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    5897 results match your criteria BMC Infectious Diseases[Journal]

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    Potential risk factors and prevalence of Helicobacter pylori infection among adult patients with dyspepsia symptoms in Cameroon.
    BMC Infect Dis 2018 Jun 15;18(1):278. Epub 2018 Jun 15.
    Gastroenterology Department, Laquintinie Hospital of Douala, P. O. Box 4035, Douala, Cameroon.
    Background: Helicobacter pylori is a Gram negative bacterium that colonizes the stomach of approximately two-thirds of the human population and it is involved in the pathogenesis of gastroduodenal diseases. This study sought to determine potential risk factors associated with seroprevalence of H. pylori among dyspepsia patients in Cameroon for a better management of the disease. Read More

    Anaerobic coverage as definitive therapy does not affect clinical outcomes in community-onset bacteremic biliary tract infection without anaerobic bacteremia.
    BMC Infect Dis 2018 Jun 15;18(1):277. Epub 2018 Jun 15.
    Division of Infectious Diseases, Department of Medicine, Taipei Veterans General Hospital, No. 201, Sec. 2, Shih-Pai Road, Taipei, 112, Taiwan.
    Background: Antibiotics with anaerobic coverage are widely used for the treatment of biliary tract infection (BTI), even in the absence of isolated anaerobes. The current study aimed to investigate the differences in clinical outcomes in patients with community-onset bacteremic BTIs without anaerobic bacteremia, treated with vs. without anti-anaerobic coverage. Read More

    Transmission of rabies through solid organ transplantation: a notable problem in China.
    BMC Infect Dis 2018 Jun 14;18(1):273. Epub 2018 Jun 14.
    Beijing Friendship Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing, China.
    Background: Due to the increasing number of DCD transplantations since 2015, the transmission of rabies through solid organ transplantation has become a notable problem in China and has attracted the attention of the public.

    Case Presentation: From 2015 to 2017, four solid organ recipients in our centre were successively diagnosed with rabies that was considered to have been transmitted from two donors who died due to viral encephalitis of unknown cause and acute disseminated encephalomyelitis. The incubation periods were 44, 48, 158 and 303 days. Read More

    Sero-prevalence and spatial distribution of Rift Valley fever infection among agro-pastoral and pastoral communities during Interepidemic period in the Serengeti ecosystem, northern Tanzania.
    BMC Infect Dis 2018 Jun 14;18(1):276. Epub 2018 Jun 14.
    Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Muhimbili University of Health and Allied Science, Dar es Salaam, Tanzania.
    Background: In the past two decades, Rift Valley Fever (RVF) outbreaks have been reported twice in Tanzania, with the most recent outbreak occurring in 2006/07. Given the ecology and climatic factors that support mosquito vectors in the Serengeti ecosystem, we hypothesized a continued transmission of RVF virus (RVFV) during interepidemic periods. This study was carried out to determine sero-prevalence, spatial distribution and factors associated with RVF in at-risk agro-pastoral and pastoral communities in the Serengeti Ecosystem in northern Tanzania. Read More

    Delayed and highly specific antibody response to nonstructural protein 1 (NS1) revealed during natural human ZIKV infection by NS1-based capture ELISA.
    BMC Infect Dis 2018 Jun 14;18(1):275. Epub 2018 Jun 14.
    Guangzhou Eighth People's Hospital, Guangzhou Medical University, 627 Dongfeng Rd. East, Guangzhou, 510060, China.
    Background: Zika virus (ZIKV) had spread rapidly in the past few years in southern hemisphere where dengue virus (DENV) had caused epidemic problems for over half a century. The high degree of cross-reactivity of Envelope (E) protein specific antibody responses between ZIKV and DENV made it challenging to perform differential diagnosis between the two infections using standard ELISA method for E protein.

