BMC Med Educ 2017 Sep 19;17(1):169. Epub 2017 Sep 19.
College of Education, University of Saskatchewan, Room 3079 28 Campus Drive, Saskatoon, SK, S7N 0X1, Canada.
Background: With current emphasis on leadership in medicine, this study explores Goleman's leadership styles of medical education leaders at different hierarchical levels and gain insight into factors that contribute to the appropriateness of practices.
Methods: Forty two leaders (28 first-level with limited formal authority, eight middle-level with wider program responsibility and six senior- level with higher organizational authority) rank ordered their preferred Goleman's styles and provided comments. Eight additional senior leaders were interviewed in-depth. Read More
Background: Few medical teachers have received formal teaching education. Along with individual and organizational barriers to participation in teacher training programs, increasing numbers and altered distribution of physicians away from major teaching centers have increased the difficulty of attendance. Furthermore, it is not known if traditional faculty development formats are the optimal learning options given findings from existing studies document both positive and negative outcomes. Read More
BMC Med Educ 2017 Sep 19;17(1):170. Epub 2017 Sep 19.
School of public health, Southeast University, Nanjing, 87 Dingjiaqiao, China.
Background: Blended learning that combines a modular object-oriented dynamic learning environment (Moodle) with face-to-face teaching was applied to a medical statistics course to improve learning outcomes and evaluate the impact factors of students' knowledge, attitudes and practices (KAP) relating to e-learning.
Methods: The same real-name questionnaire was administered before and after the intervention. The summed scores of every part (knowledge, attitude and practice) were calculated using the entropy method. Read More
BMC Med Educ 2017 Sep 18;17(1):167. Epub 2017 Sep 18.
Department of Biochemistry, Christian Medical College, Vellore, Tamil Nadu, 632002, India.
Background: Use of podcasts has several advantages in medical education. Podcasts can be of different types based on their length: short (1-5 min), moderate (6-15 min) and long (>15 min) duration. Short-duration podcasts are unique since they can deliver high-yield information in a short time. Read More
Background: Healthcare professionals' person-centered communication skills are pivotal for successful group-based diabetes education. However, healthcare professionals are often insufficiently equipped to facilitate person-centeredness and many have never received post-graduate training. Currently, assessing professionals' skills in conducting group-based, person-centered diabetes education primarily focus on experts measuring and coding skills on various scales. Read More
Background: The objective of this study is to compare two different instructional methods in the curricular use of computerized virtual patients in undergraduate medical education. We aim to investigate whether using many short and focused cases - the key feature principle - is more effective for the learning of clinical reasoning skills than using few long and systematic cases.
Methods: We conducted a quasi-randomized, non-blinded, controlled parallel-group intervention trial in a large medical school in Southwestern Germany. Read More
BMC Med Educ 2017 Sep 15;17(1):164. Epub 2017 Sep 15.
Department of Research in Education, VUmc School of Medical Sciences, Amsterdam, the Netherlands.
Background: Developing professionalism is a core task in medical education. Unfortunately, it has remained difficult for educators to identify medical students' unprofessionalism, because, among other reasons, there are no commonly adopted descriptors that can be used to document students' unprofessional behaviour. This study aimed to generate an overview of descriptors for unprofessional behaviour based on research evidence of real-life unprofessional behaviours of medical students. Read More
Background: Screening and counseling for genetic conditions is an increasingly important part of primary care practice, particularly given the paucity of genetic counselors in the United States. However, primary care physicians (PCPs) often have an inadequate understanding of evidence-based screening; communication approaches that encourage shared decision-making; ethical, legal, and social implication (ELSI) issues related to screening for genetic mutations; and the basics of clinical genetics. This study explored whether an interactive, web-based genetics curriculum directed at PCPs in non-academic primary care settings was superior at changing practice knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors when compared to a traditional educational approach, particularly when discussing common genetic conditions. Read More
Background: Fibromyalgia syndrome (FMS) is a long-term condition that affects between 1 and 5% of the general population and lies within the spectrum of medically unexplained symptoms (MUS). FMS can be difficult to diagnose and is usually done so as a diagnosis of exclusion. There is continuing debate regarding its legitimacy excluding other causes of symptoms. Read More
BMC Med Educ 2017 Sep 12;17(1):161. Epub 2017 Sep 12.
Hospital del Niño, Ciudad de Panamá, Panamá.
Background: To describe the design and to present the results of a paediatric and neonatal cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) training program adapted to Latin-America.
