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    434 results match your criteria BMC International Health and Human Rights [Journal]

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    Informal workers' access to health care services: findings from a qualitative study in the Kassena-Nankana districts of Northern Ghana.
    BMC Int Health Hum Rights 2018 May 16;18(1):20. Epub 2018 May 16.
    Navrongo Health Research Centre, P.O Box 114, Navrongo, Ghana.
    Background: Over the past two decades, employment in the informal sector has grown rapidly in all regions including low and middle-income countries. In the developing countries, between 50 and 75% of workers are employed in the informal sector. In Ghana, more than 80% of the total working population is working in the informal sector. Read More

    Causes of death among street-connected children and youth in Eldoret, Kenya.
    BMC Int Health Hum Rights 2018 May 15;18(1):19. Epub 2018 May 15.
    College of Health Sciences, School of Medicine, Department of Medicine, Moi University, Eldoret, Kenya.
    Background: Street-connected young people carry a disproportionate burden of morbidities, and engage in a variety of practices that may heighten their risk of premature mortality, yet there are currently no reports in the literature on the rates or risk factors for mortality among them, nor on their causes of death. In low- and middle-income countries they are frequently in situations that violate their human rights, likely contributing to their increased burden of morbidities and vulnerability to mortality. We thus sought to describe the number of deaths annually, causes of death, and determine the number of deaths attributable to HIV among street-connected young people aged 0 to 30 years in Eldoret, Kenya. Read More

    Persons with disabilities as experts-by experience: using personal narratives to affect community attitudes in Kilifi, Kenya.
    BMC Int Health Hum Rights 2018 May 8;18(1):18. Epub 2018 May 8.
    University of East Anglia, Norwich, UK.
    Background: The last decade has seen improved public awareness of disability in sub-Saharan Africa. However, negative and stereotypical views of disability still persist in many communities. We conducted a study to promote awareness of disability in rural Kenya, using a process of reflection and education. Read More

    Examination of the roles and capacities of duty bearers responsible for protecting the human rights to adequate food, nutritional health and wellbeing in Ugandan children's homes.
    BMC Int Health Hum Rights 2018 Apr 17;18(1):17. Epub 2018 Apr 17.
    Norwegian Centre for Human Rights, Faculty of Law, University of Oslo, Oslo, Norway.
    Background: The majority of Ugandan children face vulnerability and malnutrition. As a State Party to international human rights treaties, Uganda has legal obligations of guaranteeing the fundamental rights and the best interest of the nation's children. Despite being protected under international and national law, Uganda is not providing adequate child protection, including safeguarding children's food security. Read More

    Bibliometric analysis of peer-reviewed literature in transgender health (1900 - 2017).
    BMC Int Health Hum Rights 2018 Mar 21;18(1):16. Epub 2018 Mar 21.
    Department of Physiology, Pharmacology/Toxicology, Division of Biomedical Sciences, College of Medicine and Health Sciences, An-Najah National University, Nablus, Palestine.
    Background: Transgender community is marginalized and under-researched. Analysis of peer-reviewed literature in transgender health is needed to better understand health needs and human rights of transgender people. Therefore, the aim of this study was to analyze global research activity in transgender health published in peer-reviewed journals. Read More

    Attitudes towards help-seeking for sexual and gender-based violence in humanitarian settings: the case of Rwamwanja refugee settlement scheme in Uganda.
    BMC Int Health Hum Rights 2018 03 12;18(1):15. Epub 2018 Mar 12.
    Population Council, P. O. Box 17643 -00500, Nairobi, Kenya.
    Background: Sexual and gender-based violence (SGBV) remains a silent epidemic in many humanitarian settings with many survivors concealing their experiences. Attitudes towards help-seeking for SGBV is an important determinant of SGBV service use. This paper examined the association between attitudes towards seeking care and knowledge and perceptions about SGBV among men and women in a humanitarian setting in Uganda. Read More

    Socioeconomic and environmental determinants of under-five mortality in Gamo Gofa Zone, Southern Ethiopia: a matched case control study.
    BMC Int Health Hum Rights 2018 02 27;18(1):14. Epub 2018 Feb 27.
    School of Public Health, Addis Ababa University, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.
    Background: Despite global declaration of the right to life as a fundamental human right and substantial progress in reducing childhood mortality, unacceptably high number of children still die before their fifth birthday every day. Different factors have been studied and implicated for under-five mortality with mixed results. Mortality studies in the current study sites were lacking. Read More