    Methods: Using an IgG capture ELISA, we investigated the kinetics of nonstructural protein 1 (NS1) antibody response during natural ZIKV infection and the cross-reactivity to NS1 proteins using convalescent sera obtained from patients infected by either DENV or ZIKV. Read More

    Mitogen-activated protein kinase eight polymorphisms are associated with immune responsiveness to HBV vaccinations in infants of HBsAg(+)/HBeAg(-) mothers.
    BMC Infect Dis 2018 Jun 14;18(1):274. Epub 2018 Jun 14.
    Division of Clinical Research, The First Hospital of Jilin University, Changchun, 130021, Jilin, China.
    Background: Infants born to hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) positive mothers are at a higher risk for Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection. Host genetic background plays an important role in determining the strength of immune response to vaccination. We conducted this study to investigate the association between Tumor necrosis factor (TNF) and Mitogen-activated protein kinase eight (MAPK8) polymorphisms and low response to hepatitis B vaccines. Read More

    "Late for testing, early for antiretroviral therapy, less likely to die": results from a large HIV cohort study in China, 2006-2014.
    BMC Infect Dis 2018 Jun 13;18(1):272. Epub 2018 Jun 13.
    National Center for AIDS/STD Control and Prevention, Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Beijing, China.
    Background: Timely HIV testing and initiation of antiretroviral therapy are two major determinants of survival for HIV-infected individuals. Our study aimed to explore the trend of late HIV/AIDS diagnoses and to assess the factors associated with these late diagnoses in China between 2006 and 2014.

    Methods: We used data from the Chinese Comprehensive Response Information Management System of HIV/AIDS (CRIMS). Read More

    Sputum signatures for invasive pulmonary aspergillosis in patients with underlying respiratory diseases (SPARED): study protocol for a prospective diagnostic trial.
    BMC Infect Dis 2018 Jun 11;18(1):271. Epub 2018 Jun 11.
    Respiratory Group, Department of Integrated Traditional Chinese and Western Medicine, West China Hospital, Sichuan University, Chengdu, China.
    Background: Invasive pulmonary aspergillosis (IPA) has been increasingly reported in patients with underlying respiratory diseases (URD). Early diagnosis of IPA is crucial for mortality reduction and improved prognosis, yet remains difficult. Existing diagnostic tools for IPA largely rely on the detection of biomarkers based on serum or bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF), both of which have their limitations. Read More

    Screening swabs surpass traditional risk factors as predictors of MRSA bacteremia.
    BMC Infect Dis 2018 Jun 11;18(1):270. Epub 2018 Jun 11.
    Division of Infectious Diseases, Department of Medicine, McGill University Health Centre, 1001 Boulevard Décarie, room E05. 1917, Montreal, Quebec, H4A 3J1, Canada.
    Background: Consideration to add empiric MRSA therapy with vancomycin is a common clinical dilemma. However, vancomycin overuse has important adverse events. MRSA colonization screening is commonly performed for infection control. Read More

    Distribution of influenza virus types by age using case-based global surveillance data from twenty-nine countries, 1999-2014.
    BMC Infect Dis 2018 Jun 8;18(1):269. Epub 2018 Jun 8.
    Netherlands Institute for Health Services Research (NIVEL), Otterstraat 118-124, 3513, CR, Utrecht, The Netherlands.
    Background: Influenza disease burden varies by age and this has important public health implications. We compared the proportional distribution of different influenza virus types within age strata using surveillance data from twenty-nine countries during 1999-2014 (N=358,796 influenza cases).

    Methods: For each virus, we calculated a Relative Illness Ratio (defined as the ratio of the percentage of cases in an age group to the percentage of the country population in the same age group) for young children (0-4 years), older children (5-17 years), young adults (18-39 years), older adults (40-64 years), and the elderly (65+ years). Read More

    Efficacy of introducing a checklist to reduce central venous line associated bloodstream infections in the ICU caring for adult patients.
    BMC Infect Dis 2018 Jun 8;18(1):267. Epub 2018 Jun 8.
    Department of Intensive Care Medicine, University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf, Martinistrasse 52, 20246, Hamburg, Germany.
    Background: Central line-associated bloodstream infections (CLABSI) are a major source of sepsis in modern intensive care medicine. Some years ago bundle interventions have been introduced to reduce CLABSI. The use of checklists may be an additional tool to improve the effect of these bundles even in highly specialized institutions. Read More

    Genetic structures of invasive Streptococcus pneumoniae isolates from Korean children obtained between 1995 and 2013.
    BMC Infect Dis 2018 Jun 8;18(1):268. Epub 2018 Jun 8.
    Department of Pediatrics, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Seoul, South Korea.
    Background: Understanding the population genetics of pneumococci will allow detection of changes in the prevalence of circulating genotypes and evidence for capsular switching. We aimed to analyze the genetic structure of invasive pneumococcal isolates obtained from children before and after the use of pneumococcal conjugate vaccines (PCVs) in Korea.

