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    780 results match your criteria BMC Immunology[Journal]

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    Adverse events following immunization with pentavalent vaccine: experiences of newly introduced vaccine in Iran.
    BMC Immunol 2017 Aug 23;18(1):42. Epub 2017 Aug 23.
    Department of Communication Studies, Ghent University, Ghent, Belgium.
    Background: The most important factors that affect the incidence of vaccine-related complications are the constituent biological components of the vaccine, injection site reactions, age and sex. The aim of this study is to determine the incidence rate of adverse events following immunization with pentavalent vaccine (DTPw-Hep B-Hib (PRP-T) vaccine (pentavac) (adsorbed) is manufactured by Serum Institute of India ltd), which was introduced in Iran in November 2014. It is important to monitor vaccine-related adverse events because of the role of vaccine safety in immunization program success. Read More

    JAK inhibitor has the amelioration effect in lupus-prone mice: the involvement of IFN signature gene downregulation.
    BMC Immunol 2017 Aug 22;18(1):41. Epub 2017 Aug 22.
    Department of Internal Medicine and Rheumatology, Juntendo University Urayasu Hospital, 2-1-1 Tomioka Urayasu-shi, Chiba, 279-0021, Japan.
    Background: We previously reported that JAK-STAT-pathway mediated regulation of IFN-regulatory factor genes could play an important role in SLE pathogenesis. Here, we evaluated the efficacy of the JAK inhibitor tofacitinib (TOFA) for controlling IFN signalling via the JAK-STAT pathway and as a therapeutic for SLE.

    Results: We treated NZB/NZW F1 mice with TOFA and assessed alterations in their disease, pathological, and immunological conditions. Read More

    Blocking IL-10 signalling at the time of immunization does not increase unwanted side effects in mice.
    BMC Immunol 2017 Aug 15;18(1):40. Epub 2017 Aug 15.
    School of Medical Science, Griffith Health Institute, Griffith University, Gold Coast, QLD, 4333, Australia.
    Background: Cancer therapeutic vaccine induced cytotoxic T cell (CTL) responses are pivotal for the killing of tumour cells. Blocking interleukin 10 (IL-10) signalling at the time of immunization increases vaccine induced CTL responses and improves prevention of tumour growth in animal models compared to immunization without an IL-10 signalling blockade. Therefore, this immunization strategy may have potential to curtail cancer in a clinical setting. Read More

    Characteristics of the specific humoral response in patients with advanced solid tumors after active immunotherapy with a VEGF vaccine, at different antigen doses and using two distinct adjuvants.
    BMC Immunol 2017 Jul 26;18(1):39. Epub 2017 Jul 26.
    Department of Pharmaceuticals, Center for Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology (CIGB), P.O. Box 6162, Playa Cubanacán, Havana, 10600, Cuba.
    Background: CIGB-247, a VSSP-adjuvanted VEGF-based vaccine, was evaluated in a phase I clinical trial in patients with advanced solid tumors (CENTAURO). Vaccination with the maximum dose of antigen showed an excellent safety profile, exhibited the highest immunogenicity and was the only one showing a reduction on platelet VEGF bioavailability. However, this antigen dose level did not achieve a complete seroconversion rate in vaccinated patients. Read More

    Detection of IL-9 producing T cells in the PBMCs of allergic asthmatic patients.
    BMC Immunol 2017 Jul 19;18(1):38. Epub 2017 Jul 19.
    Institute of Immunology, Zhongshan School of Medicine, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou, 510080, China.
    Background: Interleukin-9 (IL-9) was reported as an active participant in the pathogenesis of allergic asthma. This study aimed to investigate the major source ofIL-9 and its effect on interferon γ (IFN-γ) and immunoglobulin (Ig) secretion by B cells.

