence-based identification of inositol monophosphatase-like histidinol-phosphate phosphatases (HisN) in Corynebacterium glutamicum, Actinobacteria, and beyond.
    BMC Microbiol 2017 Jul 18;17(1):161. Epub 2017 Jul 18.
    Microbial Genomics and Biotechnology, Center for Biotechnology, Bielefeld University, Universitätsstraße 27, 33615, Bielefeld, Germany.
    Background: The eighth step of L-histidine biosynthesis is carried out by an enzyme called histidinol-phosphate phosphatase (HolPase). Three unrelated HolPase families are known so far. Two of them are well studied: HAD-type HolPases known from Gammaproteobacteria like Escherichia coli or Salmonella enterica and PHP-type HolPases known from yeast and Firmicutes like Bacillus subtilis. Read More

    The human jejunum has an endogenous microbiota that differs from those in the oral cavity and colon.
    BMC Microbiol 2017 Jul 17;17(1):160. Epub 2017 Jul 17.
    Department of Internal Medicine, Division of Gastroenterology, Texas Tech University Health Sciences Center at El Paso, El Paso, 79905, TX, USA.
    Background: The upper half of the human small intestine, known as the jejunum, is the primary site for absorption of nutrient-derived carbohydrates, amino acids, small peptides, and vitamins. In contrast to the colon, which contains 10(11)-10(12) colony forming units of bacteria per ml (CFU/ml), the normal jejunum generally ranges from 10(3) to 10(5) CFU per ml. Because invasive procedures are required to access the jejunum, much less is known about its bacterial microbiota. Read More

    Broad-range potential of Asphodelus microcarpus leaves extract for drug development.
    BMC Microbiol 2017 Jul 14;17(1):159. Epub 2017 Jul 14.
    Department of Life and Environmental Sciences, University of Cagliari, Cittadella Universitaria, SS 554, Bivio per Sestu, I-09042, Cagliari, Monserrato, Italy.
    Background: Many plants have been used in traditional medicine for their antibacterial, antifungal, antiprotozoal, antiviral, antidiarrhoeal, analgesic, antimalarial, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and anticancer activities. In order to find novel antimicrobial and antiviral agents, the aim of the present study was the evaluation of the antibacterial and antibiofilm susceptibility of Asphodelus microcarpus leaves extract. Moreover, the antiviral activity and the phytochemical composition of the active extract were also determined. Read More

    The oral fungal mycobiome: characteristics and relation to periodontitis in a pilot study.
    BMC Microbiol 2017 Jul 12;17(1):157. Epub 2017 Jul 12.
    Division of Epidemiology, Department of Population Health, New York University School of Medicine, 650 First Ave, New York, NY, 10016, USA.
    Background: The oral fungal microbiome (mycobiome) is not well characterized, particularly in relation to oral diseases such as periodontal disease. We aimed to describe and compare the oral mycobiome of subjects with and without periodontal disease.

    Results: We characterized the oral mycobiome in 30 adult subjects (15 with periodontal disease, 15 with good oral health) by sequencing the taxonomically informative pan-fungal internal transcribed spacer (ITS) gene in DNA extracted from oral wash samples. Read More

    Physiological roles of sigma factor SigD in Corynebacterium glutamicum.
    BMC Microbiol 2017 Jul 12;17(1):158. Epub 2017 Jul 12.
    Genetics of Prokaryotes, Faculty of Biology, Bielefeld University, Bielefeld, Germany.
    Background: Sigma factors are one of the components of RNA polymerase holoenzymes, and an essential factor of transcription initiation in bacteria. Corynebacterium glutamicum possesses seven genes coding for sigma factors, most of which have been studied to some detail; however, the role of SigD in transcriptional regulation in C. glutamicum has been mostly unknown. Read More

    Bacillus subtilis IolQ (DegA) is a transcriptional repressor of iolX encoding NAD(+)-dependent scyllo-inositol dehydrogenase.
    BMC Microbiol 2017 Jul 11;17(1):154. Epub 2017 Jul 11.
    Organization of Advanced Science and Technology, Kobe University, 1-1 Rokkodai, Nada, Kobe657, Kobe, -8501, Japan.
    Background: Bacillus subtilis is able to utilize at least three inositol stereoisomers as carbon sources, myo-, scyllo-, and D-chiro-inositol (MI, SI, and DCI, respectively). NAD(+)-dependent SI dehydrogenase responsible for SI catabolism is encoded by iolX. Even in the absence of functional iolX, the presence of SI or MI in the growth medium was found to induce the transcription of iolX through an unknown mechanism. Read More

    Hypothetical protein Cpn0423 triggers NOD2 activation and contributes to Chlamydia pneumoniae-mediated inflammation.
    BMC Microbiol 2017 Jul 11;17(1):153. Epub 2017 Jul 11.
    Institute of Pathogenic Biology, Medical College, University of South China, Hengyang, 421001, China.
    Background: Chlamydia pneumoniae (C. pneumoniae) is pathogenic to humans, by causing pulmonary inflammation or bronchitis in both adolescents and young adults. However, the molecular signals linking C. Read More

    Transcriptome profiling analysis reveals metabolic changes across various growth phases in Bacillus pumilus BA06.
    BMC Microbiol 2017 Jul 11;17(1):156. Epub 2017 Jul 11.
    Key Laboratory of Bio-resources and Eco-environment, Ministry of Education, Sichuan Key Laboratory of Molecular Biology and Biotechnology, Sichuan University, Chengdu, 610064, Sichuan, People's Republic of China.
    Background: Bacillus pumilus can secret abundant extracellular enzymes, and may be used as a potential host for the industrial production of enzymes. It is necessary to understand the metabolic processes during cellular growth. Here, an RNA-seq based transcriptome analysis was applied to examine B. Read More

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