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    808 results match your criteria BMC Immunology[Journal]

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    Cancer immunoprevention: from mice to early clinical trials.
    BMC Immunol 2018 Jun 15;19(1):16. Epub 2018 Jun 15.
    Department of Experimental, Diagnostic and Specialty Medicine (DIMES), University of Bologna, Viale Filopanti 22, 40126, Bologna, Italy.
    Cancer immunoprevention is based on the fact that a functioning immune system controls tumor onset and development in humans and animals, thus leading to the idea that the enhancement of immune responses in healthy individuals could effectively reduce cancer risk later in life. Successful primary immunoprevention of tumors caused by hepatitis B and papilloma viruses is already implemented at the population level with specific vaccines. The immunoprevention of human tumors unrelated to infectious agents is an outstanding challenge. Read More

    A qualitatively validated mathematical-computational model of the immune response to the yellow fever vaccine.
    BMC Immunol 2018 May 25;19(1):15. Epub 2018 May 25.
    Graduate Program in Computational Modeling, Federal University of Juiz de Fora, Juiz de Fora, 36036-900, Brazil.
    Background: Although a safe and effective yellow fever vaccine was developed more than 80 years ago, several issues regarding its use remain unclear. For example, what is the minimum dose that can provide immunity against the disease? A useful tool that can help researchers answer this and other related questions is a computational simulator that implements a mathematical model describing the human immune response to vaccination against yellow fever.

    Methods: This work uses a system of ten ordinary differential equations to represent a few important populations in the response process generated by the body after vaccination. Read More

    Therapeutic cancer vaccine: phase I clinical tolerance study of Hu-rhEGF-rP64k/Mont in patients with newly diagnosed advanced non-small cell lung cancer.
    BMC Immunol 2018 Apr 16;19(1):14. Epub 2018 Apr 16.
    Department of Medical Oncology, Beijing Key Laboratory of Clinical Study on Anticancer Molecular Targeted Drugs, National Cancer Center/Cancer Hospital, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences & Peking Union Medical College, Beijing, 100021, China.
    Background: Hu-rhEGF-rP64k/Mont is a biotechnology product for the treatment of advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). The vaccine induces a neutralizing antibody-mediated immune response, against the normal circulating self-protein antigen epidermal growth factor (EGF), which prevents its binding to and activation of the EGF receptor, inhibiting the transduction of the signals that drive cancer cell proliferation, survival and spread. This phase I study aimed to evaluate the safety and the immunological response of Hu-rhEGF-rP64k vaccine in NSCLC patients. Read More

    Neutrophils in primary gastric tumors are correlated with neutrophil infiltration in tumor-draining lymph nodes and the systemic inflammatory response.
    BMC Immunol 2018 Apr 16;19(1):13. Epub 2018 Apr 16.
    Department of Surgical Oncology, Osaka City University Graduate School of Medicine, 1-4-3 Asahi-machi, Abeno-ku, Osaka, 545-8585, Japan.
    Background: Tumor-Associated Neutrophils (TANs) may be able to induce lymphangiogenesis and angiogenesis, although the detailed roles of TANs remain unclear. The Neutrophil-Lymphocyte Ratio (NLR) is an inflammation-based prognostic factor for gastric cancer. This study aimed to investigate the distribution of CD15neutrophils in the primary tumor and Tumor-Draining Lymph Nodes (TDLNs), and to examine the association of TANs with the clinicopathological features (including NLR) of patients with gastric cancer. Read More

    Low HLA binding of diabetes-associated CD8+ T-cell epitopes is increased by post translational modifications.
    BMC Immunol 2018 Mar 21;19(1):12. Epub 2018 Mar 21.
    La Jolla Institute for Allergy and Immunology, La Jolla, CA, 92130, USA.
    Background: Type 1 diabetes (T1D) is thought to be an autoimmune disease driven by anti-islet antigen responses and mediated by T-cells. Recent published data suggests that T-cell reactivity to modified peptides, effectively neoantigens, may promote T1D. These findings have given more credence to the concept that T1D may not be solely an error of immune recognition but may be propagated by errors in protein processing or in modifications to endogenous peptides occurring as result of hyperglycemia, endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress, or general beta cell dysfunction. Read More

    In silico prediction of cancer immunogens: current state of the art.
    BMC Immunol 2018 Mar 15;19(1):11. Epub 2018 Mar 15.
    School of Life and Health Sciences, Aston University, Aston Triangle, Birmingham, B4 7ET, UK.
    Cancer kills 8 million annually worldwide. Although survival rates in prevalent cancers continue to increase, many cancers have no effective treatment, prompting the search for new and improved protocols. Immunotherapy is a new and exciting addition to the anti-cancer arsenal. Read More

