2,496 results match your criteria BMC Med[Journal]


Evaluation of the potential incidence of COVID-19 and effectiveness of containment measures in Spain: a data-driven approach.

BMC Med 2020 May 27;18(1):157. Epub 2020 May 27.

ISI Foundation, Via Chisola 5, Torino, 10126, Italy.

Background: We are currently experiencing an unprecedented challenge, managing and containing an outbreak of a new coronavirus disease known as COVID-19. While China-where the outbreak started-seems to have been able to contain the growth of the epidemic, different outbreaks are nowadays present in multiple countries. Nonetheless, authorities have taken action and implemented containment measures, even if not everything is known. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12916-020-01619-5DOI Listing

Serum free thiols predict cardiovascular events and all-cause mortality in the general population: a prospective cohort study.

BMC Med 2020 May 27;18(1):130. Epub 2020 May 27.

Department of Pathology and Medical Biology, Section Pathology, University of Groningen - University Medical Center Groningen, Groningen, the Netherlands.

Background: Serum free thiols (R-SH, sulfhydryl groups) reliably reflect systemic oxidative stress. Since serum free thiols are rapidly oxidized by reactive species, systemic oxidative stress is generally associated with reduced serum free thiol levels. Free thiols associate with favorable disease outcomes in many patient cohorts, and the current hypothesis is that oxidative stress might also play an important role in cardiovascular disease. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12916-020-01587-wDOI Listing

Children's microvascular traits and ambient air pollution exposure during pregnancy and early childhood: prospective evidence to elucidate the developmental origin of particle-induced disease.

BMC Med 2020 May 26;18(1):128. Epub 2020 May 26.

Centre for Environmental Sciences, Hasselt University, Diepenbeek, Belgium.

Background: Particulate matter exposure during in utero life may entail adverse health outcomes later in life. The microvasculature undergoes extensive, organ-specific prenatal maturation. A growing body of evidence shows that cardiovascular disease in adulthood is rooted in a dysfunctional fetal and perinatal development, in particular that of the microcirculation. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12916-020-01586-xDOI Listing

Epidemiological models are important tools for guiding COVID-19 interventions.

Authors:
Robin N Thompson

BMC Med 2020 05 25;18(1):152. Epub 2020 May 25.

Mathematical Institute, University of Oxford, Woodstock Road, Oxford, OX2 6GG, UK.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12916-020-01628-4DOI Listing

Guidance for identification and treatment of individuals with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder and autism spectrum disorder based upon expert consensus.

BMC Med 2020 May 25;18(1):146. Epub 2020 May 25.

Department of Forensic and Neurodevelopmental Sciences, Institute of Psychiatry, Psychology & Neuroscience, King's College London, London, UK.

Background: Individuals with co-occurring hyperactivity disorder/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and autism spectrum disorder (ASD) can have complex presentations that may complicate diagnosis and treatment. There are established guidelines with regard to the identification and treatment of ADHD and ASD as independent conditions. However, ADHD and ASD were not formally recognised diagnostically as co-occurring conditions until the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders 5 (DSM-5) was published in 2013. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12916-020-01585-yDOI Listing

Circulating mRNAs are differentially expressed in pregnancies with severe placental insufficiency and at high risk of stillbirth.

BMC Med 2020 May 22;18(1):145. Epub 2020 May 22.

Translational Obstetrics Group, Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, University of Melbourne, Mercy Hospital for Women, Level 4, Studley Rd, Heidelberg, Victoria, 3084, Australia.

Background: Fetuses affected by placental insufficiency do not receive adequate nutrients and oxygenation, become growth restricted and acidemic, and can demise. Preterm fetal growth restriction is a severe form of placental insufficiency with a high risk of stillbirth. We set out to identify maternal circulating mRNA transcripts that are differentially expressed in preterm pregnancies complicated by very severe placental insufficiency, in utero fetal acidemia, and are at very high risk of stillbirth. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12916-020-01605-xDOI Listing

Africa's response to COVID-19.

BMC Med 2020 05 22;18(1):151. Epub 2020 May 22.

Resolve to Save Lives (Vital Strategies), Regus 4th Floor, Tower C, Churchgate Plaza, 473 Constitution Avenue, Central Business District, Abuja, Nigeria.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12916-020-01622-wDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7242094PMC

High-quality antidepressant prescribing: please consider whether "perfection is the enemy of progress".

BMC Med 2020 May 21;18(1):150. Epub 2020 May 21.

Department of Psychiatry, College of Medicine, University of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, OH, USA.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12916-020-01621-xDOI Listing

Development and validation of a multivariable prediction model for infection-related complications in patients with common infections in UK primary care and the extent of risk-based prescribing of antibiotics.

BMC Med 2020 May 21;18(1):118. Epub 2020 May 21.

Health e-Research Centre, School of Health Sciences, Faculty of Biology, Medicine and Health, The University of Manchester, Oxford Road, Manchester, M13 9PL, UK.

