2,214 results match your criteria BMC Med[Journal]


Data management and sharing policy: the first step towards promoting data sharing.

BMC Med 2019 Apr 17;17(1):80. Epub 2019 Apr 17.

Mahidol Oxford Tropical Medicine Research Unit (MORU), Faculty of Tropical Medicine, Mahidol University, 420/6 Rajvithi Road, Bangkok, 10040, Thailand.

Background: Health-related research funders, regulators and journals expect that de-identified individual-level health data be shared widely, with as few restrictions as possible; yet, in reality, the volume of shared data remains low.

Main Body: Health researchers and other data producers are reluctant to share their data unless they are confident that their datasets are of high quality and reliable, and that they are used in accordance with the values and aims of their institutions. We argue that having an institutional, departmental or group data management and sharing policy is the first step towards encouraging researchers and healthcare professionals to share their data more widely. Read More

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https://bmcmedicine.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/s1291
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12916-019-1315-8DOI Listing
April 2019
1 Read

Prospective association between ultra-processed food consumption and incident depressive symptoms in the French NutriNet-Santé cohort.

BMC Med 2019 Apr 15;17(1):78. Epub 2019 Apr 15.

Equipe de Recherche en Epidémiologie Nutritionnelle (EREN), Université Paris 13, Centre d'Epidémiologie et Statistiques Sorbonne Paris Cité, Inserm (U1153), Inra (U1125), Cnam, COMUE Sorbonne Paris Cité, 74 rue Marcel Cachin, 93017, Bobigny, France.

Background: Ultra-processed food (UPF) consumption has increased over the last decades in Westernized countries. Our objective was to investigate for the first time the association between the proportion of UPF (%UPF) in the diet and incident depressive symptoms in the NutriNet-Santé cohort.

Methods: The sample included 20,380 women and 6350 men (aged 18-86 years) without depressive symptoms at the first Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D) measurement, using validated cut-offs (CES-D score ≥ 17 for men and ≥ 23 for women). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12916-019-1312-yDOI Listing

What to do with diabetes therapies when HbA1c lowering is inadequate: add, switch, or continue? A MASTERMIND study.

BMC Med 2019 Apr 12;17(1):79. Epub 2019 Apr 12.

University of Exeter Medical School, The Institute of Clinical and Biological Sciences, University of Exeter, Exeter, UK.

Background: It is unclear what to do when people with type 2 diabetes have had no or a limited glycemic response to a recently introduced medication. Intra-individual HbA1c variability can obscure true response. Some guidelines suggest stopping apparently ineffective therapy, but no studies have addressed this issue. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12916-019-1307-8DOI Listing

Exploring telomere length in mother-newborn pairs in relation to exposure to multiple toxic metals and potential modifying effects by nutritional factors.

BMC Med 2019 Apr 11;17(1):77. Epub 2019 Apr 11.

Institute of Environmental Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, P.O. Box 210, SE-171 77, Stockholm, Sweden.

Background: The uterine environment may influence telomere length at birth, which is essential for cellular function, aging, and disease susceptibility over the lifespan. However, little is known about the impact of toxic chemicals on early-life telomeres. Therefore, we assessed the potential impact of multiple toxic metals on relative telomere length (rTL) in the maternal blood, cord blood, and placenta, as well as the potential modifying effects of pro-oxidants. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12916-019-1309-6DOI Listing
April 2019
1 Read

Relationship between multimorbidity, demographic factors and mortality: findings from the UK Biobank cohort.

BMC Med 2019 Apr 10;17(1):74. Epub 2019 Apr 10.

General Practice and Primary Care, Institute of Health and Wellbeing, College of Medical, Veterinary and Life Sciences, University of Glasgow, 1 Horselethill Road, Glasgow, G12 9LX, UK.

Background: Multimorbidity is associated with higher mortality, but the relationship with cancer and cardiovascular mortality is unclear. The influence of demographics and type of condition on the relationship of multimorbidity with mortality remains unknown. We examine the relationship between multimorbidity (number/type) and cause of mortality and the impact of demographic factors on this relationship. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12916-019-1305-xDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6456941PMC
April 2019
1 Read

A step beyond the hygiene hypothesis-immune-mediated classes determined in a population-based study.

BMC Med 2019 Apr 9;17(1):75. Epub 2019 Apr 9.

Department of Psychiatry, Center for Research in Psychiatric Epidemiology and Psychopathology, Lausanne University Hospital, Prilly, Switzerland.