    Methods: A total of 285 invasive pneumococcal isolates were analyzed using serotyping, multilocus sequence typing, and antimicrobial susceptibility testing. Read More

    Tuberculosis case finding using population-based disease surveillance platforms in urban and rural Kenya.
    BMC Infect Dis 2018 Jun 7;18(1):262. Epub 2018 Jun 7.
    U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, USA.
    Background: Tuberculosis (TB) case finding is an important component of TB control because it can reduce transmission of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) through prompt detection and treatment of infectious patients.

    Methods: Using population-based infectious disease surveillance (PBIDS) platforms with links to health facilities in Kenya we implemented intensified TB case finding in the community and at the health facilities, as an adjunct to routine passive case finding conducted by the national TB program. From 2011 to 2014, PBIDS participants ≥15 years were screened either at home or health facilities for possible TB symptoms which included cough, fever, night sweats or weight loss in the preceding 2 weeks. Read More

    Investigating the impact of a community home-based care on mental health and anti-retroviral therapy adherence in people living with HIV in Nepal: a community intervention study.
    BMC Infect Dis 2018 Jun 7;18(1):263. Epub 2018 Jun 7.
    Department of Community and Global Health, Graduate School of Medicine, The University of Tokyo, Bunkyo City, Tokyo, Japan.
    Background: HIV-positive people often experience mental health disorders and engage in substance use when the disease progresses. In resource limited settings, mental health services are not integrated into HIV services. In Nepal, HIV-positive people do receive psychosocial support and other basic health care services from a community home-based care intervention; however, the effects of the intervention on health outcomes is not yet known. Read More

    Feco-prevalence and risk factors of Helicobacter pylori infection among symptomatic patients at Dessie Referral Hospital, Ethiopia.
    BMC Infect Dis 2018 Jun 7;18(1):260. Epub 2018 Jun 7.
    Department of Medical Laboratory Science, College of Medicine and Health Sciences, Wollo University, P.O. Box 1145, Dessie, Ethiopia.
    Background: Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection is the most common chronic bacterial infection in the world. It can result in various upper gastroduodenal diseases. Read More

    Adherence to antiretroviral therapy and associated factors among HIV positive adults attending care and treatment in University of Gondar Referral Hospital, Northwest Ethiopia.
    BMC Infect Dis 2018 Jun 8;18(1):266. Epub 2018 Jun 8.
    Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Institute of Public Health, College of Medicine and Health Sciences, University of Gondar, Gondar, Ethiopia.
    Background: Antiretroviral therapy has an impressive clinical effect on the human immunodeficiency virus although its effectiveness depends mainly on the adherence of patients to the therapy. Therefore, this study aimed to assess adherence status and associated factors of antiretroviral therapy among HIV infected adults on ART at the University of Gondar Referral Hospital, northwest Ethiopia.

    Methods: An institutional based cross-sectional study was conducted from May to June 2015. Read More

    Seroprevalence of transfusion-transmissible infections among blood donors at National Blood Transfusion Service, Eritrea: a seven-year retrospective study.
    BMC Infect Dis 2018 Jun 7;18(1):264. Epub 2018 Jun 7.
    Data Mangement Unit, National Blood Transfusion Service (NBTS), Asmara, Eritrea.
    Background: Blood transfusion is associated with several risks particularly exposure to blood transfusion-transmissible infections (TTI), including: Hepatitis B virus (HBV), Hepatitis C virus (HCV), Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and Syphilis, among others. The threat posed by these blood-borne pathogens is disproportionately high in Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). This fact underscores the need for continuous surveillance of TTIs in the region. Read More

    Mortality and associated factors of patients with extensive drug-resistant tuberculosis: an emerging public health crisis in China.
    BMC Infect Dis 2018 Jun 7;18(1):261. Epub 2018 Jun 7.
    Changsha Central Hospital, Changsha, Hunan, China.
    Background: Limited treatment options of extensive drug-resistant tuberculosis (XDR-TB) have led to its high mortality worldwide. Relevant data about mortality of XDR-TB patients in literature are limited and likely underestimate the real situation in China, since the majority of patients with XDR-TB are lost to follow-up after discharge from TB hospitals. In this study, we sought to investigate the mortality and associated risk factors of Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV)-negative patients with XDR-TB in China. Read More