    Methods: We isolated peripheral blood mononuclear cells from children with allergic asthma and healthy children. Read More

    Mercury alters endogenous phosphorylation profiles of SYK in murine B cells.
    BMC Immunol 2017 Jul 17;18(1):37. Epub 2017 Jul 17.
    Department of Immunology and Microbiology, Center for Urban Responses to Environmental Stressors (CURES), Wayne State University, Detroit, MI, 48201, USA.
    Background: Epidemiological evidence and animal models suggest that exposure to low and non-neurotoxic concentrations of mercury may contribute to idiosyncratic autoimmune disease. Since defects in function and signaling in B cells are often associated with autoimmunity, we investigated whether mercury exposure might alter B cell responsiveness to self-antigens by interfering with B cell receptor (BCR) signal transduction. In this study we determined the effects of mercury on the protein tyrosine kinase SYK, a critical protein involved in regulation of the BCR signaling pathway. Read More

    γδTFH cells promote B cell maturation and antibody production in neuroblastoma.
    BMC Immunol 2017 Jul 7;18(1):36. Epub 2017 Jul 7.
    Key Laboratory of Major Diseases in Children, Ministry of Education, Beijing Children's Hospital, Capital Medical University, National Center for Children's Health, Beijing, 100045, China.
    Background: Previous studies have shown that γδ TFH cells are capable of modulating antibody production in immunized and infected mouse model. In recent studies, human γδ TFH cells are shown to contribute to the activation of humoral immunity and promote the maturation of B cells. However, little information is available on their involvement in neuroblastoma (NB) pathogenesis. Read More

    A theoretical model of the West Nile Virus survival data.
    BMC Immunol 2017 Jun 21;18(Suppl 1):22. Epub 2017 Jun 21.
    Discipline of Pathology, University of Sydney, Sydney, NSW, Australia.
    Background: In this work, we develop a theoretical model that explains the survival data in West Nile Virus infection.

    Results: We build a model based on three cell populations in an infected host; the collateral damage cells, the infected dividing cell, and the infected non-dividing cells. T cell-mediated lysis of each of these populations is dependent on the level of MHC-1 upregulation, which is different in the two infected cell populations, interferon-gamma and free virus levels. Read More

    A model of auto immune response.
    BMC Immunol 2017 Jun 21;18(Suppl 1):24. Epub 2017 Jun 21.
    Discipline of Pathology, University of Sydney, Sydney, NSW, Australia.
    Background: In this work, we develop a theoretical model of an auto immune response. This is based on modifications of standard second messenger trigger models using both signalling pathways and diffusion and a macro level dynamic systems approximation to the response of a triggering agent such as a virus, bacteria or environmental toxin.

    Results: We show that there, in general, will be self damage effects whenever the triggering agent's effect on the host can be separated into two distinct classes of cell populations. Read More

    Experimental validation of the RATE tool for inferring HLA restrictions of T cell epitopes.
    BMC Immunol 2017 Jun 21;18(Suppl 1):20. Epub 2017 Jun 21.
    Division of Vaccine Discovery, La Jolla Institute for Allergy and Immunology, 9420 Athena Circle, La Jolla, San Diego, CA, 92037, USA.
    Background: The RATE tool was recently developed to computationally infer the HLA restriction of given epitopes from immune response data of HLA typed subjects without additional cumbersome experimentation.

    Results: Here, RATE was validated using experimentally defined restriction data from a set of 191 tuberculosis-derived epitopes and 63 healthy individuals with MTB infection from the Western Cape Region of South Africa. Using this experimental dataset, the parameters utilized by the RATE tool to infer restriction were optimized, which included relative frequency (RF) of the subjects responding to a given epitope and expressing a given allele as compared to the general test population and the associated p-value in a Fisher's exact test. Read More

    Hybrid approach to model the spatial regulation of T cell responses.
    BMC Immunol 2017 Jun 21;18(Suppl 1):29. Epub 2017 Jun 21.
    Institut Camille Jordan, UMR 5208 CNRS, University Lyon 1, Villeurbanne, 69622, France.
    Background: Moving from the molecular and cellular level to a multi-scale systems understanding of immune responses requires the development of novel approaches to integrate knowledge and data from different biological levels into mechanism-based integrative mathematical models. The aim of our study is to present a methodology for a hybrid modelling of immunological processes in their spatial context.

