2,238 results match your criteria BMC Medical Research Methodology [Journal]


Quality of evidence in a post-Soviet country: evaluation of methodological quality of controlled clinical trials published in national journals from Uzbekistan.

BMC Med Res Methodol 2020 Jul 13;20(1):189. Epub 2020 Jul 13.

Department of Public Health and Healthcare Management, Tashkent Institute of Postgraduate Medical Education, Parkentskaya str. 51, Tashkent, Uzbekistan, 100007.

Background: Most researchers in Uzbekistan prefer to publish their reports in journals of their home country. Moreover, the proportion of healthcare practitioners who prefer to use these national sources of information also remains high. However, the quality of publications from national journals, in post-Soviet countries, has not been systematically evaluated until now. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12874-020-01076-xDOI Listing

Cross-cultural validation and psychometrics' evaluation of women's experience of maternity care scale in French: the ESEM.

BMC Med Res Methodol 2020 Jul 11;20(1):188. Epub 2020 Jul 11.

HESAV School of Health Sciences, HES-SO University of Applied Sciences and Arts Western Switzerland, 1011, Lausanne, Switzerland.

Background: Evaluating women's satisfaction should reflect the entire maternity care experience (antenatal, intrapartum and postnatal). The Women's Experience Maternity Care Scale (WEMCS) questionnaire enables this assessment. The purpose of this study was to translate in French, adapt and explore the psychometric properties of the WEMCS and to determine the best cut-off on the optimal satisfaction for the three scales. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12874-020-01052-5DOI Listing

Participants who were difficult to recruit at baseline are less likely to complete a follow-up questionnaire - results from the German National Cohort.

BMC Med Res Methodol 2020 Jul 9;20(1):187. Epub 2020 Jul 9.

Leibniz Institute for Prevention Research and Epidemiology - BIPS, Achterstrasse 30, 28359, Bremen, Germany.

Background: With declining response proportions in population-based research the importance of evaluating the effectiveness of measures aimed at improving response increases. We investigated whether an additional flyer with information about the study influences participation in a follow-up questionnaire and the time participants take to send back filled questionnaire.

Methods: In a trial embedded within the German National Cohort we compared responses to invitations for a follow-up questionnaire either including a flyer with information about the cohort study or not including it. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12874-020-01073-0DOI Listing

Multivariate network meta-analysis incorporating class effects.

BMC Med Res Methodol 2020 Jul 8;20(1):184. Epub 2020 Jul 8.

Department of Health Sciences, University of Leicester, University Road, Leicester, LE1 7RH, UK.

Background: Network meta-analysis synthesises data from a number of clinical trials in order to assess the comparative efficacy of multiple healthcare interventions in similar patient populations. In situations where clinical trial data are heterogeneously reported i.e. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12874-020-01025-8DOI Listing

Correction to: Baseline-adjusted proportional odds models for the quantification of treatment effects in trials with ordinal sum score outcomes.

BMC Med Res Methodol 2020 Jul 9;20(1):186. Epub 2020 Jul 9.

Department of Biostatistics, Epidemiology, Biostatistics and Prevention Institute, University of Zurich, Hirschengraben 84, CH-8001, Zurich, Switzerland.

An amendment to this paper has been published and can be accessed via the original article. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12874-020-01028-5DOI Listing

Multiple imputation with missing indicators as proxies for unmeasured variables: simulation study.

BMC Med Res Methodol 2020 Jul 8;20(1):185. Epub 2020 Jul 8.

Faculty of Biology, Medicine and Health, Vaughan House, University of Manchester, Manchester, M13 9PL, UK.

Background: Within routinely collected health data, missing data for an individual might provide useful information in itself. This occurs, for example, in the case of electronic health records, where the presence or absence of data is informative. While the naive use of missing indicators to try to exploit such information can introduce bias, its use in conjunction with multiple imputation may unlock the potential value of missingness to reduce bias in causal effect estimation, particularly in missing not at random scenarios and where missingness might be associated with unmeasured confounders. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12874-020-01068-xDOI Listing

Recruiting a representative sample of urban South Australian Aboriginal adults for a survey on alcohol consumption.

BMC Med Res Methodol 2020 Jul 6;20(1):183. Epub 2020 Jul 6.

Faculty of Medicine and Health, Discipline of Addiction Medicine, NHMRC Centre of Research Excellence in Indigenous Health and Alcohol, The University of Sydney, King George V Building, 83-117 Missenden Road, Camperdown, NSW, 2050, Australia.