    Recurrence of tuberculosis in a low-incidence setting: a retrospective cross-sectional study augmented by whole genome sequencing.
    BMC Infect Dis 2018 Jun 7;18(1):265. Epub 2018 Jun 7.
    Centre for Infectious Diseases and Microbiology-Public Health, Westmead Hospital, cnr Hawkesbury and Darcy Roads, Westmead, NSW, 2145, Australia.
    Background: The recurrence of tuberculosis (TB) disease in treated patients can serve as a marker of the efficacy of TB control programs. Recurrent disease represents either endogenous reactivation with the same strain of Mycobacterium tuberculosis due to non-compliance or inadequate therapy or exogenous reinfection with a new strain. Genotyping or whole genome sequencing (WGS) of M. Read More

    Brucella abortus: determination of survival times and evaluation of methods for detection in several matrices.
    BMC Infect Dis 2018 Jun 5;18(1):259. Epub 2018 Jun 5.
    Swedish Forum for Biopreparedness Diagnostics, Umeå, Uppsala and Solna, Sweden.
    Background: Brucella abortus is a highly pathogenic zoonotic agent, tempting for the development of a rapid diagnostic method to enable adequate treatment and prevent further spread. Enrichment of the bacteria is often used as a first step in diagnostics to increase the bacterial number above the detection limit of the real-time PCR. The enrichment of Brucella spp. Read More

    Recognizing spatial and temporal clustering patterns of dengue outbreaks in Taiwan.
    BMC Infect Dis 2018 Jun 4;18(1):256. Epub 2018 Jun 4.
    Department of Environmental and Occupational Health, College of Medicine, National Cheng Kung University, 1 University Road Tainan, 701, Tainan, Taiwan.
    Background: Dengue fever is the most common arboviral infection in humans, with viral transmissions occurring in more than 100 countries in tropical regions. A global strategy for dengue prevention and control was established more than 10 years ago. However, the factors that drive the transmission of the dengue virus and subsequent viral infection continue unabated. Read More

    Polymorphisms in the Th17 cell-related RORC gene are associated with spontaneous clearance of HCV in Chinese women.
    BMC Infect Dis 2018 Jun 4;18(1):254. Epub 2018 Jun 4.
    Department of Microbiology and Center of Infectious Diseases, School of Basic Medical Sciences, Peking University, Beijing, 100191, China.
    Background: Female gender and favorable IFNL3 genotypes are the primary independent predictors of spontaneous clearance of HCV infection. However, chronic hepatitis C infection occurs in numerous women carrying favorable IFNL3 genotypes, indicating that other host and/or virological factors contribute to the prognosis of infection.

    Methods: A cohort of 137 anti-HCV-positive female Han Chinese cases, including 64 chronic HCV carriers and 73 HCV spontaneous resolvers, was recruited in the study. Read More

    Clinical and bacteriological features and prognosis of ascitic fluid infection in Chinese patients with cirrhosis.
    BMC Infect Dis 2018 Jun 4;18(1):253. Epub 2018 Jun 4.
    The State Key Laboratory of Pathogen and Biosecurity, Beijing Institute of Microbiology and Epidemiology, No.20 Dongda Street, Fengtai District, Beijing, 100071, China.
    Background: Spontaneous bacterial peritonitis (SBP) and bacterascites (BA) represent frequent and serious complications in cirrhosis patients with ascites. However, few detailed data are available regarding the clinical and bacteriological feature of SBP or BA patients in China.

    Methods: We retrospectively analyzed bacteriological and clinical characteristics of patients with SBP and BA at Beijing 302 Hospital in China from January 2012 to December 2015. Read More

    Predictors of pediatric tuberculosis in public health facilities of Bale zone, Oromia region, Ethiopia: a case control study.
    BMC Infect Dis 2018 Jun 4;18(1):252. Epub 2018 Jun 4.
    College of Medicine and Health Sciences, Allied School of Health Science, Addis Ababa University, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.
    Background: Tuberculosis is among the top ten cause of death (9th) from a single infectious agent worldwide. It even ranks above HIV/AIDS. It is among the top 10 causes of death among children. Read More

    Disseminated Exophiala dermatitidis causing septic arthritis and osteomyelitis.
    BMC Infect Dis 2018 Jun 4;18(1):255. Epub 2018 Jun 4.
    Division of Infectious Diseases, Department of Medicine, University of Saskatchewan, Regina, Saskatchewan, Canada.
    Background: Exophiala dermatitidis is a melanized fungus isolated from many environmental sources. Infections caused by Exophiala species are typically seen in immunocompromised hosts and manifest most commonly as cutaneous or subcutaneous disease. Systemic infections are exceedingly rare and associated with significant morbidity and mortality CASE PRESENTATION: A 28-year-old female originally from India presented with fevers, chills, weight loss and increasing back pain. Read More