Methods: A paediatric CPR coordinated training project was set up in several Latin-American countries with the instructional and scientific support of the Spanish Group for Paediatric and Neonatal CPR. The program was divided into four phases: CPR training and preparation of instructors; training for instructors; supervised teaching; and independent teaching. Read More
BMC Med Educ 2017 Sep 12;17(1):162. Epub 2017 Sep 12.
Department of Cardiology, Peking Union Medical College Hospital, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences & Peking Union Medical College, No.1 Shuaifuyuan Wangfujing, Dongcheng District, Beijing, 100730, China.
Background: This study aimed to identify hotspots in research on clinical competence measurements from 2012 to 2016.
Methods: The authors retrieved literature published between 2012 and 2016 from PubMed using selected medical subject headings (MeSH) terms. They used BibExcel software to generate high-frequency MeSH terms and identified hotspots by co-word analysis and cluster analysis. Read More
Background: It is known that medical students suffer from high rates of mental health difficulties. In recent years there has been an increasing focus on the need to improve support and treatment services for those in difficulty. In order to meet these needs it is important to clarify the relevant aetiological factors. Read More
BMC Med Educ 2017 Sep 11;17(1):157. Epub 2017 Sep 11.
Division of Teaching and Outcomes of Education, Faculty of Health Science, Medical University of Warsaw, Zwirki i Wigury 61, 02-091, Warsaw, Poland.
Background: Evaluation of the predictive validity of selected sociodemographic factors and admission criteria for Master's studies in Public Health at the Faculty of Health Sciences, Medical University of Warsaw (MUW).
Methods: For the evaluation purposes recruitment data and learning results of students enrolled between 2008 and 2012 were used (N = 605, average age 22.9 ± 3. Read More
BMC Med Educ 2017 Sep 11;17(1):158. Epub 2017 Sep 11.
Department of Health Sciences, Lund University, P.O. Box 157, SE-221 00, Lund, Sweden.
Background: Outcome- or competency-based education is well established in medical and health sciences education. Curricula are based on courses where students develop their competences and assessment is also usually course-based. Clinical reasoning is an important competence, and the aim of this study was to monitor and describe students' progression in professional clinical reasoning skills during health sciences education using observations of group discussions following the case method. Read More
Background: A near-peer instructors (NPI) program was designed for 1st year medical students who successfully finished the Anatomy course, in order to develop their didactic ability and teaching skills, mostly for cadaver dissection.
Methods: Graduates of the training program were administered a voluntary survey at the end of the program, annually. Best graduates of the training program were offered a NPI position in the next academic year. Read More
Background: Frameworks like the CanMEDS model depicting professional roles and specific professional activities provide guidelines for postgraduate education. When medical graduates start their residency, they should possess certain competencies related to communication, management and professionalism while other competencies will be refined during postgraduate training. Our study aimed to evaluate the relevance of different competencies for a first year resident required for entrustment decision from the perspective of physicians from medical faculties with different undergraduate medical curricula. Read More
Background: Despite great advances, China's postgraduate education faces many problems, for example traditional lecture-based learning (LBL) method provides fewer oppotunities to apply knowledge in a working situation. Task-based learning (TBL) is an efficient strategy for increasing the connections among skills, knowledge and competences. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of a modified TBL model on problem-solving abilities among postgraduate medical students in China. Read More
BMC Med Educ 2017 Sep 7;17(1):155. Epub 2017 Sep 7.
Unidade de Pesquisa Clínica, Instituto Nacional de Saúde da Mulher, da Criança e do Adolescente Fernandes Figueira, Fundação Oswaldo Cruz ( Fiocruz ), Av. Rui Barbosa 716 Flamengo, Rio de Janeiro, 22250-020, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.
Background: This study evaluated the influence of continuing education of family health strategy teams by the Ronald McDonald Institute program on the early diagnosis of cancer in children and adolescents.
Methods: The study applied Habicht's model to evaluate the adequacy and plausibility of continuing education by using as outcome the number of children with suspected cancer who were referred to the hospital of references in the 1 year before and 1 year after intervention and the number of patients referred by intervention group and control group family health strategy teams. Medical records from each hospital of reference were used to collect information of suspect cases of cancer. Read More
Background: Distance Learning (DL) is a means to overcome the barriers that prevent health workers access to medical education and training sessions to update their knowledge. The main objective of this study is to compare the knowledge acquisition among practitioners Heads of Health Based Center (HBC) for the management of hypertension in two training modalities, one interactive, via internet (by Visio conferencing and video Conferencing), and other non-interactive, via DVD in the three regions (Miarinarivo, Moramanga and Manjakandriana) of Madagascar.