Background: Antimicrobial resistance is driven by the overuse of antibiotics. This study aimed to develop and validate clinical prediction models for the risk of infection-related hospital admission with upper respiratory infection (URTI), lower respiratory infection (LRTI) and urinary tract infection (UTI). These models were used to investigate whether there is an association between the risk of an infection-related complication and the probability of receiving an antibiotic prescription. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12916-020-01581-2DOI Listing
May 2020
7.249 Impact Factor

Effects of service changes affecting distance/time to access urgent and emergency care facilities on patient outcomes: a systematic review.

BMC Med 2020 May 20;18(1):117. Epub 2020 May 20.

School of Health and Related Research (ScHARR), University of Sheffield, Sheffield, UK.

Background: Reconfiguration of urgent and emergency care services often increases travel time/distance for patients to reach an appropriate facility. Evidence of the effects of reconfiguration is important for local communities and commissioners and providers of health services.

Methods: We performed a systematic review of the evidence regarding effects of service reconfigurations that increase the time/distance for some patients to reach an urgent and emergency care (UEC) facility. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12916-020-01580-3DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7237240PMC

Risk prediction models for dementia: role of age and cardiometabolic risk factors.

BMC Med 2020 May 19;18(1):107. Epub 2020 May 19.

Inserm U1153, Epidemiology of Ageing and Neurodegenerative diseases, Université de Paris, 10 avenue de Verdun, 75010, Paris, France.

Background: Cardiovascular Risk Factors, Aging, and Incidence of Dementia (CAIDE) risk score is the only currently available midlife risk score for dementia. We compared CAIDE to Framingham cardiovascular Risk Score (FRS) and FINDRISC diabetes score as predictors of dementia and assessed the role of age in their associations with dementia. We then examined whether these risk scores were associated with dementia in those free of cardiometabolic disease over the follow-up. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12916-020-01578-xDOI Listing

Is health research undertaken where the burden of disease is greatest? Observational study of geographical inequalities in recruitment to research in England 2013-2018.

BMC Med 2020 May 18;18(1):133. Epub 2020 May 18.

NIHR Clinical Research Network, University of Manchester, Manchester, UK.

Background: Research is fundamental to high-quality care, but concerns have been raised about whether health research is conducted in the populations most affected by high disease prevalence. Geographical distribution of research activity is important for many reasons. Recruitment is a major barrier to research delivery, and undertaking recruitment in areas of high prevalence could be more efficient. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12916-020-01555-4DOI Listing

Spatial heterogeneity and socioeconomic determinants of opioid prescribing in England between 2015 and 2018.

BMC Med 2020 May 15;18(1):127. Epub 2020 May 15.

ISI Foundation, Via Chisola, 5, Turin, 10126, Italy.

Background: Opioid overdoses have had a serious impact on the public health systems and socioeconomic welfare of several countries. Within this broader context, we focus our study on primary care opioid prescribing in England from 2015 to 2018, particularly the patterns of spatial variations at the community level and the socioeconomic and environmental factors that drive consumption.

Methods: Leveraging open data sources, we combine prescription records with aggregated data on patient provenance and build highly granular maps of Oral Morphine Equivalent (OME) prescribing rates for Lower Layer Super Output Areas (LSOA). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12916-020-01575-0DOI Listing

The Analysis of Teaching of Medical Schools (AToMS) survey: an analysis of 47,258 timetabled teaching events in 25 UK medical schools relating to timing, duration, teaching formats, teaching content, and problem-based learning.

