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    5450 results match your criteria BMC Infectious Diseases[Journal]

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    Assessment of the effect of larval source management and house improvement on malaria transmission when added to standard malaria control strategies in southern Malawi: study protocol for a cluster-randomised controlled trial.
    BMC Infect Dis 2017 Sep 22;17(1):639. Epub 2017 Sep 22.
    Wageningen University and Research, Wageningen, The Netherlands.
    Background: Due to outdoor and residual transmission and insecticide resistance, long-lasting insecticidal nets (LLINs) and indoor residual spraying (IRS) will be insufficient as stand-alone malaria vector control interventions in many settings as programmes shift toward malaria elimination. Combining additional vector control interventions as part of an integrated strategy would potentially overcome these challenges. Larval source management (LSM) and structural house improvements (HI) are appealing as additional components of an integrated vector management plan because of their long histories of use, evidence on effectiveness in appropriate settings, and unique modes of action compared to LLINs and IRS. Read More

    Predictive implications of albumin and C-reactive protein for progression to pneumonia and poor prognosis in Stenotrophomonas maltophilia bacteremia following allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation.
    BMC Infect Dis 2017 Sep 22;17(1):638. Epub 2017 Sep 22.
    Division of Hematology, Tokyo Metropolitan Cancer and Infectious Diseases Center Komagome Hospital, Tokyo, Japan.
    Background: Stenotrophomonas maltophilia (S. maltophilia) bacteremia causes significant morbidity and mortality in immunocompromised hosts. However, incidence and risk factors for mortality in S. Read More

    Rifampicin resistance in mycobacterium tuberculosis patients using GeneXpert at Livingstone Central Hospital for the year 2015: a cross sectional explorative study.
    BMC Infect Dis 2017 Sep 22;17(1):640. Epub 2017 Sep 22.
    University of Zambia, School of Public Health, P.o Box 50110, Lusaka, Zambia.
    Background: Since the recent introduction of GeneXepert for the detection of Tuberculosis (TB) drug resistance mutations in both primary resistance and acquired resistance in Zambia, little has been documented in literature on the issue of rifampicin resistance especially in the face of a high National TB burden. The study aimed to determine the prevalence of rifampicin resistance in tuberculosis patients at Livingstone Central Hospital for the year 2015.

    Methods: This was a cross sectional study conducted at Livingstone Central Hospital where we reviewed 152 records (from January 1, 2015 to 31st December, 2015) involving patients who presented with clinically suspected TB or documented TB, whose samples were sent to the laboratory for GeneXpert Mycobacterium tuberculosis/rifampicin testing. Read More

    Clostridium difficile infection in the Lao People's Democratic Republic: first isolation and review of the literature.
    BMC Infect Dis 2017 Sep 21;17(1):635. Epub 2017 Sep 21.
    Lao-Oxford-Mahosot Hospital-Wellcome Trust Research Unit, Microbiology Laboratory, Mahosot Hospital, Vientiane, Lao People's Democratic Republic.
    Background: Current knowledge of the epidemiology of Clostridium difficile infection in Asia, and in particular the Greater Mekong Subregion, is very limited. Only a few studies from Thailand and Vietnam have been reported from the region with variable testing methods and results, and no studies from Lao People's Democratic Republic (PDR). Therefore we investigated the presence of C. Read More

    Shifting trends in bacteriology and antimicrobial resistance among gastrointestinal fistula patients in China: an eight-year review in a tertiary-care hospital.
    BMC Infect Dis 2017 Sep 21;17(1):637. Epub 2017 Sep 21.
    Department of Surgery, Jinling Hospital, Medical School of Nanjing University, 305 East Zhongshan Road, Nanjing, People's Republic of China.
    Background: The purpose of this study was to determine the shifting trends in bacteriology and antimicrobial resistance of infectious specimens isolated from gastrointestinal (GI) fistula patients over eight years in China.

    Methods: We retrospectively reviewed the microbial records of intra-abdominal specimens at a teaching hospital from 2008 to 2015. Study period was divided into the first half (2008-2011) and the second half (2012-2015). Read More

    Effects of X-ray on the metacestodes of Echinococcus granulosus in vitro.
    BMC Infect Dis 2017 Sep 21;17(1):636. Epub 2017 Sep 21.
    State Key Laboratory Incubation Base for Xinjiang Major Diseases Research and Xinjiang Key Laboratory of Echinococcosis, The First Affiliated Hospital of Xinjiang Medical University, Urumqi, 830054, China.
    Background: Radiotherapy may represent an alternative treatment modality for cystic echinococcosis (CE), but there is no adequate evidence for it up to now. In this study, we aim to investigate the parasiticidal effects of X-ray on the metacestodes of Echinococcus granulosus in vitro.

