6,498 results match your criteria BMC Infectious Diseases[Journal]


A superiority of viral load over CD4 cell count when predicting mortality in HIV patients on therapy.

BMC Infect Dis 2019 Feb 15;19(1):169. Epub 2019 Feb 15.

Department of Mathematical Statistics and Actuarial Sciences, University of the Free State, Box 339, Bloemfontein, 9300, South Africa.

Background: CD4 cell count has been identified to be an essential component in monitoring HIV treatment outcome. However, CD4 cell count monitoring sometimes fails to predict virological failure resulting in unnecessary switch of treatment lines which causes drug resistance and limitations of treatment options. This study assesses the use of both viral load (HIV RNA) and CD4 cell count in the monitoring of HIV/AIDS progression. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12879-019-3781-1DOI Listing
February 2019

Nationwide epidemiology of carbapenem resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae isolates from Greek hospitals, with regards to plazomicin and aminoglycoside resistance.

BMC Infect Dis 2019 Feb 15;19(1):167. Epub 2019 Feb 15.

Infectious Diseases Laboratory, 4th Department of Internal Medicine, National and Kapodistrian University of Athens, Faculty of Medicine, Athens, Greece.

Background: To evaluate the in vitro activities of plazomicin and comparator aminoglycosides and elucidate the underlying aminoglycoside resistance mechanisms among carbapenemase-producing K. pneumoniae isolates collected during a nationwide surveillance study in Greek hospitals.

Methods: Three hundred single-patient carbapenemase-producing K. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12879-019-3801-1DOI Listing
February 2019

First case report of thyroid abscess caused by Helicobacter cinaedi presenting with thyroid storm.

BMC Infect Dis 2019 Feb 15;19(1):166. Epub 2019 Feb 15.

Division of Pulmonary Medicine, Department of Internal Medicine, Federation of National Public Service Personnel Mutual Aid Associations, Tachikawa Hospital, 4-2-22 Nishikicho, Tachikawa, Tokyo, 190-8531, Japan.

Background: Helicobacter cinaedi is a microaerobic Gram-negative spiral-shaped bacterium that causes enteritis, cellulitis, and bacteremia in both immunocompromised and immunocompetent patients. While there have been increasing numbers of reported H. cinaedi infections recently, there has been no thyroid abscess case caused by H. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12879-019-3808-7DOI Listing
February 2019

Etiology of acute otitis media and phenotypic-molecular characterization of Streptococcus pneumoniae isolated from children in Liuzhou, China.

BMC Infect Dis 2019 Feb 15;19(1):168. Epub 2019 Feb 15.

Children's Hospital of Michigan, Detroit, MI, USA.

Background: The etiology and epidemiology of acute otitis media (AOM) are poorly understood in China. This study aimed to describe the etiology of AOM and the phenotypic and molecular characteristics of AOM-causing Streptococcus pneumoniae (S.pneumoniae) recovered from Chinese children. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12879-019-3795-8DOI Listing
February 2019

Schistosomiasis infection in pre-school aged children in Uganda: a qualitative descriptive study to identify routes of exposure.

BMC Infect Dis 2019 Feb 14;19(1):165. Epub 2019 Feb 14.

Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, School of Public Health, College of Health Sciences, Makerere University, Kampala, Uganda.

Background: Prevalence of schistosomiasis is high among children under five years in Uganda. Schistosomiasis control efforts over time have included periodic mass treatments in endemic areas for adults and school going children aged 5 years and above. This study explores behaviour practices of children age 2-4 years that increase the risk of schistosomiasis infection in this age group. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12879-019-3803-zDOI Listing
February 2019

Evidence of sustained reductions in the relative risk of acute hepatitis B and C virus infections, and the increasing burden of hepatitis a virus infection in Egypt: comparison of sentinel acute viral hepatitis surveillance results, 2001-17.

BMC Infect Dis 2019 Feb 14;19(1):159. Epub 2019 Feb 14.

Ministry of Health and Population, Cairo, Egypt.

Background: Egypt ranks fifth for the burden of viral hepatitis worldwide. As part of Egypt's renewed national strategy for the elimination of viral hepatitis, surveillance for acute viral hepatitis (AVH) was re-established during 2014-2017 to describe the current epidemiology and associated risk factors, and changes from surveillance conducted during 2001-2004.

Methods: Patients with suspected AVH were enrolled, completed a questionnaire, and provided blood for testing for hepatitis viruses A (HAV), B (HBV), C (HCV), D, and E (HEV) infections by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12879-019-3806-9DOI Listing
February 2019

Comparison of influenza disease burden in older populations of Hong Kong and Brisbane: the impact of influenza and pneumococcal vaccination.

BMC Infect Dis 2019 Feb 14;19(1):162. Epub 2019 Feb 14.

School of Public Health and Social Work, Queensland University of Technology, Brisbane, Australia.