    Undiagnosed Cryptococcus gattii meningitis leading to subsequent ventriculoperitoneal shunt infection in a patient with symptoms of normal pressure hydrocephalus: case report and literature review.
    BMC Infect Dis 2018 Jun 4;18(1):257. Epub 2018 Jun 4.
    Division of Infectious Diseases and Tropical Medicine, Department of Medicine, Faculty of Medicine Siriraj Hospital, Mahidol University, 2 Wanglang Road, Bangkoknoi, Bangkok, 10700, Thailand.
    Background: Cryptococcus gattii is known to be an etiologic agent of human cryptococcosis, particularly in immunocompetent persons. C. gattii infection usually involves the central nervous system, the respiratory tract, or may be disseminated. Read More

    Statin use and all-cause mortality in people living with HIV: a systematic review and meta-analysis.
    BMC Infect Dis 2018 Jun 5;18(1):258. Epub 2018 Jun 5.
    Warwick-Centre for Applied Health Research and Delivery (WCAHRD), Warwick Medical School, University of Warwick, Coventry, CV4 7AL, UK.
    Background: It is unknown whether statin use among people living with HIV results in a reduction in all-cause mortality. We aimed to evaluate the effect of statin use on all-cause mortality among people living with HIV.

    Methods: We conducted comprehensive literature searches of Medline, Embase, CINAHL, the Cochrane Library, and cross-references up to April 2018. Read More

    Immune-escape mutations and stop-codons in HBsAg develop in a large proportion of patients with chronic HBV infection exposed to anti-HBV drugs in Europe.
    BMC Infect Dis 2018 Jun 1;18(1):251. Epub 2018 Jun 1.
    Department of Experimental Medicine and Surgery, University of Rome Tor Vergata, Via Montpellier, 1, 00133, Rome, Italy.
    Background: HBsAg immune-escape mutations can favor HBV-transmission also in vaccinated individuals, promote immunosuppression-driven HBV-reactivation, and increase fitness of drug-resistant strains. Stop-codons can enhance HBV oncogenic-properties. Furthermore, as a consequence of the overlapping structure of HBV genome, some immune-escape mutations or stop-codons in HBsAg can derive from drug-resistance mutations in RT. Read More

    Risk factors and molecular features of sequence type (ST) 131 extended-Spectrum-β-lactamase-producing Escherichia coli in community-onset female genital tract infections.
    BMC Infect Dis 2018 Jun 1;18(1):250. Epub 2018 Jun 1.
    Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, National Health Insurance Service Ilsan Hospital, Baekseok-dong 1232, Ilsandong-gu, Goyang, 10444, South Korea.
    Background: Escherichia coli (E. coli) is known to cause urinary tract infection (UTI) and meningitis in neonates, as well as existing as a commensal flora of the human gut. Extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL)-producing E. Read More

    Risk factors associated with multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) in a tertiary armed force referral and teaching hospital, Ethiopia.
    BMC Infect Dis 2018 May 31;18(1):249. Epub 2018 May 31.
    State Key Laboratory of Pollution Control and Resource Reuse, College of Environmental Science and Engineering, Tongji University, Shanghai, China.
    Background: Ethiopia is one of the world health organization defined higher tuberculosis (TB) burden countries where the disease remains a massive public health threat. This study aimed to identify the prevalence and associated factors of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) using all armed force and civilian TB attendants in a tertiary level armed force hospital, where data for MDR-TB are previously unpublished.