    Methods: Protoscoleces obtained from sheep naturally infected with CE were cultivated in RPMI 1640 medium containing 10% fetal bovine serum (FBS) at 37 °C in 5% CO2. Read More

    Who's holding the baby? A prospective diary study of the contact patterns of mothers with an infant.
    BMC Infect Dis 2017 Sep 20;17(1):634. Epub 2017 Sep 20.
    Melbourne School of Population and Global Health, University of Melbourne, Parkville, VIC, Australia.
    Background: Models of infectious disease are increasingly utilising empirical contact data to quantify the number of potentially infectious contacts between age groups. While a growing body of data is being collected on contact patterns across many populations, less attention has been paid to the social contacts of young infants. We collected information on the social contacts of primary carers of young infants and investigated their potential for use as a proxy for contacts made by their infant. Read More

    Acute HIV infection presenting as hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis: case report and review of the literature.
    BMC Infect Dis 2017 Sep 20;17(1):633. Epub 2017 Sep 20.
    University of Calgary and Alberta Health Services, 1403-29th Street NW, Calgary, AB, T2N 2T9, Canada.
    Background: Hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH) is an uncommon systemic inflammatory condition that can result from infections, autoimmune diseases and malignancies. It is a rarely reported life threatening complication of an acute HIV infection, with only ten documented case reports per our literature search. We present a case of HLH secondary to acute HIV infection with a negative HIV antibody-based assay and high plasma viral load. Read More

    Detection of bacterial pathogens from clinical specimens using conventional microbial culture and 16S metagenomics: a comparative study.
    BMC Infect Dis 2017 Sep 19;17(1):631. Epub 2017 Sep 19.
    Credence Genomics Pvt. Ltd, 12 - 3/2, Sunethradevi Road, Kohuwala, Nugegoda, Sri Lanka.
    Background: Infectious disease is the leading cause of death worldwide, and diagnosis of polymicrobial and fungal infections is increasingly challenging in the clinical setting. Conventionally, molecular detection is still the best method of species identification in clinical samples. However, the limitations of Sanger sequencing make diagnosis of polymicrobial infections one of the biggest hurdles in treatment. Read More

    Variation in loss of immunity shapes influenza epidemics and the impact of vaccination.
    BMC Infect Dis 2017 Sep 19;17(1):632. Epub 2017 Sep 19.
    National Institute for Public Health and the Environment, Antonie van Leeuwenhoeklaan 9, Bilthoven, 3721 MA, The Netherlands.
    Background: Protective antibody immunity against the influenza A virus wanes in 2-7 years due to antigenic drift of the virus' surface proteins. The duration of immune protection is highly variable because antigenic evolution of the virus is irregular. Currently, the variable nature of the duration of immunity has had little attention in analyses of the impact of vaccination, including cost-effectiveness studies. Read More

    Sero-epidemiology study of leptospirosis in febrile patients from Terai region of Nepal.
    BMC Infect Dis 2017 Sep 18;17(1):628. Epub 2017 Sep 18.
    Department of Health Services, Ministry of Health, Government of Nepal, Kathmandu, Nepal.
    Background: Leptospirosis is a re-emerging zoonotic disease caused by pathogenic strains of bacteria belonging to genus Leptospira whose symptoms can range from mild clinical manifestations to a severe life threatening illness. This disease may be under-recognized in resource poor settings like Nepal where many clinical laboratories lack appropriate equipment, technology and personnel for proper diagnosis.

    Methods: We used IgM ELISA to estimate the sero-prevalence of leptospirosis in a group of febrile patients in a western region of Nepal. Read More

    Caretakers' understanding of malaria, use of insecticide treated net and care seeking-behavior for febrile illness of their children in Ethiopia.
    BMC Infect Dis 2017 Sep 18;17(1):629. Epub 2017 Sep 18.
    Department of Medical Laboratory Sciences and Pathology, Faculty of Health Sciences, Jimma University, Jimma, Ethiopia.
    Background: Local understandings of malaria and use of preventive measures-are critical factors in sustained control of malaria. This study assessed caretakers' knowledge on malaria, use of Long Lasting Insecticide Treated Nets (LLINs) and care-seeking behavior for their children's illness in different malaria transmission settings of Ethiopia.

