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    Remarkable spatial variation in the seroprevalence of Coxiella burnetii after a large Q fever epidemic.
    BMC Infect Dis 2017 Nov 21;17(1):725. Epub 2017 Nov 21.
    Centre for Infectious Disease Control, National Institute for Public Health and the Environment, (RIVM), PO Box 1, 3720 BA, Bilthoven, the Netherlands.
    Background: Prior to the 2007-2010 Q fever epidemic in the Netherlands, the seroprevalence of antibodies against Coxiella burnetii in the general population was 1.5%, which is low compared to other countries. We aimed to determine the seroprevalence after the Q fever epidemic among people living in the affected area, compare the seroprevalence with the incidence of Q fever notifications during the 2007-2010 Q fever epidemic, and to identify farm exposures associated with having antibodies against C. Read More

    Alkaline peptone water enrichment with a dipstick test to quickly detect and monitor cholera outbreaks.
    BMC Infect Dis 2017 Nov 21;17(1):726. Epub 2017 Nov 21.
    Department of International Health, DOVE Project, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, MD, USA.
    Background: Detection, confirmation and monitoring of cholera outbreaks in many developing countries including Uganda is a big challenge due to lack of the required resources and the time the test takes. Culture method which takes 24-48 h to get the feedback and requires highly skilled laboratory staff plus other complex resources is the standard test. This study evaluated the new cholera rapid detection method that relies on Crystal VC dipsticks after enrichment with alkaline peptone water (APW) against the culture method for monitoring the progress of cholera outbreaks in rural setting. Read More

    Antifungal susceptibility testing of Candida species isolated from the immunocompromised patients admitted to ten university hospitals in Iran: comparison of colonizing and infecting isolates.
    BMC Infect Dis 2017 Nov 21;17(1):727. Epub 2017 Nov 21.
    Department of Pediatrics, Besat Tertiary Hospital, Kurdistan University of Medical Sciences, Sanandaj, Iran.
    Background: Antifungal susceptibility testing is a subject of interest in the field of medical mycology. The aim of the present study were the distributions and antifungal susceptibility patterns of various Candida species isolated from colonized and infected immunocompromised patients admitted to ten university hospitals in Iran.

    Methods: In totally, 846 Candida species were isolated from more than 4000 clinical samples and identified by the API 20 C AUX system. Read More

    Health care workers' knowledge, attitudes and practices on tuberculosis infection control, Nepal.
    BMC Infect Dis 2017 Nov 17;17(1):724. Epub 2017 Nov 17.
    Department of Community Medicine and Public Health, Institute of Medicine, Tribhuvan University, Kathmandu, Nepal.
    Background: Infection control remains a key challenge for Tuberculosis (TB) control program with an increased risk of TB transmission among health care workers (HCWs), especially in settings with inadequate TB infection control measures. Poor knowledge among HCWs and inadequate infection control practices may lead to the increased risk of nosocomial TB transmission.

    Methods: An institution-based cross-sectional survey was conducted in 28 health facilities providing TB services in the Kathmandu Valley, Nepal. Read More

    Recurrent tuberculosis in Finland 1995-2013: a clinical and epidemiological cohort study.
    BMC Infect Dis 2017 Nov 16;17(1):721. Epub 2017 Nov 16.
    Department of Health Security, National Institute for Health and Welfare, Helsinki, Finland.
    Background: We investigated the epidemiology and prevalence of potential risk factors of tuberculosis (TB) recurrence in a population-based registry cohort of 8084 TB cases between 1995 and 2013.

    Methods: An episode of recurrent TB was defined as a case re-registered in the National Infectious Disease Register at least 360 days from the date of the initial registration. A regression model was used to estimate risk factors for recurrence in the national cohort. Read More

    Durability of switch regimens based on rilpivirine or on integrase inhibitors, both in association with tenofovir and emtricitabine, in HIV-infected, virologically suppressed patients.
    BMC Infect Dis 2017 Nov 16;17(1):723. Epub 2017 Nov 16.
    Infectious Diseases, San Raffaele Scientific Institute, Via Stamira d'Ancona 20, 20127, Milan, Italy.
    Background: Switch strategies based on rilpivirine/tenofovir/emtricitabine or on an integrase inhibitor (InSTI) plus tenofovir/emtricitabine have never been compared in randomized clinical trials. The main aim of the study was to investigate the durability of these two switch regimens in virologically suppressed, HIV-infected patients.

