830 results match your criteria BMC Medical Ethics [Journal]


Making researchers responsible: attributions of responsibility and ambiguous notions of culture in research codes of conduct.

BMC Med Ethics 2020 Jul 7;21(1):56. Epub 2020 Jul 7.

Centre for Science and Technology Studies (CWTS), Faculty of Social and Behavioral Sciences, Leiden University, Leiden, Netherlands.

Background: Research codes of conduct offer guidance to researchers with respect to which values should be realized in research practices, how these values are to be realized, and what the respective responsibilities of the individual and the institution are in this. However, the question of how the responsibilities are to be divided between the individual and the institution has hitherto received little attention. We therefore performed an analysis of research codes of conduct to investigate how responsibilities are positioned as individual or institutional, and how the boundary between the two is drawn. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12910-020-00496-0DOI Listing

The polysemy of psychotropic drugs: continuity and overlap between neuroenhancement, treatment, prevention, pain relief, and pleasure-seeking in a clinical setting.

BMC Med Ethics 2020 Jul 6;21(1):54. Epub 2020 Jul 6.

Department of Neuropsychiatry, The University of Tokyo Hospital, 7-3-1, Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo, 113-8655, Japan.

Background: Enhancement involves the use of biomedical technologies to improve human capacities beyond therapeutic purposes. It has been well documented that enhancement is sometimes difficult to distinguish from treatment. As a subtype of enhancement, neuroenhancement aims to improve one's cognitive or emotional capacities. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12910-020-00497-zDOI Listing

Evaluation of decision-making capacity in patients with dementia: challenges and recommendations from a secondary analysis of qualitative interviews.

BMC Med Ethics 2020 Jul 6;21(1):55. Epub 2020 Jul 6.

Institute of Biomedical Ethics and History of Medicine, University of Zurich, Winterthurerstrasse 30, CH-8006, Zürich, Switzerland.

Background: Evaluation of decision-making capacity to consent to medical treatment has proved to be difficult in patients with dementia. Studies showed that physicians are often insufficiently trained in the evaluation of decision-making capacity. In this study, we present findings from a secondary analysis of a qualitative interviews with physicians. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12910-020-00498-yDOI Listing

Moral competence, moral teamwork and moral action - the European Moral Case Deliberation Outcomes (Euro-MCD) Instrument 2.0 and its revision process.

BMC Med Ethics 2020 Jul 2;21(1):53. Epub 2020 Jul 2.

Faculty of Medicine and Health, University Health Care Research Center, Örebro University, Örebro, Sweden.

Background: Clinical Ethics Support (CES) services are offered to support healthcare professionals in dealing with ethically difficult situations. Evaluation of CES is important to understand if it is indeed a supportive service in order to inform and improve future implementation of CES. Yet, methods to measure outcomes of CES are scarce. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12910-020-00493-3DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7331166PMC

Evaluating assessment tools of the quality of clinical ethics consultations: a systematic scoping review from 1992 to 2019.

BMC Med Ethics 2020 Jul 1;21(1):51. Epub 2020 Jul 1.

Division of Supportive and Palliative Care, National Cancer Centre Singapore, Level 4, 11 Hospital Drive, Singapore, 169610, Singapore.

Background: Amidst expanding roles in education and policy making, questions have been raised about the ability of Clinical Ethics Committees (CEC) s to carry out effective ethics consultations (CECons). However recent reviews of CECs suggest that there is no uniformity to CECons and no effective means of assessing the quality of CECons. To address this gap a systematic scoping review of prevailing tools used to assess CECons was performed to foreground and guide the design of a tool to evaluate the quality of CECons. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12910-020-00492-4DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7329412PMC

The law and problematic marketing by private umbilical cord blood banks.

BMC Med Ethics 2020 Jul 1;21(1):52. Epub 2020 Jul 1.

Health Law Institute, Faculty of Law, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta, T6G 2H5, Canada.

Background: Private umbilical cord blood banking is a for-profit industry in which parents pay to store blood for potential future use. Governments have noted the tendency for private banks to oversell the potential for cord blood use, especially in relation to speculative cell therapies not yet supported by clinical evidence. We assessed the regulatory landscape governing private cord bank marketing in Canada. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12910-020-00494-2DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7329494PMC

Relational autonomy in end-of-life care ethics: a contextualized approach to real-life complexities.

BMC Med Ethics 2020 Jun 30;21(1):50. Epub 2020 Jun 30.