    Care-'less': exploring the interface between child care and parental control in the context of child rights for workers in children's homes in Ghana.
    BMC Int Health Hum Rights 2018 02 20;18(1):13. Epub 2018 Feb 20.
    Department of Psychology, University of Ghana, P.O. Box LG84, Legon-Accra, Ghana.
    Background: This study explored how employed caregivers experience the interface between child care, parental control and child rights in the context of Children's Homes in Ghana. The focus was on investigating caregiver perceptions of proper child care, their experiences with having to work with child rights principles and the implication of these for their relationships with the children and the care services they deliver.

    Methods: Adopting a qualitative approach with phenomenological design, data were collected from 41 caregivers in two children's homes in Ghana using focus group discussions and in-depth interviews. Read More

    Small scale migration along the interoceanic highway in Madre de Dios, Peru: an exploration of community perceptions and dynamics due to migration.
    BMC Int Health Hum Rights 2018 02 12;18(1):12. Epub 2018 Feb 12.
    Tulane University School of Public Health and Tropical Medicine, 1440 Canal St, New Orleans, LA, 70112, USA.
    Background: Madre de Dios, a southern state in the Peruvian Amazon basin, has experienced rapid development as well as an influx of migrants since the construction of the Interoceanic Highway (IOH) connecting Brazil, Bolivia, and the Peruvian coast. We explored perceptions of migration and development in up to eight communities along the IOH in Madre de Dios following construction of the highway.

    Methods: We conducted a multiple methods study involving focus group (FG) discussions and interviews with key informants (KIs) in eight communities in Madre de Dios. Read More

    Assessing refugee healthcare needs in Europe and implementing educational interventions in primary care: a focus on methods.
    BMC Int Health Hum Rights 2018 02 8;18(1):11. Epub 2018 Feb 8.
    Department of General Practice and Family Medicine, Center for Public Health, Medical University of Vienna, Vienna, Austria.
    The current political crisis, conflicts and riots in many Middle Eastern and African countries have led to massive migration waves towards Europe. European countries, receiving these migratory waves as first port of entry (POE) over the past few years, were confronted with several challenges as a result of the sheer volume of newly arriving refugees. This humanitarian refugee crisis represents the biggest displacement crisis of a generation. Read More

    Does the Stockholm Syndrome affect female sex workers? The case for a "Sonagachi Syndrome".
    BMC Int Health Hum Rights 2018 02 6;18(1):10. Epub 2018 Feb 6.
    Department of Health Promotion and Behavior, University of Georgia College of Public Health, Athens, Georgia, USA.
    Female sex workers are subjected to intense physical, sexual, and mental abuses that are well documented in the medical and public health literature. However, less well-studied are the mental coping mechanisms that are employed by women in this population to survive. The Stockholm Syndrome has been discussed in the news media as a potential phenomenon in this vulnerable population, but has not been formally studied. Read More

    Influence of indoor work environments on health, safety, and human rights among migrant sex workers at the Guatemala-Mexico Border: a call for occupational health and safety interventions.
    BMC Int Health Hum Rights 2018 02 2;18(1). Epub 2018 Feb 2.
    Division of Infectious Diseases and Global Public Health, University of California San Diego, 9500 Gilman Drive, 0507, La Jolla, CA, 92093-0507, USA.
    Background: Migrant women are over-represented in the sex industry, and migrant sex workers experience disproportionate health inequities, including those related to health access, HIV and sexually transmitted infections (STIs), and violence. Despite calls for occupational sex work interventions situated in labour rights frameworks, there remains a paucity of evidence pertaining to migrant sex workers' needs and realities, particularly within Mexico and Central America. This study investigated migrant sex workers' narratives regarding the ways in which structural features of work environments shape vulnerability and agency related to HIV/STI prevention and violence at the Guatemala-Mexico border. Read More