    Utility of dominant epitopes derived from cell-wall protein LppZ for immunodiagnostic of pulmonary tuberculosis.
    BMC Immunol 2018 Mar 1;19(1):10. Epub 2018 Mar 1.
    Department of Cellular and Molecular Biology, Beijing Chest Hospital, Capital Medical University/Beijing Tuberculosis and Thoracic Tumor Research Institute, Beijing, 101149, China.
    Background: Serological antibodies tests for tuberculosis (TB) are widely used in developing countries. They appear to have some advantages- faster, simple and could be used for extrapulmonary TB. However, most of current commercial TB serological tests are failed to provide sufficient sensitivity and specificity. Read More

    Beta-2 adrenergic receptors increase TREG cell suppression in an OVA-induced allergic asthma mouse model when mice are moderate aerobically exercised.
    BMC Immunol 2018 Feb 17;19(1). Epub 2018 Feb 17.
    Department of Clinical and Diagnostic Sciences, Biomedical Sciences, School of Health Professions, University of Alabama at Birmingham, 1716 9th Ave S, SHPB 472, Birmingham, 35294, AL, USA.
    Background: The potency of T regulatory (TREG) cells to inhibit T helper (Th)-driven immune cell responses has been linked to increased intracellular cyclic-AMP (cAMP) levels of TREG cells. In an ovalbumin (OVA)-driven allergic asthma mouse model, moderate aerobic exercise increases TREG cell function in a contact-dependent manner that leads to a significant reduction in chronic inflammation and restoration of lung function. However, the mechanism, whereby exercise increases TREG function, remains unknown and was the focus of these investigations. Read More

    Pathogen recognition by NK cells amplifies the pro-inflammatory cytokine production of monocyte-derived DC via IFN-γ.
    BMC Immunol 2018 Feb 13;19(1). Epub 2018 Feb 13.
    Division of Hematology, Department of Internal Medicine, School of Oncology and Developmental Biology, Maastricht University Medical Center+, Maastricht, the Netherlands.
    Background: Besides their prominent role in the elimination of infected or malignantly transformed cells, natural killer (NK) cells serve as modulators of adaptive immune responses. Enhancing bidirectional crosstalk between NK cells and dendritic cells (DC) is considered a promising tool to potentiate cancer vaccines. We investigated to what extent direct sensing of viral and bacterial motifs by NK cells contributes to the response of inflammatory DC against the same pathogenic stimulus. Read More

    Establishment of malignantly transformed dendritic cell line SU3-ihDCTC induced by Glioma stem cells and study on its sensitivity to resveratrol.
    BMC Immunol 2018 Feb 2;19(1). Epub 2018 Feb 2.
    Department of neurosurgery, Suzhou Kowloon Hospital, Shanghai Jiaotong University School of Medcine, Wan'sheng Road 118, Suzhou, 215006, China.
    Background: As a factor contributing to the tumor cell drug resistance, tumor microenvironment (TME) is being paid increasingly attention. However, the drug resistance of malignantly transformed cells in TME has rarely been revealed. This paper is designed to investigate the sensitivity of malignantly transformed cell line (ihDCTC) induced by glioma stem cells (GSCs) in TME to chemotherapeutic drugs. Read More

    Down selecting adjuvanted vaccine formulations: a comparative method for harmonized evaluation.
    BMC Immunol 2018 Jan 31;19(1). Epub 2018 Jan 31.
    Biomedical Primate Research Centre, Department of Parasitology, Rijswijk, The Netherlands.
    Background: The need for rapid and accurate comparison of panels of adjuvanted vaccine formulations and subsequent rational down selection, presents several challenges for modern vaccine development. Here we describe a method which may enable vaccine and adjuvant developers to compare antigen/adjuvant combinations in a harmonized fashion. Three reference antigens: Plasmodium falciparum apical membrane antigen 1 (AMA1), hepatitis B virus surface antigen (HBsAg), and Mycobacterium tuberculosis antigen 85A (Ag85A), were selected as model antigens and were each formulated with three adjuvants: aluminium oxyhydroxide, squalene-in-water emulsion, and a liposome formulation mixed with the purified saponin fraction QS21. Read More

    Co-localization of lymphoid aggregates and lymphatic networks in nose- (NALT) and lacrimal duct-associated lymphoid tissue (LDALT) of mice.
    BMC Immunol 2018 Jan 25;19(1). Epub 2018 Jan 25.
    Institute for Anatomy and Cell Biology, University Medical Hospital Göttingen, Kreuzbergring 36, D-37075, Göttingen, Germany.
    Background: The lymphatic vascular pattern in the head of mice has rarely been studied, due to problems of sectioning and immunostaining of complex bony structures. Therefore, the association of head lymphoid tissues with the lymphatics has remained unknown although the mouse is the most often used species in immunology.