    Methods: Data were collected from 709 caretakers of children of 2-9 years of age during in 2016. Read More

    Effects on preventing mother-to-child transmission of syphilis and associated adverse pregnant outcomes: a longitudinal study from 2001 to 2015 in Shanghai, China.
    BMC Infect Dis 2017 Sep 18;17(1):626. Epub 2017 Sep 18.
    Department of Epidemiology, School of Public Health Fudan University, Shanghai, China.
    Background: Maternal syphilis is a health threat to both the pregnant women and the children. This study aimed to delineate the longitudinal trend of maternal syphilis and burden of associated adverse pregnant outcomes (APOs) in Shanghai from 2001 to 2015; and to evaluate the effects of preventing mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT) of syphilis in Shanghai with regard to service coverage and APOs averted.

    Methods: PMTCT program of syphilis has been implemented since 2001. Read More

    An eleven-year retrospective hospital-based study of epidemiological data regarding human strongyloidiasis in northeast Thailand.
    BMC Infect Dis 2017 Sep 18;17(1):627. Epub 2017 Sep 18.
    Department of Parasitology, Faculty of Medicine, Khon Kaen University, Khon Kaen, Thailand.
    Background: Human strongyloidiasis is a chronic and persistent gastrointestinal disease caused by infection with soil-transmitted helminths of the genus Strongyloides. The aim of this research was to obtain diagnostic prevalence regarding strongyloidiasis in northeast Thailand through a hospital-based study.

    Methods: Patients' demographic data and the results of stool examinations conducted using the formalin ethyl acetate concentration technique were collected from the parasitology laboratory records at Srinagarind Hospital in Khon Kaen, Thailand. Read More

    Impact of UGT1A1 gene polymorphisms on plasma dolutegravir trough concentrations and neuropsychiatric adverse events in Japanese individuals infected with HIV-1.
    BMC Infect Dis 2017 Sep 16;17(1):622. Epub 2017 Sep 16.
    AIDS Medical Center, National Hospital Organization Osaka National Hospital, 2-1-14, Hoenzaka, Chuo-ku, Osaka City, 540-0006, Japan.
    Background: Dolutegravir (DTG) is metabolized mainly by uridine diphosphate (UDP)-glucuronosyltransferase 1A1 (UGT1A1), and partly by cytochrome P450 3A (CYP3A). Therefore, we focused on UGT1A1 gene polymorphisms (*6 and *28) in Japanese individuals infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-1 to examine the relationship between their plasma trough concentration of DTG and gene polymorphisms. Recently, neuropsychiatric adverse events (NP-AEs) after the use of DTG have become a concern, so the association between UGT1A1 gene polymorphisms and selected NP-AEs was also investigated. Read More

    Exposure rate of VZV among women attending antenatal care clinic in Sri Lanka - a cross sectional study.
    BMC Infect Dis 2017 Sep 16;17(1):625. Epub 2017 Sep 16.
    Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics, Faculty of Medicine, University of Peradeniya, Peradeniya, Sri Lanka.
    Background: Varicella or chickenpox was not a notifiable disease until 2005 in Sri Lanka and only a few studies have been conducted on the epidemiology of VZV infection in the country. The anti-VZV IgG sero-prevalence among antenatal women is extremely limited and thus a selected group of antenatal clinic attendees were chosen to determine the exposure rate to VZV infection.

    Methods: Women attending the antenatal clinic at Teaching Hospital, Peradeniya, Sri Lanka were selected for the study and 3 mL of venous blood was collected from 181 participants and the demographic data was obtained through a pre-tested questionnaire. Read More

    Correlates of isoniazid preventive therapy failure in child household contacts with infectious tuberculosis in high burden settings in Nairobi, Kenya - a cohort study.
    BMC Infect Dis 2017 Sep 16;17(1):623. Epub 2017 Sep 16.
    Department of Medical physiology, Kenyatta University, Sechool of Medicin, Nairobi, Kenya.
    Background: Sub-Saharan Africa continues to document high pediatric tuberculosis (TB) burden, especially among the urban poor. One recommended preventive strategy involves tracking and isoniazid preventive therapy (IPT) for children under 5 years in close contact with infectious TB. However, sub-optimal effectiveness has been documented in diverse settings. Read More

    Future complications of chronic hepatitis C in a low-risk area: projections from the hepatitis c study in Northern Norway.
    BMC Infect Dis 2017 Sep 16;17(1):624. Epub 2017 Sep 16.
    Gastroenterology and Nutrition Research Group, Department of Clinical Medicine, UiT The Arctic University of Norway, Tromsø, Norway.
    Background: Hepatitis C (HCV) infection causes an asymptomatic chronic hepatitis in most affected individuals, which often remains undetected until cirrhosis and cirrhosis-related complications occur. Screening of high-risk subjects in Northern Norway has revealed a relatively low prevalence in the general population (0.24%). Read More