    Realising the right to sexual and reproductive health: access to essential medicines for medical abortion as a core obligation.
    BMC Int Health Hum Rights 2018 02 1;18(1). Epub 2018 Feb 1.
    University Medical Center Groningen, Department of Health Sciences - Global Health Unit, University of Groningen, Groningen, The Netherlands.
    Background: WHO has a pivotal role to play as the leading international agency promoting good practices in health and human rights. In 2005, mifepristone and misoprostol were added to WHO's Model List of Essential Medicines for combined use to terminate unwanted pregnancies. However, these drugs were considered 'complementary' and qualified for use when in line with national legislation and where 'culturally acceptable'. Read More

    Study design and the estimation of the size of key populations at risk of HIV: lessons from Viet Nam.
    BMC Int Health Hum Rights 2018 01 30;18(1). Epub 2018 Jan 30.
    Department of Health Services Research, CAPHRI, Maastricht University Medical Center, Faculty of Health, Medicine and Life Sciences, Maastricht University, Maastricht, Netherlands.
    Background: Estimation of the size of populations at risk of HIV is a key activity in the surveillance of the HIV epidemic. The existing framework for considering future research needs may provide decision-makers with a basis for a fair process of deciding on the methods of the estimation of the size of key populations at risk of HIV. This study explores the extent to which stakeholders involved with population size estimation agree with this framework, and thus, the study updates the framework. Read More

    Adolescents' reproductive health knowledge, choices and factors affecting reproductive health choices: a qualitative study in the West Gonja District in Northern region, Ghana.
    BMC Int Health Hum Rights 2018 01 24;18(1). Epub 2018 Jan 24.
    Department of Community Health and Family Medicine, University for Development Studies, Tamale, Ghana.
    Background: In Ghana, adolescents constitute about a quarter of the total population. These adolescents make reproductive health decisions and choices based on their knowledge and the availability of such choices. These reproductive health decisions and choices can either negatively or positively affect their lives. Read More

    A survey of health problems of Nepalese female migrants workers in the Middle-East and Malaysia.
    BMC Int Health Hum Rights 2018 01 18;18(1). Epub 2018 Jan 18.
    Institute for Reproductive Health, Georgetown University, Washington, DC, USA.
    Background: Nepal is a key supplier of labour for countries in the Middle East, India and Malaysia. As many more men than women leave Nepal to work abroad, female migrant workers are a minority and very much under-researched. The aim of the study was to explore the health problems of female Nepalese migrants working in the Middle-East and Malaysia. Read More

    The HIV self-testing debate: where do we stand?
    BMC Int Health Hum Rights 2018 01 18;18(1). Epub 2018 Jan 18.
    Faculty of Medicine, University of Ottawa, 451 Smyth Road, Ottawa, ON, K1H8M5, Canada.
    Background: Emphasis on HIV testing as a gateway to prevention, treatment and care has grown tremendously over the past decade. In turn, this emphasis on testing has created a demand for new policies, programs, and technologies that can potentially increase access to and uptake of HIV testing. HIV self-testing (HST) technologies have gained important momentum following the approval of the over-the-counter self-tests in the United States, the UK, and France. Read More

    Patterns of illness disclosure among Indian slum dwellers: a qualitative study.
    BMC Int Health Hum Rights 2018 01 16;18(1). Epub 2018 Jan 16.
    Department of General Practice, School for Public Health and Primary Care, Maastricht University, Maastricht, the Netherlands.
    Background: Slum dwellers display specific traits when it comes to disclosing their illnesses to professionals. The resulting actions lead to poor health-seeking behaviour and underutilisation of existing formal health facilities. The ways that slum people use to communicate their feelings about illness, the type of confidants that they choose, and the supportive and unsupportive social and cultural interactions to which they are exposed have not yet been studied in the Indian context, which constitutes an important knowledge gap for Indian policymakers and practitioners alike. Read More

    Children with albinism in African regions: their rights to 'being' and 'doing'.
    BMC Int Health Hum Rights 2018 01 12;18(1). Epub 2018 Jan 12.
    Institute of Clinical Sciences, University of Birmingham Edgbaston, Birmingham, B15 2TT, England.
    Background: Albinism is an inherited condition with a relatively high prevalence in populations throughout sub-Saharan Africa. People with oculocutaneous albinism have little or no pigment in their hair, skin and eyes; thus they are visually impaired and extremely sensitive to the damaging effect of the sun on their skin. Aside from the health implications of oculocutaneous albinism, there are also significant sociocultural risks. Read More