Background: Comorbidity patterns of childhood infections, atopic diseases, and adverse childhood experiences (ACE) are related to immune system programming conditions. The aim of this study was to make a step beyond the hygiene hypothesis and to comprehensively classify these patterns with latent class analysis (LCA). A second aim was to characterize the classes by associations with immunological, clinical, and sociodemographic variables. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12916-019-1311-zDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6454751PMC
April 2019
1 Read
7.249 Impact Factor

Implementation of genotype-guided dosing of warfarin with point-of-care genetic testing in three UK clinics: a matched cohort study.

BMC Med 2019 Apr 8;17(1):76. Epub 2019 Apr 8.

MRC Centre for Drug Safety Science, Department of Molecular and Clinical Pharmacology, University of Liverpool and The Royal Liverpool and Broadgreen University Hospitals NHS Trust, members of Liverpool Health Partners, Liverpool, UK.

Background: Warfarin is a widely used oral anticoagulant. Determining the correct dose required to maintain the international normalised ratio (INR) within a therapeutic range can be challenging. In a previous trial, we showed that a dosing algorithm incorporating point-of-care genotyping information ('POCT-GGD' approach) led to improved anticoagulation control. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12916-019-1308-7DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6454722PMC

Predicting COPD 1-year mortality using prognostic predictors routinely measured in primary care.

BMC Med 2019 Apr 5;17(1):73. Epub 2019 Apr 5.

Department of Respiratory Epidemiology, Occupational Medicine and Public Health, NHLI, Imperial College London, London, UK.

Background: Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a major cause of mortality. Patients with advanced disease often have a poor quality of life, such that guidelines recommend providing palliative care in their last year of life. Uptake and use of palliative care in advanced COPD is low; difficulty in predicting 1-year mortality is thought to be a major contributing factor. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12916-019-1310-0DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6449897PMC
April 2019
1 Read

B-type natriuretic peptide trumps other prognostic markers in patients assessed for coronary disease.

BMC Med 2019 Apr 3;17(1):72. Epub 2019 Apr 3.

Monash Centre of Cardiovascular Research and Education in Therapeutics, School of Public Health and Preventive Medicine, Melbourne, Australia.

Background: Risk prediction for patients with suspected coronary artery disease is complex due to the common occurrence of prior cardiovascular disease and extensive risk modification in primary care. Numerous markers have the potential to predict prognosis and guide management, but we currently lack robust 'real-world' evidence for their use.

Methods: Prospective, multicentre observational study of consecutive patients referred for elective coronary angiography. Read More

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https://bmcmedicine.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/s1291
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12916-019-1306-9DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6448253PMC
April 2019
4 Reads

Improving engagement with healthcare in hepatitis C: a randomised controlled trial of a peer support intervention.

BMC Med 2019 Apr 1;17(1):71. Epub 2019 Apr 1.

Institute for Global Health, University College London, 4th floor, Mortimer Market Centre, off Capper Street, London, WC1E 6JB, UK.

Background: Peer support can enable patient engagement with healthcare services, particularly for marginalised populations. In this randomised controlled trial, the efficacy of a peer support intervention at promoting successful engagement with clinical services for chronic hepatitis C was assessed.

Methods: In London, UK, potential participants were approached through outreach services for problematic drug use and homelessness. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12916-019-1300-2DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6442435PMC
April 2019
1 Read

Microbiology Investigation Criteria for Reporting Objectively (MICRO): a framework for the reporting and interpretation of clinical microbiology data.

BMC Med 2019 Mar 29;17(1):70. Epub 2019 Mar 29.

Centre for Tropical Medicine and Global Health, Nuffield Department of Medicine, University of Oxford, Oxford, UK.

Background: There is a pressing need to understand better the extent and distribution of antimicrobial resistance on a global scale, to inform development of effective interventions. Collation of datasets for meta-analysis, mathematical modelling and temporo-spatial analysis is hampered by the considerable variability in clinical sampling, variable quality in laboratory practice and inconsistencies in antimicrobial susceptibility testing and reporting.

Methods: The Microbiology Investigation Criteria for Reporting Objectively (MICRO) checklist was developed by an international working group of clinical and laboratory microbiologists, infectious disease physicians, epidemiologists and mathematical modellers. Read More

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https://bmcmedicine.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/s1291
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12916-019-1301-1DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6440102PMC
March 2019
1 Read

Profiling the best-performing community medicine distributors for mass drug administration: a comprehensive, data-driven analysis of treatment for schistosomiasis, lymphatic filariasis, and soil-transmitted helminths in Uganda.

BMC Med 2019 Mar 28;17(1):69. Epub 2019 Mar 28.

Vector Control Division, Bilharzia and Worm Control Programme, Uganda Ministry of Health, Kampala, Uganda.

Background: The most prevalent neglected tropical diseases are treated through blanket drug distribution that is reliant on lay community medicine distributors (CMDs). Yet, treatment rates achieved by CMDs vary widely and it is not known which CMDs treat the most people.