    Results: Here, we studied the association of nasal and nasolacrimal duct lymphatics with lymphoid aggregates in 14-day-old and 2-month-old mice. Read More

    RNA gene profile variation in peripheral blood mononuclear cells from rhesus macaques immunized with Hib conjugate vaccine, Hib capsular polysaccharide and TT carrier protein.
    BMC Immunol 2018 Jan 25;19(1). Epub 2018 Jan 25.
    Yunnan Key Laboratory of Vaccine Research and Development on Severe Infectious Diseases, Institute of Medical Biology, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical College, No. 935 Jiaoling Road, Kunming, Yunnan, 650118, China.
    Background: The Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) conjugate vaccine has been widely used in children to prevent invasive Hib disease because of its strong immunogenicity and antibody response induction relative to the capsular polysaccharide (CPS) antigen. The data from vaccine studies suggest that the conjugate vaccine contains carrier proteins that enhance and/or regulate the antigen's immunogenicity, but the mechanism of this enhancement remains unclear.

    Methods: To explore the immunological role of the conjugate vaccine, we compared the immune responses and gene profiles of rhesus macaques after immunization with CPS, carrier protein tetanus toxoid (TT) or conjugate vaccine. Read More

    Distribution of M1 and M2 macrophages in tumor islets and stroma in relation to prognosis of non-small cell lung cancer.
    BMC Immunol 2018 Jan 24;19(1). Epub 2018 Jan 24.
    Department of Pulmonology, Medical Academy, Lithuanian University of Health Sciences, Eiveniu st. 2, LT-50161, Kaunas, Lithuania.
    Background: Non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) remains the most common cause of cancer related death worldwide. Tumor-infiltrating macrophages are believed to play an important role in growth, progression, and metastasis of tumors. In NSCLC, the role of macrophages remains controversial; therefore, we aimed to evaluate the distribution of macrophages (M1 and M2) in tumor islets and stroma and to analyze their relations to patients' survival. Read More

    Cattle infection response network and its functional modules.
    BMC Immunol 2018 Jan 5;19(1). Epub 2018 Jan 5.
    Department of Animal Science, Iowa State University, Ames, IA, 50011, USA.
    Background: Weighted Gene Co-expression Network analysis, a powerful technique used to extract co-expressed gene pattern from mRNA expression data, was constructed to infer common immune strategies used by cattle in response to five different bacterial species (Escherichia coli, Mycobacterium avium, Mycobacterium bovis, Salmonella and Staphylococcus aureus) and a protozoa (Trypanosoma Congolense) using 604 publicly available gene expression microarrays from 12 cattle infection experiments.

    Results: A total of 14,999 transcripts that were differentially expressed (DE) in at least three different infection experiments were consolidated into 15 modules that contained between 43 and 4441 transcripts. The high number of shared DE transcripts between the different types of infections indicated that there were potentially common immune strategies used in response to these infections. Read More

    Association between major depressive disorder and pro-inflammatory cytokines and acute phase proteins among HIV-1 positive patients in Uganda.
    BMC Immunol 2018 Jan 3;19(1). Epub 2018 Jan 3.
    MRC/UVRI, Uganda Research Unit on AIDS, P.O. Box 49, Entebbe, Uganda.
    Background: Major depressive disorder (MDD) is a common psychiatric complication of HIV/AIDS. While considerable research has been undertaken to understand the psychosocial risk factors of MDD, there is a paucity of data on its biological risk factors including immunological factors. To address this we undertook a study to investigate the association between MDD and pro-inflammatory cytokines and acute phase proteins among persons living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA) in Uganda. Read More

    Functional expression of CCL8 and its interaction with chemokine receptor CCR3.
    BMC Immunol 2017 Dec 28;18(1):54. Epub 2017 Dec 28.
    Center for Bioengineering and Biotechnology, China University of Petroleum (East China), Qingdao, 266580, People's Republic of China.
    Background: Chemokines and their cognate receptors play important role in the control of leukocyte chemotaxis, HIV entry and other inflammatory diseases. Developing an effcient method to investigate the functional expression of chemokines and its interactions with specific receptors will be helpful to asses the structural and functional characteristics as well as the design of new approach to therapeutic intervention.

    Results: By making systematic optimization study of expression conditions, soluble and functional production of chemokine C-C motif ligand 8 (CCL8) in Escherichia coli (E. Read More

    Rheumatoid factor is correlated with disease activity and inflammatory markers in antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody-associated vasculitis.
    BMC Immunol 2017 Dec 20;18(1):53. Epub 2017 Dec 20.
    Department of Rheumatology, Saitama Medical Center, Jichi Medical University, 1-847 Amanuma-cho, Omiya-ku, Saitama City, Saitama, 330-0834, Japan.
    Background: Some patients with antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody (ANCA)-associated vasculitis (AAV) also have positivity of rheumatoid factor (RF). However, the clinical significance of this occurrence remains unknown in AAV patients. The aim of this study was to clarify an association between the presence of RF and clinical features in patients with AAV. Read More

    Mesenchymal stem cell conditioned medium alleviates oxidative stress injury induced by hydrogen peroxide via regulating miR143 and its target protein in hepatocytes.
    BMC Immunol 2017 Dec 19;18(1):51. Epub 2017 Dec 19.
    Shenzhen Research Institute of Shandong University, Shenzhen, 518057, China.
    Background: To investigate the impact of miRNA (microRNA) on hepatic oxidative stress damage under the human mesenchymal stem cell conditioned medium (MSC-CM) and explore the roles of the beta-1 adrenergic receptor (ADRB1) and hexokinase 2 (HK2) in this process.