    Factors associated with syphilis treatment failure and reinfection: a longitudinal cohort study in Shenzhen, China.
    BMC Infect Dis 2017 Sep 13;17(1):620. Epub 2017 Sep 13.
    Department of Dermatology and Venereology, Nanshan Center for Chronic Disease Control, Shenzhen, 518054, China.
    Background: The treatment failure and reinfection rates among syphilis patients are high, and relevant studies in China are limited. The aim of this study was to detect the rates of treatment failure and reinfection after syphilis treatment and to explore the potential associated factors.

    Methods: We conducted a longitudinal cohort study in a sexually transmitted disease clinic, the Department of Dermatology and Venereology in Nanshan Center for Chronic Disease Control. Read More

    Routine monitoring and assessment of adults living with HIV: results of the British HIV Association (BHIVA) national audit 2015.
    BMC Infect Dis 2017 Sep 13;17(1):619. Epub 2017 Sep 13.
    British HIV Association AND Clinical Reader in Infectious Diseases and Honorary consultant Physician in General Medicine & Infectious Diseases at University Hospital of Wales, Heath Park, Cardiff, CF14 4XW, United Kingdom.
    Background: The clinical care of people living with HIV changed fundamentally as a result of the development of effective antiretroviral therapy (ART). HIV infection is now a long-term treatable condition. We report a national audit to assess adherence to British HIV Association guidelines for the routine investigation and monitoring of adult HIV-1-infected individuals. Read More

    A novel diagnostic method for malaria using loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) and MinION™ nanopore sequencer.
    BMC Infect Dis 2017 Sep 13;17(1):621. Epub 2017 Sep 13.
    Center for Clinical Infectious Diseases and Research, Saitama Medical University, 38 Morohongo, Moroyama-machi, Iruma-gun, Saitama, 350-0495, Japan.
    Background: A simple and accurate molecular diagnostic method for malaria is urgently needed due to the limitations of conventional microscopic examination. In this study, we demonstrate a new diagnostic procedure for human malaria using loop mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) and the MinION™ nanopore sequencer.

    Methods: We generated specific LAMP primers targeting the 18S-rRNA gene of all five human Plasmodium species including two P. Read More

    Hepatitis B virus and HIV co-infection among pregnant women in Rwanda.
    BMC Infect Dis 2017 Sep 11;17(1):618. Epub 2017 Sep 11.
    Rwanda Biomedical Center, Ministry of Health, P.O. Box: 7162, Kigali, Rwanda.
    Background: Hepatitis B virus (HBV) affects people worldwide but the local burden especially in pregnant women and their new born babies is unknown. In Rwanda HIV-infected individuals who are also infected with HBV are supposed to be initiated on ART immediately. HBV is easily transmitted from mother to child during delivery. Read More

    Overall Low Extended-Spectrum Cephalosporin Resistance but high Azithromycin Resistance in Neisseria gonorrhoeae in 24 European Countries, 2015.
    BMC Infect Dis 2017 Sep 11;17(1):617. Epub 2017 Sep 11.
    WHO Collaborating Centre for Gonorrhoea and other STIs, Örebro University, Örebro, Sweden.
    Background: Surveillance of Neisseria gonorrhoeae antimicrobial susceptibility in Europe is performed through the European Gonococcal Antimicrobial Surveillance Programme (Euro-GASP), which additionally provides data to inform the European gonorrhoea treatment guideline; currently recommending ceftriaxone 500 mg plus azithromycin 2 g as first-line therapy. We present antimicrobial susceptibility data from 24 European countries in 2015, linked to epidemiological data of patients, and compare the results to Euro-GASP data from previous years.

    Methods: Antimicrobial susceptibility testing by MIC gradient strips or agar dilution methodology was performed on 2134 N. Read More

    Lessons from a decade of individual-based models for infectious disease transmission: a systematic review (2006-2015).
    BMC Infect Dis 2017 Sep 11;17(1):612. Epub 2017 Sep 11.
    Centre for Health Economics Research & Modeling Infectious Diseases, Vaccine and Infectious Disease Institute, University of Antwerp, Antwerp, Belgium.
    Background: Individual-based models (IBMs) are useful to simulate events subject to stochasticity and/or heterogeneity, and have become well established to model the potential (re)emergence of pathogens (e.g., pandemic influenza, bioterrorism). Read More

    The predictors of 3- and 30-day mortality in 660 MERS-CoV patients.
    BMC Infect Dis 2017 Sep 11;17(1):615. Epub 2017 Sep 11.
    Associate Professor, College of Public Health and Health Informatics, King Saud bin Abdulaziz University for Health Sciences, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia.
    Background: The mortality rate of Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus (MERS-CoV) patients is a major challenge in all healthcare systems worldwide. Because the MERS-CoV risk-standardized mortality rates are currently unavailable in the literature, the author concentrated on developing a method to estimate the risk-standardized mortality rates using MERS-CoV 3- and 30-day mortality measures.