Methods: In Mayuge District, Uganda, we tracked 6779 individuals (aged 1+ years) in 1238 households across 31 villages. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12916-019-1303-zDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6437990PMC
March 2019
1 Read

Comparison of statins for secondary prevention in patients with ischemic stroke or transient ischemic attack: a systematic review and network meta-analysis.

BMC Med 2019 Mar 26;17(1):67. Epub 2019 Mar 26.

Department of Biomedical Sciences for Health, University of Milan, Milan, Italy.

Background: Statins may prevent recurrent ischemic events after ischemic stroke. Determining which statin to use remains controversial. We aimed to summarize the evidence for the use of statins in secondary prevention for patients with ischemic stroke by comparing benefits and harms of various statins. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12916-019-1298-5DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6436237PMC
March 2019
2 Reads

'Fit-for-purpose?' - challenges and opportunities for applications of blockchain technology in the future of healthcare.

BMC Med 2019 Mar 27;17(1):68. Epub 2019 Mar 27.

IEEE Standards Association, 445 Hoes Lane, Piscataway, NJ, 08854, USA.

Blockchain is a shared distributed digital ledger technology that can better facilitate data management, provenance and security, and has the potential to transform healthcare. Importantly, blockchain represents a data architecture, whose application goes far beyond Bitcoin - the cryptocurrency that relies on blockchain and has popularized the technology. In the health sector, blockchain is being aggressively explored by various stakeholders to optimize business processes, lower costs, improve patient outcomes, enhance compliance, and enable better use of healthcare-related data. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12916-019-1296-7DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6436239PMC
March 2019
1 Read
7.249 Impact Factor

Development and validation of a prognostic model to predict the prognosis of patients who underwent chemotherapy and resection of pancreatic adenocarcinoma: a large international population-based cohort study.

BMC Med 2019 Mar 25;17(1):66. Epub 2019 Mar 25.

Division of Clinical Epidemiology and Aging Research, German Cancer Research Center (DKFZ), Im Neuenheimer Feld 581, 69120, Heidelberg, Germany.

Background: Pancreatic cancer (PaC) remains extremely lethal worldwide even after resection. PaC resection rates are low, making prognostic studies in resected PaC difficult. This large international population-based study aimed at exploring factors associated with survival in patients with resected TNM stage I-II PaC receiving chemotherapy and at developing and internationally validating a survival-predicting model. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12916-019-1304-yDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6432746PMC

Specialist palliative care support is associated with improved pain relief at home during the last 3 months of life in patients with advanced disease: analysis of 5-year data from the national survey of bereaved people (VOICES).

BMC Med 2019 Mar 22;17(1):50. Epub 2019 Mar 22.

Academic Unit of Palliative Care, Leeds Institute of Health Sciences (LIHS), School of Medicine, University of Leeds, Room 10.39, Level 10, Worsley Building, Clarendon Way, Leeds, LS2 9NL, UK.

Background: Studies have shown that more than half of patients with advanced progressive diseases approaching the end-of-life report pain and that pain relief for these patients is poorest at home compared to other care settings such as acute care facilities and hospice. Although home is the most common preferred place of death, the majority of deaths occur outside the home. Specialist palliative care is associated with improved quality of life, but systematic reviews of RCTs have failed to show a consistent association with better pain relief. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12916-019-1287-8DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6429790PMC

Comparison of depression prevalence estimates in meta-analyses based on screening tools and rating scales versus diagnostic interviews: a meta-research review.

BMC Med 2019 Mar 21;17(1):65. Epub 2019 Mar 21.

Lady Davis Institute for Medical Research, Jewish General Hospital, 4333 Cote Ste Catherine Road, Montreal, Quebec, Canada.

Background: Depression symptom questionnaires are commonly used to assess symptom severity and as screening tools to identify patients who may have depression. They are not designed to ascertain diagnostic status and, based on published sensitivity and specificity estimates, would theoretically be expected to overestimate prevalence. Meta-analyses sometimes estimate depression prevalence based on primary studies that used screening tools or rating scales rather than validated diagnostic interviews. Read More

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https://bmcmedicine.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/s1291
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12916-019-1297-6DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6427845PMC
March 2019
2 Reads

ApoE4: an emerging therapeutic target for Alzheimer's disease.

BMC Med 2019 Mar 20;17(1):64. Epub 2019 Mar 20.

Department of Neurobiology, Sagol School of Neurosciences, The George S. Wise Faculty of Life Sciences, Tel Aviv University, Ramat Aviv, 6997801, Tel Aviv, Israel.