Centre for Biomedical Ethics and Law, KU Leuven, Kapucijnenvoer 35 blok d - box 7001, 3000, Leuven, Belgium.

Background: Respect for autonomy is a paramount principle in end-of-life ethics. Nevertheless, empirical studies show that decision-making, exclusively focused on the individual exercise of autonomy fails to align well with patients' preferences at the end of life. The need for a more contextualized approach that meets real-life complexities experienced in end-of-life practices has been repeatedly advocated. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12910-020-00495-1DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7325052PMC

Egyptians' social acceptance and consenting options for posthumous organ donation; a cross sectional study.

BMC Med Ethics 2020 Jun 15;21(1):49. Epub 2020 Jun 15.

Community Medicine Research Department, Medical Research Division, National Research Centre (ID:60014618), P.O.12622, Doki, Giza, Egypt.

Background: Organ donation has become one of the most effective ways to save lives and improve the quality of life for patients with end-stage organ failure. No previous studies have investigated the preferences for the different consenting options for organ donation in Egypt. This study aims to assess Egyptians' preferences regarding consenting options for posthumous organ donation, and measure their awareness and acceptance of the Egyptian law articles regulating organ donation. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12910-020-00490-6DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7296756PMC
June 2020
1.600 Impact Factor

A qualitative study on aspects of consent for genomic research in communities with low literacy.

BMC Med Ethics 2020 Jun 12;21(1):48. Epub 2020 Jun 12.

Sickle Cell Programme, Department of Haematology and Blood Transfusion, Muhimbili University of Health and Allied Sciences, UN Road, Upanga, Block 9, Dar es Salaam, Tanzania.

Background: Low literacy of study participants in Sub - Saharan Africa has been associated with poor comprehension during the consenting process in research participation. The concerns in comprehension are far greater when consenting to participate in genomic studies due to the complexity of the science involved. While efforts are made to explore possibilities of applying genomic technologies in diseases prevalent in Sub Saharan Africa, we ought to develop methods to improve participants' comprehension for genomic studies. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12910-020-00488-0DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7291634PMC

No research for the decisionally-impaired mentally ill: a view from Montenegro.

Authors:
Tea Dakić

BMC Med Ethics 2020 Jun 9;21(1):47. Epub 2020 Jun 9.

Clinical Center of Montenegro, Clinic for Psychiatry, Ljubljanska bb, Podgorica, 81000, Montenegro.

Background: Many of the important elements of a valid informed consent - comprehension, voluntariness, and capacity - can be compromised or unmet in the context of psychiatric research. The inability to protect their own interests puts mentally ill subjects at an increased likelihood of being wronged or harmed and makes them particularly vulnerable in the context of clinical research. Therefore, they are due extra protection. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12910-020-00489-zDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7285582PMC

Ethical arguments against coercing provider participation in MAiD (medical assistance in dying) in Ontario, Canada.

BMC Med Ethics 2020 Jun 3;21(1):46. Epub 2020 Jun 3.

William Osler Health System, Brampton, Canada.

It has historically been a crime in Canada to provide assistance to someone in ending their own life, however, this paradigm was inverted in 2015 when the Supreme Court of Canada (SCC) ruled that restrictions on this practice, within certain defined parameters, violated the right to life, liberty, and security of the person. Subsequently, recent legal and policy decisions have highlighted the issue of how to balance the rights of individuals to access MAiD with the rights of care providers to exercise conscience-based objections to participation in this process. We argue that there is significant harm and ethical hazard in disregarding individual and institutional rights to conscientious objection and since measures less coercive than the threat of regulatory or economic sanctions do exist, there should be no justification for such threats in Canada's health care systems. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12910-020-00486-2DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7271423PMC

Exploring the evolution of a dental code of ethics: a critical discourse analysis.

BMC Med Ethics 2020 Jun 3;21(1):45. Epub 2020 Jun 3.

Faculty of Medicine and Health, The University of Sydney School of Dentistry, 2-18 Chalmers Street, Surry Hills, NSW, 2010, Australia.

Background: What can the analysis of the evolution of a code of ethics tell us about the dental profession and the association that develops it? The establishment of codes of ethics are foundational events in the social history of a profession. Within these documents it is possible to find statements of values and culture that serve a variety of purposes. Codes of ethics in dentistry have not frequently presented as the subjects of analyses despite containing rich information about the priorities and anxieties within the profession's membership at the time that the code was written. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12910-020-00485-3DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7268522PMC

Perceptions of plagiarism by biomedical researchers: an online survey in Europe and China.