Background: Influenza and pneumococcal vaccine uptake in the older population aged 65 years or over of Hong Kong dramatically increased since the 2003 SARS outbreak. This study is aimed to evaluate the impact of increased coverage of influenza and pneumococcal vaccines by comparing the change of disease burden in the older population of Hong Kong, with the burden in the older population of Brisbane with relatively high vaccine coverage in the past fifteen years.

Methods: Time series segmented regression models were applied to weekly numbers of cause-specific mortality or hospitalization of Hong Kong and Brisbane. Read More

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https://bmcinfectdis.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/s128
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12879-019-3735-7DOI Listing
February 2019
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2.613 Impact Factor

The role of extended-spectrum cephalosporin-resistance in recurrent community-onset Enterobacteriaceae urinary tract infections: a retrospective cohort study.

BMC Infect Dis 2019 Feb 14;19(1):163. Epub 2019 Feb 14.

Division of Infectious Diseases, Department of Medicine; Center for Clinical Epidemiology and Biostatistics; Department of Biostatistics, Epidemiology and Informatics, Perelman School of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA, USA.

Background: Bacterial resistance to first line antibiotics used to treat community-onset urinary tract infections (UTIs) continues to emerge. We sought to determine the association between extended-spectrum cephalosporin resistance (ESC-R) and recurrence among Enterobacteriaceae (EB) UTIs.

Methods: A retrospective cohort study was performed. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12879-019-3804-yDOI Listing
February 2019

Procalcitonin, mid-regional proadrenomedullin and C-reactive protein in predicting treatment outcome in community-acquired febrile urinary tract infection.

BMC Infect Dis 2019 Feb 14;19(1):161. Epub 2019 Feb 14.

Department of Infectious Diseases, Leiden University Medical Center, PO, Box 9600, 2300 RC, Leiden, the Netherlands.

Background: A reduction in duration of antibiotic therapy is crucial in minimizing the development of antimicrobial resistance, drug-related side effects and health care costs. The minimal effective duration of antimicrobial therapy for febrile urinary tract infections (fUTI) remains a topic of uncertainty, especially in male patients, those of older age or with comorbidities. Biomarkers have the potential to objectively identify the optimal moment for cessation of therapy. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12879-019-3789-6DOI Listing
February 2019

Urea dilution of serum for reproducible anti-HSV1 IgG avidity index.

BMC Infect Dis 2019 Feb 14;19(1):164. Epub 2019 Feb 14.

Department of Clinical Microbiology, Virology, Umeå University, SE-901 85, Umeå, Sweden.

Background: Herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV1), establishes life-long latency and can cause symptoms during both first-time infection and later reactivation. The aim of the present study was to describe a protocol to generate a reliable and discriminative avidity index (AI) for anti-HSV1 IgG content in human sera.

Methods: Human serum from two distinct cohorts; one a biobank collection (Betula) (n = 28), and one from a clinical diagnostics laboratory at Northern Sweden University Hospital (NUS) (n = 18), were assessed for presence of IgG antibodies against HSV1 by a commercially available ELISA-kit. Read More

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https://bmcinfectdis.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/s128
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12879-019-3769-xDOI Listing
February 2019
2 Reads

Helicobacter pylori infection as a risk factor for serum bilirubin change and less favourable lipid profiles: a hospital-based health examination survey.

BMC Infect Dis 2019 Feb 14;19(1):157. Epub 2019 Feb 14.

Department of Endocrinology, Beijing Diabetes Institute, Beijing Tongren Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing, 100730, China.

Background: Helicobacter pylori infection is associated with several extragastric conditions including dyslipidemia and metabolic syndrome. This study aimed to investigate additional metabolic parameters associated with H. pylori infection in a Chinese population. Read More

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https://bmcinfectdis.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/s128
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12879-019-3787-8DOI Listing
February 2019
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Taxonomy, virulence genes and antimicrobial resistance of Aeromonas isolated from extra-intestinal and intestinal infections.

BMC Infect Dis 2019 Feb 14;19(1):158. Epub 2019 Feb 14.

Center of Clinical Laboratory, Beijing Friendship Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing, 100050, China.

Background: Clinical characteristics (taxonomy, virulence genes and antimicrobial resistance ) of Aeromonas in isolated from extra-intestinal and intestinal infections were investigated to describe epidemiology, associated virulence factors and optimal therapy options.

Methods: Clinical samples (n = 115) of Aeromonas were collected from a general hospital in Beijing between the period 2015 and 2017. Taxonomy was investigate by Multilocus phylogenetic analysis (MLPA), 10 putative virulence factors by use of polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and antimicrobial resistance to 15 antibiotics by use of the microbroth dilution method. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12879-019-3766-0DOI Listing
February 2019

Circulation of influenza A and B in the Czech Republic from 2000-2001 to 2015-2016.

BMC Infect Dis 2019 Feb 14;19(1):160. Epub 2019 Feb 14.

Department of Infectious Diseases Epidemiology, National Institute of Public Health, Prague, Czech Republic.