    Methods: Retrospective analysis of patients who started rilpivirine or an InSTI (both with tenofovir and emtricitabine) with <50 HIV-RNA copies/mL and had at least one HIV-RNA assessed while receiving the study regimen. Read More

    Effectiveness of current and future regimens for treating genotype 3 hepatitis C virus infection: a large-scale systematic review.
    BMC Infect Dis 2017 Nov 16;17(1):722. Epub 2017 Nov 16.
    UCL Medical School, Kings College Hospital, Denmark Hill, London, SE5 9RS, UK.
    Background: Six distinct genetic variants (genotypes 1 - 6) of hepatitis C virus (HCV) exist globally. Certain genotypes are more prevalent in particular countries or regions than in others but, globally, genotype 3 (GT3) is the second most common. Patients infected with HCV GT1, 2, 4, 5 or 6 recover to a greater extent, as measured by sustained virological response (SVR), following treatment with regimens based on direct-acting antivirals (DAAs) than after treatment with older regimens based on pegylated interferon (Peg-IFN). Read More

    Economic evaluation of HCV testing approaches in low and middle income countries.
    BMC Infect Dis 2017 Nov 1;17(Suppl 1):697. Epub 2017 Nov 1.
    Department of Medicine, Section of Infectious Diseases, Boston Medical Center, 801 Massachusetts Avenue, Boston, MA, 02118, USA.
    Background: Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection represents a major public health burden with diverse epidemics worldwide, but at present, only a minority of infected persons have been tested and are aware of their diagnosis. The advent of highly effective direct acting antiviral (DAA) therapy, which is becoming available at increasingly lower costs in low and middle income countries (LMICs), represents a major opportunity to expand access to testing and treatment. However, there is uncertainty as to the optimal testing approaches and who to prioritize for testing. Read More

    The future of viral hepatitis testing: innovations in testing technologies and approaches.
    BMC Infect Dis 2017 Nov 1;17(Suppl 1):699. Epub 2017 Nov 1.
    Global Hepatitis Programme, HIV Department, World Health Organization, Geneva, Switzerland.
    A large burden of undiagnosed hepatitis virus cases remains globally. Despite the 257 million people living with chronic hepatitis B virus infection, and 71 million with chronic viraemic HCV infection, most people with hepatitis remain unaware of their infection. Advances in rapid detection technology have created new opportunities for enhancing access to testing and care, as well as monitoring of treatment. Read More

    Economic evaluations of HBV testing and treatment strategies and applicability to low and middle-income countries.
    BMC Infect Dis 2017 Nov 1;17(Suppl 1):692. Epub 2017 Nov 1.
    Division of Digestive Diseases, Imperial College, London, UK.
    Background: Many people living with chronic HBV infection remain undiagnosed until later stages of disease. Increasing testing and treatment rates form part of the strategy to respond to the WHO goal of eliminating viral hepatitis as a public health threat by 2030. However, achieving these ambitious targets is dependent on finding effective and cost-effective methods of scale up strategies. Read More

    The HepTestContest: a global innovation contest to identify approaches to hepatitis B and C testing.
    BMC Infect Dis 2017 Nov 1;17(Suppl 1):701. Epub 2017 Nov 1.
    World Health Organization HIV Department, 20 Avenue Appia, CH-1211, Geneva 27, Switzerland.
    Background: Innovation contests are a novel approach to elicit good ideas and innovative practices in various areas of public health. There remains limited published literature on approaches to deliver hepatitis testing. The purpose of this innovation contest was to identify examples of different hepatitis B and C approaches to support countries in their scale-up of hepatitis testing and to supplement development of formal recommendations on service delivery in the 2017 World Health Organization hepatitis B and C testing guidelines. Read More

    Diagnostic accuracy of serological diagnosis of hepatitis C and B using dried blood spot samples (DBS): two systematic reviews and meta-analyses.
    BMC Infect Dis 2017 Nov 1;17(Suppl 1):700. Epub 2017 Nov 1.
    FIND, Geneva, Switzerland.
    Background: Dried blood spots (DBS) are a convenient tool to enable diagnostic testing for viral diseases due to transport, handling and logistical advantages over conventional venous blood sampling. A better understanding of the performance of serological testing for hepatitis C (HCV) and hepatitis B virus (HBV) from DBS is important to enable more widespread use of this sampling approach in resource limited settings, and to inform the 2017 World Health Organization (WHO) guidance on testing for HBV/HCV.