    Methods: MERS-CoV data in Saudi Arabia is publicly reported and made available through the Saudi Ministry of Health (SMOH) website. Read More

    Antimicrobial resistance in bacterial pathogens among hospitalized children with community acquired lower respiratory tract infections in Dongguan, China (2011-2016).
    BMC Infect Dis 2017 Sep 11;17(1):614. Epub 2017 Sep 11.
    Department of Pediatric Respiratory Medicine, Dongguan Children's Hospital, Xihu Third Road NO. 68, Dongguan, Guangdong, 523325, China.
    Background: Bacterial pathogens are a major cause of childhood community acquired lower respiratory tract infections (CA-LRTIs), and few data described the impact of antimicrobial resistance on children with CA-LRTIs. This study aims to investigate the antimicrobial resistance in common bacterial agents among hospitalized children with CA-LRTIs between 2011 and 2016 in Dongguan, China.

    Methods: Sputum samples were collected from hospitalized children (0-5 years old) with CA-LRTIs in Dongguan Children's Hospital. Read More

    Light-emitting diode fluorescent microscopy and Xpert MTB/RIF® assay for diagnosis of pulmonary tuberculosis among patients attending Ambo hospital, west-central Ethiopia.
    BMC Infect Dis 2017 Sep 11;17(1):613. Epub 2017 Sep 11.
    Department of Microbial, Cellular and Molecular Biology, College of Natural Sciences, Addis Ababa University, P O Box, 1176, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.
    Background: The relatively simple and cheaper light-emitting diode fluorescent microscopy (LED-FM) was recommended by the World Health Organization (WHO) to replace the conventional tuberculosis (TB) microscopy in both high- and low-volume laboratories. More recently the WHO also endorsed one more technique, Xpert MTB/RIF® assay (Xpert), for improved TB diagnosis particularly among human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected cases. However, the relative performance of both of these tools differs from setting to setting in reference to the conventional TB diagnostics. Read More

    The Canadian HIV and aging cohort study - determinants of increased risk of cardio-vascular diseases in HIV-infected individuals: rationale and study protocol.
    BMC Infect Dis 2017 Sep 11;17(1):611. Epub 2017 Sep 11.
    Centre de recherche du CHUM, Montreal, Canada.
    Background: With potent antiretroviral drugs, HIV infection is becoming a chronic disease. Emergence of comorbidities, particularly cardiovascular disease (CVD) has become a leading concern for patients living with the infection. We hypothesized that the chronic and persistent inflammation and immune activation associated with HIV disease leads to accelerated aging, characterized by CVD. Read More

    Antimicrobial resistance in Africa: a systematic review.
    BMC Infect Dis 2017 Sep 11;17(1):616. Epub 2017 Sep 11.
    Foundation for Innovative New Diagnostics (FIND), Campus Biotech Building B2 Level 0, 9 Chemin des Mines, 1202, Geneva, Switzerland.
    Background: Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) is widely acknowledged as a global problem, yet in many parts of the world its magnitude is still not well understood. This review, using a public health focused approach, aimed to understand and describe the current status of AMR in Africa in relation to common causes of infections and drugs recommended in WHO treatment guidelines.

    Methods: PubMed, EMBASE and other relevant databases were searched for recent articles (2013-2016) in accordance with the PRISMA guidelines. Read More

    Low serum vitamin D levels in type 2 diabetes patients are associated with decreased mycobacterial activity.
    BMC Infect Dis 2017 Sep 7;17(1):610. Epub 2017 Sep 7.
    Departamento de Investigación en Microbiología, Instituto Nacional de Enfermedades Respiratorias "Ismael Cosío Villegas", Calzada de Tlalpan 4502, 14080, Ciudad de México, Mexico.
    Background: Concurrent diabetes mellitus and tuberculosis represent a significant health problem worldwide. Patients with diabetes mellitus have a high risk of tuberculosis, which may be mediated by an abnormal innate immune response due to hyperglycaemia or low vitamin D levels.