    Methods: Hydrogen peroxide was used to induce oxidative stress injury in the human normal liver cell line L02. MSC-CM was separately prepared. Read More

    Renal allograft rejection, lymphocyte infiltration, and de novo donor-specific antibodies in a novel model of non-adherence to immunosuppressive therapy.
    BMC Immunol 2017 Dec 19;18(1):52. Epub 2017 Dec 19.
    Department of Nephrology, University Hospital Regensburg, Franz-Josef-Strauß Allee 11, D-93053, Regensburg, Germany.
    Background: Non-adherence has been associated with reduced graft survival. The aim of this study was to investigate the immunological mechanisms underlying chronic renal allograft rejection using a model of non-adherence to immunosuppressive therapy. We used a MHC (major histocompatibility complex) -mismatched rat model of renal transplantation (Brown Norway to Lewis), in which rats received daily oral cyclosporine A. Read More

    The influence of HK2 blood group antigen on human B cell activation for ABOi-KT conditions.
    BMC Immunol 2017 Dec 16;18(1):49. Epub 2017 Dec 16.
    Clinical research center, Institute of Pathogenic Biology, Medical College, The Second Affiliated Hospital, University of South China, Hengyang, Hunan, 421001, China.
    Background: It is well known that ABO blood group system incompatible kidney transplantation (ABOi-KT) is an effective strategy for end-stage renal disease. The main barrier for ABOi-KT is how to keep host B cell activation and blood group antibody titer in low levels. Moreover, the mechanism of B cell activation induced by blood group antigen was unclear in ABOi-KT. Read More

    Helios + Regulatory T cell frequencies are correlated with control of viral replication and recovery of absolute CD4 T cells counts in early HIV-1 infection.
    BMC Immunol 2017 Dec 16;18(1):50. Epub 2017 Dec 16.
    Institute of Tropical Medicine, Department of Biomedical Sciences, Antwerp, Belgium.
    Background: The acute phase of HIV infection is characterized by massive depletion of CD4 T cells, high viral plasma levels and pronounced systemic immune activation. Regulatory T cells (Tregs) have the potential to control systemic immune activation but also to suppress antigen specific T and B cell response. The co-expression of FoxP3 and Helios transcription factors, has been described for identification of highly suppressive Tregs. Read More

    Hyporesponsiveness of natural killer cells and impaired inflammatory responses in critically ill patients.
    BMC Immunol 2017 Dec 8;18(1):48. Epub 2017 Dec 8.
    Research Center for Silver Science, Institute of Symbiotic Life-TECH, Yonsei University, 50 Yonsei-ro, Seodaemun-gu, Seoul, 03722, Republic of Korea.
    Background: To investigate natural killer (NK) cell activity, circulating cytokine level and peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC) cytokine production status in critically ill patients.

    Methods: Blood samples were collected <24 h after admission from 24 intensive care unit (ICU) patients and 24 age-, sex-, and body mass index (BMI)-matched healthy controls. Serum cytokine concentrations and cytokine production by PBMCs and lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated PBMCs were measured. Read More

    C-reactive protein (CRP) but not the related pentraxins serum amyloid P and PTX3 inhibits the proliferation and induces apoptosis of the leukemia cell line Mono Mac 6.
    BMC Immunol 2017 Dec 4;18(1):47. Epub 2017 Dec 4.
    Department of Biology, Texas A&M University, College Station, TX, 77843-3474, USA.
    Background: Pentraxins are a family of highly conserved secreted proteins that regulate the innate immune system, including monocytes and macrophages. C-reactive protein (CRP) is a plasma protein whose levels can rise to 1000 μg/ml from the normal <3 μg/ ml during inflammation.