Background: To improve national influenza vaccination recommendations, additional data on influenza A and B virus circulation are needed. Here, we describe the circulation of influenza A and B in the Czech Republic during 16 seasons.

Methods: This was a retrospective analysis of data collected from the 2000-2001 to 2015-2016 influenza seasons by the Czech Republic national influenza surveillance network. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12879-019-3783-zDOI Listing
February 2019

Levels of vitamin D-associated cytokines distinguish between active and latent tuberculosis following a tuberculosis outbreak.

BMC Infect Dis 2019 Feb 13;19(1):151. Epub 2019 Feb 13.

Lung Research Institute of Hallym University College of Medicine, Chuncheon, Gangwon-do, Republic of Korea.

Background: Vitamin D levels are associated with the extent of mycobactericidal activity. Interleukin (IL)-15 and IL-32 play roles in the vitamin D-mediated tuberculosis (TB) defense mechanism. Vitamin D induces IL-1β, which plays an important role in terms of resistance to TB. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12879-019-3798-5DOI Listing
February 2019

Zika virus infection in Malaysia: an epidemiological, clinical and virological analysis.

BMC Infect Dis 2019 Feb 13;19(1):152. Epub 2019 Feb 13.

Healthcare Statistics Unit, National Clinical Research Centre, Ministry of Health Malaysia, Level 4, Block B4, National Institute of Health, Jalan Setia Murni U13/52, Seksyen U13, 40170, Shah Alam, Selangor Darul Ehsan, Malaysia.

Background: A major outbreak of the Zika virus (ZIKV) has been reported in Brazil in 2015. Since then, it spread further to other countries in the Americas and resulted in declaration of the Public Health Emergency of International Concern (PHEIC) by World Health Organization. In 2016, Singapore reported its first minor ZIKV epidemic. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12879-019-3786-9DOI Listing
February 2019

Macrolide and fluoroquinolone resistance-associated mutations in Mycoplasma genitalium in Johannesburg, South Africa, 2007-2014.

BMC Infect Dis 2019 Feb 13;19(1):148. Epub 2019 Feb 13.

Sexually Transmitted Infections Section, Centre for HIV and Sexually Transmitted Infections, National Institute for Communicable Diseases, National Health Laboratory Service, Johannesburg, South Africa.

Background: Antimicrobial resistance in Mycoplasma genitalium is rising globally with resultant clinical treatment failure. We investigated the prevalence of mutations in the macrolide and fluoroquinolone resistance-determining regions of M. genitalium in Johannesburg, South Africa, and ascertained their association with HIV serostatus. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12879-019-3797-6DOI Listing
February 2019
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Prevalence and intensity of Loa loa infection over twenty-three years in three communities of the Mbalmayo health district (Central Cameroon).

BMC Infect Dis 2019 Feb 13;19(1):146. Epub 2019 Feb 13.

Centre for Research on Filariasis and other Tropical Diseases, PO Box 5797, Yaounde, Cameroon.

Background: Loiasis is a vector-borne parasitic disease due to Loa loa and transmitted to humans by tabanids of the genus Chrysops. Loiasis has been historically considered as the second or third most common reason for medical consultation after malaria, and a recent study has reported an excess mortality associated with the infection. However, the clinical impact of this filarial disease is yet to be elucidated, and it is still considered a benign disease eliciting very little attention. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12879-019-3776-yDOI Listing
February 2019

Is Interleukin-6 a better predictor of successful antibiotic therapy than procalcitonin and C-reactive protein? A single center study in critically ill adults.

BMC Infect Dis 2019 Feb 13;19(1):150. Epub 2019 Feb 13.

Medical Intensive Care Unit, University Hospital of Leipzig, Liebigstraße 20, 04103, Leipzig, Germany.

Background: The aim of this study was to evaluate whether Interleukin-6 (IL-6) could be a faster indicator of treatment success in adults with severe sepsis and septic shock compared to procalcitonin (PCT) and C-reactive protein (CRP).

Methods: Data from adult patients with severe sepsis and septic shock managed at the medical intensive care unit (ICU) of the University Hospital Leipzig between September 2009 and January 2012 were analyzed retrospectively. Values for CRP, PCT and IL-6 on admission as well as after 24 and 48-72 h were collected. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12879-019-3800-2DOI Listing
February 2019
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Cognitive screening in treatment-naïve HIV-infected individuals in Hong Kong - a single center study.

BMC Infect Dis 2019 Feb 13;19(1):156. Epub 2019 Feb 13.

Department of Medicine, Queen Elizabeth Hospital, Hong Kong, SAR, People's Republic of China.

Background: HIV-associated neurocognitive disorder (HAND) remains prevalent in the era of combination antiretroviral therapy (cART). The prevalence of HAND in Hong Kong is not known.