    Methods: Cross-sectional study was conducted from September 2014 to August 2015 in a tertiary level Armed Force Referral and Teaching Hospital (AFRTH), Ethiopia. Read More

    Risk factors for carbapenem-resistant K. pneumoniae bloodstream infection and predictors of mortality in Chinese paediatric patients.
    BMC Infect Dis 2018 May 31;18(1):248. Epub 2018 May 31.
    Department of Infectious Disease, Beijing Children's Hospital, Capital Medical University, No. 56 Nanlishi Road, Xi Cheng District, Beijing, 100045, People's Republic of China.
    Background: Bloodstream infections (BSI) caused by carbapenem-resistant K. pneumoniae (CRKP) are associated with high rates of morbidity and mortality. Early identification of patients at highest risk is very important. Read More

    A few antibiotics can represent the total hospital antibiotic consumption.
    BMC Infect Dis 2018 May 31;18(1):247. Epub 2018 May 31.
    Department of Internal medicine, College of Medicine, Hanyang University, 222-1 Wangsimni-ro, Seongdong-gu, Seoul, 04763, South Korea.
    Background: Appropriate antibiotic use has become an important issue. However, collecting data on the use of all antibiotics in a hospital is difficult without an advanced computerized system and dedicated staff. This paper examines if 1-3 antibiotics can satisfactorily represent the total antibiotic consumption at the hospital level. Read More

    Genetic and epidemiological analysis of norovirus from children with gastroenteritis in Botswana, 2013-2015.
    BMC Infect Dis 2018 May 30;18(1):246. Epub 2018 May 30.
    Department of Biological Sciences and Biotechnology, Botswana International University of Science and Technology, Private Bag, 16, Palapye, Botswana.
    Background: Norovirus is a leading cause of viral gastroenteritis worldwide with a peak of disease seen in children. The epidemiological analysis regarding the virus strains in Africa is limited. The first report of norovirus in Botswana was in 2010 and currently, the prevalence and circulating genotypes of norovirus are unknown, as the country has no systems to report the norovirus cases. Read More

    A pill for the partner via the chlamydia patient? Results from a mixed method study among sexual health care providers in the Netherlands.
    BMC Infect Dis 2018 May 29;18(1):243. Epub 2018 May 29.
    Centre for Infectious Disease Control, National Institute for Public Health and the Environment, Bilthoven, The Netherlands.
    Background: Chlamydia prevalence in the Netherlands remains high despite targeted efforts. Effective Partner Notification (PN) and Partner Treatment (PT) can interrupt transmission and prevent re-infections. Patient Initiated Partner Treatment (PIPT) may strengthen chlamydia control. Read More

    Progression into sepsis: an individualized process varying by the interaction of comorbidities with the underlying infection.
    BMC Infect Dis 2018 May 29;18(1):242. Epub 2018 May 29.
    4th Department of Internal Medicine, National and Kapodistrian University of Athens, Medical School, Athens, Greece.
    Background: Development of sepsis is a process with significant variation among individuals. The precise elements of this variation need to be defined. This study was designed to define the way in which comorbidities contribute to sepsis development. Read More

    Lessons learned from the 2009-2010 H1N1 outbreak for the management of the 2013 silent polio outbreak.
    BMC Infect Dis 2018 May 29;18(1):241. Epub 2018 May 29.
    Department of Health Systems Management, School of Public Health, Faculty of Health Sciences, Ben-Gurion University of the Negev, Be'er-Sheva, Israel.
    Background: The Israeli Ministry of Health (MoH) encountered two substantial outbreaks during the past decade: the H1N1 swine flu outbreak during 2009-2010 and the silent polio outbreak during 2013. Although both outbreaks share several similar characteristics, the functioning of the Israeli MoH was different for each case. The aim of this study was to identify factors that contributed to the change in the MoH response to the polio outbreak in light of the previous 2009-2010 H1N1 outbreak. Read More

    Faecal colonization of E. coli and Klebsiella spp. producing extended-spectrum beta-lactamases and plasmid-mediated AmpC in Mozambican university students.
    BMC Infect Dis 2018 May 30;18(1):244. Epub 2018 May 30.
    Antimicrobial Research Unit, School of Health Sciences, University of KwaZulu-Natal, Durban, South Africa.
    Background: In recent years, the world has seen a surge in Enterobacteriaceae resistant to broad-spectrum beta-lactam antibiotics due to the production of extended-spectrum beta-lactamases (ESBLs) or plasmid-mediated AmpC (pAmpC) enzymes. Data on the epidemiology of cephalosporin-resistant Enterobacteriaceae in Sub-Saharan Africa are still limited.