    Methods: A two-level hybrid mathematical model of immune cell migration and interaction integrating cellular and organ levels of regulation for a 2D spatial consideration of idealized secondary lymphoid organs is developed. Read More

    Wound healing: time to look for intelligent, 'natural' immunological approaches?
    BMC Immunol 2017 Jun 21;18(Suppl 1):23. Epub 2017 Jun 21.
    Laboratory of Immunology and Molecular Physiology, Zoology Department, Faculty of Science, Assiut University, 71516, Assiut, Egypt.
    There is now good evidence that cytokines and growth factors are key factors in tissue repair and often exert anti-infective activities. However, engineering such factors for global use, even in the most remote places, is not realistic. Instead, we propose to examine how such factors work and to evaluate the reparative tools generously provided by 'nature. Read More

    IG and TR single chain fragment variable (scFv) sequence analysis: a new advanced functionality of IMGT/V-QUEST and IMGT/HighV-QUEST.
    BMC Immunol 2017 Jun 26;18(1):35. Epub 2017 Jun 26.
    IMGT®, the international ImMunoGeneTics information system®, Laboratoire d'ImmunoGénétique Moléculaire LIGM, Institut de Génétique Humaine IGH, UMR 9002, CNRS, Montpellier University, Montpellier, France.
    Background: IMGT®, the international ImMunoGeneTics information system® ( http://www.imgt.org ), was created in 1989 in Montpellier, France (CNRS and Montpellier University) to manage the huge and complex diversity of the antigen receptors, and is at the origin of immunoinformatics, a science at the interface between immunogenetics and bioinformatics. Read More

    Autoantibodies against BAFF, APRIL or IL21 - an alternative pathogenesis for antibody-deficiencies?
    BMC Immunol 2017 Jun 26;18(1):34. Epub 2017 Jun 26.
    Centre for Chronic Immunodeficiency, Medical Centre University Hospital, Medical Faculty of Freiburg, Freiburg, Germany.
    Background: The ability of anti-cytokine antibodies to play a disease-causing role in the pathogenesis of immunodeficiencies is widely accepted. The aim of this study was to investigate whether autoantibodies against BAFF (important B cell survival signal), APRIL (important plasma cell survival signal), or Interleukin-21 (important cytokine for immunoglobulin class switch) present an alternative mechanism for the development of the following primary antibody deficiencies (PADs): common variable immune deficiency (CVID) or selective IgA deficiency (sIgAD).

    Results: Two hundred thirty-two sera from patients with PADs were screened for autoantibodies against cytokines by ELISA. Read More

    The imbalance of Th17/Treg cells is involved in the progression of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease in mice.
    BMC Immunol 2017 Jun 24;18(1):33. Epub 2017 Jun 24.
    Department of Laboratory Medicine, First Affiliated Hospital, College of Medicine, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, 310003, Zhejiang, People's Republic of China.
    Background: Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a common, chronic liver disease worldwide. Recent studies have shown that T helper (Th) 17 and regulatory T (Treg) cells play critical roles in various disorders of liver inflammation. Here, we explored the value of polyene phosphatidylcholine capsules (PPC) for regulating the imbalance of Th17/Treg cells in the pathogenesis of mice with NAFLD. Read More

    IgMk paraprotein from gammopathy patient can bind to cardiolipin and interfere with coagulation assay: a case report.
    BMC Immunol 2017 Jun 23;18(1):32. Epub 2017 Jun 23.
    Department of Rheumatology and Immunology, Ruijin Hospital, Shanghai Jiaotong University School of Medicine, No. 197 Ruijin Second Road, Huangpu District, Shanghai, 200025, China.
    Background: The monoclonal gammopathies are a group of plasma-cell proliferative disorders characterized by the secretion of monoclonal immunoglobulin (M protein or paraprotein). Some rare cases have revealed the specific affinity of paraprotein as autoantibody. Here we report a patient with monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance (MGUS) accompanied by a remarkable increase of anticardiolipin antibody (aCL) and an extensively decreased coagulation factor activity, however, without any clinical signs of antiphospholipid syndrome (APS) and bleeding. Read More