    Does exposure to interparental violence increase women's risk of intimate partner violence? Evidence from Nigeria demographic and health survey.
    BMC Int Health Hum Rights 2018 01 11;18(1). Epub 2018 Jan 11.
    Department of Demography and Social Statistics, Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile-Ife, Nigeria.
    Background: Exposure to interparental violence (EIPV) has been identified as a risk factor for intimate partner violence (IPV). However, studies in Nigeria have rarely and specifically examined exposure to interparental violence as a predictor of IPV. The objective of the study was to examine the relationship between exposure to interparental violence and women's experience of intimate partner violence. Read More

    Institutional context and VCT practitioner narratives: possibilities and limitations for HIV prevention in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.
    BMC Int Health Hum Rights 2017 Dec 4;17(1):31. Epub 2017 Dec 4.
    National School of Public Health - FIOCRUZ, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.
    Background: Voluntary Counseling and Testing (VCT) is an HIV prevention strategy that promotes the principles of confidentiality and informed consent. International research has highlighted VCT counselors' isolation from service planning and the contradictions they negotiate between local values and global testing recommendations. In Brazil, studies have identified many limitations, including counselors' difficulties to implement a vulnerability approach to HIV prevention as recommended in the country's national guidelines. Read More

    Transgender women in Malaysia, in the context of HIV and Islam: a qualitative study of stakeholders' perceptions.
    BMC Int Health Hum Rights 2017 10 18;17(1):30. Epub 2017 Oct 18.
    UKM Medical centre, Faculty of Medicine, International Centre for Casemix and Clinical Coding, National University of Malaysia, Jalaan Yaacob Latif, Kuala Lumpur, 56000 Cheras, Malaysia.
    Background: Globally, one of the key groups considered to be at high risk of acquiring HIV are transgender women, often a marginalised group. In the Malaysian context there has been a scarcity of published research relating to transgender women, a sensitive issue in a Muslim majority country, where Islam plays an influential role in society. Furthermore, there has been a paucity of research relating to how such issues relate to HIV prevention in transgender women in Malaysia. Read More

    Should community health workers offer support healthcare services to survivors of sexual violence? a systematic review.
    BMC Int Health Hum Rights 2017 10 12;17(1):28. Epub 2017 Oct 12.
    Department of Global Health and Development, Faculty of Public Health and Policy, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, Keppel Street, London, WC1E 7HT, UK.
    Background: Sexual violence is widespread, yet relatively few survivors receive healthcare or complete treatment. In low and middle-income countries, community health workers (CHWs) have the potential to provide support services to large numbers of survivors. The aim of this review was to document the role of CHWs in sexual violence services. Read More

    "It is good to take her early to the doctor" - mothers' understanding of childhood pneumonia symptoms and health care seeking in Kilimanjaro region, Tanzania.
    BMC Int Health Hum Rights 2017 09 22;17(1):27. Epub 2017 Sep 22.
    Department of Public Health Sciences, Global Health - Health System and Policy Research Group, Karolinska Institutet, SE-171 77, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Background: Pneumonia is among the leading causes of avoidable deaths for young children globally. The main burden of mortality falls on children from poor and rural families who are less likely to obtain the treatment they need, highlighting inequities in access to effective care and treatment. Caretakers' illness perceptions and care-seeking practices are of major importance for children with pneumonia to receive adequate care. Read More

    Online surveillance of media health event reporting in Nepal: digital disease detection from a One Health perspective.
    BMC Int Health Hum Rights 2017 09 21;17(1):26. Epub 2017 Sep 21.
    HealthMap, Boston Children's Hospital, Boston, MA, USA.
    Background: Traditional media and the internet are crucial sources of health information. Media can significantly shape public opinion, knowledge and understanding of emerging and endemic health threats. As digital communication rapidly progresses, local access and dissemination of health information contribute significantly to global disease detection and reporting. Read More