BMC Med Ethics 2020 Jun 1;21(1):44. Epub 2020 Jun 1.

Centre for Biomedical Ethics and Law, Department of Public Health and Primary Care, KU Leuven, Leuven, Belgium.

Background: Plagiarism is considered as serious research misconduct, together with data fabrication and falsification. However, little is known about biomedical researchers' views on plagiarism. Moreover, it has been argued - based on limited empirical evidence - that perceptions of plagiarism depend on cultural and other determinants. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12910-020-00473-7DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7268401PMC

Self-evaluated ethical competence of a practicing physiotherapist: a national study in Finland.

BMC Med Ethics 2020 May 29;21(1):43. Epub 2020 May 29.

Department of Nursing Science, Turku University Hospital, University of Turku, Turku, Finland.

Background: Patients have the right to equal, respectful treatment. Nowadays, one third of patient complaints concern health care staff's behavior towards patients. Ethically safe care requires ethical competence, which has been addressed as a core competence in physiotherapy. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12910-020-00469-3DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7257238PMC

Medical and midwifery students' views on the use of conscientious objection in abortion care, following legal reform in Chile: a cross-sectional study.

BMC Med Ethics 2020 May 24;21(1):42. Epub 2020 May 24.

Instituto de Investigación en Ciencias Sociales, Universidad Diego Portales, Santiago, Chile.

Background: In August 2017, Chile lifted its complete ban on abortion by permitting abortion in three limited circumstances: 1) to save a woman's life, 2) lethal fetal anomaly, and 3) rape. The new law allows regulated use of conscientious objection (CO) in abortion care, including allowing institutions to register as objectors. This study assesses medical and midwifery students' support for CO, following legal reform. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12910-020-00484-4DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7245938PMC

Knowledge and attitudes of physicians toward research ethics and scientific misconduct in Lebanon.

BMC Med Ethics 2020 May 14;21(1):39. Epub 2020 May 14.

Faculty of Medicine, Beirut Arab University, Beirut, Lebanon.

Background: Despite the implementation of codes and declarations of medical research ethics, unethical behavior is still reported among researchers. Most of the medical faculties have included topics related to medical research ethics and developed ethical committees; yet, in some cases, unethical behaviors are still observed, and many obstacles are still conferring to applying these guidelines.

Methods: This cross-sectional questionnaire-based study was conducted by interviewing randomly selected 331 Lebanese physicians across Lebanon, to assess their awareness, knowledge and attitudes on practice regarding international and national research ethics guidelines (Lebanese decrees/Laws and CNRS chart of ethics) and scientific misconduct and misbehaviors. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12910-020-00475-5DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7227247PMC

What passive euthanasia is.

Authors:
Iain Brassington

BMC Med Ethics 2020 May 14;21(1):41. Epub 2020 May 14.

CSEP/ Law, University of Manchester, Oxford Road, Manchester, M13 9PL, UK.

Background: Euthanasia can be thought of as being either active or passive; but the precise definition of "passive euthanasia" is not always clear. Though all passive euthanasia involves the withholding of life-sustaining treatment, there would appear to be some disagreement about whether all such withholding should be seen as passive euthanasia.

Main Text: At the core of the disagreement is the question of the importance of an intention to bring about death: must one intend to bring about the death of the patient in order for withholding treatment to count as passive euthanasia, as some sources would indicate, or does withholding in which death is merely foreseen belong to that category? We may expect that this unclarity would be important in medical practice, in law, and in policy. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12910-020-00481-7DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7227198PMC

Prioritising access to pandemic influenza vaccine: a review of the ethics literature.

BMC Med Ethics 2020 05 14;21(1):40. Epub 2020 May 14.

Sydney Health Ethics, Sydney School of Public Health, University of Sydney, Level 1, Medical Foundation Building K25, Sydney, NSW, 2006, Australia.

Background: The world is threatened by future pandemics. Vaccines can play a key role in preventing harm, but there will inevitably be shortages because there is no possibility of advance stockpiling. We therefore need some method of prioritising access. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12910-020-00477-3DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7224123PMC

Too much safety? Safeguards and equal access in the context of voluntary assisted dying legislation.

BMC Med Ethics 2020 May 13;21(1):38. Epub 2020 May 13.

Centre for Health Equity, Melbourne School of Population and Global Health, University of Melbourne, Level 4, 207 Bouverie St, Melbourne, VIC, 3010, Australia.

Background: In June 2019, the Australian state of Victoria joined the growing number of jurisdictions around the world to have legalised some form of voluntary assisted dying. A discourse of safety was prominent during the implementation of the Victorian legislation.