Background: Population estimates of alcohol consumption vary widely among samples of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander (Indigenous) Australians. Some of this difference may relate to non-representative sampling. In some communities, household surveys are not appropriate and phone surveys not feasible. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12874-020-01067-yDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7339418PMC

The value of social practice theory for implementation science: learning from a theory-based mixed methods process evaluation of a randomised controlled trial.

BMC Med Res Methodol 2020 Jul 6;20(1):181. Epub 2020 Jul 6.

Health Services Research, Institute of Health Research, University of Exeter College of Medicine and Health, St Luke's Campus, Heavitree Road, Exeter, Devon, EX1 2LU, UK.

Background: Although there is trial evidence that complex interventions are effective for the self-management of heart failure, little evidence supports their effectiveness in routine practice. We used Social Practice Theory to guide a Type 1 Hybrid Trial: a mixed methods process evaluation of a complex intervention for heart failure. The objective of this paper is to explore the value of Social Practice Theory for implementation science. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12874-020-01060-5DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7336630PMC

Quasi-linear Cox proportional hazards model with cross- L penalty.

BMC Med Res Methodol 2020 Jul 6;20(1):182. Epub 2020 Jul 6.

The Institute of Statistical Mathematics, Midori-cho, Tachikawa, Tokyo, Japan.

Background: To accurately predict the response to treatment, we need a stable and effective risk score that can be calculated from patient characteristics. When we evaluate such risks from time-to-event data with right-censoring, Cox's proportional hazards model is the most popular for estimating the linear risk score. However, the intrinsic heterogeneity of patients may prevent us from obtaining a valid score. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12874-020-01063-2DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7336640PMC

Agreement between original and Rasch-approved neck disability index.

BMC Med Res Methodol 2020 Jul 3;20(1):180. Epub 2020 Jul 3.

School of Physical Therapy, Health and Rehabilitation Science, Western University, London, ON, Canada.

Background: Given the high prevalence of neck pain, the neck disability index (NDI) has been used to evaluate patient status and treatment outcomes. Modified versions were proposed as solutions to measurement deficits in the NDI. However, the original 10-item NDI was scored out of 50 and is still the most frequently administered version. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12874-020-01069-wDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7333341PMC

Sources of potential bias when combining routine data linkage and a national survey of secondary school-aged children: a record linkage study.

BMC Med Res Methodol 2020 Jul 2;20(1):178. Epub 2020 Jul 2.

Centre for the Development and Evaluation of Complex Interventions for Public Health Improvement (DECIPHer), School of Social Sciences, Cardiff University, Cardiff, CF10 3BD, UK.

Background: Linking survey data to administrative records requires informed participant consent. When linkage includes child data, this includes parental and child consent. Little is known of the potential impacts of introducing consent to data linkage on response rates and biases in school-based surveys. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12874-020-01064-1DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7331194PMC

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19): an evidence map of medical literature.

BMC Med Res Methodol 2020 07 2;20(1):177. Epub 2020 Jul 2.

Duke-NUS Medical School, National University of Singapore, Singapore, Singapore.

Background: Since the beginning of the COVID-19 outbreak in December 2019, a substantial body of COVID-19 medical literature has been generated. As of June 2020, gaps and longitudinal trends in the COVID-19 medical literature remain unidentified, despite potential benefits for research prioritisation and policy setting in both the COVID-19 pandemic and future large-scale public health crises.

Methods: In this paper, we searched PubMed and Embase for medical literature on COVID-19 between 1 January and 24 March 2020. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12874-020-01059-yDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7330264PMC

Group testing performance evaluation for SARS-CoV-2 massive scale screening and testing.

BMC Med Res Methodol 2020 Jul 2;20(1):176. Epub 2020 Jul 2.

Department of Computer Engineering, Erciyes University, Kayseri, 38039, Turkey.

Background: The capacity of the current molecular testing convention does not allow high-throughput and community level scans of COVID-19 infections. The diameter in the current paradigm of shallow tracing is unlikely to reach the silent clusters that might be as important as the symptomatic cases in the spread of the disease. Group testing is a feasible and promising approach when the resources are scarce and when a relatively low prevalence regime is observed on the population. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12874-020-01048-1DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7330001PMC

Directed acyclic graphs and causal thinking in clinical risk prediction modeling.

BMC Med Res Methodol 2020 Jul 2;20(1):179. Epub 2020 Jul 2.

Institute of Public Health, Charité - Universitätsmedizin Berlin, Berlin, Germany.

Background: In epidemiology, causal inference and prediction modeling methodologies have been historically distinct. Directed Acyclic Graphs (DAGs) are used to model a priori causal assumptions and inform variable selection strategies for causal questions. Although tools originally designed for prediction are finding applications in causal inference, the counterpart has remained largely unexplored. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12874-020-01058-zDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7331263PMC

A comparison of residual diagnosis tools for diagnosing regression models for count data.