    Methods: We conducted two systematic reviews and meta-analyses on the diagnostic accuracy of HCV antibody (HCV-Ab) and HBV surface antigen (HBsAg) from DBS samples compared to venous blood samples. Read More

    Methodological challenges in appraising evidence on diagnostic testing for WHO guidelines on hepatitis B and hepatitis C virus infection.
    BMC Infect Dis 2017 Nov 1;17(Suppl 1):694. Epub 2017 Nov 1.
    Centre for Population Health, Burnet Institute, Melbourne, Australia.
    Linking persons with hepatitis B (HBV) and hepatitis C (HCV) infection with appropriate prevention and treatment requires that they first be diagnosed. The World Health Organization (WHO) has developed its first guidelines on testing for chronic HBV and HCV infection, using a framework based on methods from the Grading of Recommendations, Assessment, Development, and Evaluation (GRADE) Working Group for the formulation of recommendations, including determining the strength of recommendations and quality of evidence. Recommendations were formulated based on the overall quality of the evidence, in addition to other considerations, including the balance between benefits and harms, values and preferences, feasibility and resource implications. Read More

    Trends in hepatitis B virus testing practices and management in HIV clinics across sub-Saharan Africa.
    BMC Infect Dis 2017 Nov 1;17(Suppl 1):706. Epub 2017 Nov 1.
    Institute of Social and Preventive Medicine, University of Bern, Bern, Switzerland.
    Background: Approximately 8% of HIV-infected individuals are co-infected with hepatitis B virus (HBV) in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). Knowledge of HBV status is important to guide optimal selection of antiretroviral therapy (ART) and monitor/prevent liver-related complications. We describe changes in testing practices and management of HBV infection over a 3-year period in HIV clinics across SSA. Read More

    Optimising diagnosis of viraemic hepatitis C infection: the development of a target product profile.
    BMC Infect Dis 2017 Nov 1;17(Suppl 1):707. Epub 2017 Nov 1.
    FIND, MSF Access Campaign, Geneva, Switzerland.
    Background: The current low access to virological testing to confirm chronic viraemic HCV infection in low- and middle-income countries (LMIC) is limiting the rollout of hepatitis C (HCV) care. Existing tests are complex, costly and require sophisticated laboratory infrastructure. Diagnostic manufacturers need guidance on the optimal characteristics a virological test needs to have to ensure the greatest impact on HCV diagnosis and treatment in LMIC. Read More

    Diagnostic accuracy of tests to detect hepatitis B surface antigen: a systematic review of the literature and meta-analysis.
    BMC Infect Dis 2017 Nov 1;17(Suppl 1):698. Epub 2017 Nov 1.
    London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, Keppel St, London, WC1E 7HT, UK.
    Background: Chronic Hepatitis B Virus (HBV) infection is characterised by the persistence of hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg). Expanding HBV diagnosis and treatment programmes into low resource settings will require high quality but inexpensive rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) in addition to laboratory-based enzyme immunoassays (EIAs) to detect HBsAg. The purpose of this review is to assess the clinical accuracy of available diagnostic tests to detect HBsAg to inform recommendations on testing strategies in 2017 WHO hepatitis testing guidelines. Read More

    Diagnostic accuracy of detection and quantification of HBV-DNA and HCV-RNA using dried blood spot (DBS) samples - a systematic review and meta-analysis.
    BMC Infect Dis 2017 Nov 1;17(Suppl 1):693. Epub 2017 Nov 1.
    Global Hepatitis Programme, HIV Department, World Health Organization, Geneva, Switzerland.
    Background: The detection and quantification of hepatitis B (HBV) DNA and hepatitis C (HCV) RNA in whole blood collected on dried blood spots (DBS) may facilitate access to diagnosis and treatment of HBV and HCV infection in resource-poor settings. We evaluated the diagnostic performance of DBS compared to venous blood samples for detection and quantification of HBV-DNA and HCV-RNA in two systematic reviews and meta-analyses on the diagnostic accuracy of HBV DNA and HCV RNA from DBS compared to venous blood samples.

    Methods: We searched MEDLINE, Embase, Global Health, Web of Science, LILAC and Cochrane library for studies that assessed diagnostic accuracy with DBS. Read More

    Diagnostic accuracy of tests to detect Hepatitis C antibody: a meta-analysis and review of the literature.
    BMC Infect Dis 2017 Nov 1;17(Suppl 1):695. Epub 2017 Nov 1.
    Global Hepatitis Programme, HIV Department, World Health Organization, Geneva, Switzerland.
    Background: Although direct-acting antivirals can achieve sustained virological response rates greater than 90% in Hepatitis C Virus (HCV) infected persons, at present the majority of HCV-infected individuals remain undiagnosed and therefore untreated. While there are a wide range of HCV serological tests available, there is a lack of formal assessment of their diagnostic performance. We undertook a systematic review and meta-analysis to evaluate he diagnostic accuracy of available rapid diagnostic tests (RDT) and laboratory based EIA assays in detecting antibodies to HCV. Read More