Authors:
Oliver Patrick Devine Andrew Christopher Harborne Hugo Layard Horsfall Tobin Joseph Tess Marshall-Andon Ryan Samuels Joshua William Kearsley Nadine Abbas Hassan Baig Joseph Beecham Natasha Benons Charlie Caird Ryan Clark Thomas Cope James Coultas Luke Debenham Sarah Douglas Jack Eldridge Thomas Hughes-Gooding Agnieszka Jakubowska Oliver Jones Eve Lancaster Calum MacMillan Ross McAllister Wassim Merzougui Ben Phillips Simon Phillips Omar Risk Adam Sage Aisha Sooltangos Robert Spencer Roxanne Tajbakhsh Oluseyi Adesalu Ivan Aganin Ammar Ahmed Katherine Aiken Alimatu-Sadia Akeredolu Ibrahim Alam Aamna Ali Richard Anderson Jia Jun Ang Fady Sameh Anis Sonam Aojula Catherine Arthur Alena Ashby Ahmed Ashraf Emma Aspinall Mark Awad Abdul-Muiz Azri Yahaya Shreya Badhrinarayanan Soham Bandyopadhyay Sam Barnes Daisy Bassey-Duke Charlotte Boreham Rebecca Braine Joseph Brandreth Zoe Carrington Zoe Cashin Shaunak Chatterjee Mehar Chawla Chung Shen Chean Chris Clements Richard Clough Jessica Coulthurst Liam Curry Vinnie Christine Daniels Simon Davies Rebecca Davis Hanelie De Waal Nasreen Desai Hannah Douglas James Druce Lady-Namera Ejamike Meron Esere Alex Eyre Ibrahim Talal Fazmin Sophia Fitzgerald-Smith Verity Ford Sarah Freeston Katherine Garnett Whitney General Helen Gilbert Zein Gowie Ciaran Grafton-Clarke Keshni Gudka Leher Gumber Rishi Gupta Chris Harlow Amy Harrington Adele Heaney Wing Hang Serene Ho Lucy Holloway Christina Hood Eleanor Houghton Saba Houshangi Emma Howard Benjamin Human Harriet Hunter Ifrah Hussain Sami Hussain Richard Thomas Jackson-Taylor Bronwen Jacob-Ramsdale Ryan Janjuha Saleh Jawad Muzzamil Jelani David Johnston Mike Jones Sadhana Kalidindi Savraj Kalsi Asanish Kalyanasundaram Anna Kane Sahaj Kaur Othman Khaled Al-Othman Qaisar Khan Sajan Khullar Priscilla Kirkland Hannah Lawrence-Smith Charlotte Leeson Julius Elisabeth Richard Lenaerts Kerry Long Simon Lubbock Jamie Mac Donald Burrell Rachel Maguire Praveen Mahendran Saad Majeed Prabhjot Singh Malhotra Vinay Mandagere Angelos Mantelakis Sophie McGovern Anjola Mosuro Adam Moxley Sophie Mustoe Sam Myers Kiran Nadeem Reza Nasseri Tom Newman Richard Nzewi Rosalie Ogborne Joyce Omatseye Sophie Paddock James Parkin Mohit Patel Sohini Pawar Stuart Pearce Samuel Penrice Julian Purdy Raisa Ramjan Ratan Randhawa Usman Rasul Elliot Raymond-Taggert Rebecca Razey Carmel Razzaghi Eimear Reel Elliot John Revell Joanna Rigbye Oloruntobi Rotimi Abdelrahman Said Emma Sanders Pranoy Sangal Nora Sangvik Grandal Aadam Shah Rahul Atul Shah Oliver Shotton Daniel Sims Katie Smart Martha Amy Smith Nick Smith Aninditya Salma Sopian Matthew South Jessica Speller Tom J Syer Ngan Hong Ta Daniel Tadross Benjamin Thompson Jess Trevett Matthew Tyler Roshan Ullah Mrudula Utukuri Shree Vadera Harriet Van Den Tooren Sara Venturini Aradhya Vijayakumar Melanie Vine Zoe Wellbelove Liora Wittner Geoffrey Hong Kiat Yong Farris Ziyada I C McManus

BMC Med 2020 May 14;18(1):126. Epub 2020 May 14.

Research Department of Medical Education, UCL Medical School, Gower Street, London, WC1E 6BT, UK.

Background: What subjects UK medical schools teach, what ways they teach subjects, and how much they teach those subjects is unclear. Whether teaching differences matter is a separate, important question. This study provides a detailed picture of timetabled undergraduate teaching activity at 25 UK medical schools, particularly in relation to problem-based learning (PBL). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12916-020-01571-4DOI Listing
May 2020
7.249 Impact Factor

Exploring UK medical school differences: the MedDifs study of selection, teaching, student and F1 perceptions, postgraduate outcomes and fitness to practise.

Authors:
I C McManus Andrew Christopher Harborne Hugo Layard Horsfall Tobin Joseph Daniel T Smith Tess Marshall-Andon Ryan Samuels Joshua William Kearsley Nadine Abbas Hassan Baig Joseph Beecham Natasha Benons Charlie Caird Ryan Clark Thomas Cope James Coultas Luke Debenham Sarah Douglas Jack Eldridge Thomas Hughes-Gooding Agnieszka Jakubowska Oliver Jones Eve Lancaster Calum MacMillan Ross McAllister Wassim Merzougui Ben Phillips Simon Phillips Omar Risk Adam Sage Aisha Sooltangos Robert Spencer Roxanne Tajbakhsh Oluseyi Adesalu Ivan Aganin Ammar Ahmed Katherine Aiken Alimatu-Sadia Akeredolu Ibrahim Alam Aamna Ali Richard Anderson Jia Jun Ang Fady Sameh Anis Sonam Aojula Catherine Arthur Alena Ashby Ahmed Ashraf Emma Aspinall Mark Awad Abdul-Muiz Azri Yahaya Shreya Badhrinarayanan Soham Bandyopadhyay Sam Barnes Daisy Bassey-Duke Charlotte Boreham Rebecca Braine Joseph Brandreth Zoe Carrington Zoe Cashin Shaunak Chatterjee Mehar Chawla Chung Shen Chean Chris Clements Richard Clough Jessica Coulthurst Liam Curry Vinnie Christine Daniels Simon Davies Rebecca Davis Hanelie De Waal Nasreen Desai Hannah Douglas James Druce Lady-Namera Ejamike Meron Esere Alex Eyre Ibrahim Talal Fazmin Sophia Fitzgerald-Smith Verity Ford Sarah Freeston Katherine Garnett Whitney General Helen Gilbert Zein Gowie Ciaran Grafton-Clarke Keshni Gudka Leher Gumber Rishi Gupta Chris Harlow Amy Harrington Adele Heaney Wing Hang Serene Ho Lucy Holloway Christina Hood Eleanor Houghton Saba Houshangi Emma Howard Benjamin Human Harriet Hunter Ifrah Hussain Sami Hussain Richard Thomas Jackson-Taylor Bronwen Jacob-Ramsdale Ryan Janjuha Saleh Jawad Muzzamil Jelani David Johnston Mike Jones Sadhana Kalidindi Savraj Kalsi Asanish Kalyanasundaram Anna Kane Sahaj Kaur Othman Khaled Al-Othman Qaisar Khan Sajan Khullar Priscilla Kirkland Hannah Lawrence-Smith Charlotte Leeson Julius Elisabeth Richard Lenaerts Kerry Long Simon Lubbock Jamie Mac Donald Burrell Rachel Maguire Praveen Mahendran Saad Majeed Prabhjot Singh Malhotra Vinay Mandagere Angelos Mantelakis Sophie McGovern Anjola Mosuro Adam Moxley Sophie Mustoe Sam Myers Kiran Nadeem Reza Nasseri Tom Newman Richard Nzewi Rosalie Ogborne Joyce Omatseye Sophie Paddock James Parkin Mohit Patel Sohini Pawar Stuart Pearce Samuel Penrice Julian Purdy Raisa Ramjan Ratan Randhawa Usman Rasul Elliot Raymond-Taggert Rebecca Razey Carmel Razzaghi Eimear Reel Elliot John Revell Joanna Rigbye Oloruntobi Rotimi Abdelrahman Said Emma Sanders Pranoy Sangal Nora Sangvik Grandal Aadam Shah Rahul Atul Shah Oliver Shotton Daniel Sims Katie Smart Martha Amy Smith Nick Smith Aninditya Salma Sopian Matthew South Jessica Speller Tom J Syer Ngan Hong Ta Daniel Tadross Benjamin Thompson Jess Trevett Matthew Tyler Roshan Ullah Mrudula Utukuri Shree Vadera Harriet Van Den Tooren Sara Venturini Aradhya Vijayakumar Melanie Vine Zoe Wellbelove Liora Wittner Geoffrey Hong Kiat Yong Farris Ziyada Oliver Patrick Devine