    Generation of populations of antigen-specific cytotoxic T cells using DCs transfected with DNA construct encoding HER2/neu tumor antigen epitopes.
    BMC Immunol 2017 Jun 20;18(1):31. Epub 2017 Jun 20.
    Federal State Budgetary Scientific Institution "Research Institute of Fundamental and Clinical Immunology", Yadrintsevskaya str., 14, Novosibirsk, 630099, Russia.
    Background: Recent fundamental and clinical studies have confirmed the effectiveness of utilizing the potential of the immune system to remove tumor cells disseminated in a patient's body. Cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) are considered the main effectors in cell-mediated antitumor immunity. Approaches based on antigen presentation to CTLs by dendritic cells (DCs) are currently being intensively studied, because DCs are more efficient in tumor antigen presentation to T cells through their initiation of strong specific antitumor immune responses than other types of antigen-presenting cells. Read More

    Monocyte differentiation and macrophage priming are regulated differentially by pentraxins and their ligands.
    BMC Immunol 2017 Jun 15;18(1):30. Epub 2017 Jun 15.
    Department of Biology, Texas A&M University, 3474 TAMU, College Station, TX, 77843-3474, USA.
    Background: Circulating bone marrow-derived monocytes can leave the blood, enter a tissue, and differentiate into M1 inflammatory, M2a remodeling/fibrotic, or M2c/Mreg resolving/immune-regulatory macrophages. Macrophages can also convert from one of the above types to another. Pentraxins are secreted proteins that bind to, and promote efficient clearance of, microbial pathogens and cellular debris during infection, inflammation, and tissue damage. Read More

    Long-term leukocyte reconstitution in NSG mice transplanted with human cord blood hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells.
    BMC Immunol 2017 May 30;18(1):28. Epub 2017 May 30.
    Division of Infectious Diseases and Hospital Epidemiology, University Hospital of Zurich, University of Zurich, Raemistrasse 100, 8091, Zurich, Switzerland.
    Background: Humanized mice (hu mice) are based on the transplantation of hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells into immunodeficient mice and have become important pre-clinical models for biomedical research. However, data about their hematopoiesis over time are scarce. We therefore characterized leukocyte reconstitution in NSG mice, which were sublethally irradiated and transplanted with human cord blood-derived CD34+ cells at newborn age, longitudinally in peripheral blood and, for more detailed analyses, cross-sectionally in peripheral blood, spleen and bone marrow at different time points. Read More

    The immunoregulatory role of alpha enolase in dendritic cell function during Chlamydia infection.
    BMC Immunol 2017 May 19;18(1):27. Epub 2017 May 19.
    Department of Microbiology, Biochemistry, and Immunology, Morehouse School of Medicine, 720 Westview Drive S.W., Atlanta, GA, 30310, USA.
    Background: We have previously reported that interleukin-10 (IL-10) deficient dendritic cells (DCs) are potent antigen presenting cells that induced elevated protective immunity against Chlamydia. To further investigate the molecular and biochemical mechanism underlying the superior immunostimulatory property of IL-10 deficient DCs we performed proteomic analysis on protein profiles from Chlamydia-pulsed wild-type (WT) and IL-10(-/-) DCs to identify differentially expressed proteins with immunomodulatory properties.