Background: The growing body of evidence indicating the heterogeneity of Alzheimer's disease (AD), coupled with disappointing clinical studies directed at a fit-for-all therapy, suggest that the development of a single magic cure suitable for all cases may not be possible. This calls for a shift in paradigm where targeted treatment is developed for specific AD subpopulations that share distinct genetic or pathological properties. Apolipoprotein E4 (apoE4), the most prevalent genetic risk factor of AD, is expressed in more than half of AD patients and is thus an important possible AD therapeutic target. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12916-019-1299-4DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6425600PMC
March 2019
5 Reads

Quantifying harms to others due to alcohol consumption in Germany: a register-based study.

BMC Med 2019 Mar 19;17(1):59. Epub 2019 Mar 19.

Centre for Addiction and Mental Health, Institute for Mental Health Policy Research, 33 Russell Street, Toronto, ON, M5S 2S1, Canada.

Background: The consumption of alcohol increases the risk of drinkers harming others. The extent of alcohol's morbidity and mortality harms to others in Germany in 2014 was estimated for (1) fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS) or fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD) among newborns, (2) road traffic fatalities, and (3) interpersonal violence-related deaths.

Methods: The incidences of FAS and FASD were estimated by means of a meta-analytical approach, combining data on alcohol use during pregnancy and the risk relationship between alcohol consumption during pregnancy and FAS/FASD. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12916-019-1290-0DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6423764PMC

Digital health at fifteen: more human (more needed).

BMC Med 2019 Mar 18;17(1):62. Epub 2019 Mar 18.

Department of Primary Care and Public Health, Imperial College London, London, W6 8RP, UK.

There is growing appreciation that the success of digital health - whether digital tools, digital interventions or technology-based change strategies - is linked to the extent to which human factors are considered throughout design, development and implementation. A shift in focus to individuals as users and consumers of digital health highlights the capacity of the field to respond to secular developments, such as the adoption of person-centred care and consumer health technologies. We argue that this project is not only incomplete, but is fundamentally 'uncompletable' in the face of a highly dynamic landscape of both technological and human challenges. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12916-019-1302-0DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6421699PMC
March 2019
7.249 Impact Factor

Cognitive decline and mortality among community-dwelling Chinese older people.

BMC Med 2019 Mar 15;17(1):63. Epub 2019 Mar 15.

Dementia Care and Research Center, Clinical Research Division, Peking University Institute of Mental Health (Sixth Hospital), No. 51 Huayuanbei Road, Haidian District, Beijing, 100191, China.

Background: Whether cognitive decline is related to a higher risk of death independent of the initial cognitive function is inconclusive. Evidence of the association between cognitive decline and mortality among Chinese older people is limited. We aimed to examine whether cognitive decline, assessed by the rate of decrease in the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) score, was associated with mortality independent of initial cognitive function (baseline MMSE score) among Chinese older people. Read More

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https://bmcmedicine.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/s1291
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12916-019-1295-8DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6419492PMC
March 2019
3 Reads

Effect of linoleic acid on ischemic heart disease and its risk factors: a Mendelian randomization study.

BMC Med 2019 Mar 14;17(1):61. Epub 2019 Mar 14.

School of Public Health, Li Ka Shing Faculty of Medicine, The University of Hong Kong, 1/F, Patrick Manson Building, 7 Sassoon Road, Hong Kong, SAR, China.

Background: The role of n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) in ischemic heart disease (IHD) is controversial, and dietary guidelines vary. Observationally, lower saturated fat intake and higher intake of vegetable oils rich in linoleic acid (LA), the main n-6 PUFA, is associated with lower IHD and diabetes; however, randomized controlled trials have not fully corroborated these benefits. We assessed how genetically predicted LA affected IHD and its risk factors, including diabetes, lipids, and blood pressure. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12916-019-1293-xDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6417131PMC
March 2019
3 Reads

Repeated clinical malaria episodes are associated with modification of the immune system in children.

BMC Med 2019 Mar 13;17(1):60. Epub 2019 Mar 13.

Francis Crick Institute, London, UK.

Background: There are over 200 million reported cases of malaria each year, and most children living in endemic areas will experience multiple episodes of clinical disease before puberty. We set out to understand how frequent clinical malaria, which elicits a strong inflammatory response, affects the immune system and whether these modifications are observable in the absence of detectable parasitaemia.

Methods: We used a multi-dimensional approach comprising whole blood transcriptomic, cellular and plasma cytokine analyses on a cohort of children living with endemic malaria, but uninfected at sampling, who had been under active surveillance for malaria for 8 years. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12916-019-1292-yDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6415347PMC
March 2019
7.249 Impact Factor

Real-time analysis of the diphtheria outbreak in forcibly displaced Myanmar nationals in Bangladesh.