BMC Med 2020 May 14;18(1):136. Epub 2020 May 14.

UCL Medical School, 74 Huntley Street, London, WC1E 6BT, UK.

Background: Medical schools differ, particularly in their teaching, but it is unclear whether such differences matter, although influential claims are often made. The Medical School Differences (MedDifs) study brings together a wide range of measures of UK medical schools, including postgraduate performance, fitness to practise issues, specialty choice, preparedness, satisfaction, teaching styles, entry criteria and institutional factors.

Method: Aggregated data were collected for 50 measures across 29 UK medical schools. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12916-020-01572-3DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7222458PMC
May 2020
7.249 Impact Factor

Does fine particulate matter (PM) affect the benefits of habitual physical activity on lung function in adults: a longitudinal cohort study.

BMC Med 2020 May 13;18(1):134. Epub 2020 May 13.

Jockey Club School of Public Health and Primary Care, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, 421, 4/F School of Public Health, Prince of Wales Hospital, Sha Tin N.T., Hong Kong SAR, China.

Background: Physical activity (PA) increases a person's inhalation of air pollutants due to greater ventilation, possibly leading to larger adverse health effects. This study aims to investigate the combined effects of long-term exposure to fine particulate matter (PM) and habitual PA on lung function in adults.

Methods: This was a longitudinal cohort study that included 278,065 Taiwan residents with an age of 20 years old or above who joined a standard medical screening programme between 2001 and 2014. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12916-020-01570-5DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7218575PMC

The impact of maternal and early life malnutrition on health: a diet-microbe perspective.

BMC Med 2020 May 12;18(1):135. Epub 2020 May 12.

Department of Agricultural, Food and Nutritional Science, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada.

Background: Early-life malnutrition may have long-lasting effects on microbe-host interactions that affect health and disease susceptibility later in life. Diet quality and quantity in conjunction with toxin and pathogen exposure are key contributors to microbe-host physiology and malnutrition. Consequently, it is important to consider both diet- and microbe-induced pathologies as well as their interactions underlying malnutrition. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12916-020-01584-zDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7216331PMC

Actigraphy in brain-injured patients - A valid measurement for assessing circadian rhythms?

BMC Med 2020 May 12;18(1):106. Epub 2020 May 12.

Centre for Chronobiology, Psychiatric Hospital of the University of Basel, Basel, Switzerland.

Background: Actigraphy has received increasing attention in classifying rest-activity cycles. However, in patients with disorders of consciousness (DOC), actigraphy data may be considerably confounded by passive movements, such as nursing activities and therapies. Consequently, this study verified whether circadian rhythmicity is (still) visible in actigraphy data from patients with DOC after correcting for passive movements. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12916-020-01569-yDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7216424PMC

Target Product Profiles for medical tests: a systematic review of current methods.

BMC Med 2020 May 11;18(1):119. Epub 2020 May 11.

Test Evaluation Group, Academic Unit of Health Economics, Leeds Institute for Health Sciences, University of Leeds, Leeds, UK.