Main Text: In this paper, we analyse the ethical relationship between legislative "safeguards" and equal access. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12910-020-00483-5DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7222560PMC

How do 66 European institutional review boards approve one protocol for an international prospective observational study on traumatic brain injury? Experiences from the CENTER-TBI study.

BMC Med Ethics 2020 May 12;21(1):36. Epub 2020 May 12.

Department of Intensive Care, Erasmus MC - University Medical Centre Rotterdam, P.O. Box 2040, 3000 CA, Rotterdam, the Netherlands.

Background: The European Union (EU) aims to optimize patient protection and efficiency of health-care research by harmonizing procedures across Member States. Nonetheless, further improvements are required to increase multicenter research efficiency. We investigated IRB procedures in a large prospective European multicenter study on traumatic brain injury (TBI), aiming to inform and stimulate initiatives to improve efficiency. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12910-020-00480-8DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7216427PMC

Ethical challenges regarding the use of stem cells: interviews with researchers from Saudi Arabia.

BMC Med Ethics 2020 May 12;21(1):35. Epub 2020 May 12.

King Abdullah International Medical Research Center (KAIMRC), King Saud Bin Abdulaziz University for Health Sciences, King Abdulaziz Medical City, Ministry of National Guard - Health Affairs, P.O. Box 22490, Mail Code 1515, Riyadh, 11426, Saudi Arabia.

Background: With the huge number of patients who suffer from chronic and incurable diseases, medical scientists continue to search for new curative methods for patients in dire need of treatment. Interest in stem cells is growing, generating high expectations in terms of the possible benefits that could be derived from stem cell research and therapy. However, regardless of the hope of stem cells changing and improving lives, there are many ethical, religious, and political challenges and controversies that affect the research, and mandated to establish ethical guidelines and regulations. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12910-020-00482-6DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7216643PMC

Addressing ethical challenges of disclosure in dementia prediction: limitations of current guidelines and suggestions to proceed.

BMC Med Ethics 2020 May 11;21(1):33. Epub 2020 May 11.

Department of Medical Ethics and History of Medicine, University Medical Center Göttingen, Humboldtallee 36, 37073, Göttingen, Germany.

Background: Biomarker research is gaining increasing attention focusing on the preclinical stages of the disease. Such interest requires special attention for communication and disclosure in clinical contexts. Many countries give dementia a high health policy priority by developing national strategies and by improving guidelines addressing disclosure of a diagnosis; however, risk communication is often neglected. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12910-020-00476-4DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7216419PMC

Partnering with patients in healthcare research: a scoping review of ethical issues, challenges, and recommendations for practice.

BMC Med Ethics 2020 May 11;21(1):34. Epub 2020 May 11.

Canada Research Chair in Patient and Public Partnership, CHUM Research Center (CRCHUM) and University of Montreal, Montreal, Canada.

Background: Partnering with patients in healthcare research now benefits from a strong rationale and is encouraged by funding agencies and research institutions. However, this new approach raises ethical issues for patients, researchers, research professionals and administrators. The main objective of this review is to map the literature related to the ethical issues associated with patient partnership in healthcare research, as well as the recommendations to address them. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12910-020-0460-0DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7216517PMC

COVID-19: where is the national ethical guidance?

Authors:
Richard Huxtable

BMC Med Ethics 2020 05 1;21(1):32. Epub 2020 May 1.

Centre for Ethics in Medicine, Population Health Sciences, Bristol Medical School, Canynge Hall, 39 Whatley Road, Bristol, BS8 2PS, UK.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12910-020-00478-2DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7193541PMC

Community perspectives on the benefits and risks of technologically enhanced communicable disease surveillance systems: a report on four community juries.

BMC Med Ethics 2020 Apr 25;21(1):31. Epub 2020 Apr 25.

The Centre for Infectious Diseases and Microbiology - Public Health, Westmead, Sydney, Australia.

Background: Outbreaks of infectious disease cause serious and costly health and social problems. Two new technologies - pathogen whole genome sequencing (WGS) and Big Data analytics - promise to improve our capacity to detect and control outbreaks earlier, saving lives and resources. However, routinely using these technologies to capture more detailed and specific personal information could be perceived as intrusive and a threat to privacy. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12910-020-00474-6DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7183724PMC

Autonomous decisions by couples in reproductive care.

BMC Med Ethics 2020 Apr 25;21(1):30. Epub 2020 Apr 25.