BMC Med 2019 Mar 12;17(1):58. Epub 2019 Mar 12.

Centre for the Mathematical Modelling of Infectious Diseases, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, London, UK.

Background: Between August and December 2017, more than 625,000 Rohingya from Myanmar fled into Bangladesh, settling in informal makeshift camps in Cox's Bazar district and joining 212,000 Rohingya already present. In early November, a diphtheria outbreak hit the camps, with 440 reported cases during the first month. A rise in cases during early December led to a collaboration between teams from Médecins sans Frontières-who were running a provisional diphtheria treatment centre-and the London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine with the goal to use transmission dynamic models to forecast the potential scale of the outbreak and the resulting resource needs. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12916-019-1288-7DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6413455PMC

Characterizing the transitioning epidemiology of herpes simplex virus type 1 in the USA: model-based predictions.

BMC Med 2019 Mar 11;17(1):57. Epub 2019 Mar 11.

Infectious Disease Epidemiology Group, Weill Cornell Medicine-Qatar, Cornell University, Qatar Foundation - Education City, P.O. Box 24144, Doha, Qatar.

Background: Herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) is a prevalent lifelong infection that appears to be undergoing an epidemiologic transition in the United States (US). Using an analytical approach, this study aimed to characterize HSV-1 transitioning epidemiology and estimate its epidemiologic indicators, past, present, and future.

Methods: An age-structured mathematical model was developed to describe HSV-1 transmission through oral and sexual modes of transmission. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12916-019-1285-xDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6410528PMC
March 2019
4 Reads
7.249 Impact Factor

Girl child marriage, socioeconomic status, and undernutrition: evidence from 35 countries in Sub-Saharan Africa.

BMC Med 2019 Mar 8;17(1):55. Epub 2019 Mar 8.

Department of Global Health and Population, Harvard T. H. Chan School of Public Health, 665 Huntington Ave, Bldg. 1, 11th floor, Boston, MA, 02115, USA.

Background: Girl child marriage, a formal union of a female before age 18, and undernutrition remain common in Sub-Saharan Africa. The aim of this study is to establish the extent to which girl child marriage contributes to socioeconomic status and underweight, a measure of undernutrition, among adult women.

Methods: We used data from 103 Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS), representing 35 African countries from 1991 to 2014. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12916-019-1279-8DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6407221PMC

What causes severe malaria and its complications in children? Lessons learned over the past 15 years.

BMC Med 2019 Mar 7;17(1):52. Epub 2019 Mar 7.

Ryan White Center for Pediatric Infectious Diseases and Global Health, Indiana University School of Medicine, 1044 W Walnut St R4 402D, Indianapolis, IN, USA.

Over the past 15 years, malaria mortality has reduced by approximately 50%. However, malaria still causes more than 400,000 deaths annually, most of which occur in African children under 5 years of age. Significant advances in understanding the pathogenesis of the disease provide a basis for future work to prevent severe malaria and its complications. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12916-019-1291-zDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6404293PMC
March 2019
4 Reads

The cost of diagnostic uncertainty: a prospective economic analysis of febrile children attending an NHS emergency department.

BMC Med 2019 Mar 6;17(1):48. Epub 2019 Mar 6.

Institute of Infection and Global Health, University of Liverpool, 8 West Derby St, Liverpool, L69 7BE, UK.

Background: Paediatric fever is a common cause of emergency department (ED) attendance. A lack of prompt and definitive diagnostics makes it difficult to distinguish viral from potentially life-threatening bacterial causes, necessitating a cautious approach. This may result in extended periods of observation, additional radiography, and the precautionary use of antibiotics (ABs) prior to evidence of bacterial foci. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12916-019-1275-zDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6402102PMC
March 2019
1 Read
7.249 Impact Factor

Advanced cell therapeutics are changing the clinical landscape: will mesenchymal stromal cells be a part of it?

Authors:
Richard Schäfer

BMC Med 2019 Mar 5;17(1):53. Epub 2019 Mar 5.

Institute for Transfusion Medicine and Immunohaematology, German Red Cross Blood Donor Service Baden-Württemberg-Hessen gGmbH, Goethe University Hospital, Sandhofstrasse 1, 60528, Frankfurt am Main, Germany.

During the past 15 years there have been dramatic changes in the medical landscape, particularly in oncology and regenerative medicine. Cell therapies have played a substantial part in this progress. Cellular immunotherapies can use immune cells, such as T cells or natural killer cells that, after functional modification ex vivo, exert powerful anti-cancer effects when given to the patient. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12916-019-1289-6DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6399823PMC
March 2019
2 Reads

Giving permission to care for people with dementia in residential homes: learning from a realist synthesis of hearing-related communication.