Background: A Target Product Profile (TPP) outlines the necessary characteristics of an innovative product to address an unmet clinical need. TPPs could be used to better guide manufacturers in the development of 'fit for purpose' tests, thus increasing the likelihood that novel tests will progress from bench to bedside. However, there is currently no guidance on how to produce a TPP specifically for medical tests. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12916-020-01582-1DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7212678PMC

Predicting the risk of childhood overweight and obesity at 4-5 years using population-level pregnancy and early-life healthcare data.

BMC Med 2020 May 11;18(1):105. Epub 2020 May 11.

School of Primary Care, Population Sciences and Medical Education, Faculty of Medicine, University of Southampton, Southampton, UK.

Background: Nearly a third of children in the UK are overweight, with the prevalence in the most deprived areas more than twice that in the least deprived. The aim was to develop a risk identification model for childhood overweight/obesity applied during pregnancy and early life using routinely collected population-level healthcare data.

Methods: A population-based anonymised linked cohort of maternal antenatal records (January 2003 to September 2013) and birth/early-life data for their children with linked body mass index (BMI) measurements at 4-5 years (n = 29,060 children) in Hampshire, UK was used. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12916-020-01568-zDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7212594PMC

Engaging patients in de-implementation interventions to reduce low-value clinical care: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

BMC Med 2020 May 8;18(1):116. Epub 2020 May 8.

Department of Community Health Sciences, Cumming School of Medicine, University of Calgary, Calgary, Canada.

Background: Many decisions regarding health resource utilization flow through the patient-clinician interaction. Thus, it represents a place where de-implementation interventions may have considerable effect on reducing the use of clinical interventions that lack efficacy, have risks that outweigh benefits, or are not cost-effective (i.e. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12916-020-01567-0DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7206676PMC

Supporting a definition of predatory publishing.

BMC Med 2020 May 8;18(1):125. Epub 2020 May 8.

JBI, Faculty of Health and Medical Sciences, The University of Adelaide, Adelaide, Australia.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12916-020-01599-6DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7206668PMC

Checklists to detect potential predatory biomedical journals: a systematic review.

BMC Med 2020 May 7;18(1):104. Epub 2020 May 7.

Centre for Journalology, Clinical Epidemiology Program, Ottawa Hospital Research Institute, Ottawa, ON, K1H 8L6, Canada.

Background: The increase in the number of predatory journals puts scholarly communication at risk. In order to guard against publication in predatory journals, authors may use checklists to help detect predatory journals. We believe there are a large number of such checklists yet it is uncertain whether these checklists contain similar content. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12916-020-01566-1DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7203891PMC

Quantifying the impact of physical distance measures on the transmission of COVID-19 in the UK.

BMC Med 2020 05 7;18(1):124. Epub 2020 May 7.

Centre for Mathematical Modelling of Infectious Diseases, Department of Infectious Disease Epidemiology, London School of Hygiene & Tropical Medicine, Keppel Street, London, WC1E 7HT, UK.

Background: To mitigate and slow the spread of COVID-19, many countries have adopted unprecedented physical distancing policies, including the UK. We evaluate whether these measures might be sufficient to control the epidemic by estimating their impact on the reproduction number (R, the average number of secondary cases generated per case).

Methods: We asked a representative sample of UK adults about their contact patterns on the previous day. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12916-020-01597-8DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7202922PMC

Association between changes in harm perceptions and e-cigarette use among current tobacco smokers in England: a time series analysis.

BMC Med 2020 May 6;18(1):98. Epub 2020 May 6.

Department of Behavioural Science and Health, University College London, 1-19 Torrington Place, London, WC1E 6BT, UK.

Background: There is a decreasing trend in the proportion of individuals who perceive e-cigarettes to be less harmful than conventional cigarettes across the UK, Europe and the US. It is important to assess whether this may influence the use of e-cigarettes. We aimed to estimate, using a time series approach, whether changes in harm perceptions among current tobacco smokers have been associated with changes in the prevalence of e-cigarette use in England, with and without stratification by age, sex and social grade. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12916-020-01565-2DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7201665PMC

A single-center, retrospective study of COVID-19 features in children: a descriptive investigation.

BMC Med 2020 05 6;18(1):123. Epub 2020 May 6.

Imaging Center, Wuhan Children's Hospital (Wuhan Maternal and Child Healthcare Hospital), Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science & Technology, No.100 Hongkong Road, Wuhan, 430016, China.

Background: Compared to adults, there are relatively few studies on COVID-19 infection in children, and even less focusing on the unique features of COVID-19 in children in terms of laboratory findings, locations of computerized tomography (CT) lesions, and the role of CT in evaluating clinical recovery. The objective of this study is to report the results from patients at Wuhan Children's Hospital, located within the initial center of the outbreak.

Methods: Clinical, imaging, and laboratory data of 76 children were collected retrospectively and analyzed with the Fisher exact test and Cox regression statistical methods. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12916-020-01596-9DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7200209PMC

Beta-blocker efficacy across different cardiovascular indications: an umbrella review and meta-analytic assessment.

BMC Med 2020 May 5;18(1):103. Epub 2020 May 5.

University of Birmingham Institute of Cardiovascular Sciences, Medical School, Birmingham, B15 2TT, UK.