    Methods: In the present study, we evaluated inactive vitamin D serum levels and the monocyte response to infection with M. Read More

    Epidemiologic and clinical parameters of West Nile virus infections in humans: a scoping review.
    BMC Infect Dis 2017 Sep 6;17(1):609. Epub 2017 Sep 6.
    Public Health Ontario, Toronto, Canada, Institute for Clinical Evaluative Sciences, Toronto, Canada, Institute of Health Policy, Management and Evaluation, University of Toronto, Toronto, Canada.
    Background: Clinical syndromes associated with West Nile virus (WNV) infection range from fever to neuroinvasive disease. Understanding WNV epidemiology and disease history is important for guiding patient care and healthcare decision-making. The objective of this review was to characterize the existing body of peer-reviewed and surveillance literature on WNV syndromes and summarize epidemiologic and clinical parameters. Read More

    Chronic lower extremity wound infection due to Kerstersia gyiorum in a patient with Buerger's disease: a case report.
    BMC Infect Dis 2017 Sep 6;17(1):608. Epub 2017 Sep 6.
    Medical Microbiology Department, Ankara Numune Research and Training Hospital, Hacettepe Mahallesi Talatpasa Bulvari No: 44 Altindag, Ankara, Turkey.
    Background: Kerstersia gyiorum is an extremely rare pathogen of human infection. It can cause chronic infection in patients with underlying conditions. It can easily be misdiagnosed if proper diagnostic methods are not used. Read More

    Surveillance of device associated infections and mortality in a major intensive care unit in the Republic of Cyprus.
    BMC Infect Dis 2017 Sep 6;17(1):607. Epub 2017 Sep 6.
    Nursing Department, Cyprus University of Technology, 15, Vragadinou Str, 3041, Limassol, Cyprus.
    Background: Device-associated health care-associated infections (DA-HAI) pose a threat to patient safety, particularly in the intensive care unit. The aim of this study was to assess the incidence of DA-HAIs, mortality and crude excess mortality at a General Hospital's Intensive Care Unit (ICU) in the Republic of Cyprus for 1 year period.

    Methods: A prospective cohort, active DA-HAIs surveillance study with the use of Health Acquired Infections (HAIs) ICU Protocol (v1. Read More

    Risk factors for increased immune reconstitution in response to Mycobacterium tuberculosis antigens in tuberculosis HIV-infected, antiretroviral-naïve patients.
    BMC Infect Dis 2017 Sep 6;17(1):606. Epub 2017 Sep 6.
    Laboratory of AIDS and Molecular Immunology, Oswaldo Cruz Institute, Fundação Oswaldo Cruz (FIOCRUZ), Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.
    Background: Little is known regarding the restoration of the specific immune response after combined antiretroviral therapy (cART) and anti-tuberculosis (TB) therapy introduction among TB-HIV patients. In this study, we examined the immune response of TB-HIV patients to Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) antigens to evaluate the response dynamics to different antigens over time. Moreover, we also evaluated the influence of two different doses of efavirenz and the factors associated with immune reconstitution. Read More

    Treatment outcomes for isoniazid-resistant tuberculosis under program conditions in British Columbia, Canada.
    BMC Infect Dis 2017 Sep 4;17(1):604. Epub 2017 Sep 4.
    Provincial Tuberculosis Services, BC Centre for Disease Control, Vancouver, BC, Canada.
    Background: Every year, over 1 million people develop isoniazid (INH) resistant tuberculosis (TB). Yet, the optimal treatment regimen remains unclear. Given increasing prevalence, the clinical efficacy of regimens used by physicians is of interest. Read More

    Children with respiratory tract infections in Swedish primary care; prevalence of antibiotic resistance in common respiratory tract pathogens and relation to antibiotic consumption.
    BMC Infect Dis 2017 Sep 4;17(1):603. Epub 2017 Sep 4.
    Department of Clinical Sciences, Family Medicine, Lund University, Malmö, Sweden.
    Background: The majority of antibiotics consumed in developed countries are prescribed in primary care. However, little is known about resistance levels in the primary care population.

    Method: Nasopharyngeal cultures were obtained from children, 0-10 years of age, seeking care at their Primary Health Care Centre with symptoms of respiratory tract infection. Read More

    Accumulation of HIV-1 drug resistance in patients on a standard thymidine analogue-based first line antiretroviral therapy after virological failure: implications for the activity of next-line regimens from a longitudinal study in Mozambique.
    BMC Infect Dis 2017 Sep 5;17(1):605. Epub 2017 Sep 5.
    DREAM Program, Rome, Italy.
    Background: We describe the accumulation of HIV-1 drug resistance and its effect on the activity of next-line components in patients with virological failure (HIV-1 RNA >1000 copies/mL) after 1 year (t1) of first-line antiretroviral therapy (ART) not switching to second-line drugs for one additional year (t2) in low-middle income countries (LMIC).