    Results: The results showed that alpha enolase (ENO1), a metabolic enzyme involved in the last step of glycolysis was significantly upregulated in Chlamydia-pulsed IL-10(-/-) DCs compared to WT DCs. Read More

    The cytokine polymorphisms affecting Th1/Th2 increase the susceptibility to, and severity of, chronic ITP.
    BMC Immunol 2017 May 16;18(1):26. Epub 2017 May 16.
    Graduate School of Health Sciences, Gunma University, 3-39-22 Showa-machi, Maebashi, Gunma, 371-8514, Japan.
    Background: T-helper cell type 1 (Th1) polarization in chronic immune thrombocytopenia (cITP) has been reported at the protein and mRNA levels. We evaluated the impact of Th1/Th2 cytokine and cytokine receptor functional polymorphisms on both susceptibility to, and severity of, cITP. We analysed IFN-γ + 874 T/A, IFN-γR -611G/A, IL-4 -590C/T, and IL-4Rα Q576R polymorphisms in 126 cITP patients (male/female: 34/92; median age: 47. Read More

    Peptides mimicking viral proteins of porcine circovirus type 2 were profiled by the spectrum of mouse anti-PCV2 antibodies.
    BMC Immunol 2017 May 15;18(1):25. Epub 2017 May 15.
    School of Veterinary Medicine, National Taiwan University, No.1, Sec. 4, Roosevelt Road, Taipei, 10617, Taiwan.
    Background: Porcine circovirus 2 (PCV2) is a small, non-enveloped DNA virus causing swine lymphocyte depletion and severe impact on the swine industry. The aim of this study was to evaluate the antigenicity and immunogenicity of specific peptides, and seeking the potential candidate of PCV2 peptide-based vaccine. It's initiating from peptides reacting with PCV2-infected pig sera and peptide-immunized mouse sera. Read More

    Recombinant Salmonella expressing SspH2-EscI fusion protein limits its colonization in mice.
    BMC Immunol 2017 May 3;18(1):21. Epub 2017 May 3.
    Jiangsu Co-innovation Center for Prevention and Control of Important Animal Infectious Diseases and Zoonoses, Yangzhou University, Yangzhou, 225009, Jiangsu, China.
    Background: Activation of inflammasome contributes to the clearance of intracellular bacteria. C-terminus of E. coli EscI protein can activate NLRC4 (NLR family, CARD domain containing-4) inflammasome in macrophages. Read More

    Poly I:C induces collective migration of HaCaT keratinocytes via IL-8.
    BMC Immunol 2017 Apr 24;18(1):19. Epub 2017 Apr 24.
    Division of Microbiology, Department of Pathology and Microbiology, Nihon University School of Medicine, 30-1 Oyaguchi Kami-cho, Itabashi-ku, Tokyo, 173-8610, Japan.
    Background: Delayed wound healing reduces the quality of life (QOL) of patients. Thus, understanding the mechanism of wound healing is indispensable for better management. However, the role of innate immunity in wound healing is thus far unknown. Read More

    Broad induction of immunoregulatory mechanisms after a short course of anti-IL-7Rα antibodies in NOD mice.
    BMC Immunol 2017 Mar 29;18(1):18. Epub 2017 Mar 29.
    Department of Medicine, Arthritis Center/Rheumatology Section, Boston University School of Medicine, 72 East Concord Street, E519, Boston, MA, 02118, USA.
    Background: Type 1 diabetes is an autoimmune disease caused by T cell-mediated destruction of the insulin-producing β-cells in the pancreas. Therefore, approaches that effectively halt the pathogenic T cell response are predicted to have preventive or therapeutic benefit for type 1 diabetes patients. We previously demonstrated that long-term blocking of IL-7 signaling, which is critical for the survival and function of T cells, prevented and reversed type 1 diabetes in non-obese diabetic mice. Read More

    Impact of disease activity on health-related quality of life in systemic lupus erythematosus - a cross-sectional analysis of the Swiss Systemic Lupus Erythematosus Cohort Study (SSCS).
    BMC Immunol 2017 Mar 28;18(1):17. Epub 2017 Mar 28.
    Clinical Immunology and Allergy, University Hospital Lausanne, Rue du Bugnon 46, Lausanne, 1011, Switzerland.
    Background: To assess the impact of disease activity on health-related quality of life (HRQoL) in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE).