    Values, preferences and current hepatitis B and C testing practices in low- and middle-income countries: results of a survey of end users and implementers.
    BMC Infect Dis 2017 Nov 1;17(Suppl 1):702. Epub 2017 Nov 1.
    FIND, Geneva, Switzerland.
    Background: Access to hepatitis B virus (HBV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) diagnostics remains a key bottleneck in scale-up of access to HBV and HCV treatment, particularly in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) that lack laboratory resources and skilled personnel. To inform the development of World Health Organization (WHO) testing guidelines on who to test and how to test, we performed a "values and preferences" survey of end users and implementers of hepatitis testing in LMICs on current hepatitis B and C testing practices and acceptability of diagnostic approaches, as well as preferences for the future.

    Methods: The survey consisted of a four-part, 28 question online survey tool using SurveyMonkey software. Read More

    One or two serological assay testing strategy for diagnosis of HBV and HCV infection? The use of predictive modelling.
    BMC Infect Dis 2017 Nov 1;17(Suppl 1):705. Epub 2017 Nov 1.
    Department of Essential Medicines and Health Products, World Health Organization, Geneva, Switzerland.
    Background: Initial serological testing for chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is conducted using either rapid diagnostic tests (RDT) or laboratory-based enzyme immunoassays (EIA)s for detection of hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) or antibodies to HCV (anti-HCV), typically on serum or plasma specimens and, for certain RDTs, capillary whole blood. WHO recommends the use of standardized testing strategies - defined as a sequence of one or more assays to maximize testing accuracy while simplifying the testing process and ideally minimizing cost. Our objective was to examine the diagnostic outcomes of a one- versus two-assay serological testing strategy. Read More

    Survey of programmatic experiences and challenges in delivery of hepatitis B and C testing in low- and middle-income countries.
    BMC Infect Dis 2017 Nov 1;17(Suppl 1):696. Epub 2017 Nov 1.
    Global Hepatitis Programme, World Health Organization, 20 Avenue Appia, 1211, 27, Geneva, Switzerland.
    Background: There have been few reports on programmatic experience of viral hepatitis testing and treatment in resource-limited settings. To inform the development of the 2017 World Health Organization (WHO) viral hepatitis testing guidance and in particular the feasibility of proposed recommendations, we undertook a survey across a range of organisations engaged with hepatitis testing in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). Our objective was to describe current hepatitis B and C testing practices across a range of settings in different countries, as well as key barriers or challenges encountered and proposed solutions to promote testing scale-up. Read More

    Trends in bednet ownership and usage, and the effect of bednets on malaria hospitalization in the Kilifi Health and Demographic Surveillance System (KHDSS): 2008-2015.
    BMC Infect Dis 2017 Nov 15;17(1):720. Epub 2017 Nov 15.
    KEMRI-Wellcome Trust Research Programme, CGMR-Coast, Kilifi, Kenya.
    Background: Use of bednets reduces malaria morbidity and mortality. In Kilifi, Kenya, there was a mass distribution of free nets to children < 5 years in 2006. In 2009, a new policy was implemented to offer bednets to pregnant women and children < 5 years free of charge. Read More

    Treatment outcomes of MDR-tuberculosis patients in Brazil: a retrospective cohort analysis.
    BMC Infect Dis 2017 Nov 14;17(1):718. Epub 2017 Nov 14.
    Public Health Post-Graduation Program, Federal University of Espírito Santo, Vitória, ES, Brazil.
    Background: Multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) is a threat for the global TB epidemic control. Despite existing evidence that individualized treatment of MDR-TB is superior to standardized regimens, the latter are recommended in Brazil, mainly because drug-susceptibility tests (DST) are often restricted to first-line drugs in public laboratories. We compared treatment outcomes of MDR-TB patients using standardized versus individualized regimens in Brazil, a high TB-burden, low resistance setting. Read More

    Outbreak of caliciviruses in the Singapore military, 2015.
    BMC Infect Dis 2017 Nov 14;17(1):719. Epub 2017 Nov 14.
    DSO National Laboratories, 27, Medical Drive, #09-01, Singapore, 117510, Singapore.
    Background: From 31 August to 9 September 2015, a total of 150 military personnel at a military institution in Singapore were infected with acute gastroenteritis (AGE) with an attack rate of approximately 3%. This study aimed to determine the epidemiology of the outbreak, investigate its origins, and discuss measures to prevent future occurrences.