    Methods And Results: We selected 48 patients from the DREAM cohort (Maputo, Mozambique); their median pre-ART CD4+ cell count was 165 cells/μl. At t1 patients were receiving ART since a median of 12. Read More

    Molecular characterization of hepatitis B virus in Vietnam.
    BMC Infect Dis 2017 Aug 31;17(1):601. Epub 2017 Aug 31.
    Oxford University Clinical Research Unit, Toronto, Canada.
    Background: Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is a major public health problem globally. HBV genotypes and subgenotypes influence disease transmission, progression, and treatment outcome. A study was conducted among treatment naive chronic HBV patients in southern Vietnam to determine the genotypes and subgenotypes of HBV. Read More

    Clinical care given to victims of sexual assault at Kadoma General Hospital, Zimbabwe: a secondary data analysis, 2016.
    BMC Infect Dis 2017 Aug 31;17(1):602. Epub 2017 Aug 31.
    Department of Community Medicine, University of Zimbabwe, Harare, Zimbabwe.
    Background: Despite the guidelines for managing sexual assault being in place, victims of sexual assault attended to at Kadoma General Hospital consistently raised complaints related to the quality of care offered. Medicolegal data for sexual assault has been collected at the hospital since 2012. However, no analysis had been done regardless of complaints having been raised. Read More

    Suitability of saliva for Tuberculosis diagnosis: comparing with serum.
    BMC Infect Dis 2017 Aug 31;17(1):600. Epub 2017 Aug 31.
    Uganda - Case Western Research Collaboration, Mulago-Kampala, Uganda.
    Background: In the search for fast, simple and better ways for diagnosis of tuberculosis (TB), there is need to discover and evaluate new biomarkers that are found in samples other than sputum to determine their effectiveness. This study examined the utility of saliva vis-a-vis serum by evaluating levels of biomarkers found in saliva and serum from TB suspects.

    Methods: Study enrolled tuberculosis suspects. Read More

    Acute rhabdomyolysis and delayed pericardial effusion in an Italian patient with Ebola virus disease: a case report.
    BMC Infect Dis 2017 Aug 30;17(1):597. Epub 2017 Aug 30.
    National Institute for Infectious Diseases - INMI - Lazzaro Spallanzani IRCCS, Via Portuense 292, 00149, Rome, Italy.
    Background: During the 2013-2016 West Africa Ebola virus disease (EVD) epidemic, some EVD patients, mostly health care workers, were evacuated to Europe and the USA.

    Case Presentation: In May 2015, a 37-year old male nurse contracted Ebola virus disease in Sierra Leone. After Ebola virus detection in plasma, he was medically-evacuated to Italy. Read More

    Incidence of human rabies and characterization of rabies virus nucleoprotein gene in dogs in Fujian Province, Southeast China, 2002-2012.
    BMC Infect Dis 2017 Aug 30;17(1):599. Epub 2017 Aug 30.
    School of Public Health, Fujian Medical University, Fuzhou City, Fujian Province, 350004, China.
    Background: Rabies is a global fatal infectious viral disease that is characterized by a high mortality after onset of clinical symptoms. Recently, there has been an increase in the incidence of rabies in China. The aim of this study was to investigate the incidence of human rabies and characterize the rabies virus nucleoprotein gene in dogs sampled from Fujian Province, Southeast China from 2002 to 2012. Read More

    Spatiotemporal epidemiology of scarlet fever in Jiangsu Province, China, 2005-2015.
    BMC Infect Dis 2017 Aug 30;17(1):596. Epub 2017 Aug 30.
    Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, School of Public Health, Nanjing Medical University, Nanjing, 211166, China.
    Background: A marked increase in the incidence rate of scarlet fever imposed a considerable burden on the health of children aged 5 to 15 years. The main purpose of this study was to depict the spatiotemporal epidemiological characteristics of scarlet fever in Jiangsu Province, China in order to develop and implement effective scientific prevention and control strategies.