Methods: Between 2013 and 2015, 98 treatment-naïve HIV-1-infected individuals were referred to and screened by the AIDS Clinical Service, Queen Elizabeth Hospital with (1) the International HIV Dementia Scale (IHDS), a screening tool that targets moderate to severe HAND, (2) the Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA), a frequently used cognitive screening test and (3) the Patient Health Questionnare-9 (PHQ-9), a 9-item questionnaire that evaluates depression symptoms. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12879-019-3784-yDOI Listing
February 2019

Uncomplicated urinary tract infections in Swedish primary care; etiology, resistance and treatment.

BMC Infect Dis 2019 Feb 13;19(1):155. Epub 2019 Feb 13.

Department of Clinical Sciences, Malmö, Family Medicine, Lund University, Malmö, Sweden.

Background: Uncomplicated urinary tract infection (uUTI) is common and a majority of patients are prescribed antibiotics. There is little knowledge about antibiotic resistance in urine samples from patients with uUTI in primary health care (PHC). The aim was to describe antibiotic treatment, bacterial findings, the prevalence of resistant E. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12879-019-3785-xDOI Listing
February 2019

Epidemiologic study on changes in occurrence of hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome in Republic of Korea for 17 years according to age group: 2001-2017.

Authors:
Yohan Park

BMC Infect Dis 2019 Feb 13;19(1):153. Epub 2019 Feb 13.

Department of Internal Medicine, Yangju-si Public Health center, 1533 Buheung-ro, Yangju-si 11498, Gyeonggi-do, Republic of Korea.

Background: The potential effect of the inactivated hantavirus vaccine (IHV) remains controversial; however, it appears to be moderately effective for patients at high risk of hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS). This study of the epidemiology of HFRS from 2001 to 2017 aimed to examine those at high risk of HFRS in the Republic of Korea (ROK), particularly in terms of disease distribution according to age.

Methods: Raw data of HFRS patients recorded in Korea from 2001 to 2017 were obtained from the Korean Center for Disease Control and Prevention. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12879-019-3794-9DOI Listing
February 2019

Maternal hepatitis B surface antigen carrier status increased the incidence of gestational diabetes mellitus.

BMC Infect Dis 2019 Feb 13;19(1):147. Epub 2019 Feb 13.

Department of Maternal and Child Health, School of Public Health, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, 13th Hangkong Road, Wuhan, 430030, Hubei, China.

Background: The relationship between chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) remains unclear. This study aimed to identify the association between maternal HBsAg-positive status and GDM.

Methods: A retrospective cohort study was performed on the pregnant women who delivered from June 2012 to May 2016 at Wuhan Medical Care Center for Women and Children, Wuhan, China. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12879-019-3749-1DOI Listing
February 2019

Utility of qSOFA score in identifying patients at risk for poor outcome in Staphylococcus aureus bacteremia.

BMC Infect Dis 2019 Feb 13;19(1):149. Epub 2019 Feb 13.

Department of Clinical Pharmacy, University of Southern California School of Pharmacy, 1985 Zonal Ave, Los Angeles, CA, 90089, USA.

Background: The prognostic capability of the quick Sequential Organ Failure Assessment (qSOFA) bedside scoring tool is uncertain in non-ICU patients with sepsis due to bacteremia given the low number of patients previously evaluated.

Methods: We performed a retrospective cohort study of adult hospitalized patients with Staphylococcus aureus bacteremia (SAB). Medical charts were reviewed to determine qSOFA score, systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) criteria, and Pitt bacteremia score (PBS) at initial presentation; their predictive values were compared for ICU admission within 48 h, ICU stay duration > 72 h, and 30-day mortality. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12879-019-3770-4DOI Listing
February 2019

Social network analysis and whole genome sequencing in a cohort study to investigate TB transmission in an educational setting.

BMC Infect Dis 2019 Feb 13;19(1):154. Epub 2019 Feb 13.

Field Epidemiology Service, Public Health England, Bristol, UK.

Background: TB outbreaks in educational institutions can result in significant transmission and pose a considerable threat to TB control. Investigation using traditional microbiological and epidemiological tools can lead to imprecise screening strategies due to difficulties characterising complex transmission networks. Application of whole genome sequencing (WGS) and social network analysis can provide additional information that may facilitate rapid directed public health action. Read More

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https://bmcinfectdis.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/s128
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12879-019-3734-8DOI Listing
February 2019
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Melioidosis with a subdural collection - a case report.

BMC Infect Dis 2019 Feb 12;19(1):143. Epub 2019 Feb 12.

Department of Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, University of Kelaniya, Kelaniya, Sri Lanka.

Background: Melioidosis is an infection caused by Burkholderia pseudomallei, which is more prevalent in the tropics and leads to significant morbidity and mortality. It characteristically produces widespread caseous lesions and abscesses, and can present with varied clinical manifestations. Melioidosis involving the central nervous system is uncommon. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12879-019-3782-0DOI Listing
February 2019

Rapid molecular detection of macrolide resistance.

BMC Infect Dis 2019 Feb 12;19(1):144. Epub 2019 Feb 12.