BMC Med Res Methodol 2020 Jul 1;20(1):175. Epub 2020 Jul 1.

Department of Mathematics and Statistics, University of Saskatchewan, 106 Wiggins Road, Saskatoon, S7N5E6, Canada.

Background: Examining residuals is a crucial step in statistical analysis to identify the discrepancies between models and data, and assess the overall model goodness-of-fit. In diagnosing normal linear regression models, both Pearson and deviance residuals are often used, which are equivalently and approximately standard normally distributed when the model fits the data adequately. However, when the response vari*able is discrete, these residuals are distributed far from normality and have nearly parallel curves according to the distinct discrete response values, imposing great challenges for visual inspection. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12874-020-01055-2DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7329451PMC

Effectiveness of SMS messaging for diarrhoea measurement: a factorial cross-over randomised controlled trial.

BMC Med Res Methodol 2020 Jun 30;20(1):174. Epub 2020 Jun 30.

Warwick International Centre for Applied Health Research and Delivery, Warwick Medical School, University of Warwick, Coventry, UK.

Background: Text messaging systems are used to collect data on symptom prevalence. Using a text messaging system, we evaluated the effects of question load, question frequency, and financial incentive on response rates and reported infant diarrhoea rates in an infant diarrhoea survey.

Methods: We performed a factorial cross-over randomised controlled trial of an SMS surveying system for infant diarrhoea surveillance with treatments: financial incentive (yes/no), question load (1-question/3-question), and questioning frequency (daily/fortnightly). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12874-020-01062-3DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7325153PMC

How methodological frameworks are being developed: evidence from a scoping review.

BMC Med Res Methodol 2020 Jun 30;20(1):173. Epub 2020 Jun 30.

Health Economics and Health Technology Assessment (HEHTA), Institute of Health and Wellbeing, University of Glasgow, Glasgow, G12 8RZ, UK.

Background: Although the benefits of using methodological frameworks are increasingly recognised, to date, there is no formal definition of what constitutes a 'methodological framework', nor is there any published guidance on how to develop one. For the purposes of this study we have defined a methodological framework as a structured guide to completing a process or procedure. This study's aims are to: (a) map the existing landscape on the use of methodological frameworks; (b) identify approaches used for the development of methodological frameworks and terminology used; and (c) provide suggestions for developing future methodological frameworks. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12874-020-01061-4DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7325096PMC

Don't dismiss logistic regression: the case for sensible extraction of interactions in the era of machine learning.

BMC Med Res Methodol 2020 Jun 29;20(1):171. Epub 2020 Jun 29.

Department of Biomedical Data Science, Geisel School of Medicine at Dartmouth, Hanover, USA.

Background: Machine learning approaches have become increasingly popular modeling techniques, relying on data-driven heuristics to arrive at its solutions. Recent comparisons between these algorithms and traditional statistical modeling techniques have largely ignored the superiority gained by the former approaches due to involvement of model-building search algorithms. This has led to alignment of statistical and machine learning approaches with different types of problems and the under-development of procedures that combine their attributes. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12874-020-01046-3DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7325087PMC

A conceptual framework for prognostic research.

BMC Med Res Methodol 2020 Jun 29;20(1):172. Epub 2020 Jun 29.

Department of Sports Science and Clinical Biomechanics, University of Southern Denmark, Odense, Denmark.

Background: Prognostic research has many important purposes, including (i) describing the natural history and clinical course of health conditions, (ii) investigating variables associated with health outcomes of interest, (iii) estimating an individual's probability of developing different outcomes, (iv) investigating the clinical application of prediction models, and (v) investigating determinants of recovery that can inform the development of interventions to improve patient outcomes. But much prognostic research has been poorly conducted and interpreted, indicating that a number of conceptual areas are often misunderstood. Recent initiatives to improve this include the Prognosis Research Strategy (PROGRESS) and the Transparent Reporting of a multivariable prediction model for Individual Prognosis or Diagnosis (TRIPOD) Statement. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12874-020-01050-7DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7325141PMC

Modeling observations with a detection limit using a truncated normal distribution with censoring.

BMC Med Res Methodol 2020 Jun 29;20(1):170. Epub 2020 Jun 29.

Department of Biostatistics, University of California Los Angeles, Charles E. Young Dr. South, Los Angeles, 90095, USA.

Background: When data are collected subject to a detection limit, observations below the detection limit may be considered censored. In addition, the domain of such observations may be restricted; for example, values may be required to be non-negative.