    Curbing the lifestyle disease pandemic: making progress on an interdisciplinary research agenda for law and policy interventions.
    BMC Int Health Hum Rights 2017 09 18;17(1):25. Epub 2017 Sep 18.
    Faculty of Arts, Oude Kijk in 't Jatstraat 26, 9712 EK, Groningen, The Netherlands.
    By 2030, noncommunicable diseases (NCDs) will be the leading cause of death in every region in the world. While law and policy have an important role to play in curbing this pandemic, our current understanding of how they can most effectively be used is still limited. This contribution identifies a number of gaps in current research and insists on an interdisciplinary research agenda between law, health science and international relations aimed at designing concrete proposals for laws and policies to curb the NCD pandemic, both globally and domestically. Read More

    Perceptions about Iranian-Kurds' ethnic-inequality in health.
    BMC Int Health Hum Rights 2017 09 12;17(1):24. Epub 2017 Sep 12.
    School of Public Health, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.
    Background: Evidence shows ethnic-inequality is a very effective variable in the Community and individual health associated outcomes. This study focused on gaining a deeper understanding of people's perception on inequality of health in Iranian-Kurds and its determinants.

    Methods: The study was conducted in the three cities of Marivan, Sanandaj (capital of Kurdistan province in Iran) and Tehran (capital of the country). Read More

    Determinants of internal migrant health and the healthy migrant effect in South India: a mixed methods study.
    BMC Int Health Hum Rights 2017 09 12;17(1):23. Epub 2017 Sep 12.
    Department of Population Medicine, University of Guelph, Guelph, ON, N1G 2W1, Canada.
    Background: Internal labour migration is an important and necessary livelihood strategy for millions of individuals and households in India. However, the precarious position of migrant workers within Indian society may have consequences for the health of these individuals. Previous research on the connections between health and labour mobility within India have primarily focused on the negative health outcomes associated with this practice. Read More

    Perspectives of basic wheelchair users on improving their access to wheelchair services in Kenya and Philippines: a qualitative study.
    BMC Int Health Hum Rights 2017 08 17;17(1):22. Epub 2017 Aug 17.
    Jhpiego, 1615 Thames St, Baltimore, MD, 21231-3492, USA.
    Background: The United Nations has called for countries to improve access to mobility devices when needed. The World Health Organization has published guidelines on the provision of manual wheelchairs in less-resourced settings. Yet little is known about the extent to which appropriate wheelchairs are available and provided according to international guidelines. Read More

    Realizing Universal Health Coverage in East Africa: the relevance of human rights.
    BMC Int Health Hum Rights 2017 08 3;17(1):21. Epub 2017 Aug 3.
    Kenya Legal & Ethical Issues Network (KELIN), Geneva, Switzerland.
    Applying a robust human rights framework would change thinking and decision-making in efforts to achieve Universal Health Coverage (UHC), and advance efforts to promote women's, children's, and adolescents' health in East Africa, which is a priority under the Sustainable Development Agenda. Nevertheless, there is a gap between global rhetoric of human rights and ongoing health reform efforts. This debate article seeks to fill part of that gap by setting out principles of human rights-based approaches (HRBAs), and then applying those principles to questions that countries undertaking efforts toward UHC and promoting women's, children's and adolescents' health, will need to face, focusing in particular on ensuring enabling legal and policy frameworks, establishing fair financing; priority-setting processes, and meaningful oversight and accountability mechanisms. Read More

    Key populations and human rights in the context of HIV services rendition in Ghana.
    BMC Int Health Hum Rights 2017 Aug 2;17(1):20. Epub 2017 Aug 2.
    Center for Bioethics, University of Minnesota, 410 Church Street S.E MN, Minneapolis, 55455-0346, USA.
    Background: In line with its half century old penal code, Ghana currently criminalizes and penalizes behaviors of some key populations - populations deemed to be at higher risk of acquiring or transmitting Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV). Men who have sex with men (MSM), and sex workers (SWs) fit into this categorization. This paper provides an analysis of how enactment and implementation of rights-limiting laws not only limit rights, but also amplify risk and vulnerability to HIV in key and general populations. Read More