Centre for Research Ethics and Bioethics, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Uppsala University, Box 564, 751 22, Uppsala, Sweden.

Background: Preconception Expanded Carrier Screening (ECS) is a genetic test offered to a general population or to couples who have no known risk of recessive and X-linked genetic diseases and are interested in becoming parents. A test may screen for carrier status of several autosomal recessive diseases at one go. Such a program has been piloted in the Netherlands and may become a reality in more European countries in the future. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12910-020-00470-wDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7183638PMC

A palliative care approach in psychiatry: clinical implications.

BMC Med Ethics 2020 Apr 19;21(1):29. Epub 2020 Apr 19.

Stockholm Centre for Healthcare Ethics, Department of Learning, Informatics, Management and Ethics, Karolinska Institutet, 171 77, Stockholm, Sweden.

Background: Traditionally, palliative care has focused on patients suffering from life-threatening somatic diseases such as cancer or progressive neurological disorders. In contrast, despite the often chronic, severely disabling, and potentially life-threatening nature of psychiatric disorders, there are neither palliative care units nor clinical guidelines on palliative measures for patients in psychiatry.

Main Text: This paper contributes to the growing literature on a palliative approach in psychiatry and is based on the assumption that a change of perspective from a curative to a palliative approach could help promote patient-centeredness and increase quality of life for severely ill patients in psychiatry as well as in somatic medicine. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12910-020-00472-8DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7168959PMC

Perspectives regarding privacy in clinical research among research professionals from the Arab region: an exploratory qualitative study.

BMC Med Ethics 2020 Apr 15;21(1):27. Epub 2020 Apr 15.

University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD, USA.

Background: Protecting the privacy of research participants is widely recognized as one of the standard ethical requirements for clinical research. It is unknown, however, how research professionals regard concepts of privacy as well as the situations in the research setting that require privacy protections. The aim of this study was to explore the views of research professionals from Arab countries regarding concepts and scope of privacy that occur in clinical research. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12910-020-0456-9DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7158072PMC

Ethical arguments concerning human-animal chimera research: a systematic review.

BMC Med Ethics 2020 Mar 23;21(1):24. Epub 2020 Mar 23.

Institute of Philosophy, Leibniz University Hannover, Im Moore 21, 30167, Hannover, Germany.

Background: The burgeoning field of biomedical research involving the mixture of human and animal materials has attracted significant ethical controversy. Due to the many dimensions of potential ethical conflict involved in this type of research, and the wide variety of research projects under discussion, it is difficult to obtain an overview of the ethical debate. This paper attempts to remedy this by providing a systematic review of ethical reasons in academic publications on human-animal chimera research. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12910-020-00465-7DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7092670PMC

Development and psychometric evaluation of a new tool for measuring the attitudes of patients with progressive neurological diseases to ethical aspects of end-of-life care.

BMC Med Ethics 2020 Apr 15;21(1):28. Epub 2020 Apr 15.

Department of Nursing and Midwifery, Faculty of medicine, University of Ostrava, Ostrava, Czech Republic.

Background: Knowing the opinions of patients with Progressive Neurological Diseases (PNDs) and their family members on end-of-life care can help initiate communication and the drawing up of a care plan. The aim of this paper is to describe the creation and psychometric properties of the newly developed APND-EoLC questionnaire (the Attitudes of Patients with Progressive Neurological Disease to End of Life Care questionnaire).

Methods: Following focus group discussion, four main areas of interest were identified: patients' and family members' attitudes towards end-of-life care, factors influencing decisions about treatment to prolong patients' life, concerns and fears regarding dying, and opinions on the system of care. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12910-020-00471-9DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7161107PMC

An interprofessional cohort analysis of student interest in medical ethics education: a survey-based quantitative study.

BMC Med Ethics 2020 Apr 8;21(1):26. Epub 2020 Apr 8.

Center for Bioethics and Health Policy, Medical College of Georgia at Augusta University, Augusta, GA, 30909, USA.

Background: There is continued need for enhanced medical ethics education across the United States. In an effort to guide medical ethics education reform, we report the first interprofessional survey of a cohort of graduate medical, nursing and allied health professional students that examined perceived student need for more formalized medical ethics education and assessed preferences for teaching methods in a graduate level medical ethics curriculum.