Methods: This is a quasi-experimental study comparing two distance learning methodologies, one via internet (VS or VD) and the other via DVD before and after training. Read More
BMC Med Educ 2017 Sep 5;17(1):150. Epub 2017 Sep 5.
Institute of Medical Education Research Rotterdam (iMERR), Erasmus MC, PO Box 2040, 3000CA, Rotterdam, The Netherlands.
Background: The proportion of medical doctors involved in research activities is declining. Undergraduate medical research programs are positively associated with medical students' research interest. Scientific pre-university programs (SPUPs) outside the medical domain are also positively associated with research interest, but have not been related to the shortage of clinician-scientists. Read More
BMC Med Educ 2017 Sep 5;17(1):151. Epub 2017 Sep 5.
Faculty of Health, Zuyd University of Applied Sciences, Nieuw Eyckholt 300, 6419, DJ, Heerlen, The Netherlands.
Background: Items must be relevant to ensure item quality and test validity. Since "item relevance" has not been operationalized yet, we developed a rubric to define it. This study explores the influence of this rubric on the assessment of item relevance and on inter-rater agreement. Read More
Background: Video-based feedback has been shown to aid knowledge retention, skills learning and improve team functionality. We explored the use of video-based feedback and low fidelity simulation for training rural healthcare workers along the Thailand-Myanmar border and Papua New Guinea (PNG) to manage medical emergencies effectively.
Methods: Twenty-four study participants were recruited from three Shoklo Malaria Research Unit clinics along the Thailand-Myanmar border and eight participants from Kudjip Nazarene Hospital, PNG. Read More
BMC Med Educ 2017 Aug 17;17(1):135. Epub 2017 Aug 17.
Centre for Health Science Education, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of the Witwatersrand, 7 York Road, Parktown, Johannesburg, 2193, South Africa.
Background: This paper presents a critical reflection of the integration of Blended Learning (BL) into an undergraduate occupational therapy curriculum which was delivered through Problem Based Learning (PBL).
Method: This is a qualitative reflection of a Participatory Action Research (PAR) study using Brookfield's model for critical reflection of an educator's practice. The model uses four 'lenses' through which to focus enquiry: Lens 1) our autobiography as a learner of practice; Lens 2) our learners' eyes; Lens 3) our colleagues' experiences; and Lens 4) the theoretical literature. Read More
Background: The serious consequences of inaccurate diagnosis of acute otitis media have led to a call for greater education to develop proficient pediatric otoscopy skills. Despite the clinical and educational needs, peer-reviewed standardized curricula with validated assessment instruments remain limited. This study evaluated a pediatric otoscopy curriculum incorporated into the Pediatric medical student clerkship with use of outcome measures that included assessment of skills with real patients. Read More
BMC Med Educ 2017 Aug 29;17(1):148. Epub 2017 Aug 29.
Faculty of Medical and Health Sciences, University of Auckland, Auckland, New Zealand.
Background: Progress testing was introduced to the MBChB programme at the University of Auckland in 2013. As there has been a focus in published literature on aspects relating to the format or function of progress tests, the purpose of this study was to explore a qualitative student perspective on the introduction of progress testing and its impact on approaches to learning and perceived stress.
Methods: This article presents the qualitative aspects of a longitudinal evaluation study. Read More
BMC Med Educ 2017 Aug 29;17(1):147. Epub 2017 Aug 29.
Department of Internal Medicine (463), Radboud University Medical Center, PO Box 9101, 6500 HB, Nijmegen, the Netherlands.
Background: During their clerkships, medical students are meant to expand their clinical reasoning skills during their patient encounters. Observation of these encounters could reveal important information on the students' clinical reasoning abilities, especially during history taking.
Methods: A grounded theory approach was used to analyze what expert physicians apply as indicators in their assessment of medical students' diagnostic reasoning abilities during history taking. Read More
BMC Med Educ 2017 Aug 25;17(1):144. Epub 2017 Aug 25.
Laboratory for Pain Research, University of Split School of Medicine, Split, Croatia.
Background: Analysis of graduation success at the University of Split School of Medicine PhD programs conducted in 2011 revealed that only 11% of students who enrolled and completed their graduate coursework between 1999 and 2011 earned a doctoral degree. In this prospective cohort study we evaluated and compared three PhD programs within the same medical school, where the newest program, called Translational Research in Biomedicine (TRIBE), established in the academic year 2010/11, aimed to increase the graduation rate through an innovative approach.