Department of Biology, American University, Washington, DC, 20016, USA.

Background: Emerging antimicrobial resistance is a significant threat to human health. However, methods for rapidly diagnosing antimicrobial resistance generally require multi-day culture-based assays. Macrolide efflux gene A, mef(A), provides resistance against erythromycin and azithromycin and is known to be laterally transferred among a wide range of bacterial species. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12879-019-3762-4DOI Listing
February 2019

Epidemiology and risk factors for multi-drug resistant hospital-acquired urinary tract infection in patients with liver cirrhosis: single center experience in Serbia.

BMC Infect Dis 2019 Feb 12;19(1):141. Epub 2019 Feb 12.

Department of Anesthesiology, Clinical Center of Serbia, Belgrade, Serbia.

Background: Cirrhosis-associated immune dysfunction syndrome (CAIDS) has been identified in patients with liver cirrhosis (LC), predisposing them to a wide variety of infections. In patients with LC, healthcare-associated infections involving multi-drug resistant (MDR) bacteria have increased significantly over the last decades. Among them, hospital-acquired urinary tract infections (HA-UTI) are the most common. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12879-019-3761-5DOI Listing
February 2019

Epidemiology and risk factors for nosocomial infection in the respiratory intensive care unit of a teaching hospital in China: A prospective surveillance during 2013 and 2015.

BMC Infect Dis 2019 Feb 12;19(1):145. Epub 2019 Feb 12.

Department of Respiratory Intensive Care Unit of The First Affiliated Hospital of Xi'an Jiaotong University, Xi'an, Shaanxi Province, China.

Background: To determine the epidemiology and risk factors for nosocomial infection (NI) in the Respiratory Intensive Care Unit (RICU) of a teaching hospital in Northwest China.

Methods: An observational, prospective surveillance was conducted in the RICU from 2013 to 2015. The overall infection rate, distribution of infection sites, device-associated infections and pathogen in the RICU were investigated. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12879-019-3772-2DOI Listing
February 2019
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Roseomonas mucosa infective endocarditis in patient with systemic lupus erythematosus: case report and review of literature.

BMC Infect Dis 2019 Feb 12;19(1):140. Epub 2019 Feb 12.

Department of Laboratory Medicine, The First Affiliated Hospital of Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou, 510080, Guangdong, China.

Background: Roseomonas mucosa, as a Gram-negative coccobacilli, is an opportunistic pathogen that has rarely been reported in human infections. Here we describe a case of bacteremia in an infective endocarditis patient with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE).

Case Presentations: A 44-year-old female patient with SLE suffered bacteremia caused by Roseomonas mucosa complicated with infective endocarditis (IE). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12879-019-3774-0DOI Listing
February 2019

Significance of serum antibodies against HPV E7, Hsp27, Hsp20 and Hp91 in Iranian HPV-exposed women.

BMC Infect Dis 2019 Feb 12;19(1):142. Epub 2019 Feb 12.

Department of Hepatitis and AIDS, Pasteur Institute of Iran, Tehran, Iran.

Background: Among different types of human papillomavirus (HPV), types 16 and 18 were known to be high-risk agents causing mainly cervical cancer. Up to now, the potential of HPV E7 protein has been proved as a diagnostic marker of cervical cancer. Moreover, the levels of anti-heat shock protein (Hsp) and anti-high mobility group box-1 (HMGB1) antibodies in cancer patients have been useful in tumor diagnosis. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12879-019-3780-2DOI Listing
February 2019

Pooled PCR testing of dried blood spots for infant HIV diagnosis is cost efficient and accurate.

BMC Infect Dis 2019 Feb 11;19(1):136. Epub 2019 Feb 11.

The DST/NRF Centre of Excellence in Epidemiological Modelling and Analysis (SACEMA), Stellenbosch University, Stellenbosch, South Africa.

Background: Access to qualitative HIV PCRs for early infant diagnosis (EID) is restricted in resource-limited settings due to cost. We hypothesised that pooling of dried blood spots (DBS), defined as combining multiple patient samples in a single test with subsequent individual testing of positive pools, would be cost saving while retaining clinical accuracy compared to individual patient testing.

Methods: Cost savings: A model was developed to simulate reagent and consumable cost saving of pooled compared to individual sample testing. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12879-019-3767-zDOI Listing
February 2019

Mortality in the first six months among HIV-positive and HIV-negative patients empirically treated for tuberculosis.

BMC Infect Dis 2019 Feb 11;19(1):132. Epub 2019 Feb 11.

Epicentre, Paris, France.

Background: Empirical treatment of tuberculosis (TB) may be necessary in patients with negative or no Xpert MTB/RIF results. In a context with access to Xpert, we assessed mortality in the 6 months after the initial TB consultation among HIV-positive and HIV-negative patients who received empirical TB treatment or TB treatment based on bacteriological confirmation and we compared it with the mortality among those who did not receive TB treatment.