BMC Med 2019 Mar 4;17(1):54. Epub 2019 Mar 4.

University of Nottingham, Nottingham, UK.

Background: Managing hearing communication for residents living with hearing loss and dementia in long-term care settings is challenging. This paper explores how care can be effective in optimising hearing communication for residents living with dementia. We argue that the underlying notion of permission or authorisation allows care staff to do what they know will be effective in providing person-centred care that enhances hearing communication. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12916-019-1286-9DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6398258PMC
March 2019
2 Reads

Correction to: Post-marketing withdrawal of 462 medicinal products because of adverse drug reactions: a systematic review of the world literature.

BMC Med 2019 Mar 2;17(1):56. Epub 2019 Mar 2.

Centre for Evidence-based Medicine, Nuffield Department of Primary Care Health Sciences, University of Oxford, New Radcliffe House, Radcliffe Observatory Quarter, Oxford, OX2 6GG, UK.

The original article [1] contains a minor error whereby the dates for year of first launch and year of first report of adverse reaction for iophendylate in e-Appendix Table 1 are mistakenly presented as 1946 and 1975 respectively. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12916-019-1294-9DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6397477PMC
March 2019
2 Reads

The equity impact of brief opportunistic interventions to promote weight loss in primary care: secondary analysis of the BWeL randomised trial.

BMC Med 2019 Mar 1;17(1):51. Epub 2019 Mar 1.

Nuffield Department of Primary Care Health Sciences, Radcliffe Observatory Quarter, University of Oxford, Oxford, OX2 6GG, UK.

Background: Guidelines recommend that clinicians should make brief opportunistic behavioural interventions to patients who are obese to increase the uptake of effective weight loss programmes. The objective was to assess the effect of this policy on socioeconomic equity.

Methods: One thousand eight hundred eighty-two consecutively attending patients with obesity and who were not seeking support for weight loss from their GP were enrolled in a trial. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12916-019-1284-yDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6396456PMC
March 2019
1 Read

The effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of strength and balance Exergames to reduce falls risk for people aged 55 years and older in UK assisted living facilities: a multi-centre, cluster randomised controlled trial.

BMC Med 2019 Feb 28;17(1):49. Epub 2019 Feb 28.

Division of Nursing, Midwifery and Social Work, School of Health Sciences, Jean McFarlane Building, University of Manchester, Oxford Road, Manchester, M13 9PL, UK.

Background: Falls are the leading cause of fatal and non-fatal unintentional injuries in older people. The use of Exergames (active, gamified video-based exercises) is a possible innovative, community-based approach. This study aimed to determine the effectiveness of a tailored OTAGO/FaME-based strength and balance Exergame programme for improving balance, maintaining function and reducing falls risk in older people. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12916-019-1278-9DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6394073PMC
February 2019

Translational research on reserve against neurodegenerative disease: consensus report of the International Conference on Cognitive Reserve in the Dementias and the Alzheimer's Association Reserve, Resilience and Protective Factors Professional Interest Area working groups.

BMC Med 2019 Feb 27;17(1):47. Epub 2019 Feb 27.

Institute for Stroke and Dementia Research, University Hospital, LMU Munich, Munich, Germany.

Background: The concept of reserve was established to account for the observation that a given degree of neurodegenerative pathology may result in varying degrees of symptoms in different individuals. There is a large amount of evidence on epidemiological risk and protective factors for neurodegenerative diseases and dementia, yet the biological mechanisms that underpin the protective effects of certain lifestyle and physiological variables remain poorly understood, limiting the development of more effective preventive and treatment strategies. Additionally, different definitions and concepts of reserve exist, which hampers the coordination of research and comparison of results across studies. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12916-019-1283-zDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6391801PMC
February 2019

Advances in the clinical management of type 2 diabetes: a brief history of the past 15 years and challenges for the future.

Authors:
Naveed Sattar

BMC Med 2019 Feb 26;17(1):46. Epub 2019 Feb 26.

Institute of Cardiovascular and Medical Sciences, University of Glasgow, 126 University Place, Glasgow, G12 8TA, UK.

Remarkable progress has been made in some aspects of diabetes care over the last 15 years, but there have also been a rising number of challenges that differ between high and low-income countries. In high-income countries, a substantial increase in the use of preventative drugs for cardiovascular disease has lowered vascular complications and improved diabetes survival. More recently, new classes of diabetes drugs have emerged that can variably lower cardiovascular outcomes, new-onset heart failure and slow renal decline, thereby meaningfully increasing the diabetes armoury that should help patients to live even longer lives and with fewer complications. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12916-019-1281-1DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6390346PMC
February 2019

Induction and decay of functional complement-fixing antibodies by the RTS,S malaria vaccine in children, and a negative impact of malaria exposure.