Methods: The intervention in the new program was related to three domains: redefined recruitment strategy, strict study regulations, and changes to the curriculum. Read More
Background: Competency-based education has been considered the most important pedagogical trend in Medicine in the last two decades. In clinical contexts, competencies are implemented through Entrustable Professional Activities (EPAs) which are observable and measurable. The aim of this paper is to describe the methodology used in the design of educational tools to assess students´ competencies in clinical practice during their undergraduate internship (UI). Read More
Background: The changing healthcare landscape requires physicians to develop new knowledge and skills such as high-value care, systems improvement, population health, and team-based care, which together may be referred to as the Science of Health Care Delivery (SHCD). To engender public trust and confidence, educators must be able to meaningfully assess physicians' abilities in SHCD. We aimed to develop a novel set of SHCD milestones based on published Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education (ACGME) milestones that can be used by medical schools to assess medical students' competence in SHCD. Read More
Background: It is known that many trainee doctors around the world experience work satisfaction but also considerable work stress in the training period. Such stress seems to be linked to multiple factors including workload, level of support and growing cultural inculcation into unwillingness to show any personal or professional weakness. In the United Kingdom, junior doctors are qualified medical practitioners who have gained a degree in Medicine and are now working while training to become a specialist (consultant) or a general practitioner. Read More
BMC Med Educ 2017 Aug 22;17(1):141. Epub 2017 Aug 22.
School of Medical Education, Newcastle University, Level 2, Ridley building 1, Newcastle upon Tyne, UK.
Background: Little is known about how best to implement portfolio-based learning in medical school. We evaluated the introduction of a formative e-portfolio-based supervision pilot for final year medical students by seeking views of students, supervisors and graduates on use and educational effects.
Methods: Students and supervisors were surveyed by questionnaire, with free text comments invited. Read More
Background: Sufficient preparedness is important for transitions to workplace participation and learning in clinical settings. This study aims to analyse medical students' preparedness for early clerkships using a three-dimensional, socio-cognitive, theory-based model of preparedness anchored in specific professional activities and their supervision level.
Methods: Medical students from a competency-based undergraduate curriculum were surveyed about preparedness for 21 professional activities and level of perceived supervision during their early clerkships via an online questionnaire. Read More
BMC Med Educ 2017 Aug 21;17(1):136. Epub 2017 Aug 21.
Institute of Medical Psychology, Faculty of Medicine, LMU Munich, 80336, Munich, Germany.
Background: A growing body of evidence suggests that healthcare practitioners who enhance how they express empathy can improve patient health, and reduce medico-legal risk. However we do not know how consistently healthcare practitioners express adequate empathy. In this study, we addressed this gap by investigating patient rankings of practitioner empathy. Read More
Background: The seven categories of the Stanford Faculty Development Program (SFDP) represent a framework for planning and assessing medical teaching. Nevertheless, so far there is no specific evaluation tool for large-group lectures that is based on these categories. This paper reports the development and psychometric validation of a short German evaluation tool for large-group lectures in medical education (SETMED-L: 'Student Evaluation of Teaching in MEDical Lectures') based on the SFDP-categories. Read More
Background: Effective interprofessional collaboration (IPC) has been shown to depend on clear role definitions, yet there are important gaps with regard to role clarity in the IPC literature. The goal of this study was to evaluate whether there was a relationship between internal medicine residents' and nurses' role perceptions and their actual actions in practice, and to identify areas that would benefit from more specific interprofessional education.
Methods: Fourteen residents and 14 nurses working in internal medicine were interviewed about their role perceptions, and then randomly paired to manage two simulated clinical cases. Read More
Background: Emotional intelligence has been shown to affect academic performance and perceived stress. But conflicting reports suggest that the relationship between academic performance and emotional intelligence may not be straightforward. Hence, this study explored the relationship between emotional intelligence, perceived stress and academic performance. Read More
BMC Med Educ 2017 Aug 14;17(1):134. Epub 2017 Aug 14.
Medical University of Innsbruck, Gender Medicine Unit, Innrain 66, 6020, Innsbruck, Austria.