    Methods: After the AGE outbreak was declared on 31 August 2015, symptom surveys, hygiene inspections, and the testing of water, food, and stool samples were initiated. Read More

    Varicella zoster virus-associated morbidity and mortality in Africa - a systematic review.
    BMC Infect Dis 2017 Nov 14;17(1):717. Epub 2017 Nov 14.
    Vaccines for Africa Initiative, Division of Medical Microbiology & Institute of Infectious Disease and Molecular Medicine, University of Cape Town, Cape Town, South Africa.
    Background: Varicella zoster virus (VZV) causes varicella and herpes zoster. These vaccine preventable diseases are common globally. Most available data on VZV epidemiology are from industrialised temperate countries and cannot be used to guide decisions on the immunization policy against VZV in Africa. Read More

    Prevalence of naturally occurring NS5A resistance-associated substitutions in patients infected with hepatitis C virus subtype 1a, 1b, and 3a, co-infected or not with HIV in Brazil.
    BMC Infect Dis 2017 Nov 13;17(1):716. Epub 2017 Nov 13.
    Institute of Tropical Medicine, LIM-07, University of São Paulo, Av. Dr. Enéas Carvalho Aguiar, 500 - 2nd floor IMT-II, São Paulo, SP, 05403-000, Brazil.
    Background: Non-structural 5A protein (NS5A) resistance-associated substitutions (RASs) have been identified in patients infected with hepatitis C virus (HCV), even prior to exposure to direct-acting antiviral agents (DAAs). Selection for these variants occurs rapidly during treatment and, in some cases, leads to antiviral treatment failure. DAAs are currently the standard of care for hepatitis C treatment in many parts of the world. Read More

    No MERS-CoV but positive influenza viruses in returning Hajj pilgrims, China, 2013-2015.
    BMC Infect Dis 2017 Nov 10;17(1):715. Epub 2017 Nov 10.
    Institute of Health Quarantine, Chinese Academy of Inspection and Quarantine, No. 11 Ronghua South St., Beijing, 100176, China.
    Background: There is global health concern that the mass movement of pilgrims to and from Mecca annually could contribute to the international spread of Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus (MERS-CoV). In China, about 11,000 Muslim pilgrims participate in the Hajj gathering in Mecca annually. This is the first report of MERS-CoV and respiratory virus molecular screening of returning pilgrims at points of entry in China from 2013 to 2015. Read More

    Human papillomavirus in semen and the risk for male infertility: a systematic review and meta-analysis.
    BMC Infect Dis 2017 Nov 9;17(1):714. Epub 2017 Nov 9.
    Program Office for Cancer Screening in Urban China, National Cancer Center / Cancer Hospital, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical College, No.17 Panjiayuannanli, Chaoyang District, Beijing, 100021, China.
    Background: Human papillomavirus (HPV) is one of the most prevalent sexually transmitted viruses. Despite the increasing evidence of HPV prevalence in semen, the worldwide distribution of HPV types in semen and risk for male infertility remain inconclusive.

    Methods: Four electronic databases were searched for English language studies conducted between January 1990 and December 2016 that reported HPV DNA prevalence in semen. Read More

    Correction to: The impact of drug resistance on the risk of tuberculosis infection and disease in child household contacts: a cross sectional study.
    BMC Infect Dis 2017 Nov 7;17(1):713. Epub 2017 Nov 7.
    Desmond Tutu TB Centre, Department of Paediatrics and Child Health, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Stellenbosch University, Box 241, Cape Town, PO, 8000, South Africa.
    After publication of the original article [1] the authors noted that the following errors had occurred. Read More

    New variant identified in major susceptibility locus to tuberculosis on chromosomal region 8q12-q13 in Moroccan population: a case control study.
    BMC Infect Dis 2017 Nov 7;17(1):712. Epub 2017 Nov 7.
    Physiopathology Team, Immunogenetics and Bioinformatics Unit, Genomic Center of Human Pathologies, Faculty of Sciences, Mohammed V University, Rabat, Morocco.
    Background: Tuberculosis (TB) remains a global health problem. Several studies have implicated genetic host factors in predisposing populations to TB disease. In this study, we have selected NSMAF (Neutral Sphingomyelinase Activation Associated Factor) as a candidate gene to evaluate its level of association with TB disease in a Moroccan population for two reasons: first, this gene is located in a major susceptibility locus on chromosomal region 8q12-q13 in the Moroccan population, closely linked to the CYP7A1 gene, which was previously shown to be associated with TB disease; second, NSMAF has an important role in immune system function. Read More