Methods: In January 2018, following the successful implementation of a peer-led, grassroots medical ethics curriculum, student leaders under faculty guidance conducted a cross-sectional survey with 562 of 1357 responses received (41% overall response rate) among students enrolled in the School of Medicine, College of Nursing, Doctor of Physical Therapy and BS/(D) MD Professional Scholars programs at The Medical College of Georgia at Augusta University. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12910-020-00468-4DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7140336PMC

Impact of legislation and public funding on oncofertility: a survey of Canadian, French and Moroccan pediatric hematologists/oncologists.

BMC Med Ethics 2020 Apr 3;21(1):25. Epub 2020 Apr 3.

Bioethics Program, Department of Social and Preventive Medicine, School of Public Health, University of Montreal, Montréal, Québec, Canada.

Background: Chemotherapy and/or radiotherapy treatments may cause premature ovarian failure and irreversible loss of fertility. In the context of childhood cancers, it is now acknowledged that possible negative effects of therapies on future reproductive autonomy are a major concern. While a few options are open to post-pubertal patients, the only immediate option currently open to pre-pubertal girls is cryopreservation of ovarian tissue and subsequent transplantation. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12910-020-00466-6DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7118810PMC

Clarifying how to deploy the public interest criterion in consent waivers for health data and tissue research.

BMC Med Ethics 2020 Mar 20;21(1):23. Epub 2020 Mar 20.

Centre for Biomedical Ethics, National University of Singapore, Yong Loo Lin School of Medicine, Block MD11, Clinical Research Centre, #02-03, 10 Medical Drive, Singapore, 117597, Singapore.

Background: Several jurisdictions, including Singapore, Australia, New Zealand and most recently Ireland, have a public interest or public good criterion for granting waivers of consent in biomedical research using secondary health data or tissue. However, the concept of the public interest is not well defined in this context, which creates difficulties for institutions, institutional review boards (IRBs) and regulators trying to implement the criterion.

Main Text: This paper clarifies how the public interest criterion can be defensibly deployed. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12910-020-00467-5DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7083029PMC

Dishonesty and research misconduct within the medical profession.

BMC Med Ethics 2020 Mar 18;21(1):22. Epub 2020 Mar 18.

Independent Pharmaceutical Consultant, Middlesex, UK.

While there has been much discussion of how the scientific establishment's culture can engender research misconduct and scientific irreproducibility, this has been discussed much less frequently with respect to the medical profession. Here the authors posit that a lack of self-criticism, an encouragement of novel scientific research generated by the recruitment policies of the UK Royal Training Colleges along with insufficient training in the sciences are core reasons as to why research misconduct and dishonesty prevail within the medical community. Furthermore, the UK General Medical Council's own data demonstrates a historic inattentiveness to the ease with which doctors can engage in research misconduct. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12910-020-0461-zDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7079390PMC

Developing a toolkit for engagement practice: sharing power with communities in priority-setting for global health research projects.

Authors:
Bridget Pratt

BMC Med Ethics 2020 Mar 14;21(1):21. Epub 2020 Mar 14.

Centre for Health Equity, School of Population and Global Health, University of Melbourne, 207 Bouverie St Street, Carlton, VIC, 3053, Australia.

Background: Communities' engagement in priority-setting is a key means for setting research topics and questions of relevance and benefit to them. However, without attention to dynamics of power and diversity, their engagement can be tokenistic. So far, there remains limited ethical guidance on how to share power with communities, particularly those considered disadvantaged and marginalised, in global health research priority-setting. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12910-020-0462-yDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7071780PMC

Disease awareness or subtle product placement? Orphan diseases featured in the television series "House, M.D." - a cross-sectional analysis.

BMC Med Ethics 2020 Mar 14;21(1):20. Epub 2020 Mar 14.

Division of Pediatric Neurology and Metabolic Medicine, Center for Rare Diseases, Center for Pediatric and Adolescent Medicine, University Hospital Heidelberg, INF 430, 69120, Heidelberg, Germany.

Background: Approximately 7% of the general population is affected by an orphan disease, which, in the United States, is defined as affecting fewer than 1 in 1500 people. Disease awareness is often low and time-to-diagnosis delayed. Different legislations worldwide have created incentives for pharmaceutical companies to develop drugs for orphan diseases. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12910-020-0463-xDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7071776PMC

Is it morally permissible for general practitioners to disclose their opinion on a woman's decision on abortion?

BMC Med Ethics 2020 Mar 12;21(1):19. Epub 2020 Mar 12.

King's College London, London, UK.