    Sexual violence against female university students in Ethiopia.
    BMC Int Health Hum Rights 2017 Jul 24;17(1):19. Epub 2017 Jul 24.
    School of Education and Behavioral sciences, Wolaita Sodo University, Sodo, Ethiopia.
    Background: Though many women are suffering the consequences of sexual violence, only few victims speak out as it is sensitive and prone to stigma. This lack of data made it difficult to get full picture of the problem and design proper interventions. Thus, the aim of this study was to assess the prevalence and factors associated with sexual violence among female students of Wolaita Sodo University, south Ethiopia. Read More

    Analysis of the association between millennium development goals 4 & 5 and the physician workforce across international economic strata.
    BMC Int Health Hum Rights 2017 Jul 18;17(1):18. Epub 2017 Jul 18.
    St. Joseph's Family Medicine Residency, Syracuse, USA.
    Background: The Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) are 8 international development goals voluntarily adopted by 189 nations. The goals included health related aims to reduce the under-five child mortality rate by two-thirds (MDG4), and to reduce the maternal mortality ratio by three-quarters (MDG5). To assess the relationship between the healthcare workforce and MDGs 4-5, we examined the physician workforces of countries around the globe, in terms of the Physician Density Level (PDL, or number of physicians per 1000 population), and compared this rate across a number of years to several indicator variables specified as markers of progress towards MDG4 and MDG5. Read More

    An investigation of the relationship between autonomy, childbirth practices, and obstetric fistula among women in rural Lilongwe District, Malawi.
    BMC Int Health Hum Rights 2017 Jun 19;17(1):17. Epub 2017 Jun 19.
    Malawi College of Medicine, Blantyre, Malawi.
    Background: Obstetric fistula is a childbirth injury caused by prolonged obstructed labor that results in destruction of the tissue wall between the vagina and bladder. Although obstetric fistula is directly caused by prolonged obstructed labor, many other factors indirectly increase fistula risk. Some research suggests that many women in rural Malawi have limited autonomy and decision-making power in their households. Read More

    Scrambling for access: availability, accessibility, acceptability and quality of healthcare for lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender people in South Africa.
    BMC Int Health Hum Rights 2017 May 30;17(1):16. Epub 2017 May 30.
    Gender, Health and Justice Research Unit, University of Cape Town, Room 1.01.5, Health Sciences Faculty, Anzio Rd, Observatory, Cape Town, 7925, South Africa.
    Background: Sexual orientation and gender identity are social determinants of health for people identifying as lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender (LGBT), and health disparities among sexual and gender minority populations are increasingly well understood. Although the South African constitution guarantees sexual and gender minority people the right to non-discrimination and the right to access to healthcare, homo- and transphobia in society abound. Little is known about LGBT people's healthcare experiences in South Africa, but anecdotal evidence suggests significant barriers to accessing care. Read More

    Effective implementation of the UNCRPD by Thailand State Party: challenges and potential remedies.
    BMC Int Health Hum Rights 2017 May 25;17(1):15. Epub 2017 May 25.
    International Health Policy Program, MOPH, Bangkok, Thailand.
    Background: The Thai government ratified the United Nations Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities (UNCRPD) in 2008, and the first progress report by the State Party was issued in 2012. This study assesses and identifies gaps in the Government's implementation of the Convention.

    Methods: Using the Deming Plan-Do-Check-Act Cycle as an analytical framework for continuous quality improvement, we reviewed five documents which are: the 2012 State Party report; the list of issues by the Committee on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities; the 2015 replies to the list of issues by the Thai government; an alternative report produced by Civil Society Organizations (CSOs); and an alternative report produced by the National Human Rights Commission of Thailand. Read More

    HIV prevalence, risky behaviors, and discrimination experiences among transgender women in Cambodia: descriptive findings from a national integrated biological and behavioral survey.
    BMC Int Health Hum Rights 2017 May 23;17(1):14. Epub 2017 May 23.
    Division of Health Research, Lancaster University, Lancaster, UK.
    Background: Transgender people are disproportionately affected by HIV. Despite their high vulnerability to HIV, lack of adequate epidemiological and surveillance data related to this population in many countries prevents provision of appropriate services. This paper summarizes descriptive findings from a national integrated biological and behavioral survey and discusses policy implications of the findings on HIV prevention among transgender women in Cambodia. Read More