Background: Mistreatment of medical students during medical education is a widespread concern. Studies have shown that medical students report the most mistreatment compared to students of other study programs and that the prevalence of mistreatment peaks during clinical training. For this reason, a study was conducted to assess prevalence of mistreatment among medical students committed by various groups of people. Read More
Background: Using simulated learning environments with standardised patients (SPs) provides a way to scaffold the development of skills for patient safety in a low risk environment. There are no data regarding whether adding SP interactions in early years of physiotherapy training improves safe performance on clinical placement. We assessed the feasibility of recruiting and collecting data from junior physiotherapy students during an SP workshop with a pilot non-randomised trial, also assessing time, cost and scheduling information. Read More
BMC Med Educ 2017 Aug 8;17(1):131. Epub 2017 Aug 8.
Department of Biomedical Sciences, School of Medicine, Nazarbayev University, Astana, Kazakhstan.
Background: Students commencing their medical training arrive with different educational backgrounds and a diverse range of learning experiences. Consequently, students would have developed preferred approaches to acquiring and processing information or learning style preferences. Understanding first-year students' learning style preferences is important to success in learning. Read More
Background: Programs encouraging medical student research such as Scholarly Concentrations (SC) are increasing nationally. However, there are few validated measures of mentoring quality tailored to medical students. We sought to modify and validate a mentoring scale for use in medical student research experiences. Read More
Background: Student perspectives of clinical preparedness have been studied in the literature, but the viewpoint of supervisors is limited. Hence, the aim was to examine the perspective of supervisors on the characteristics of health professional students important for preparedness for clinical learning.
Methods: This was a descriptive, questionnaire-based, cross-sectional study conducted at three higher education institutions in Malaysia. Read More
Background: Improvement of medical content in Biomedical Engineering curricula based on a qualitative assessment process or on a comparison with another high-standard program has been approached by a number of studies. However, the quantitative assessment tools have not been emphasized. The quantitative assessment tools can be more accurate and robust in cases of challenging multidisciplinary fields like that of Biomedical Engineering which includes biomedicine elements mixed with technology aspects. Read More
Background: Many jokes exist about stereotypical attributes of physicians in various specialties, which could lead to prejudices against physicians from a specific specialty. It is unknown whether and when medical students are aware of stereotypes about different specialties. The goal of this study was to analyze the degree of stereotypes that exist about medical specialties amongst undergraduate medical students at different stages of their education. Read More
Background: Quality assurance programs in medical education are introduced to gain insight into the quality of such programs and to trigger improvements. Although of utmost importance, research on the implementation of such programs is scarce. The Dutch General Practice (GP) specialty training institutes used an implementation strategy to implement a quality system (QS), and we aimed to study the success of this strategy and to learn about additional facilitators and barriers. Read More
Background: The ongoing professionalization of medical education means that quality systems (QSs) aimed at improving medical education also continuously have to improve. The aim of this paper is to describe the development of a collective QS for eight Dutch General Practitioner (GP) specialty training institutes to provide insights into the considerations that are involved in developing a QS in medical education.
Methods: Experts in the field of GP education and quality assurance developed the QS. Read More
BMC Med Educ 2017 Jul 19;17(1):125. Epub 2017 Jul 19.
Department of Primary and Community care, Radboud University Medical Centre, Post box 9101, 6500 HB Nijmegen, Nijmegen, the Netherlands.
Background: A growing number of patients require overview and management in both primary and secondary care. This situation requires that primary and secondary care professionals have well developed collaborative skills. While knowledge about interprofessional collaboration and education is rising, little is known about intraprofessional collaboration and education between physicians of various disciplines. Read More
BMC Med Educ 2017 Jul 18;17(1):124. Epub 2017 Jul 18.
Department of Internal Medicine, University of Iowa Carver College of Medicine, Iowa City, IA, USA.
Background: The institution of duty hour reforms by the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education in 2003 has created a learning environment where residents are consistently looking for input from attending physicians with regards to balancing duty hour regulations and providing quality patient care. There is a paucity of literature regarding resident perceptions of attending physician actions or attitudes towards work hour restrictions. The purpose of this study was to identify attending physician behaviors that residents perceived as supportive or unsupportive of their compliance with duty hour regulations. Read More
Background: The aim of mentorship is to build the mentees capacity, enhance their skills and improve their ability to produce desired outcomes. However, the mentoring relationship is vulnerable to a number of challenges that may undermine its effectiveness and sustainability. We aimed to explore the experiences and perceptions of student and junior faculty mentees and senior faculty mentors at the Makerere University College of Health Sciences and identify the key factors defined by mentees and mentors as necessary for a successful mentorship program. Read More