    Results: We find that CRP inhibits proliferation of the human myeloid leukemia cell line Mono Mac 6 with an IC50 of 75 μg/ ml by inducing apoptosis of these cells. Read More

    Transcriptomic data from two primary cell models stimulating human monocytes suggest inhibition of oxidative phosphorylation and mitochondrial function by N. meningitidis which is partially up-regulated by IL-10.
    BMC Immunol 2017 Oct 27;18(1):46. Epub 2017 Oct 27.
    Blood Cell Research Group, Section for Research, Department of Medical Biochemistry, Oslo University Hospital, Oslo, Norway.
    Background: Biological interpretation of DNA microarray data may differ depending on underlying assumptions and statistical tests of bioinformatics tools used. We used Gene Set Enrichment Analysis (GSEA) and Ingenuity Pathway Analysis (IPA) to analyze previously generated DNA microarray data from human monocytes stimulated with N. meningitidis and IL-10 ("the model system"), and with meningococcal sepsis plasma before and after immunodepletion of IL-10 ("the patient plasma system"). Read More

    Synergistic oligodeoxynucleotide strongly promotes CpG-induced interleukin-6 production.
    BMC Immunol 2017 Oct 4;18(1):44. Epub 2017 Oct 4.
    Metabologenomics Core, Transborder Medical Research Center, University of Tsukuba, 1-1-1, Tennodai, Tsukuba, Ibaraki, 3058575, Japan.
    Background: Bacterial genomes span a significant portion of diversity, reflecting their adaptation strategies; these strategies include nucleotide usage biases that affect chromosome configuration. Here, we explore an immuno-synergistic oligodeoxynucleotide (iSN-ODN, named iSN34), derived from Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG (LGG) genomic sequences, that exhibits a synergistic effect on immune response to CpG-induced immune activation.

    Methods: The sequence of iSN34 was designed based on the genomic sequences of LGG. Read More

    Selection of reliable reference genes for the normalisation of gene expression levels following time course LPS stimulation of murine bone marrow derived macrophages.
    BMC Immunol 2017 Oct 3;18(1):43. Epub 2017 Oct 3.
    The School of Life Sciences, University of Technology Sydney, Ultimo, NSW, Australia.
    Background: Macrophages are key players in the initiation, perpetuation and regulation of both innate and adaptive immune responses. They largely perform these roles through modulation of the expression of genes, especially those encoding cytokines. Murine bone marrow derived macrophages (BMDMs) are commonly used as a model macrophage population for the study of immune responses to pro-inflammatory stimuli, notably lipopolysaccharide (LPS), which may be pertinent to the human situation. Read More

    Adverse events following immunization with pentavalent vaccine: experiences of newly introduced vaccine in Iran.
    BMC Immunol 2017 Aug 23;18(1):42. Epub 2017 Aug 23.
    Department of Communication Studies, Ghent University, Ghent, Belgium.
    Background: The most important factors that affect the incidence of vaccine-related complications are the constituent biological components of the vaccine, injection site reactions, age and sex. The aim of this study is to determine the incidence rate of adverse events following immunization with pentavalent vaccine (DTPw-Hep B-Hib (PRP-T) vaccine (pentavac) (adsorbed) is manufactured by Serum Institute of India ltd), which was introduced in Iran in November 2014. It is important to monitor vaccine-related adverse events because of the role of vaccine safety in immunization program success. Read More

    JAK inhibitor has the amelioration effect in lupus-prone mice: the involvement of IFN signature gene downregulation.
    BMC Immunol 2017 Aug 22;18(1):41. Epub 2017 Aug 22.
    Department of Internal Medicine and Rheumatology, Juntendo University Urayasu Hospital, 2-1-1 Tomioka Urayasu-shi, Chiba, 279-0021, Japan.
    Background: We previously reported that JAK-STAT-pathway mediated regulation of IFN-regulatory factor genes could play an important role in SLE pathogenesis. Here, we evaluated the efficacy of the JAK inhibitor tofacitinib (TOFA) for controlling IFN signalling via the JAK-STAT pathway and as a therapeutic for SLE.

    Results: We treated NZB/NZW F1 mice with TOFA and assessed alterations in their disease, pathological, and immunological conditions. Read More

    Blocking IL-10 signalling at the time of immunization does not increase unwanted side effects in mice.
    BMC Immunol 2017 Aug 15;18(1):40. Epub 2017 Aug 15.
    School of Medical Science, Griffith Health Institute, Griffith University, Gold Coast, QLD, 4333, Australia.
    Background: Cancer therapeutic vaccine induced cytotoxic T cell (CTL) responses are pivotal for the killing of tumour cells. Blocking interleukin 10 (IL-10) signalling at the time of immunization increases vaccine induced CTL responses and improves prevention of tumour growth in animal models compared to immunization without an IL-10 signalling blockade. Therefore, this immunization strategy may have potential to curtail cancer in a clinical setting. Read More