    Assessing the impoverishment effects of out-of-pocket healthcare payments prior to the uptake of the national health insurance scheme in Ghana.
    BMC Int Health Hum Rights 2017 May 22;17(1):13. Epub 2017 May 22.
    Health Economics Unit, School of Public Health and Family Medicine, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Cape Town, Observatory, South Africa.
    Background: There is a global concern regarding how households could be protected from relatively large healthcare payments which are a major limitation to accessing healthcare. Such payments also endanger the welfare of households with the potential of moving households into extreme impoverishment. This paper examines the impoverishing effects of out-of-pocket (OOP) healthcare payments in Ghana prior to the introduction of Ghana's national health insurance scheme. Read More

    Premarital HIV testing in Malaysia: a qualitative exploratory study on the views of major stakeholders involved in HIV prevention.
    BMC Int Health Hum Rights 2017 May 10;17(1):12. Epub 2017 May 10.
    International Centre for Casemix and Clinical Coding, Faculty of Medicine, National University of Malaysia, PPUKM Complex, Jalan Yaacob Latiff, Cheras, Kuala Lumpur, 56000, Malaysia.
    Background: HIV screening has existed in numerous methods as an important part of HIV prevention efforts over the years. Premarital HIV testing for couples who wish to marry has been implemented in a number of regions, which often operate in a mandatory rather than voluntary basis and is considered a contentious issue, with viewpoints held in favour and against. One such region is Malaysia which has a policy of mandatory premarital HIV testing of prospective Muslim married couples. Read More

    "When they know that you are a sex worker, you will be the last person to be treated": Perceptions and experiences of female sex workers in accessing HIV services in Uganda.
    BMC Int Health Hum Rights 2017 May 5;17(1):11. Epub 2017 May 5.
    Department of Community Health & Behavioral Sciences, Makerere University School of Public Health, Kampala, Uganda.
    Background: HIV prevalence among female sex workers (FSWs) in high burden countries in sub-Saharan Africa varies between 24 and 72%, however their access to HIV services remains limited. This study explored FSWs' perspectives of the barriers and opportunities to HIV service access in Uganda.

    Methods: The cross-sectional qualitative study was conducted between October and December 2013. Read More

    Health and legal literacy for migrants: twinned strands woven in the cloth of social justice and the human right to health care.
    BMC Int Health Hum Rights 2017 04 13;17(1):10. Epub 2017 Apr 13.
    Department of Anthropology, Université de Montréal, PO Box 6128 Station Centre-Ville, Montréal, QC, H3C 3J7, Canada.
    Background: Based on an analysis of published literature, this paper provides an over-view of the challenges associated with delivering on the right to access quality health care for international migrants to industrialized countries, and asks which group of professionals is best equipped to provide services that increase health and legal literacy. Both rights and challenges are approached from a social justice perspective with the aim of identifying opportunities to promote greater health equity. That is, to go beyond the legal dictates enshrined in principles of equality, and target as an ethical imperative a situation where all migrants receive the particular assistance they need to overcome the barriers that inhibit their equitable access to health care. Read More

    Challenges in the delivery of public HIV testing and counselling (HTC) in Douala, Cameroon: providers perspectives and implications on quality of HTC services.
    BMC Int Health Hum Rights 2017 04 8;17(1). Epub 2017 Apr 8.
    Université du Québec à Rimouski (UQAR), 1595 Boul. Alphonse-Desjardins, UQAR, Campus de Lévis, Lévis, Québec, Canada.
    Background: The Cameroon government has made HIV testing and counselling (HTC) a priority in its HIV/AIDS strategic plan. However, there is a dearth of literature on the perspectives of providers on the quality of HTC services. The aim of this study was to explore challenges in the provision of HTC services and their implications on quality of HTC services in Douala's district hospitals. Read More

    Prevalence of, and barriers to the disclosure of HIV status to infected children and adolescents in a district of Ghana.
    BMC Int Health Hum Rights 2017 04 8;17(1). Epub 2017 Apr 8.
    Department of Health Promotion and Education, School of Public Health, Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology, Kumasi, Ghana.
    Background: Globally there are about 3.3million children under the age of 15 years living with HIV. Of this number, 88% live in sub-Saharan Africa. Read More