Background: Beta-blockers are widely used for many cardiovascular conditions; however, their efficacy in contemporary clinical practice remains uncertain.

Methods: We performed a prospectively designed, umbrella review of meta-analyses of randomised controlled trials (RCTs) investigating the evidence of beta-blockers in the contemporary management of coronary artery disease (CAD), heart failure (HF), patients undergoing surgery or hypertension (registration: PROSPERO CRD42016038375). We searched MEDLINE, EMBASE and the Cochrane Library from inception until December 2018. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12916-020-01564-3DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7199339PMC

The three numbers you need to know about healthcare: the 60-30-10 Challenge.

BMC Med 2020 May 4;18(1):102. Epub 2020 May 4.

Centre for Health Systems and Safety Research, Australian Institute of Health Innovation, Macquarie University, Level 6, 75 Talavera Road, Sydney, New South Wales, 2109, Australia.

Background: Healthcare represents a paradox. While change is everywhere, performance has flatlined: 60% of care on average is in line with evidence- or consensus-based guidelines, 30% is some form of waste or of low value, and 10% is harm. The 60-30-10 Challenge has persisted for three decades. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12916-020-01563-4DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7197142PMC

Septoplasty versus non-surgical management for nasal obstruction in adults with a deviated septum: economic evaluation alongside a randomized controlled trial.

BMC Med 2020 May 1;18(1):101. Epub 2020 May 1.

Department of Operating Rooms, Radboud Institute for Health Sciences, Radboud University Medical Center, Route 715, P.O. Box 9101, 6500 HB, Nijmegen, the Netherlands.

Background: For years, the benefits of septoplasty have been questioned. Due to the scarce and inconclusive literature, several National Health Service (NHS) Clinical Commissioning Groups in England decided to add septal surgery to their list of restricted procedures with low clinical value. Recently, evidence was obtained that septoplasty is actually more effective than non-surgical management for nasal obstruction in adults with a deviated septum. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12916-020-01562-5DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7193380PMC

Secondary care specialist visits made by children and young people prescribed antidepressants in primary care: a descriptive study using the QResearch database.

BMC Med 2020 Apr 30;18(1):93. Epub 2020 Apr 30.

Nuffield Department of Primary Care Health Sciences, University of Oxford, Oxford, UK.

Background: Antidepressants may be used to manage a number of conditions in children and young people including depression, anxiety, and obsessive-compulsive disorder. UK guidelines for the treatment of depression in children and young people recommend that antidepressants should only be initiated following assessment and diagnosis by a child and adolescent psychiatrist. The aim of this study was to summarise visits to mental health specialists and indications recorded around the time of antidepressant initiation in children and young people in UK primary care. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12916-020-01560-7DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7191694PMC
April 2020
7.249 Impact Factor

A systematic review of changing malaria disease burden in sub-Saharan Africa since 2000: comparing model predictions and empirical observations.

BMC Med 2020 Apr 29;18(1):94. Epub 2020 Apr 29.

KEMRI-Wellcome Trust Research Programme, Kilifi, Kenya.

Background: The most widely used measures of declining burden of malaria across sub-Saharan Africa are predictions from geospatial models. These models apply spatiotemporal autocorrelations and covariates to parasite prevalence data and then use a function of parasite prevalence to predict clinical malaria incidence. We attempted to assess whether trends in malaria cases, based on local surveillance, were similar to those captured by Malaria Atlas Project (MAP) incidence surfaces. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12916-020-01559-0DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7189714PMC

Caring for Africa's sickle cell children: will we rise to the challenge?

BMC Med 2020 Apr 28;18(1):92. Epub 2020 Apr 28.

Centre of Excellence for Sickle Cell Disease Research & Training, University of Abuja, Abuja, Nigeria.

Background: Most of the world's sickle cell disease (SCD) burden is in Africa, where it is a major contributor to child morbidity and mortality. Despite the low cost of many preventive SCD interventions, insufficient resources have been allocated, and progress in alleviating the SCD burden has lagged behind other public-health efforts in Africa. The recent announcement of massive new funding for research into curative SCD therapies is encouraging in the long term, but over the next few decades, it is unlikely to help Africa's SCD children substantially. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12916-020-01557-2DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7187492PMC

Dynamics of conflict during the Ebola outbreak in the Democratic Republic of the Congo 2018-2019.

BMC Med 2020 Apr 27;18(1):113. Epub 2020 Apr 27.

Mathematical Modelling of Infectious Diseases Unit, Institut Pasteur, CNRS, UMR2000, Paris, France.

Background: The 2018-2019 Ebola virus disease (EVD) outbreak in North Kivu and Ituri provinces in the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC) is the largest ever recorded in the DRC. It has been declared a Public Health Emergency of International Concern. The outbreak emerged in a region of chronic conflict and insecurity, and directed attacks against health care workers may have interfered with disease response activities. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12916-020-01574-1DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7184697PMC

Comment on "Will HPV vaccination prevent cervical cancer".

BMC Med 2020 Apr 27;18(1):115. Epub 2020 Apr 27.