Methods: We propose a method for estimating population mean and variance from censored observations that accounts for known domain restriction. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12874-020-01032-9DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7322891PMC

Applying an intersectionality lens to the theoretical domains framework: a tool for thinking about how intersecting social identities and structures of power influence behaviour.

BMC Med Res Methodol 2020 Jun 26;20(1):169. Epub 2020 Jun 26.

Li Ka Shing Knowledge Institute, St. Michael's Hospital, Toronto, Canada.

Background: A key component of the implementation process is identifying potential barriers and facilitators that need to be addressed. The Theoretical Domains Framework (TDF) is one of the most commonly used frameworks for this purpose. When applying the TDF, it is critical to understand the context in which behaviours occur. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12874-020-01056-1DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7318508PMC

Comparison of methods for handling covariate missingness in propensity score estimation with a binary exposure.

BMC Med Res Methodol 2020 Jun 26;20(1):168. Epub 2020 Jun 26.

Williams College, Williamstown, USA.

Background: Causal effect estimation with observational data is subject to bias due to confounding, which is often controlled for using propensity scores. One unresolved issue in propensity score estimation is how to handle missing values in covariates.

Method: Several approaches have been proposed for handling covariate missingness, including multiple imputation (MI), multiple imputation with missingness pattern (MIMP), and treatment mean imputation. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12874-020-01053-4DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7318364PMC

P-values - a chronic conundrum.

Authors:
Jian Gao

BMC Med Res Methodol 2020 Jun 24;20(1):167. Epub 2020 Jun 24.

Department of Veterans Affairs, Office of Productivity, Efficiency and Staffing (OPES, RAPID), Albany, USA.

Background: In medical research and practice, the p-value is arguably the most often used statistic and yet it is widely misconstrued as the probability of the type I error, which comes with serious consequences. This misunderstanding can greatly affect the reproducibility in research, treatment selection in medical practice, and model specification in empirical analyses. By using plain language and concrete examples, this paper is intended to elucidate the p-value confusion from its root, to explicate the difference between significance and hypothesis testing, to illuminate the consequences of the confusion, and to present a viable alternative to the conventional p-value. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12874-020-01051-6DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7315482PMC

The challenges in data integration - heterogeneity and complexity in clinical trials and patient registries of Systemic Lupus Erythematosus.

BMC Med Res Methodol 2020 Jun 24;20(1):164. Epub 2020 Jun 24.

Centre for Health Informatics, Vaughan Housue, Portsmouth St., The University of Manchester, Manchester, M13 9GB, UK.

Background: Individual clinical trials and cohort studies are a useful source of data, often under-utilised once a study has ended. Pooling data from multiple sources could increase sample sizes and allow for further investigation of treatment effects; even if the original trial did not meet its primary goals. Through the MASTERPLANS (MAximizing Sle ThERapeutic PotentiaL by Application of Novel and Stratified approaches) national consortium, focused on Systemic Lupus Erythematosus (SLE), we have gained valuable real-world experiences in aligning, harmonising and combining data from multiple studies and trials, specifically where standards for data capture, representation and documentation, were not used or were unavailable. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12874-020-01057-0DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7313210PMC

Including non-concurrent control patients in the analysis of platform trials: is it worth it?

BMC Med Res Methodol 2020 Jun 24;20(1):165. Epub 2020 Jun 24.

MRC Biostatistics Unit, School of Clinical Medicine, University of Cambridge, Cambridge Institute of Public Health, Forvie Site, Robinson Way, Cambridge Biomedical Campus, Cambridge, CB2 0SR, UK.

Background: Platform trials allow adding new experimental treatments to an on-going trial. This feature is attractive to practitioners due to improved efficiency. Nevertheless, the operating characteristics of a trial that adds arms have not been well-studied. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12874-020-01043-6DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7315495PMC

Explaining the variation in the attained power of a stepped-wedge trial with unequal cluster sizes.

BMC Med Res Methodol 2020 Jun 24;20(1):166. Epub 2020 Jun 24.

School of Population and Public Health, University of British Columbia, 2206 E Mall, Vancouver, BC, V6T 1Z3, Canada.

Background: In a cross-sectional stepped-wedge trial with unequal cluster sizes, attained power in the trial depends on the realized allocation of the clusters. This attained power may differ from the expected power calculated using standard formulae by averaging the attained powers over all allocations the randomization algorithm can generate. We investigated the effect of design factors and allocation characteristics on attained power and developed models to predict attained power based on allocation characteristics. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12874-020-01036-5DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7315519PMC
June 2020
2.270 Impact Factor

Research methodology and characteristics of journal articles with original data, preprint articles and registered clinical trial protocols about COVID-19.