    Methods: Two hundred seventy-five non-repetitive stool samples were collected from Mozambican university students of both sexes. Read More

    Urine IP-10 as a biomarker of therapeutic response in patients with active pulmonary tuberculosis.
    BMC Infect Dis 2018 May 29;18(1):240. Epub 2018 May 29.
    Clinical Vaccine Research Section, International Tuberculosis Research Center, Seoul, 03722, Republic of Korea.
    Background: Prior to clinical trials of new TB drugs or therapeutic vaccines, it is necessary to develop monitoring tools to predict treatment outcomes in TB patients. Urine interferon gamma inducible protein 10 (IP-10) is a potential biomarker of treatment response in chronic hepatitis C virus infection and lung diseases, including tuberculosis. In this study, we assessed IP-10 levels in urine samples from patients with active TB at diagnosis, during treatment, and at completion, and compared these with levels in serum samples collected in parallel from matched patients to determine whether urine IP-10 can be used to monitor treatment response in patients with active TB. Read More

    Summary results of the 2014-2015 DARPA Chikungunya challenge.
    BMC Infect Dis 2018 May 30;18(1):245. Epub 2018 May 30.
    Chemistry Division, Los Alamos National Laboratory, P.O. Box 1663, Bikini Atoll Road, Los Alamos, New Mexico, 87544, USA.
    Background: Emerging pathogens such as Zika, chikungunya, Ebola, and dengue viruses are serious threats to national and global health security. Accurate forecasts of emerging epidemics and their severity are critical to minimizing subsequent mortality, morbidity, and economic loss. The recent introduction of chikungunya and Zika virus to the Americas underscores the need for better methods for disease surveillance and forecasting. Read More

    Treating schistosomiasis among South African high school pupils in an endemic area, a qualitative study.
    BMC Infect Dis 2018 May 25;18(1):239. Epub 2018 May 25.
    Discipline of Public Health Medicine, Howard College Campus, University of KwaZulu-Natal, Room 219, George Campbell Building, Science Drive, Durban, 4001, South Africa.
    Background: Schistosomiasis, a neglected tropical disease caused by parasites that infest open water sources such as rivers and dams may increase susceptibility to HIV. Mass-treatment with praziquantel tablets, recommended by the World Health Organization reduces the prevalence of schistosomiasis. The goal in endemic areas is 75% treatment participation in every treatment round (e. Read More

    Varicella zoster virus infections in neurological patients: a clinical study.
    BMC Infect Dis 2018 May 25;18(1):238. Epub 2018 May 25.
    Department of Neurology, Hannover Medical School, Carl-Neuberg-Str-1, 30625, Hannover, Germany.
    Background: Varicella zoster virus (VZV) reactivation is a common infectious disease in neurology and VZV the second most frequent virus detected in encephalitis. This study investigated characteristics of clinical and laboratory features in patients with VZV infection.

    Methods: Two hundred eighty two patients with VZV reactivation that were hospitalized in the department of neurology in the time from 2005 to 2013 were retrospectively evaluated. Read More

    Comorbidities and co-medications in populations with and without chronic hepatitis C virus infection in Japan between 2015 and 2016.
    BMC Infect Dis 2018 May 24;18(1):237. Epub 2018 May 24.
    The Research Center for Hepatitis and Immunology Department of Liver Disease, National Center for Global Health and Medicine, 1-7-1 Kohnodai, Ichikawa, Chiba, 272-8516, Japan.
    Background: Direct-acting anti-viral agents have improved the treatment of chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection, but this treatment is challenging for patients using co-medications because of potential drug-drug interactions. This study aimed to examine the comorbidities and co-medications of Japanese chronic HCV patients by age group, compared with a non-HCV patient population.

    Methods: This was a retrospective observational study using a hospital-based medical claims database. Read More

    GeneChip analysis of resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis with previously treated tuberculosis in Changchun.
    BMC Infect Dis 2018 May 22;18(1):234. Epub 2018 May 22.
    Department of Laboratory Animals, College of Animal Sciences, Jilin University, Changchun, 130062, Jilin, China.
    Background: With the widespread use of rifampicin and isoniazid, bacterial resistance has become a growing problem. Additionally, the lack of relevant baseline information for the frequency of drug-resistant tuberculosis (TB) gene mutations is a critical issue, and the incidence of this infection in the city of Changchun has not investigated to date. However, compared with the slow traditional methods of drug susceptibility testing, recently developed detection methods, such as rifampicin and isoniazid resistance-related gene chip techniques, allow for rapid, easy detection and simultaneous testing for mutation frequency and drug resistance. Read More