National Cancer Center/National Clinical Research Center for Cancer/Cancer Hospital, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical College, Beijing, 100021, China.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12916-020-01589-8DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7184704PMC

The associations of sugar-sweetened, artificially sweetened and naturally sweet juices with all-cause mortality in 198,285 UK Biobank participants: a prospective cohort study.

BMC Med 2020 Apr 24;18(1):97. Epub 2020 Apr 24.

Institute of Cardiovascular and Medical Sciences, University of Glasgow, Glasgow, G12 8TA, UK.

Background: Recent efforts to address the obesity epidemic have focused on sugar consumption, especially sugar-sweetened beverages. However, sugar takes many forms, is only one contributor to overall energy consumption and is correlated with other health-related lifestyle factors. The objective was to investigate the associations with all-cause mortality of sugar- and artificially sweetened beverages and naturally sweet juices. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12916-020-01554-5DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7181499PMC

Reducing expectations for antibiotics in primary care: a randomised experiment to test the response to fear-based messages about antimicrobial resistance.

BMC Med 2020 Apr 23;18(1):110. Epub 2020 Apr 23.

Health Economics Research Centre, Nuffield Department of Population Health, University of Oxford, Old Road Campus, Headington, Oxford, OX3 7LF, UK.

Background: To reduce inappropriate antibiotic use, public health campaigns often provide fear-based information about antimicrobial resistance (AMR). Meta-analyses have found that fear-based campaigns in other contexts are likely to be ineffective unless respondents feel confident they can carry out the recommended behaviour ('self-efficacy'). This study aimed to test the likely impact of fear-based messages, with and without empowering self-efficacy elements, on patient consultations/antibiotic requests for influenza-like illnesses, using a randomised design. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12916-020-01553-6DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7178623PMC

Transmissibility and pathogenicity of the emerging meningococcal serogroup W sequence type-11 complex South American strain: a mathematical modeling study.

BMC Med 2020 Apr 22;18(1):109. Epub 2020 Apr 22.

Université Paris-Saclay, UVSQ, Univ. Paris-Sud, Inserm, CESP, Anti-infective evasion and pharmacoepidemiology team, F-78180, Montigny-Le-Bretonneux, France.

Background: The recent emergence of strains belonging to the meningococcal serogroup W (MenW) sequence type-11 clonal complex and descending from the South American sub-lineage (MenW:cc11/SA) has caused significant shifts in the epidemiology of meningococcal disease worldwide. Although MenW:cc11/SA is deemed highly transmissible and invasive, its epidemiological characteristics have not yet been quantified.

Methods: We designed a mathematical model of MenW transmission, carriage, and infection to analyze the recent epidemiology of invasive disease caused by MenW:cc11/SA strains and by other MenW strains in England and in France. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12916-020-01552-7DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7175556PMC

Sugar intake and all-cause mortality-differences between sugar-sweetened beverages, artificially sweetened beverages, and pure fruit juices.

BMC Med 2020 Apr 22;18(1):112. Epub 2020 Apr 22.

Center for Nutrition, Prevention, and Health Services, National Institute for Public Health and the Environment (RIVM), PO Box 1, 3720 BA, Bilthoven, The Netherlands.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12916-020-01579-wDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7175549PMC

Stress testing journals: a quasi-experimental study of rejection rates of a previously published paper.

BMC Med 2020 Apr 21;18(1):88. Epub 2020 Apr 21.

Centre for Journalology, Clinical Epidemiology Program, The Ottawa Hospital Research Institute, Ottawa, Canada.

Background: When a journal receives a duplicate publication, the ability to identify the submitted work as previously published, and reject it, is an assay to publication ethics best practices. The aim of this study was to evaluate how three different types of journals, namely open access (OA) journals, subscription-based journals, and presumed predatory journals, responded to receiving a previously published manuscript for review.

Methods: We performed a quasi-experimental study in which we submitted a previously published article to a random sample of 602 biomedical journals, roughly 200 journals from each journal type sampled: OA journals, subscription-based journals, and presumed predatory journals. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12916-020-01550-9DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7171725PMC

Association of immune-related adverse events with immune checkpoint inhibitor efficacy: real or imaginary?

BMC Med 2020 Apr 21;18(1):111. Epub 2020 Apr 21.

Department of Medical Oncology, Kindai University Faculty of Medicine, 377-2 Ohno-higashi, Osakasayama, Osaka, 589-8511, Japan.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12916-020-01583-0DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7171785PMC

Are immune-related adverse events associated with the efficacy of immune checkpoint inhibitors in patients with cancer? A systematic review and meta-analysis.

BMC Med 2020 Apr 20;18(1):87. Epub 2020 Apr 20.

Department of Rheumatology and Clinical Immunology, Peking Union Medical College Hospital, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical College, The Ministry of Education Key Laboratory, Beijing, 100730, China.

Background: A number of studies have reported an association between the occurrence of immune-related adverse events (irAEs) and clinical efficacy in patients undergoing treatment with immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs), but the results remain controversial.