BMC Med Res Methodol 2020 06 22;20(1):161. Epub 2020 Jun 22.

Center for Evidence-Based Medicine and Health Care, Catholic University of Croatia, Ilica 242, 10000, Zagreb, Croatia.

Background: The research community reacted rapidly to the emergence of COVID-19. We aimed to assess characteristics of journal articles, preprint articles, and registered trial protocols about COVID-19 and its causal agent SARS-CoV-2.

Methods: We analyzed characteristics of journal articles with original data indexed by March 19, 2020, in World Health Organization (WHO) COVID-19 collection, articles published on preprint servers medRxiv and bioRxiv by April 3, 2010. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12874-020-01047-2DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7306569PMC

Practicalities in running early-phase trials using the time-to-event continual reassessment method (TiTE-CRM) for interventions with long toxicity periods using two radiotherapy oncology trials as examples.

BMC Med Res Methodol 2020 Jun 22;20(1):162. Epub 2020 Jun 22.

MRC Clinical Trials Unit at UCL, UCL, London, UK.

Background: Awareness of model-based designs for dose-finding studies such as the Continual Reassessment Method (CRM) is now becoming more commonplace amongst clinicians, statisticians and trial management staff. In some settings toxicities can occur a long time after treatment has finished, resulting in extremely long, interrupted, CRM design trials. The Time-to-Event CRM (TiTE-CRM), a modification to the original CRM, accounts for the timing of late-onset toxicities and results in shorter trial duration. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12874-020-01012-zDOI Listing

Increasing questionnaire response: evidence from a nested RCT within a longitudinal birth cohort study.

BMC Med Res Methodol 2020 Jun 22;20(1):163. Epub 2020 Jun 22.

The Dental Health Unit, Division of Dentistry, Williams House, University of Manchester, Manchester Science Park, Manchester, M15 6SE, UK.

Background: High response rates are essential when questionnaires are used within research, as representativeness can affect the validity of studies and the ability to generalise the findings to a wider population. The study aimed to measure the response rate to questionnaires from a large longitudinal epidemiological study and sought to determine if any changes made throughout data collection had a positive impact on the response to questionnaires and addressed any imbalance in response rates by participants' levels of deprivation.

Methods: Data were taken from a prospective, comparative study, designed to examine the effects of the reintroduction of water fluoridation on children's oral health over a five-year period. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12874-020-01034-7DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7309972PMC

An exploration of how developers use qualitative evidence: content analysis and critical appraisal of guidelines.

BMC Med Res Methodol 2020 Jun 17;20(1):160. Epub 2020 Jun 17.

Center for Evidence-Based and Translational Medicine, Zhongnan Hospital of Wuhan University, Wuhan, China.

Background: Clinical practice guidelines have become increasingly widely used to guide quality improvement of clinical practice. Qualitative research may be a useful way to improve the quality and implementation of guidelines. The methodology for qualitative evidence used in guidelines development is worthy of further research. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12874-020-01041-8DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7302150PMC

Using online technologies to improve diversity and inclusion in cognitive interviews with young people.

BMC Med Res Methodol 2020 06 16;20(1):159. Epub 2020 Jun 16.

Department of Obstetrics, Gynecology and Reproductive Sciences, Advancing New Standards in Reproductive Health (ANSIRH), University of California, San Francisco, 1330 Broadway, Suite 1100, Oakland, CA, 94612, USA.

Background: We aimed to assess the feasibility of using multiple technologies to recruit and conduct cognitive interviews among young people across the United States to test items measuring sexual and reproductive empowerment. We sought to understand whether these methods could achieve a diverse sample of participants. With more researchers turning to approaches that maintain social distancing in the context of COVID-19, it has become more pressing to refine these remote research methods. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12874-020-01024-9DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7295690PMC

Laplace approximation, penalized quasi-likelihood, and adaptive Gauss-Hermite quadrature for generalized linear mixed models: towards meta-analysis of binary outcome with sparse data.

BMC Med Res Methodol 2020 Jun 11;20(1):152. Epub 2020 Jun 11.

Department of Population Medicine, College of Medicine, Qatar University, Al Jamiaa Street, P. O. Box 2713, Doha, Qatar.

Background: In meta-analyses of a binary outcome, double zero events in some studies cause a critical methodology problem. The generalized linear mixed model (GLMM) has been proposed as a valid statistical tool for pooling such data. Three parameter estimation methods, including the Laplace approximation (LA), penalized quasi-likelihood (PQL) and adaptive Gauss-Hermite quadrature (AGHQ) were frequently used in the GLMM. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12874-020-01035-6DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7296731PMC

Including 'seldom heard' views in research: opportunities, challenges and recommendations from focus groups with British South Asian people with type 2 diabetes.