    Characteristics of the specific humoral response in patients with advanced solid tumors after active immunotherapy with a VEGF vaccine, at different antigen doses and using two distinct adjuvants.
    BMC Immunol 2017 Jul 26;18(1):39. Epub 2017 Jul 26.
    Department of Pharmaceuticals, Center for Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology (CIGB), P.O. Box 6162, Playa Cubanacán, Havana, 10600, Cuba.
    Background: CIGB-247, a VSSP-adjuvanted VEGF-based vaccine, was evaluated in a phase I clinical trial in patients with advanced solid tumors (CENTAURO). Vaccination with the maximum dose of antigen showed an excellent safety profile, exhibited the highest immunogenicity and was the only one showing a reduction on platelet VEGF bioavailability. However, this antigen dose level did not achieve a complete seroconversion rate in vaccinated patients. Read More

    Detection of IL-9 producing T cells in the PBMCs of allergic asthmatic patients.
    BMC Immunol 2017 Jul 19;18(1):38. Epub 2017 Jul 19.
    Institute of Immunology, Zhongshan School of Medicine, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou, 510080, China.
    Background: Interleukin-9 (IL-9) was reported as an active participant in the pathogenesis of allergic asthma. This study aimed to investigate the major source ofIL-9 and its effect on interferon γ (IFN-γ) and immunoglobulin (Ig) secretion by B cells.

    Methods: We isolated peripheral blood mononuclear cells from children with allergic asthma and healthy children. Read More

    Mercury alters endogenous phosphorylation profiles of SYK in murine B cells.
    BMC Immunol 2017 Jul 17;18(1):37. Epub 2017 Jul 17.
    Department of Immunology and Microbiology, Center for Urban Responses to Environmental Stressors (CURES), Wayne State University, Detroit, MI, 48201, USA.
    Background: Epidemiological evidence and animal models suggest that exposure to low and non-neurotoxic concentrations of mercury may contribute to idiosyncratic autoimmune disease. Since defects in function and signaling in B cells are often associated with autoimmunity, we investigated whether mercury exposure might alter B cell responsiveness to self-antigens by interfering with B cell receptor (BCR) signal transduction. In this study we determined the effects of mercury on the protein tyrosine kinase SYK, a critical protein involved in regulation of the BCR signaling pathway. Read More

    γδTFH cells promote B cell maturation and antibody production in neuroblastoma.
    BMC Immunol 2017 Jul 7;18(1):36. Epub 2017 Jul 7.
    Key Laboratory of Major Diseases in Children, Ministry of Education, Beijing Children's Hospital, Capital Medical University, National Center for Children's Health, Beijing, 100045, China.
    Background: Previous studies have shown that γδ TFH cells are capable of modulating antibody production in immunized and infected mouse model. In recent studies, human γδ TFH cells are shown to contribute to the activation of humoral immunity and promote the maturation of B cells. However, little information is available on their involvement in neuroblastoma (NB) pathogenesis. Read More

    A theoretical model of the West Nile Virus survival data.
    BMC Immunol 2017 Jun 21;18(Suppl 1):22. Epub 2017 Jun 21.
    Discipline of Pathology, University of Sydney, Sydney, NSW, Australia.
    Background: In this work, we develop a theoretical model that explains the survival data in West Nile Virus infection.

    Results: We build a model based on three cell populations in an infected host; the collateral damage cells, the infected dividing cell, and the infected non-dividing cells. T cell-mediated lysis of each of these populations is dependent on the level of MHC-1 upregulation, which is different in the two infected cell populations, interferon-gamma and free virus levels. Read More

    A model of auto immune response.
    BMC Immunol 2017 Jun 21;18(Suppl 1):24. Epub 2017 Jun 21.
    Discipline of Pathology, University of Sydney, Sydney, NSW, Australia.
    Background: In this work, we develop a theoretical model of an auto immune response. This is based on modifications of standard second messenger trigger models using both signalling pathways and diffusion and a macro level dynamic systems approximation to the response of a triggering agent such as a virus, bacteria or environmental toxin.

    Results: We show that there, in general, will be self damage effects whenever the triggering agent's effect on the host can be separated into two distinct classes of cell populations. Read More

    Experimental validation of the RATE tool for inferring HLA restrictions of T cell epitopes.
    BMC Immunol 2017 Jun 21;18(Suppl 1):20. Epub 2017 Jun 21.
    Division of Vaccine Discovery, La Jolla Institute for Allergy and Immunology, 9420 Athena Circle, La Jolla, San Diego, CA, 92037, USA.
    Background: The RATE tool was recently developed to computationally infer the HLA restriction of given epitopes from immune response data of HLA typed subjects without additional cumbersome experimentation.