Methods: This prospective cohort study included consecutively adult patients with signs and symptoms of TB attending an outpatient TB clinic in Western Kenya. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12879-019-3775-zDOI Listing
February 2019
1 Read

Systemic inflammatory response syndrome in Sepsis-3: a retrospective study.

BMC Infect Dis 2019 Feb 11;19(1):139. Epub 2019 Feb 11.

Department of Critical Care Medicine, Sichuan University West China Hospital, Chengdu, 610041, Sichuan, China.

Background: In the new Sepsis-3 definition, sepsis is defined as "life-threatening organ dysfunction due to a dysregulated host response to infection." We tested the predictive validity of the systematic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) criteria in patients in the Sepsis-3 cohort.

Methods: Among 1243 electronic health records from 1 January to 31 December 2015 at Sichuan University West China Hospital, we identified patients with sepsis and septic shock according to the Sepsis-3 definition and divided them into 2 subsets: SIRS-positive and SIRS-negative. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12879-019-3790-0DOI Listing
February 2019
1 Read
2.613 Impact Factor

Immune signatures for HIV-1 and HIV-2 induced CD4T cell dysregulation in an Indian cohort.

BMC Infect Dis 2019 Feb 11;19(1):135. Epub 2019 Feb 11.

Department of Biochemistry and Virology, National Institute for Research in Reproductive Health, Indian Council of Medical Research, J. M. Street, Parel, Mumbai, 400012, India.

Background: HIV-2 infection is characterised by a longer asymptomatic phase and slower AIDS progression than HIV-1 infection. Identifying unique immune signatures associated with HIV-2 pathogenesis may thus provide therapeutically useful insight into the management of HIV infection. This study examined the dynamics of the CD4T cell compartment, critical in disease progression, focussing on chronic HIV-2 and HIV-1 infected individuals at various stages of disease progression. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12879-019-3743-7DOI Listing
February 2019
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Risk factors for contagious gastroenteritis in adult patients with diarrhoea in the emergency department - a prospective observational multicentre study.

BMC Infect Dis 2019 Feb 11;19(1):133. Epub 2019 Feb 11.

Focused Research Unit in Emergency Medicine, Hospital of Southern Denmark, Kresten Philipsens Vej 15, DK-6200, Aabenraa, Denmark.

Background: Infectious gastroenteritis is common in the emergency department (ED). Patients infected with either Norovirus or toxigenic Clostridium difficile require special isolation procedures. The aims were to describe the aetiology of infectious gastroenteritis in the ED, evaluate whether current isolation procedures, based on clinical judgement are sufficient, and to identify information that might be used to identify patients requiring isolation. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12879-019-3754-4DOI Listing
February 2019

Whole-genome sequences of multidrug-resistant Escherichia coli in South-Kivu Province, Democratic Republic of Congo: characterization of phylogenomic changes, virulence and resistance genes.

BMC Infect Dis 2019 Feb 11;19(1):137. Epub 2019 Feb 11.

Center for Applied Molecular Technologies, Institute of Clinical and Experimental Research, Université catholique de Louvain, Clos chapelle-aux-champs, 30 B1.30.24, 1200, Brussels, Belgium.

Background: Extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL)-producing Escherichia coli are responsible for severe infections worldwide. Whereas their genotypic and pathogenic characteristics are not documented in Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC), recent studies conducted at the Bukavu General Hospital in the South Kivu province highlighted their high prevalence in extra-intestinal infections. Here we provide data on molecular characterization of ESBL producing-Escherichia coli isolates from patients with extra-intestinal infections at this provincial hospital. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12879-019-3763-3DOI Listing
February 2019

Cost-effectiveness analysis of isavuconazole versus voriconazole for the treatment of patients with possible invasive aspergillosis in Sweden.

BMC Infect Dis 2019 Feb 11;19(1):134. Epub 2019 Feb 11.

Department of Medical Sciences, Infectious Diseases, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.

Background: Voriconazole is well established as standard treatment for invasive aspergillosis (IA). In 2017, isavuconazole, a new antifungal from the azole class, with a broader pathogen spectrum, was introduced in Sweden. A model has therefore been developed to compare the cost-effectiveness of isavuconazole and voriconazole in the treatment of possible IA in adults in Sweden. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12879-019-3683-2DOI Listing
February 2019

One health insights to prevent the next HxNy viral outbreak: learning from the epidemiology of H7N9.

BMC Infect Dis 2019 Feb 11;19(1):138. Epub 2019 Feb 11.

School of Public Health, Sun Yat-sen University, Zhongshan 2nd Road, Guangzhou, 510080, Guangdong, China.

Background: With an increased incidence of viral zoonoses, there is an impetus to strengthen collaborations between public health, agricultural and environmental departments. This interdisciplinary cooperation, also known as the 'One Health' approach, has received significant support from various stakeholders. However, current efforts and policies still fall short of those needed for an effective One Health approach towards disease control and prevention. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12879-019-3752-6DOI Listing
February 2019
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Predictors of discordant latent tuberculosis infection test results amongst South African health care workers.