BMC Med 2019 Feb 25;17(1):45. Epub 2019 Feb 25.

Burnet Institute, Melbourne, Australia.

Background: Leading malaria vaccine, RTS,S, is based on the circumsporozoite protein (CSP) of sporozoites. RTS,S confers partial protection against malaria in children, but efficacy wanes relatively quickly after primary immunization. Vaccine efficacy has some association with anti-CSP IgG; however, it is unclear how these antibodies function, and how functional antibodies are induced and maintained over time. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12916-019-1277-xDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6388494PMC
February 2019
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Building a learning community of Australian clinical genomics: a social network study of the Australian Genomic Health Alliance.

BMC Med 2019 Feb 22;17(1):44. Epub 2019 Feb 22.

Australian Institute of Health Innovation, Macquarie University, Sydney, Australia.

Background: Adopting clinical genomics represents a major systems-level intervention requiring diverse expertise and collective learning. The Australian Genomic Health Alliance (Australian Genomics) is strategically linking members and partner organisations to lead the integration of genomic medicine into healthcare across Australia. This study aimed to map and analyse interconnections between members-a key feature of complexity-to capture the collaborations among the genomic community, document learning, assess Australian Genomics' influence and identify key players. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12916-019-1274-0DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6385428PMC
February 2019
2 Reads

HBV vaccination and PMTCT as elimination tools in the presence of HIV: insights from a clinical cohort and dynamic model.

BMC Med 2019 Feb 21;17(1):43. Epub 2019 Feb 21.

Nuffield Department of Medicine, Peter Medawar Building for Pathogen Research, South Parks Road, Oxford, OX1 3SY, UK.

Background: Sustainable Development Goals set a challenge for the elimination of hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection as a public health concern by the year 2030. Deployment of a robust prophylactic vaccine and enhanced interventions for prevention of mother to child transmission (PMTCT) are cornerstones of elimination strategy. However, in light of the estimated global burden of 290 million cases, enhanced efforts are required to underpin optimisation of public health strategy. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12916-019-1269-xDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6383254PMC
February 2019
2 Reads

Cathelicidin-related antimicrobial peptide protects against myocardial ischemia/reperfusion injury.

BMC Med 2019 Feb 20;17(1):42. Epub 2019 Feb 20.

Cardiac Regeneration and Ageing Lab, Institute of Cardiovascular Sciences, School of Life Science, Shanghai University, 333 Nan Chen Road, Shanghai, 200444, China.

Background: Cathelicidins are a major group of natural antimicrobial peptides which play essential roles in regulating host defense and immunity. In addition to the antimicrobial and immunomodulatory activities, recent studies have reported the involvement of cathelicidins in cardiovascular diseases by regulating inflammatory response and microvascular dysfunction. However, the role of cathelicidins in myocardial apoptosis upon cardiac ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury remains largely unknown. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12916-019-1268-yDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6381635PMC
February 2019

Thymic size is increased by infancy, but not pregnancy, nutritional supplementation in rural Gambian children: a randomized clinical trial.

BMC Med 2019 Feb 18;17(1):38. Epub 2019 Feb 18.

MRC Unit The Gambia at the London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, Atlantic Boulevard, Fajara, PO Box 273, Banjul, The Gambia.

Background: Thymic size in early infancy predicts subsequent survival in low-income settings. The human thymus develops from early gestation, is most active in early life and is highly sensitive to malnutrition. Our objective was to test whether thymic size in infancy could be increased by maternal and/or infant nutritional supplementation. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12916-019-1264-2DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6378709PMC
February 2019
6 Reads

A systematic review of multi-level stigma interventions: state of the science and future directions.

BMC Med 2019 Feb 15;17(1):41. Epub 2019 Feb 15.

Department of Health Behavior, Gillings School of Public Health, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC, USA.

Background: Researchers have long recognized that stigma is a global, multi-level phenomenon requiring intervention approaches that target multiple levels including individual, interpersonal, community, and structural levels. While existing interventions have produced modest reductions in stigma, their full reach and impact remain limited by a nearly exclusive focus targeting only one level of analysis.

Methods: We conducted the first systematic review of original research on multi-level stigma-reduction interventions. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12916-018-1244-yDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6377735PMC
February 2019
1 Read

Advancing health equity through cross-cutting approaches to health-related stigma.

BMC Med 2019 Feb 15;17(1):40. Epub 2019 Feb 15.

Uganda Youth Coalition on Adolescent Sexual Reproductive Health Rights and HIV, Kampala, Uganda.