    Results: Here, RATE was validated using experimentally defined restriction data from a set of 191 tuberculosis-derived epitopes and 63 healthy individuals with MTB infection from the Western Cape Region of South Africa. Using this experimental dataset, the parameters utilized by the RATE tool to infer restriction were optimized, which included relative frequency (RF) of the subjects responding to a given epitope and expressing a given allele as compared to the general test population and the associated p-value in a Fisher's exact test. Read More

    Hybrid approach to model the spatial regulation of T cell responses.
    BMC Immunol 2017 Jun 21;18(Suppl 1):29. Epub 2017 Jun 21.
    Institut Camille Jordan, UMR 5208 CNRS, University Lyon 1, Villeurbanne, 69622, France.
    Background: Moving from the molecular and cellular level to a multi-scale systems understanding of immune responses requires the development of novel approaches to integrate knowledge and data from different biological levels into mechanism-based integrative mathematical models. The aim of our study is to present a methodology for a hybrid modelling of immunological processes in their spatial context.

    Methods: A two-level hybrid mathematical model of immune cell migration and interaction integrating cellular and organ levels of regulation for a 2D spatial consideration of idealized secondary lymphoid organs is developed. Read More

    Wound healing: time to look for intelligent, 'natural' immunological approaches?
    BMC Immunol 2017 Jun 21;18(Suppl 1):23. Epub 2017 Jun 21.
    Laboratory of Immunology and Molecular Physiology, Zoology Department, Faculty of Science, Assiut University, 71516, Assiut, Egypt.
    There is now good evidence that cytokines and growth factors are key factors in tissue repair and often exert anti-infective activities. However, engineering such factors for global use, even in the most remote places, is not realistic. Instead, we propose to examine how such factors work and to evaluate the reparative tools generously provided by 'nature. Read More

    IG and TR single chain fragment variable (scFv) sequence analysis: a new advanced functionality of IMGT/V-QUEST and IMGT/HighV-QUEST.
    BMC Immunol 2017 Jun 26;18(1):35. Epub 2017 Jun 26.
    IMGT®, the international ImMunoGeneTics information system®, Laboratoire d'ImmunoGénétique Moléculaire LIGM, Institut de Génétique Humaine IGH, UMR 9002, CNRS, Montpellier University, Montpellier, France.
    Background: IMGT®, the international ImMunoGeneTics information system® ( ), was created in 1989 in Montpellier, France (CNRS and Montpellier University) to manage the huge and complex diversity of the antigen receptors, and is at the origin of immunoinformatics, a science at the interface between immunogenetics and bioinformatics. Read More

    Autoantibodies against BAFF, APRIL or IL21 - an alternative pathogenesis for antibody-deficiencies?
    BMC Immunol 2017 Jun 26;18(1):34. Epub 2017 Jun 26.
    Centre for Chronic Immunodeficiency, Medical Centre University Hospital, Medical Faculty of Freiburg, Freiburg, Germany.
    Background: The ability of anti-cytokine antibodies to play a disease-causing role in the pathogenesis of immunodeficiencies is widely accepted. The aim of this study was to investigate whether autoantibodies against BAFF (important B cell survival signal), APRIL (important plasma cell survival signal), or Interleukin-21 (important cytokine for immunoglobulin class switch) present an alternative mechanism for the development of the following primary antibody deficiencies (PADs): common variable immune deficiency (CVID) or selective IgA deficiency (sIgAD).

    Results: Two hundred thirty-two sera from patients with PADs were screened for autoantibodies against cytokines by ELISA. Read More

    The imbalance of Th17/Treg cells is involved in the progression of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease in mice.
    BMC Immunol 2017 Jun 24;18(1):33. Epub 2017 Jun 24.
    Department of Laboratory Medicine, First Affiliated Hospital, College of Medicine, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, 310003, Zhejiang, People's Republic of China.
    Background: Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a common, chronic liver disease worldwide. Recent studies have shown that T helper (Th) 17 and regulatory T (Treg) cells play critical roles in various disorders of liver inflammation. Here, we explored the value of polyene phosphatidylcholine capsules (PPC) for regulating the imbalance of Th17/Treg cells in the pathogenesis of mice with NAFLD. Read More

    IgMk paraprotein from gammopathy patient can bind to cardiolipin and interfere with coagulation assay: a case report.
    BMC Immunol 2017 Jun 23;18(1):32. Epub 2017 Jun 23.
    Department of Rheumatology and Immunology, Ruijin Hospital, Shanghai Jiaotong University School of Medicine, No. 197 Ruijin Second Road, Huangpu District, Shanghai, 200025, China.
    Background: The monoclonal gammopathies are a group of plasma-cell proliferative disorders characterized by the secretion of monoclonal immunoglobulin (M protein or paraprotein). Some rare cases have revealed the specific affinity of paraprotein as autoantibody. Here we report a patient with monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance (MGUS) accompanied by a remarkable increase of anticardiolipin antibody (aCL) and an extensively decreased coagulation factor activity, however, without any clinical signs of antiphospholipid syndrome (APS) and bleeding. Read More