BMC Med Res Methodol 2020 Jun 15;20(1):157. Epub 2020 Jun 15.

Nuffield Department of Primary Care Health Sciences, University of Oxford, Radcliffe Observatory Quarter, Woodstock Road, Oxford, OX2 6GG, UK.

Background: The inclusion of 'seldom heard' groups in health and social care research is increasingly seen as important on scientific, policy and ethical grounds. British South Asians, the largest minority ethnic group in the United Kingdom (UK), are under-represented in health research yet over-represented in the incidence of certain conditions such as type 2 diabetes. With the growing requirement of patient involvement in research and the inclusion of diverse populations, methodological guidance on how to include, engage and conduct research with UK South Asian populations is essential if services and interventions are to be relevant and impactful. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12874-020-01045-4DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7296709PMC

Improving design choices in Delphi studies in medicine: the case of an exemplary physician multi-round panel study with 100% response.

BMC Med Res Methodol 2020 Jun 15;20(1):156. Epub 2020 Jun 15.

Erasmus School of Health Policy & Management, P.O. Box 1738, 3000, DR, Rotterdam, the Netherlands.

Background: A proper application of the Delphi technique is essential for obtaining valid research results. Medical researchers regularly use Delphi studies, but reports often lack detailed information on methodology and controlled feedback: in the medical literature, papers focusing on Delphi methodology issues are rare. Since the introduction of electronic surveys, details on response times remain scarce. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12874-020-01029-4DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7294633PMC

Development of an integrative coding framework for evaluating context within implementation science.

BMC Med Res Methodol 2020 Jun 15;20(1):158. Epub 2020 Jun 15.

University College Dublin Centre for Interdisciplinary Research, Education and Innovation in Health Systems (UCD IRIS), UCD School of Nursing, Midwifery and Health Systems, Dublin 4, Ireland.

Background: This research aims to explore an identified gap in implementation science methodology, that is, how to assess context in implementation research. Context is among the strongest influences on implementation success but is a construct that is poorly understood and reported within the literature. Consequently, there is little guidance on how to research context. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12874-020-01044-5DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7296653PMC

A novel framework for classification of selection processes in epidemiological research.

BMC Med Res Methodol 2020 Jun 15;20(1):155. Epub 2020 Jun 15.

School of Public Health and Community Medicine, Institute of Medicine, Sahlgrenska Academy at University of Gothenburg, Göteborg, Sweden.

Background: Selection and selection bias are terms that lack consistent definitions and have varying meaning and usage across disciplines. There is also confusion in current definitions between underlying mechanisms that lead to selection and their consequences. Consequences of selection on study validity must be judged on a case-by-case basis depending on research question, study design and analytical decisions. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12874-020-01015-wDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7294651PMC

Using multiple agreement methods for continuous repeated measures data: a tutorial for practitioners.

BMC Med Res Methodol 2020 Jun 12;20(1):154. Epub 2020 Jun 12.

Department of Statistics and Actuarial Science, University of Waterloo, 200 University Avenue West, Waterloo, ON, N2L 3G1, Canada.

Background: Studies of agreement examine the distance between readings made by different devices or observers measuring the same quantity. If the values generated by each device are close together most of the time then we conclude that the devices agree. Several different agreement methods have been described in the literature, in the linear mixed modelling framework, for use when there are time-matched repeated measurements within subjects. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12874-020-01022-xDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7291585PMC

Developing strategies to improve fidelity of delivery of, and engagement with, a complex intervention to improve independence in dementia: a mixed methods study.

BMC Med Res Methodol 2020 Jun 12;20(1):153. Epub 2020 Jun 12.

Department of Clinical, Educational and Health Psychology, University College London, 1-19 Torrington Place, London, WC1E 7HB, UK.

Background: It is important to evaluate fidelity of delivery and engagement during feasibility trials. However, there is little guidance on how to systematically develop strategies to improve implementation if problems arise. We aimed to: 1) Assess fidelity of delivery and engagement, 2) Identify factors influencing fidelity of delivery and engagement, and 3) Develop strategies to improve fidelity of delivery of, and engagement with, a complex intervention to improve independence in dementia, within a feasibility trial. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12874-020-01006-xDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7291463PMC

Do we need to adjust for interim analyses in a Bayesian adaptive trial design?

BMC Med Res Methodol 2020 Jun 10;20(1):150. Epub 2020 Jun 10.