    Prevalence and molecular characterization of pyrazinamide resistance among multidrug-resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates from Southern China.
    BMC Infect Dis 2017 Nov 6;17(1):711. Epub 2017 Nov 6.
    National Center for Tuberculosis Control and Prevention, Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention, No. 155, Chang Bai Road, Changping District, Beijing, 102206, People's Republic of China.
    Background: Pyrazinamide (PZA) plays a unique role in the treatment for multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) in both first- and second-line regimens. The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence and molecular characterization of PZA resistance among MDR-TB isolates collected in Chongqing municipality.

    Methods: A total of 133 MDR-TB isolates were collected from the smear-positive tuberculosis patients who were registered at local TB dispensaries of Chongqing. Read More


    First case report of endocarditis caused by haematobacter massiliensis in China.
    BMC Infect Dis 2017 Oct 31;17(1):709. Epub 2017 Oct 31.
    Department of Clinical Laboratory, Peking Union Medical College Hospital, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences, Beijing, China.
    Background: Haematobacter massiliensis, a rare species of fastidious Gram-negative, non-motile, non-sporing, non-fermentative, pleomorphic, aerobic bacilli, has rarely been documented as the cause of infectious endocarditis in literature. Here we report the first case of infectious endocarditis (IE) caused by H. massiliensis in China. Read More

    Risk of cardiovascular events from current, recent, and cumulative exposure to abacavir among persons living with HIV who were receiving antiretroviral therapy in the United States: a cohort study.
    BMC Infect Dis 2017 Oct 27;17(1):708. Epub 2017 Oct 27.
    Division of Epidemiology, School of Public Health, University of California Berkeley, Hall Berkeley, 101 Haviland, CA, 94720-7358, USA.
    Background: There is ongoing controversy regarding abacavir use in the treatment of HIV infection and the risk of subsequent development of cardiovascular disease. It is unclear how the risk varies as exposure accumulates.

    Methods: Using an administrative health-plan dataset, risk of cardiovascular disease events (CVDe), defined as the first episode of an acute myocardial infarction or a coronary intervention procedure, associated with abacavir exposure was assessed among HIV-infected individuals receiving antiretroviral therapy across the U. Read More

    Spatio-temporal pattern analysis for evaluation of the spread of human infections with avian influenza A(H7N9) virus in China, 2013-2014.
    BMC Infect Dis 2017 Oct 24;17(1):704. Epub 2017 Oct 24.
    School of Information Science and Technology, Yunnan Normal University, Kunming, Yunnan, China.
    Background: A large number (n = 460) of A(H7N9) human infections have been reported in China from March 2013 through December 2014, and H7N9 outbreaks in humans became an emerging issue for China health, which have caused numerous disease outbreaks in domestic poultry and wild bird populations, and threatened human health severely. The aims of this study were to investigate the directional trend of the epidemic and to identify the significant presence of spatial-temporal clustering of influenza A(H7N9) human cases between March 2013 and December 2014.

    Methods: Three distinct epidemic phases of A(H7N9) human infections were identified in this study. Read More

    Correction to: Development and validation of a risk score to assist screening for acute HIV-1 infection among men who have sex with men.
    BMC Infect Dis 2017 Oct 24;17(1):691. Epub 2017 Oct 24.
    Academic Medical Center, Department of Infectious Diseases, University of Amsterdam, P.O. Box 227001100DE, Amsterdam, the Netherlands.

    Longitudinal study of Staphylococcus aureus colonization and infection in a cohort of swine veterinarians in the United States.
    BMC Infect Dis 2017 Oct 19;17(1):690. Epub 2017 Oct 19.
    Department of Veterinary Population Medicine, University of Minnesota, 385 ASVM, 1988 Fitch Ave, St. Paul, MN, 55108, USA.
    Background: People working with pigs are at elevated risk of harboring methicillin resistant S. aureus (MRSA) in their nose, which is attributable to occupational exposure to animals harboring livestock adapted S. aureus. Read More

    Using risk-tracing snowball approach to increase HIV case detection among high-risk populations in Cambodia: an intervention study.
    BMC Infect Dis 2017 Oct 18;17(1):689. Epub 2017 Oct 18.
    KHANA Center for Population Health Research, Phnom Penh, Cambodia.
    Background: Early HIV diagnosis and initiation onto antiretroviral therapy may prevent ongoing spread of HIV. Risk Tracing Snowball Approach (RTSA) has been shown to be effective in detecting new HIV cases in other settings. The main objective of this study is to evaluate the effectiveness of RTSA in increasing the rate of newly identified HIV cases among high-risk populations. Read More