Background: This paper considers ethical dilemmas arising where a patient asks their General Practitioner for advice and their personal opinion regarding whether or not to have an abortion. Patients often seek their General Practitioner's advice regarding treatments and procedures, which may occasionally lead to the General Practitioner facing a difficult dilemma of whether to share their personal opinion with their patient. As General Practitioners are more accessible as the first point of contact for patients and often have a closer relationship with them, they may be particularly exposed to such situations. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12910-020-0464-9DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7068960PMC

A systematic review of patient access to medical records in the acute setting: practicalities, perspectives and ethical consequences.

BMC Med Ethics 2020 03 2;21(1):18. Epub 2020 Mar 2.

THIS Institute (The Healthcare Improvement Studies Institute), Cambridge University, Clifford Allbutt Building, Cambridge, CB2 0AH, UK.

Background: Internationally, patient access to notes is increasing. This has been driven by respect for patient autonomy, often recognised as a primary tenet of medical ethics: patients should be able to access their records to be fully engaged with their care. While research has been conducted on the impact of patient access to outpatient and primary care records and to patient portals, there is no such review looking at access to hospital medical records in real time, nor an ethical analysis of the issues involved in such a change in process. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12910-020-0459-6DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7053049PMC

Structural racism in precision medicine: leaving no one behind.

BMC Med Ethics 2020 02 19;21(1):17. Epub 2020 Feb 19.

Institute for Biomedical Ethics, University of Basel, Basel, Switzerland.

Background: Precision medicine (PM) is an emerging approach to individualized care. It aims to help physicians better comprehend and predict the needs of their patients while effectively adopting in a timely manner the most suitable treatment by promoting the sharing of health data and the implementation of learning healthcare systems. Alongside its promises, PM also entails the risk of exacerbating healthcare inequalities, in particular between ethnoracial groups. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12910-020-0457-8DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7031946PMC
February 2020

Still a moral dilemma: how Ethiopian professionals providing abortion come to terms with conflicting norms and demands.

BMC Med Ethics 2020 02 11;21(1):16. Epub 2020 Feb 11.

Centre for Medical Ethics, Institute of Health and Society, University of Oslo, Pb. 1130 Blindern, N-0318, Oslo, Norway.

Background: The Ethiopian law on abortion was liberalized in 2005. However, as a strongly religious country, the new law has remained controversial from the outset. Many abortion providers have religious allegiances, which begs the question how to negotiate the conflicting demands of their jobs and their commitment to their patients on the one hand, and their religious convictions and moral values on the other. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12910-020-0458-7DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7014608PMC
February 2020
1.600 Impact Factor

Implementation challenges for an ethical introduction of noninvasive prenatal testing: a qualitative study of healthcare professionals' views from Lebanon and Quebec.

BMC Med Ethics 2020 02 10;21(1):15. Epub 2020 Feb 10.

Bioethics Program, Department of Social and Preventive Medicine, School of Public Health, Université de Montréal, Montreal, Canada.

Background: The clinical introduction of non-invasive prenatal testing for fetal aneuploidies is currently transforming the landscape of prenatal screening in many countries. Since it is noninvasive, safe and allows the early detection of abnormalities, NIPT expanded rapidly and the test is currently commercially available in most of the world. As NIPT is being introduced globally, its clinical implementation should consider various challenges, including the role of the surrounding social and cultural contexts. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12910-020-0455-xDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7011468PMC
February 2020
1.600 Impact Factor

Stakeholder views on the acceptability of human infection studies in Malawi.

BMC Med Ethics 2020 02 5;21(1):14. Epub 2020 Feb 5.

Malawi-Liverpool Wellcome Trust Clinical Research Programme, P.O. Box 30096, Chichiri, Blantyre, 3, Malawi.

Background: Human infection studies (HIS) are valuable in vaccine development. Deliberate infection, however, creates challenging questions, particularly in low and middle-income countries (LMICs) where HIS are new and ethical challenges may be heightened. Consultation with stakeholders is needed to support contextually appropriate and acceptable study design. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12910-020-0454-yDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7003337PMC
February 2020

Disclosure to genetic relatives without consent - Australian genetic professionals' awareness of the health privacy law.

BMC Med Ethics 2020 02 4;21(1):13. Epub 2020 Feb 4.

The University of Sydney, Northern Clinical School, Faculty of Medicine and Health, Level 7, Kolling Institute of Medical Research, Royal North Shore Hospital, Sydney, NSW, Australia.