Methods: Under the guidance of a predefined protocol and Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-analyses statement, this meta-analysis included cohort studies investigating the association of irAEs and efficacy of ICIs in patients with cancer. The primary outcome was overall survival (OS), and the secondary outcome was progression-free survival (PFS). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12916-020-01549-2DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7169020PMC

Clinical utility and cost modelling of the phi test to triage referrals into image-based diagnostic services for suspected prostate cancer: the PRIM (Phi to RefIne Mri) study.

BMC Med 2020 Apr 17;18(1):95. Epub 2020 Apr 17.

Department of Urology, Cambridge University Hospitals Trust, Cambridge, UK.

Background: The clinical pathway to detect and diagnose prostate cancer has been revolutionised by the use of multiparametric MRI (mpMRI pre-biopsy). mpMRI however remains a resource-intensive test and is highly operator dependent with variable effectiveness with regard to its negative predictive value. Here we tested the use of the phi assay in standard clinical practice to pre-select men at the highest risk of harbouring significant cancer and hence refine the use of mpMRI and biopsies. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12916-020-01548-3DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7164355PMC

Heterogeneity in the uptake, attendance, and outcomes in a clinical trial of a total diet replacement weight loss programme.

BMC Med 2020 Apr 16;18(1):86. Epub 2020 Apr 16.

Nuffield Department of Primary Care Health Sciences, Radcliffe Observatory Quarter, University of Oxford, Oxford, OX26GG, UK.

Background: Trials have shown total diet replacement (TDR) programmes are safe and effective for weight loss in primary care. However, it is not clear whether participant characteristics affect uptake, attendance, or effectiveness of the programme.

Methods: We used data from 272 trial participants who were invited to participate in a clinical weight loss trial via a letter from their GP. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12916-020-01547-4DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7161206PMC

Prediction of sepsis mortality using metabolite biomarkers in the blood: a meta-analysis of death-related pathways and prospective validation.

BMC Med 2020 Apr 15;18(1):83. Epub 2020 Apr 15.

School of Medicine, University of California, San Diego, CA, 92103, USA.

Background: Sepsis is a leading cause of death in intensive care units (ICUs), but outcomes of individual patients are difficult to predict. The recently developed clinical metabolomics has been recognized as a promising tool in the clinical practice of critical illness. The objective of this study was to identify the unique metabolic biomarkers and their pathways in the blood of sepsis nonsurvivors and to assess the prognostic value of these pathways. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12916-020-01546-5DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7157979PMC

Cost-effectiveness of introducing national seasonal influenza vaccination for adults aged 60 years and above in mainland China: a modelling analysis.

BMC Med 2020 Apr 14;18(1):90. Epub 2020 Apr 14.

School of Public Health, Fudan University, Key Laboratory of Public Health Safety, Ministry of Education, Shanghai, China.

Background: China has an aging population with an increasing number of adults aged ≥ 60 years. Influenza causes a heavy disease burden in older adults, but can be alleviated by vaccination. We assessed the cost-effectiveness of a potential government-funded seasonal influenza vaccination program in older adults in China. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12916-020-01545-6DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7155276PMC

Patient and public involvement in research: from tokenistic box ticking to valued team members.

BMC Med 2020 Apr 13;18(1):79. Epub 2020 Apr 13.

Asthma UK Centre for Applied Research, Queen Mary University of London, London, UK.

Background: Patient and public involvement (PPI) in research envisages a relationship built throughout the lifespan of a research project between academics, clinicians and PPI colleagues in order to inform, plan, execute and, in due course, disseminate and translate research. To be meaningful, all stakeholders need to actively engage in this exchange of expertise. However, despite some funders requiring PPI plans to be included in grant applications, there remains a gap between what is expected and what is delivered. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12916-020-01544-7DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7153227PMC

Characteristics, service use and mortality of clusters of multimorbid patients in England: a population-based study.

BMC Med 2020 Apr 10;18(1):78. Epub 2020 Apr 10.

MRC Biostatistics Unit, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, CB2 0SR, UK.

Background: Multimorbidity is associated with mortality and service use, with specific types of multimorbidity having differential effects. Additionally, multimorbidity is often negatively associated with participation in research cohorts. Therefore, we set out to identify clusters of multimorbidity patients and how they are differentially associated with mortality and service use across age groups in a population-representative sample. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12916-020-01543-8DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7147068PMC

Medical education during pandemics: a UK perspective.

BMC Med 2020 04 9;18(1):100. Epub 2020 Apr 9.

Department of Medicine, Imperial College London, London, SW7 2AZ, United Kingdom.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12916-020-01577-yDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7141929PMC

Clinical and cost-effectiveness of oral sodium bicarbonate therapy for older patients with chronic kidney disease and low-grade acidosis (BiCARB): a pragmatic randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial.

Authors:

BMC Med 2020 Apr 9;18(1):91. Epub 2020 Apr 9.

Background: Chronic kidney disease with metabolic acidosis is common in older people, but the effectiveness of oral sodium bicarbonate therapy in this group is unclear. We tested whether oral sodium bicarbonate provides net health benefit for older people with advanced chronic kidney disease and serum bicarbonate concentrations < 22 mmol/L.

Methods: Pragmatic multicentre, parallel group, double-blind, placebo-controlled randomised trial. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12916-020-01542-9DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7144058PMC