Cancer Research UK Clinical Trials Unit, Institute of Cancer and Genomic Sciences, University of Birmingham, Birmingham, UK.

Background: Bayesian adaptive methods are increasingly being used to design clinical trials and offer several advantages over traditional approaches. Decisions at analysis points are usually based on the posterior distribution of the treatment effect. However, there is some confusion as to whether control of type I error is required for Bayesian designs as this is a frequentist concept. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12874-020-01042-7DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7288484PMC

Challenges of recruiting emergency department patients to a qualitative study: a thematic analysis of researchers' experiences.

BMC Med Res Methodol 2020 Jun 11;20(1):151. Epub 2020 Jun 11.

Division of Population Medicine, Cardiff University School of Medicine, Cardiff, Wales.

Background: At times of increasing pressure on emergency departments, and the need for research into different models of service delivery, little is known about how to recruit patients for qualitative research in emergency departments. We report from one study which aimed to collect evidence on patients' experiences of attending emergency departments with different models of using general practitioners, but faced challenges in recruiting patients. This paper aims to identify and reflect on the challenges faced at all stages of patient recruitment, from identifying and inviting eligible patients, consenting them for participation and finally to engaging them in interviews, and make recommendations based on our learning. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12874-020-01039-2DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7288546PMC

Who responds? An examination of response rates to a national postal survey of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander adults, 2018-2019.

BMC Med Res Methodol 2020 Jun 10;20(1):149. Epub 2020 Jun 10.

National Centre for Epidemiology and Population Health, Research School of Population Health, Australian National University, Canberra, Australia.

Background: Evidence on the effectiveness of postal recruitment methods for Indigenous peoples is lacking. Mayi Kuwayu, the National Study of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Wellbeing, uses multi-staged sampling. We aimed to test postal surveys as a primary recruitment method, analysing preliminary response rate data to inform the Study's ongoing sampling approach. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12874-020-00970-8DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7285609PMC

Advanced stratification analyses in molecular association meta-analysis: methodology and application.

BMC Med Res Methodol 2020 Jun 8;20(1):147. Epub 2020 Jun 8.

Key Laboratory of Big Data Mining and Precision Drug Design of Guangdong Medical University, Research Platform Service Management Center, Guangdong Medical University, Dongguan, 523808, Guangdong, China.

Background: Stratification analyses have been widely utilized in molecular association meta-analyses to estimate the interaction between genetic and environmental factors or to control for the confounding variables linked to a disease. Two calculation methods utilized in practical research, which are known as the variants of factorial stratification analysis and confounder-controlling stratification analysis in our nomenclature, have been applied in previous studies, but none of which have presented a methodology and application for these analyses.

Methods: In this paper, these two approaches are integrated and further developed into a standard procedure for stratification analysis. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12874-020-01020-zDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7278161PMC

Missing-data analysis: socio- demographic, clinical and lifestyle determinants of low response rate on self- reported psychological and nutrition related multi- item instruments in the context of the ATTICA epidemiological study.

BMC Med Res Methodol 2020 Jun 8;20(1):148. Epub 2020 Jun 8.

Department of Nutrition and Dietetics, School of Health Science and Education, Harokopio University, 70 Eleftheriou Venizelou Ave., 176 71, Athens, Greece.

Background: Missing data is a common problem in epidemiological studies, while it becomes more critical, when the missing data concern a multi-item instrument, since lack of information in even one of its items, leads to the inability to calculate the total score of the instrument. The aim was to investigate the socio-demographic, lifestyle and clinical determinants of low response rate in two self- rating multi item scales, estimating the individuals' nutritional habits and psychological disorders, as well as, to compare different missing data handling techniques regarding the imputation of missing values in this context.

Methods: The sample from ATTICA epidemiological study was used, with complete baseline information (2001-2002) regarding their demographic characteristics [n = 2194 subjects (1364 men: 64 years old (SD = 12 years) and 830 women: 66 years old (SD = 12 years))]. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12874-020-01038-3DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7281925PMC
June 2020
2.270 Impact Factor

Robust estimation of the effect of an exposure on the change in a continuous outcome.

BMC Med Res Methodol 2020 Jun 6;20(1):145. Epub 2020 Jun 6.

Saw Swee Hock School of Public Health, National University of Singapore and National University Health System, 12 Science Drive 2, #10-01, Tahir Foundation Building, Singapore, 117549, Singapore.

Background: The change in two measurements of a continuous outcome can be modelled directly with a linear regression model, or indirectly with a random effects model (REM) of the individual measurements. These methods are susceptible to model misspecifications, which are commonly addressed by applying monotonic transformations (e.g. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12874-020-01027-6DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7275496PMC

Towards reduction in bias in epidemic curves due to outcome misclassification through Bayesian analysis of time-series of laboratory test results: case study of COVID-19 in Alberta, Canada and Philadelphia, USA.