    Generation of populations of antigen-specific cytotoxic T cells using DCs transfected with DNA construct encoding HER2/neu tumor antigen epitopes.
    BMC Immunol 2017 Jun 20;18(1):31. Epub 2017 Jun 20.
    Federal State Budgetary Scientific Institution "Research Institute of Fundamental and Clinical Immunology", Yadrintsevskaya str., 14, Novosibirsk, 630099, Russia.
    Background: Recent fundamental and clinical studies have confirmed the effectiveness of utilizing the potential of the immune system to remove tumor cells disseminated in a patient's body. Cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) are considered the main effectors in cell-mediated antitumor immunity. Approaches based on antigen presentation to CTLs by dendritic cells (DCs) are currently being intensively studied, because DCs are more efficient in tumor antigen presentation to T cells through their initiation of strong specific antitumor immune responses than other types of antigen-presenting cells. Read More

    Monocyte differentiation and macrophage priming are regulated differentially by pentraxins and their ligands.
    BMC Immunol 2017 Jun 15;18(1):30. Epub 2017 Jun 15.
    Department of Biology, Texas A&M University, 3474 TAMU, College Station, TX, 77843-3474, USA.
    Background: Circulating bone marrow-derived monocytes can leave the blood, enter a tissue, and differentiate into M1 inflammatory, M2a remodeling/fibrotic, or M2c/Mreg resolving/immune-regulatory macrophages. Macrophages can also convert from one of the above types to another. Pentraxins are secreted proteins that bind to, and promote efficient clearance of, microbial pathogens and cellular debris during infection, inflammation, and tissue damage. Read More

    Long-term leukocyte reconstitution in NSG mice transplanted with human cord blood hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells.
    BMC Immunol 2017 May 30;18(1):28. Epub 2017 May 30.
    Division of Infectious Diseases and Hospital Epidemiology, University Hospital of Zurich, University of Zurich, Raemistrasse 100, 8091, Zurich, Switzerland.
    Background: Humanized mice (hu mice) are based on the transplantation of hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells into immunodeficient mice and have become important pre-clinical models for biomedical research. However, data about their hematopoiesis over time are scarce. We therefore characterized leukocyte reconstitution in NSG mice, which were sublethally irradiated and transplanted with human cord blood-derived CD34+ cells at newborn age, longitudinally in peripheral blood and, for more detailed analyses, cross-sectionally in peripheral blood, spleen and bone marrow at different time points. Read More

    The immunoregulatory role of alpha enolase in dendritic cell function during Chlamydia infection.
    BMC Immunol 2017 May 19;18(1):27. Epub 2017 May 19.
    Department of Microbiology, Biochemistry, and Immunology, Morehouse School of Medicine, 720 Westview Drive S.W., Atlanta, GA, 30310, USA.
    Background: We have previously reported that interleukin-10 (IL-10) deficient dendritic cells (DCs) are potent antigen presenting cells that induced elevated protective immunity against Chlamydia. To further investigate the molecular and biochemical mechanism underlying the superior immunostimulatory property of IL-10 deficient DCs we performed proteomic analysis on protein profiles from Chlamydia-pulsed wild-type (WT) and IL-10 DCs to identify differentially expressed proteins with immunomodulatory properties.

    Results: The results showed that alpha enolase (ENO1), a metabolic enzyme involved in the last step of glycolysis was significantly upregulated in Chlamydia-pulsed IL-10 DCs compared to WT DCs. Read More

    The cytokine polymorphisms affecting Th1/Th2 increase the susceptibility to, and severity of, chronic ITP.
    BMC Immunol 2017 May 16;18(1):26. Epub 2017 May 16.
    Graduate School of Health Sciences, Gunma University, 3-39-22 Showa-machi, Maebashi, Gunma, 371-8514, Japan.
    Background: T-helper cell type 1 (Th1) polarization in chronic immune thrombocytopenia (cITP) has been reported at the protein and mRNA levels. We evaluated the impact of Th1/Th2 cytokine and cytokine receptor functional polymorphisms on both susceptibility to, and severity of, cITP. We analysed IFN-γ + 874 T/A, IFN-γR -611G/A, IL-4 -590C/T, and IL-4Rα Q576R polymorphisms in 126 cITP patients (male/female: 34/92; median age: 47. Read More

    Peptides mimicking viral proteins of porcine circovirus type 2 were profiled by the spectrum of mouse anti-PCV2 antibodies.
    BMC Immunol 2017 May 15;18(1):25. Epub 2017 May 15.
    School of Veterinary Medicine, National Taiwan University, No.1, Sec. 4, Roosevelt Road, Taipei, 10617, Taiwan.
    Background: Porcine circovirus 2 (PCV2) is a small, non-enveloped DNA virus causing swine lymphocyte depletion and severe impact on the swine industry. The aim of this study was to evaluate the antigenicity and immunogenicity of specific peptides, and seeking the potential candidate of PCV2 peptide-based vaccine. It's initiating from peptides reacting with PCV2-infected pig sera and peptide-immunized mouse sera. Read More

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