BMC Infect Dis 2019 Feb 8;19(1):131. Epub 2019 Feb 8.

Centre for Lung Infection and Immunity, Department of Medicine and UCT Lung Institute, University of Cape Town, Groote Schuur Hospital Observatory, H46.41 Old Main Building, Cape Town, 7925, South Africa.

Background: The tuberculin skin test (TST) and interferon-gamma-release-assays (IGRAs) are utilized in screening programmes for presumed latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI) in health care workers (HCWs). However, inter-test comparison yields high rates of discordance, which is poorly understood. The aim of the study was therefore to identify factors associated with discordance amongst HCWs in a TB and HIV endemic setting. Read More

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https://bmcinfectdis.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/s128
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12879-019-3745-5DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6368796PMC
February 2019
2 Reads

A case report of community-acquired Pseudomonas aeruginosa pneumonia complicated with MODS in a previously healthy patient and related literature review.

BMC Infect Dis 2019 Feb 8;19(1):130. Epub 2019 Feb 8.

Department of Critical Care Medicine, Shanghai General Hospital, Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, Shanghai, Republic of China.

Background: Pseudomonas aeruginosa is an unusual pathogen in community-acquired pneumonia, especially in previously healthy adults, but often indicates poor prognosis.

Case Presentation: We report a previously healthy patient who developed severe community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) caused by P. aeruginosa. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12879-019-3765-1DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6368713PMC
February 2019
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'HepCheck Dublin': an intensified hepatitis C screening programme in a homeless population demonstrates the need for alternative models of care.

BMC Infect Dis 2019 Feb 7;19(1):128. Epub 2019 Feb 7.

Public Health Institute, Liverpool John Moores University, Liverpool, L32ET, UK.

Background: Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is one of the main causes of chronic liver disease worldwide. Prevalence of HCV in homeless populations ranges from 3.9 to 36. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12879-019-3748-2DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6367728PMC
February 2019

Underestimated pyrazinamide resistance may compromise outcomes of pyrazinamide containing regimens for treatment of drug susceptible and multi-drug-resistant tuberculosis in Tanzania.

BMC Infect Dis 2019 Feb 7;19(1):129. Epub 2019 Feb 7.

Kibong'oto Infectious Diseases Hospital, Kilimanjaro, Tanzania.

Background: Tuberculosis (TB) is the leading cause of death from an infectious disease and the roll-out of rapid molecular diagnostics for rifampin resistance has resulted in a steady rise in the number of patients with multidrug-resistant (MDR)-TB referred for treatment. Pyrazinamide is used in susceptible TB treatment for 6 months when used in combination with rifampin, isoniazid and ethambutol and is an important companion drug in novel MDR-TB trials. This study was undertaken to determine the prevalence of pyrazinamide resistance by either phenotypic or pncA testing among patients admitted to a referral hospital in Tanzania for drug-susceptible and MDR-TB treatment. Read More

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https://bmcinfectdis.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/s128
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12879-019-3757-1DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6367741PMC
February 2019
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A case report of severe recurrent varicella in an ankylosing spondylitis patient treated with adalimumab - a new side effect after 15 years of usage.

BMC Infect Dis 2019 Feb 7;19(1):127. Epub 2019 Feb 7.

University Hospital for Infectious Diseases "Dr. Fran Mihaljević", Mirogojska 8, 10000, Zagreb, Croatia.

Background: Tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) antagonists, most of which are monoclonal antibodies, became a widespread treatment for autoimmune diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis, ankylosing spondylitis, inflammatory bowel diseases, psoriasis, psoriatic arthritis, hidradenitis suppurativa and uveitis. Their use is based on the blockage of TNF-α, which plays an important role in granulomas formation, development of phagosomes, activation and differentiation of macrophages, immune response against viral pathogens. The multiple adverse effects of TNF-α inhibition have been identified, including a two-to four-fold increased risk of active tuberculosis and other granulomatous conditions and an increased occurrence of some other serious bacterial, fungal and certain viral infections. Read More

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https://bmcinfectdis.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/s128
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12879-019-3768-yDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6367735PMC
February 2019
2 Reads

Pyrazinamide resistance and mutations in pncA among isolates of Mycobacterium tuberculosis from Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan.

BMC Infect Dis 2019 Feb 6;19(1):116. Epub 2019 Feb 6.

Department of Computer Science, Capital University of Science and Technology, Islamabad, Pakistan.

Background: Pyrazinamide (PZA) is an important component of first-line drugs because of its distinctive capability to kill subpopulations of persistent Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB). The prodrug (PZA) is converted to its active form, pyrazinoic acid (POA) by MTB pncA-encoded pyrazinamidase (PZase). Mutation in pncA is the most common and primary cause of PZA resistance. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12879-019-3764-2DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6364397PMC
February 2019
2.613 Impact Factor

Magnitude of Helicobacter pylori and associated risk factors among symptomatic patients attending at Jasmin internal medicine and pediatrics specialized private clinic in Addis Ababa city, Ethiopia.