    Chronic Kirschsteiniothelia infection superimposed on a pre-existing non-infectious bursitis of the ankle: the first case report of human infection.
    BMC Infect Dis 2018 May 22;18(1):236. Epub 2018 May 22.
    Medical Mycology Research Center, Chiba University, 1-8-1 Inohana, Chuo-ku, Chiba, Chiba, 260-8673, Japan.
    Background: Kirschsteiniothelia is a saprophytic fungus that is abundantly present in the environment. To date, there have been no reports of human infection caused by this fungus. We report a case of Kirschsteiniothelia infection superimposed on a pre-existing non-infectious bursitis of the ankle. Read More

    Infection with high proportion of multidrug-resistant bacteria in conflict-related injuries is associated with poor outcomes and excess resource consumption: a cohort study of Syrian patients treated in Jordan.
    BMC Infect Dis 2018 May 22;18(1):233. Epub 2018 May 22.
    Department of Clinical Science and Education, Södersjukhuset, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Background: Armed conflicts are a major contributor to injury and death globally. Conflict-related injuries are associated with a high risk of wound infection, but it is unknown to what extent infection directly relates to sustainment of life and restoration of function. The aim of this study was to investigate the outcome and resource consumption among civilians receiving acute surgical treatment due to conflict-related injuries. Read More

    Mycobacterium Avium complex vertebral osteomyelitis in the absence of HIV infection: a case report and review.
    BMC Infect Dis 2018 May 22;18(1):235. Epub 2018 May 22.
    Division of Infectious Diseases and International Health, University of Virginia Health System, P.O. Box 801379, Charlottesville, VA, 22908-1361, USA.
    Background: Mycobacterium Avium Complex (MAC) is an established microbiologic cause of pulmonary disease, lymphadenitis, and disseminated disease in cases of advanced immune suppression. However, MAC manifesting as vertebral osteomyelitis is less common, and is particularly rare in the absence of Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS). Prompt diagnosis of MAC vertebral osteomyelitis is challenging, but necessary to prevent serious morbidity or mortality. Read More

    Prediction of mortality in severe dengue cases.
    BMC Infect Dis 2018 May 21;18(1):232. Epub 2018 May 21.
    Department of Medicine, Hospital Kuala Lumpur, Jalan Pahang, 50586, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.
    Background: Increasing incidence of dengue cases in Malaysia over the last few years has been paralleled by increased deaths. Mortality prediction models will therefore be useful in clinical management. The aim of this study is to identify factors at diagnosis of severe dengue that predicts mortality and assess predictive models based on these identified factors. Read More

    Immunologic and virological response to ART among HIV infected individuals at a tertiary hospital in Ghana.
    BMC Infect Dis 2018 May 21;18(1):230. Epub 2018 May 21.
    National AIDS/STI Control Program, Ghana Health Services, Accra, Ghana.
    Background: The need to study the outcome of Antiretroviral Therapy (ART) among Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) infected individuals in Ghana, a sub-Saharan African country crucial in the era of the "Treat All" policy. The aim of this study was to analyze selected determinants of immunological and virological response to ART among HIV infected individuals in a tertiary facility in Cape Coast, Ghana.

    Methods: An analytical cross sectional study with a retrospective component was conducted in the Cape Coast Teaching Hospital (CCTH), Central Region. Read More

    Enterococcus gallinarum meningitis: a case report and literature review.
    BMC Infect Dis 2018 May 21;18(1):231. Epub 2018 May 21.
    Department of Respiratory Medicine, Shengjing Hospital of China Medical University, Shenyang, China.
    Background: As an opportunistic pathogen, E. gallinarum mainly leads to nosocomial infections, and it's multi-drug resistance has gained more and more attention. Central nervous system infections caused by E. Read More

    Prevalence of self-reported symptoms of sexually transmitted infections, knowledge and sexual behaviour among youth in semi-rural Tanzania in the period of adolescent friendly health services strategy implementation.
    BMC Infect Dis 2018 May 19;18(1):229. Epub 2018 May 19.
    Ifakara Health Institute, Dar es Salaam, Tanzania.
    Background: Global evidence shows that sexually transmitted infections (STIs) prevalence and sexual risk behaviours are high among youth, and knowledge about STIs is low. In Tanzania, there is limited recent evidence regarding these issues. The aim of this study was to describe the health seeking behaviour of youth reporting STI symptoms in semi-rural Tanzania and to evaluate the association of socio-demographic characteristics, STI knowledge and sexual risk behaviour with STI symptom reporting. Read More

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