Health-related stigma remains a major barrier to improving health and well-being for vulnerable populations around the world. This collection on stigma research and global health emerged largely as a result of a 2017 meeting on the "The Science of Stigma Reduction" sponsored by the US National Institutes of Health (NIH). An overwhelming consensus at the meeting was reached. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12916-019-1282-0DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6376639PMC
February 2019

The Health Stigma and Discrimination Framework: a global, crosscutting framework to inform research, intervention development, and policy on health-related stigmas.

BMC Med 2019 Feb 15;17(1):31. Epub 2019 Feb 15.

Yale University, New Haven, CT, USA.

Stigma is a well-documented barrier to health seeking behavior, engagement in care and adherence to treatment across a range of health conditions globally. In order to halt the stigmatization process and mitigate the harmful consequences of health-related stigma (i.e. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12916-019-1271-3DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6376797PMC
February 2019

Implementation science and stigma reduction interventions in low- and middle-income countries: a systematic review.

BMC Med 2019 Feb 15;17(1). Epub 2019 Feb 15.

Department of Epidemiology, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD, USA.

Background: Interventions to alleviate stigma are demonstrating effectiveness across a range of conditions, though few move beyond the pilot phase, especially in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). Implementation science offers tools to study complex interventions, understand barriers to implementation, and generate evidence of affordability, scalability, and sustainability. Such evidence could be used to convince policy-makers and donors to invest in implementation. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12916-018-1237-xDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6376798PMC
February 2019

A scoping review of health-related stigma outcomes for high-burden diseases in low- and middle-income countries.

BMC Med 2019 Feb 15;17(1):17. Epub 2019 Feb 15.

Department of Epidemiology, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, 615 N. Wolfe Street, Baltimore, MD, 21205, USA.

Background: Stigma is associated with health conditions that drive disease burden in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs), including HIV, tuberculosis, mental health problems, epilepsy, and substance use disorders. However, the literature discussing the relationship between stigma and health outcomes is largely fragmented within disease-specific siloes, thus limiting the identification of common moderators or mechanisms through which stigma potentiates adverse health outcomes as well as the development of broadly relevant stigma mitigation interventions.

Methods: We conducted a scoping review to provide a critical overview of the breadth of research on stigma for each of the five aforementioned conditions in LMICs, including their methodological strengths and limitations. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12916-019-1250-8DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6376728PMC
February 2019
1 Read
7.249 Impact Factor

Out of the silos: identifying cross-cutting features of health-related stigma to advance measurement and intervention.

BMC Med 2019 Feb 15;17(1):13. Epub 2019 Feb 15.

College of Global Public Health, New York University, New York, NY, USA.

Background: Many health conditions perceived to be contagious, dangerous or incurable, or resulting in clearly visible signs, share a common attribute - an association with stigma and discrimination. While the etiology of stigma may differ between conditions and, sometimes, cultural settings, the manifestations and psychosocial consequences of stigma and discrimination are remarkably similar. However, the vast majority of studies measuring stigma or addressing stigma through interventions employ a disease-specific approach. Read More

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https://bmcmedicine.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/s1291
Publisher Site
http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12916-018-1245-xDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6376667PMC
February 2019
3 Reads

Challenges and opportunities in examining and addressing intersectional stigma and health.

BMC Med 2019 Feb 15;17(1). Epub 2019 Feb 15.

Department of Mental Health, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, MD, USA.

Background: 'Intersectional stigma' is a concept that has emerged to characterize the convergence of multiple stigmatized identities within a person or group, and to address their joint effects on health and wellbeing. While enquiry into the intersections of race, class, and gender serves as the historical and theoretical basis for intersectional stigma, there is little consensus on how best to characterize and analyze intersectional stigma, or on how to design interventions to address this complex phenomenon. The purpose of this paper is to highlight existing intersectional stigma literature, identify gaps in our methods for studying and addressing intersectional stigma, provide examples illustrating promising analytical approaches, and elucidate priorities for future health research. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12916-018-1246-9DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6376691PMC
February 2019

Participatory praxis as an imperative for health-related stigma research.

BMC Med 2019 Feb 15;17(1):32. Epub 2019 Feb 15.

Uganda Youth Coalition on Adolescent SRHR and HIV, Busia, Uganda.

Background: Participatory praxis is increasingly valued for the reliability, validity, and relevance of research results that it fosters. Participatory methods become an imperative in health-related stigma research, where the constitutive elements of stigma, healthcare settings, and research each operate on hierarchies that push those with less social power to the margins.

Discussion: Particularly for people who are stigmatized, participatory methods balance the scales of equity by restructuring power relationships. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12916-019-1263-3DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6376721PMC
February 2019