    Bibliometric analysis of medicine - related publications on refugees, asylum-seekers, and internally displaced people: 2000 - 2015.
    BMC Int Health Hum Rights 2017 03 20;17(1). Epub 2017 Mar 20.
    Department of Physiology, Pharmacology, and Toxicology, College of Medicine and Health Sciences, An-Najah National University, Nablus, Palestine.
    Background: Wars and violent domestic conflicts have forced millions of people to move outside their homes. Meeting the basic health needs of those people requires an understanding of research activity and research output on this topic. The objective of this study was to shed light on the quantity and impact of medicine - related publications on refugees, asylum seekers and internally displaced people (IDP). Read More

    Wife beating refusal among women of reproductive age in urban and rural Ethiopia.
    BMC Int Health Hum Rights 2017 03 16;17(1). Epub 2017 Mar 16.
    Population and Gender Research Unit, Institute of Development and Policy Research, Addis Ababa University, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.
    Background: Wife beating is the most common and widespread form of intimate partner violence in Ethiopia. It results in countless severe health, socio-economic and psychological problems and has contributed to the violation of human rights including the liberty of women to enjoy conjugal life. The main purpose of this study is to assess the levels and patterns of wife beating refusal and its associated socio-cultural and demographic factors in rural and urban Ethiopia. Read More

    Perceptions of adolescents' sexual and reproductive health and rights: a cross-sectional study in Lahore District, Pakistan.
    BMC Int Health Hum Rights 2017 02 23;17(1). Epub 2017 Feb 23.
    Department of Public Health Medicine, Bielefeld University, School of Public Health, P.O. Box 100 131, 33501, Bielefeld, Germany.
    Background: Sexual and reproductive health (SRH) is a significant aspect of adolescents' growth, safeguarded by SRH rights (SRHR). Despite various global efforts to promote adolescents SRHR (ASRHR), the majority of adolescents still lack awareness and autonomy to access SRH related information and services. This research aimed to explore the knowledge and perceptions of adolescents' sexual and reproductive health rights and highlights key constraints hindering adolescents from accessing and exercising SRHR in the district of Lahore, Pakistan. Read More

    Methods to increase reporting of childhood sexual abuse in surveys: the sensitivity and specificity of face-to-face interviews versus a sealed envelope method in Ugandan primary school children.
    BMC Int Health Hum Rights 2017 02 23;17(1). Epub 2017 Feb 23.
    Department of Global Health and Development, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, 15-17 Tavistock Place, London, WC1H 9SH, UK.
    Background: Underreporting of childhood sexual abuse is a major barrier to obtaining reliable prevalence estimates. We tested the sensitivity and specificity of the face-to-face-interview (FTFI) method by comparing the number of disclosures of forced sex against a more confidential mode of data collection, the sealed-envelope method (SEM). We also report on characteristics of individuals associated with non-disclosure in FTFIs. Read More

    Fine and Gray competing risk regression model to study the cause-specific under-five child mortality in Bangladesh.
    BMC Int Health Hum Rights 2017 01 28;17(1). Epub 2017 Jan 28.
    Department of Statistics, Biostatistics & Informatics, University of Dhaka, Dhaka, 1000, Bangladesh.
    Background: The cause-specific under-five mortality of Bangladesh has been studied by fitting cumulative incidence function (CIF) based Fine and Gray competing risk regression model (1999). For the purpose of analysis, Bangladesh Demographic and Health Survey (BDHS), 2011 data set was used.

    Methods: Three types of mode of mortality for the under-five children are considered. Read More

    Unpacking early infant male circumcision decision-making using qualitative findings from Zimbabwe.
    BMC Int Health Hum Rights 2017 01 9;17(1). Epub 2017 Jan 9.
    Centre for Sexual Health & HIV/AIDS Research (CeSHHAR), 9 Monmouth Road Avondale West, Harare, Zimbabwe.
    Background: Early infant male circumcision (EIMC) has been identified as a key HIV prevention intervention. Exploring the decision-making process for adoption of EIMC for HIV prevention among parents and other key stakeholders is critical for designing effective demand creation interventions to maximize uptake, roll out and impact in preventing HIV. This paper describes key players, decisions and actions involved in the EIMC decision-making process. Read More

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