BMC Med Res Methodol 2020 06 6;20(1):146. Epub 2020 Jun 6.

Department of Statistics, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC, Canada.

Background: Despite widespread use, the accuracy of the diagnostic test for SARS-CoV-2 infection is poorly understood. The aim of our work was to better quantify misclassification errors in identification of true cases of COVID-19 and to study the impact of these errors in epidemic curves using publicly available surveillance data from Alberta, Canada and Philadelphia, USA.

Methods: We examined time-series data of laboratory tests for SARS-CoV-2 viral infection, the causal agent for COVID-19, to try to explore, using a Bayesian approach, the sensitivity and specificity of the diagnostic test. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12874-020-01037-4DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7275354PMC

Bayesian alternatives to null hypothesis significance testing in biomedical research: a non-technical introduction to Bayesian inference with JASP.

Authors:
Riko Kelter

BMC Med Res Methodol 2020 Jun 5;20(1):142. Epub 2020 Jun 5.

Department of Mathematics, University of Siegen, Walter-Flex-Str. 3, Siegen, 57072, Germany.

Background: Although null hypothesis significance testing (NHST) is the agreed gold standard in medical decision making and the most widespread inferential framework used in medical research, it has several drawbacks. Bayesian methods can complement or even replace frequentist NHST, but these methods have been underutilised mainly due to a lack of easy-to-use software. JASP is an open-source software for common operating systems, which has recently been developed to make Bayesian inference more accessible to researchers, including the most common tests, an intuitive graphical user interface and publication-ready output plots. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12874-020-00980-6DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7275319PMC

The 'goodness-of-fit' of fit models: creating a multidimensional survey for person-organisation and person-group fit in health care.

BMC Med Res Methodol 2020 Jun 5;20(1):144. Epub 2020 Jun 5.

Centre for Healthcare Resilience and Implementation Science, Australian Institute of Health Innovation, Macquarie University, Level 6, 75 Talavera Rd, Macquarie Park, Australia.

Background: Person-environment fit, which examines the individual's perceptions of if, and in what way, he or she is compatible with aspects of the work context, offers a promising conceptual model for understanding employees and their interactions in health care environments. There are numerous potential ways an individual feels they "fit" with their environment. The construct was first noted almost thirty years ago, yet still remains elusive. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12874-020-01033-8DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7275356PMC

Compbdt: an R program to compare two binary diagnostic tests subject to a paired design.

BMC Med Res Methodol 2020 Jun 5;20(1):143. Epub 2020 Jun 5.

Department of Statistics (Biostatistics), School of Medicine, University of Granada, Avenida de la Investigación 11, 18016, Granada, Spain.

Background: The comparison of the performance of two binary diagnostic tests is an important topic in Clinical Medicine. The most frequent type of sample design to compare two binary diagnostic tests is the paired design. This design consists of applying the two binary diagnostic tests to all of the individuals in a random sample, where the disease status of each individual is known through the application of a gold standard. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12874-020-00988-yDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7275524PMC

How feasible is it to abandon statistical significance? A reflection based on a short survey.

BMC Med Res Methodol 2020 Jun 3;20(1):140. Epub 2020 Jun 3.

Laboratório de Inferência Causal em Epidemiologia da Universidade de São Paulo (LINCE-USP), São Paulo, Brazil.

Background: There is a growing trend in using the "statistically significant" term in the scientific literature. However, harsh criticism of this concept motivated the recommendation to withdraw its use of scientific publications. We aimed to validate the support and the feasibility of adherence to this recommendation, among researchers having declared in favor of removing the statistical significance. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12874-020-01030-xDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7271502PMC

The semi-automation of title and abstract screening: a retrospective exploration of ways to leverage Abstrackr's relevance predictions in systematic and rapid reviews.

BMC Med Res Methodol 2020 Jun 3;20(1):139. Epub 2020 Jun 3.

Alberta Research Centre for Health Evidence, Department of Pediatrics, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada.

Background: We investigated the feasibility of using a machine learning tool's relevance predictions to expedite title and abstract screening.

Methods: We subjected 11 systematic reviews and six rapid reviews to four retrospective screening simulations (automated and semi-automated approaches to single-reviewer and dual independent screening) in Abstrackr, a freely-available machine learning software. We calculated the proportion missed, workload savings, and time savings compared to single-reviewer and dual independent screening by human reviewers. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12874-020-01031-wDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7268596PMC