    Prevalence of congenital cytomegalovirus infection in symptomatic newborns under 3 weeks in Tehran, Iran.
    BMC Infect Dis 2017 Oct 18;17(1):688. Epub 2017 Oct 18.
    Molecular Biology Department, Pasteur Institute of Iran, Pasteur Ave, Karegar St, Tehran, 13169-43551, Iran.
    Background: Cytomegalovirus (CMV) is a common cause of congenital infection worldwide and infants with symptomatic congenital CMV (cCMV) infection are at significantly increased risk of developing adverse long-term outcomes. This study aimed to determine the prevalence of cCMV infections in symptomatic infants under 3 weeks in Tehran, IRAN and to evaluate the usefulness of serologic markers in these neonates.

    Methods: Urine and serum samples of 100 symptomatic infants, under 3 weeks old, with clinical signs referred to Tehran medical centers from June 2013 to December 2014, were collected and tested for CMV-DNA and IgG/IgM antibody titers by PCR and ELISA, respectively. Read More

    Cost-utility analysis of Palivizumab for Respiratory Syncytial Virus infection prophylaxis in preterm infants: update based on the clinical evidence in Spain.
    BMC Infect Dis 2017 Oct 17;17(1):687. Epub 2017 Oct 17.
    Hospital Clinic, Institut d'Investigacions Biomediques August Pi Suñer (IDIBAPS), Barcelona, Spain.
    Background: This study aimed at estimating the efficiency of palivizumab in the prevention of Respiratory Syncytial Virus (RSV) infection and its sequelae in preterm infants (32(day 1)-35(day 0)weeks of gestational age -wGA-) in Spain.

    Methods: A decision-tree model was developed to compare health benefits (Quality Adjusted Life Years-QALYs) and costs of palivizumab versus a non-prophylaxis strategy over 6 years. A hypothetical cohort of 1,000 preterm infants, 32(day 1)-35(day 0) wGA (4. Read More

    The impact of influenza on the health related quality of life in China: an EQ-5D survey.
    BMC Infect Dis 2017 Oct 16;17(1):686. Epub 2017 Oct 16.
    School of Public Health, Fudan University, Key Laboratory of Public Health Safety, Ministry of Education, Shanghai, 200032, China.
    Background: Influenza causes considerable morbidity and mortality in China, but its impact on the health-related quality of life (HRQoL) has not been previously measured.

    Methods: We conducted a retrospective telephone survey to assess the impact of influenza on the HRQoL among outpatients and inpatients using the EuroQoL EQ-5D-3 L instrument. Participants were individuals with laboratory-confirmed influenza infection registered by the National Influenza-like-illness Surveillance Network in 2013. Read More

    Local epidemiology and resistance profiles in acute uncomplicated cystitis (AUC) in women: a prospective cohort study in an urban urological ambulatory setting.
    BMC Infect Dis 2017 Oct 16;17(1):685. Epub 2017 Oct 16.
    Department of Urology, Ludwig-Maximilians-University of Munich, Marchioninistr. 15, 81377, Munich, Germany.
    Background: Acute uncomplicated cystitis (AUC) is a common ailment in the urological setting. Guidelines for urinary tract infections are based on large-scale multi-centre, epidemiological and international studies. The objective of this observational study was to establish whether the results of a multi-centre study on the resistance profile of Escherichia coli (E. Read More

    Characteristics of spontaneous coagulase-negative staphylococcal spondylodiscitis: a retrospective comparative study versus Staphylococcus aureus spondylodiscitis.
    BMC Infect Dis 2017 Oct 13;17(1):683. Epub 2017 Oct 13.
    Department of Rheumatology, University Hospital Gabriel Montpied, 58 rue Montalembert, 63003, Clermont Ferrand CEDEX 1, France.
    Background: Coagulase-negative staphylococci (CoNS) are increasingly implicated in recent patient series of spondylodiscitis, but there are no series of CoNS-spondylodiscitis available. The objective of this study was to compare the characteristics of patients with spontaneous CoNS-spondylodiscitis with those patients with Staphylococcus aureus (SA) spondylodiscitis.