Background: When a genetic mutation is identified in a family member (proband), internationally, it is usually the proband's or another responsible family member's role to disclose the information to at-risk relatives. However, both active and passive non-disclosure in families occurs: choosing not to communicate the information or failing to communicate the information despite intention to do so, respectively. The ethical obligations to prevent harm to at-risk relatives and promote the duty of care by genetic health professionals (GHPs) is in conflict with Privacy laws and professional regulations that prohibits disclosure of information to a third party without the consent of the proband (duty of confidentiality). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12910-020-0451-1DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7001268PMC
February 2020

Data Access Committees.

BMC Med Ethics 2020 02 3;21(1):12. Epub 2020 Feb 3.

Department of Philosophy and Bioethics, Faculty of Health Sciences, Jagiellonian University Medical College, ul. Michalowskiego 12, Krakow, Poland.

Background: Sharing de-identified individual-level health research data is widely promoted and has many potential benefits. However there are also some potential harms, such as misuse of data and breach of participant confidentiality. One way to promote the benefits of sharing while ameliorating its potential harms is through the adoption of a managed access approach where data requests are channeled through a Data Access Committee (DAC), rather than making data openly available without restrictions. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12910-020-0453-zDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6998828PMC
February 2020

Why genomics researchers are sometimes morally required to hunt for secondary findings.

BMC Med Ethics 2020 01 31;21(1):11. Epub 2020 Jan 31.

Biomedical Ethics Research Group, Murdoch Children's Research Institute, Melbourne, Australia.

Background: Genomic research can reveal 'unsolicited' or 'incidental' findings that are of potential health or reproductive significance to participants. It is widely thought that researchers have a moral obligation, grounded in the duty of easy rescue, to return certain kinds of unsolicited findings to research participants. It is less widely thought that researchers have a moral obligation to actively look for health-related findings (for example, by conducting additional analyses to search for findings outside the scope of the research question). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12910-020-0449-8DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6995186PMC
January 2020

Addressing harm in moral case deliberation: the views and experiences of facilitators.

BMC Med Ethics 2020 01 30;21(1):10. Epub 2020 Jan 30.

Department of Philosophy and Ethics, VUB (Vrije Universiteit Brussel), Pleinlaan 2, 1050, Brussel, Belgium.

Background: In healthcare practice, care providers are confronted with decisions they have to make, directly affecting patients and inevitably harmful. These decisions are tragic by nature. This study investigates the role of Moral Case Deliberation (MCD) in dealing with tragic situations. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12910-020-0450-2DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6993317PMC
January 2020

Ethical values supporting the disclosure of incidental and secondary findings in clinical genomic testing: a qualitative study.

BMC Med Ethics 2020 01 30;21(1). Epub 2020 Jan 30.

Department of Public Health and Primary Care, Philosophy of Medicine and Ethics Research Group, Ghent University, Corneel Heymanslaan 10 - Building 6K3, 9000, Ghent, Belgium.

Background: Incidental findings (IFs) and secondary findings (SFs), being results that are unrelated to the diagnostic question, are the subject of an important debate in the practice of clinical genomic medicine. Arguments for reporting these results or not doing so typically relate to the principles of autonomy, non-maleficence and beneficence. However, these principles frequently conflict and are insufficient by themselves to come to a conclusion. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12910-020-0452-0DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6990492PMC
January 2020

Legal and ethical framework for global health information and biospecimen exchange - an international perspective.

BMC Med Ethics 2020 01 21;21(1). Epub 2020 Jan 21.

Clinical Trials Center, University Hospital Zurich, Zürich, Switzerland.

Background: The progress of electronic health technologies and biobanks holds enormous promise for efficient research. Evidence shows that studies based on sharing and secondary use of data/samples have the potential to significantly advance medical knowledge. However, sharing of such resources for international collaboration is hampered by the lack of clarity about ethical and legal requirements for transfer of data and samples across international borders. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12910-020-0448-9DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6975025PMC
January 2020

Do patients and research subjects have a right to receive their genomic raw data? An ethical and legal analysis.

BMC Med Ethics 2020 01 16;21(1). Epub 2020 Jan 16.

National Center for Tumor Diseases (NCT), Department of Medical Oncology, Heidelberg University Hospital, Heidelberg, Germany.

Background: As Next Generation Sequencing technologies are increasingly implemented in biomedical research and (translational) care, the number of study participants and patients who ask for release of their genomic raw data is set to increase. This raises the question whether research participants and patients have a legal and moral right to receive their genomic raw data and, if so, how this right should be implemented into practice.

Methods: In a first step we clarify some central concepts such as "raw data"; in a second step we sketch the international legal framework. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12910-020-0446-yDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6966790PMC
January 2020