    Methods: Smoothed map was used to demonstrate the spatial distribution of scarlet fever in Jiangsu Province. Read More

    Acquisition and clearance of multidrug resistant Acinetobacter baumannii on healthy young adults concurrently burned in a dust explosion in Taiwan: the implication for antimicrobial stewardship.
    BMC Infect Dis 2017 Aug 30;17(1):598. Epub 2017 Aug 30.
    Division of Infectious Diseases, Department of Medicine, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital and Chang Gung University, 5 Fu-Shin St., Kweishan, 333, Taoyuan, Taiwan.
    Background: Information is limited about the effect of restricted carbapenem use on clearance of multi-drug resistant Acinetobacter baumannii (MDRAB). We sought to determine the time effect of antibiotic exposure on multi-drug resistant Acinetobacter baumannii (MDRAB) acquisition and clearance.

    Methods: We conducted a retrospective observational study at the intensive care units of a tertiary medical center. Read More

    Landscape review of current HIV 'kick and kill' cure research - some kicking, not enough killing.
    BMC Infect Dis 2017 Aug 29;17(1):595. Epub 2017 Aug 29.
    Faculty of Medicine, University of Ottawa, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada.
    Background: Current antiretroviral therapy (ART) used to treat human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) patients is life-long because it only suppresses de novo infections. Recent efforts to eliminate HIV have tested the ability of a number of agents to reactivate ('Kick') the well-known latent reservoir. This approach is rooted in the assumption that once these cells are reactivated the host's immune system itself will eliminate ('Kill') the virus. Read More

    Precisão e confiabilidade de um teste imuno-cromatográfico rápido NS1 para diagnóstico DENV-1 no ponto de atendimento e no laboratório.
    BMC Infect Dis 2017 Aug 29;17(1):594. Epub 2017 Aug 29.
    , Av. Brasil 4036 sala 201 A, CEP 21040-361, Rio de Janeiro, RJ, Brasil.
    Background: Rapid immunochromatographic tests (ICT) for dengue non-structural protein 1 (NS1) have shown good performance for diagnosing acute-phase dengue in serum in laboratory settings, but rarely have been assessed in whole blood and at point of care (POC). This study compare the accuracy and inter- and intra-observer reliability of the NS1 Bioeasy™ ICT in whole blood at POC versus serum in the laboratory, during a DENV-1 epidemic.

    Methods: Cross-sectional study involving 144 adults spontaneously demanding care in an emergency department within 4 days of onset of acute febrile illness. Read More

    The impact of drug resistance on the risk of tuberculosis infection and disease in child household contacts: a cross sectional study.
    BMC Infect Dis 2017 Aug 29;17(1):593. Epub 2017 Aug 29.
    Desmond Tutu TB Centre, Department of Paediatrics and Child Health, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Stellenbosch University, PO Box 241, 8000, Cape Town, South Africa.
    Background: The relative fitness of organisms causing drug-susceptible (DS) and multidrug-resistant (MDR) tuberculosis (TB) is unclear. We compared the risk of TB infection and TB disease in young child household contacts of adults with confirmed DS-TB and MDR-TB.

    Methods: In this cross-sectional analysis we included data from two community-based contact cohort investigation studies conducted in parallel in Cape Town, South Africa. Read More

    The associations between socioeconomic status and risk of Staphylococcus aureus bacteremia and subsequent endocarditis - a Danish nationwide cohort study.
    BMC Infect Dis 2017 Aug 25;17(1):589. Epub 2017 Aug 25.
    The Institute of Health, Science and Technology, Aalborg University, Aalborg, Denmark.
    Background: Staphylococcus aureus bacteremia (SAB) is the leading cause of infective endocarditis in several countries. Since socioeconomic status (SES) is known to influence the risk of infectious diseases in general, we aimed to investigate the association between SES and SAB, and risk of subsequent endocarditis in a nationwide adult population.

    Methods: All Danish residents were consecutively included at age ≥ 30 years during 1996-2010. Read More

    Accuracy of different diagnostic tests for early, delayed and late prosthetic joint infection.
    BMC Infect Dis 2017 Aug 25;17(1):592. Epub 2017 Aug 25.
    Infectious Diseases Unit, Department of Medicine, Hospital Universitario Marqués de Valdecilla-IDIVAL, School of Medicine, University of Cantabria, Santander, Spain.
    Background: A combination of laboratory, histopathological and microbiological tests for diagnosis of prosthetic joint infection (PJI) have been strongly recommended. This study aims to characterize the accuracy of individual or group tests, such as culture of sonicate fluid, synovial fluid and peri-implant tissue, C-reactive protein (CRP) and histopathology for detection of early, delayed and late PJI.

    Methods: A prospective study of patients undergoing hip or knee arthroplasty from February 2009 to February 2014 was performed in a Spanish tertiary health care hospital. Read More

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