    Methods: This was a retrospective single center study involving 147 spontaneous infectious spondylodiscitis cases observed between 2000 and 2015. Read More

    Infection by and genotype characteristics of Enterocytozoon bieneusi in HIV/AIDS patients from Guangxi Zhuang autonomous region, China.
    BMC Infect Dis 2017 Oct 13;17(1):684. Epub 2017 Oct 13.
    National Institute of Parasitic Diseases, Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention; Key Laboratory of Parasite and Vector Biology, Ministry of Health, WHO Collaborating Center for Tropical Diseases, 207 Rui Jin Er Road, Shanghai, 200025, China.
    Background: Enterocytozoon bieneusi has been increasingly reported to infect humans and various mammals. Microsporidia cause diarrhea in HIV-infected patients worldwide. PCR amplification and sequencing based on the internal transcribed spacer region have been used to describe the genotypes of E. Read More

    Strong associations between national prevalence of various STIs suggests sexual network connectivity is a common underpinning risk factor.
    BMC Infect Dis 2017 Oct 12;17(1):682. Epub 2017 Oct 12.
    Sexually Transmitted Infections HIV/STI Unit, Institute of Tropical Medicine, Antwerp, Belgium.
    Background: If national peak Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) prevalence is positively associated with the prevalence of other sexually transmitted infections (STIs) from before or early on in the HIV epidemics this would suggest common underlying drivers.

    Methods: Pearson's correlations were calculated between the prevalence of seven STIs at a country-level: chlamydia, gonorrhoea, trichomoniasis, syphilis, bacterial vaginosis, herpes simplex virus-2 (HSV-2) and HIV.

    Results: The prevalence of all the STIs was highest in the sub-Saharan African region excluding chlamydia. Read More

    HIV infected men who have sex with men in Israel: knowledge, attitudes and sexual behavior.
    BMC Infect Dis 2017 Oct 12;17(1):679. Epub 2017 Oct 12.
    Faculty of Medicine, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv, Israel.
    Background: HIV-infected (HIVI) men who have sex with men (MSM) may transmit HIV to their sero-discordant sex partner/s. This study assesses the knowledge, attitudes and sex-practices of Israeli HIVI-MSM.

    Methods: This cross-sectional study compared HIVI-MSM to self-reported HIV-uninfected (HIVU) MSM by using anonymous questionnaires that were distributed in AIDS-treatment centers and gay-related internet-sites in 2015. Read More

    Rates of, and risk factors for, septic arthritis in patients with invasive pneumococcal disease: prospective cohort study.
    BMC Infect Dis 2017 Oct 12;17(1):680. Epub 2017 Oct 12.
    School of Public Health, 2-040 Li Ka Shing Center for Health Research Innovation, University of Alberta, Edmonton, AB, Canada.
    Background: There are many case reports of septic arthritis complicating invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD); however, no study has compared patients with IPD with septic arthritis to those who didn't develop septic arthritis Thus, we aimed to determine the rates of, and risk factors for, septic arthritis in patients with invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD).

    Methods: Socio-demographic, clinical, and serological data were captured on all patients with IPD in Northern Alberta, Canada from 2000 to 2014. Septic arthritis was identified by attending physicians. Read More

    Proposed risk factors for infection with multidrug-resistant pathogens in hemodialysis patients hospitalized with pneumonia.
    BMC Infect Dis 2017 Oct 12;17(1):681. Epub 2017 Oct 12.
    Department of Internal Medicine, Jeju National University Hospital, Jeju National University School of Medicine, Aran 13 gil 15, Jeju-si, Jeju Special Self-Governing Province, 690-767, South Korea.
    Background: In patients with hemodialysis-associated pneumonia (HDAP), information on both microbiologic features and antimicrobial strategies is limited. The aim of this study is to investigate predictive factors of infection with multidrug-resistant (MDR) pathogens in HDAP patients.

    Methods: This was a multicenter, retrospective, and observational study. Read More

    Rational use of Xpert testing in patients with presumptive TB: clinicians should be encouraged to use the test-treat threshold.
    BMC Infect Dis 2017 Oct 11;17(1):674. Epub 2017 Oct 11.
    Department of Clinical Sciences, Institute of Tropical Medicine, Nationalestraat 155, 2000, Antwerpen, Belgium.
    Background: A recently published Ugandan study on tuberculosis (TB) diagnosis in HIV-positive patients with presumptive smear-negative TB, which showed that out of 90 patients who started TB treatment, 20% (18/90) had a positive Xpert MTB/RIF (Xpert) test, 24% (22/90) had a negative Xpert test, and 56% (50/90) were started without Xpert testing. Although Xpert testing was available, clinicians did not use it systematically. Here we aim to show more objectively the process of clinical decision-making. Read More

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