BMC Infect Dis 2019 Feb 6;19(1):118. Epub 2019 Feb 6.

Department of medical laboratory Sciences, Addis Ababa University, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.

Background: More than 50% of the people are infected worldwide with H. pylori which causes significant public health morbidity and mortality. The distribution is quite different from country to country. Read More

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https://bmcinfectdis.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/s128
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12879-019-3753-5DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6364427PMC
February 2019
3 Reads

A co-infection case report of Taenia saginata in a patient with subclinical clonorchiasis confirmed by the combination of diagnostic tools.

BMC Infect Dis 2019 Feb 6;19(1):115. Epub 2019 Feb 6.

Department of Laboratory Medicine, Chonnam National University Hospital, Gwangju, Republic of Korea.

Background: Clonorchiasis is the common parasitic infection in the general population of the Republic of Korea, however, taeniasis is scarcely reported recently. Here, we describe a case of co-infection with the cestode T. saginata in a patient with subclinical clonorchiasis diagnosed by a combination of diagnostic tools in Korea. Read More

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https://bmcinfectdis.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/s128
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12879-019-3758-0DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6364428PMC
February 2019
5 Reads

A comparative cross-sectional study of prevalence and intensity of soil-transmitted helminthic infection between healthy and severe acutely malnourished pre-school aged children in Kano, Northern Nigeria.

BMC Infect Dis 2019 Feb 6;19(1):121. Epub 2019 Feb 6.

Department of Medical Microbiology and Parasitology, Bayero University Kano, Kano, Nigeria.

Background: Soil-transmitted helminthic (STH) infections are common in Sub-Saharan Africa. One method used for control of these helminths is mass anti-helminthic administration in populations at risk of STH infections. In this regard, empiric treatment of children with Severe Acute Malnutrition (SAM) for STH infection is practiced in this region. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12879-019-3755-3DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6364394PMC
February 2019
1 Read

The impact of childhood varicella vaccination on the incidence of herpes zoster in the general population: modelling the effect of exogenous and endogenous varicella-zoster virus immunity boosting.

BMC Infect Dis 2019 Feb 6;19(1):126. Epub 2019 Feb 6.

Department of Experimental Virology, University Hospital Jena, Jena, Germany.

Background: A controversy exists about the potential effect of childhood varicella vaccination on Herpes Zoster (HZ) incidence. Mathematical models projected temporary HZ incidence increase after vaccine introduction that was not confirmed by real-world evidence. These models assume that absence of contacts with infected children would prevent exogenous boosting of Varicella-Zoster-Virus (VZV) immunity and they do not include an endogenous VZV immunity-boosting mechanism following asymptomatic VZV reactivation. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12879-019-3759-zDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6366068PMC
February 2019
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A year of terror and a century of reflection: perspectives on the great influenza pandemic of 1918-1919.

BMC Infect Dis 2019 Feb 6;19(1):117. Epub 2019 Feb 6.

Laboratory of Emerging and Re-Emerging Viruses, Department of Medical Microbiology, University of Manitoba, 523-745 Bannatyne Avenue, Winnipeg, MB, R3E 0J9, Canada.

Background: In the spring of 1918, the "War to End All Wars", which would ultimately claim more than 37 million lives, had entered into its final year and would change the global political and economic landscape forever. At the same time, a new global threat was emerging and would become one of the most devastating global health crises in recorded history.

Main Text: The 1918 H1N1 pandemic virus spread across Europe, North America, and Asia over a 12-month period resulting in an estimated 500 million infections and 50-100 million deaths worldwide, of which ~ 50% of these occurred within the fall of 1918 (Emerg Infect Dis 12:15-22, 2006, Bull Hist Med 76:105-115, 2002). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12879-019-3750-8DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6364422PMC
February 2019
1 Read

Estimating the burden of leptospirosis in Sri Lanka; a systematic review.

BMC Infect Dis 2019 Feb 6;19(1):119. Epub 2019 Feb 6.

Department of Community Medicine, Faculty of Medicine and Allied Sciences, Rajarata University of Sri Lanka, Saliyapura, 50008, Sri Lanka.

Background: Although the assessment of disease burden should be a priority for allocating resources, leptospirosis is grossly underestimated despite its true burden in Sri Lanka. This study aimed to assess the morbidity and mortality of leptospirosis based on routine surveillance data, hospital reported data and scientific publications from Sri Lanka.

Method: A systematic review was carried out, and Pub Med, MEDLINE®, BIOSIS Previews, Zoological Record, Web of Science Core Collection, Current Contents Connect, KCI-Korean Journal Database, BIOSIS Citation Index, Data Citation Index, SciELO Citation Index and Google Scholar databases were searched. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12879-018-3655-yDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6364467PMC
February 2019