    Methods: Cross-sectional study of patients included in the Swiss SLE Cohort Study between April 2007 and June 2014. HRQoL outcomes were based on the Medical Outcome Study Short Form 36 (SF-36). Read More

    Forkhead-box transcription factor 1 affects the apoptosis of natural regulatory T cells by controlling Aven expression.
    BMC Immunol 2017 Mar 10;18(1):16. Epub 2017 Mar 10.
    Department of Nephrology, Southwest Hospital, Third Military Medical University, Chongqing, 400038, People's Republic of China.
    Background: Regulatory T (Treg) cells play important roles in autoimmune diseases, cancer, and organ transplantation. Forkhead box protein o1 (Foxo1) and IL-7Rα(CD127) are closely related to the homeostasis of Treg cells. However, the mechanism underlying Treg proliferation and activation remains unclear. Read More

    An optimized IFN-γ ELISpot assay for the sensitive and standardized monitoring of CMV protein-reactive effector cells of cell-mediated immunity.
    BMC Immunol 2017 Mar 7;18(1):14. Epub 2017 Mar 7.
    Lophius Biosciences GmbH, Am BioPark 13, 93053, Regensburg, Germany.
    Background: In healthy individuals, Cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection is efficiently controlled by CMV-specific cell-mediated immunity (CMI). Functional impairment of CMI in immunocompromized individuals however can lead to uncontrolled CMV replication and severe clinical complications. Close monitoring of CMV-specific CMI is therefore clinically relevant and might allow a reliable prognosis of CMV disease as well as assist personalized therapeutic decisions. Read More

    Validation of T-Track® CMV to assess the functionality of cytomegalovirus-reactive cell-mediated immunity in hemodialysis patients.
    BMC Immunol 2017 Mar 7;18(1):15. Epub 2017 Mar 7.
    5th Department of Medicine, University Medical Center Mannheim, Medical Faculty Mannheim of the University Heidelberg, Mannheim, Germany.
    Background: Uncontrolled cytomegalovirus (CMV) replication in immunocompromised solid-organ transplant recipients is a clinically relevant issue and an indication of impaired CMV-specific cell-mediated immunity (CMI). Primary aim of this study was to assess the suitability of the immune monitoring tool T-Track® CMV to determine CMV-reactive CMI in a cohort of hemodialysis patients representative of patients eligible for renal transplantation. Positive and negative agreement of T-Track® CMV with CMV serology was examined in 124 hemodialysis patients, of whom 67 (54%) revealed a positive CMV serostatus. Read More

    Insight into SNPs and epitopes of E protein of newly emerged genotype-I isolates of JEV from Midnapur, West Bengal, India.
    BMC Immunol 2017 Mar 6;18(1):13. Epub 2017 Mar 6.
    Department of Biotechnology, The University of Burdwan, Burdwan, West Bengal, 713104, India.
    Background: Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) is a mosquito-borne flavivirus that causes Japanese Encephalitis (JE) and Acute Encephalitis Syndrome (AES) in humans. Genotype-I (as co-circulating cases with Genotype-III) was isolated in 2010 (JEV28, JEV21) and then in 2011 (JEV45) from Midnapur district, West Bengal (WB) for the first time from clinical patients who were previously been vaccinated with live attenuated SA14-14-2 strain. We apply bioinformatics and immunoinformatics on sequence and structure of E protein for analysis of crucial substitutions that might cause the genotypic transition, affecting protein-function and altering specificity of epitopes. Read More

    Immunogenicity and therapeutic effects of a Mycobacterium tuberculosis rv2190c DNA vaccine in mice.
    BMC Immunol 2017 Feb 27;18(1):11. Epub 2017 Feb 27.
    Army Tuberculosis Prevention and Control Key Laboratory, Beijing Key Laboratory of New Techniques of Tuberculosis Diagnosis and Treatment, Institute of Tuberculosis Research, the 309th Hospital of Chinese PLA, Beijing, 100091, People's Republic of China.
    Background: Tuberculosis (TB) is a major global public health problem. New treatment methods on TB are urgently demanded. In this study, Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) rv2190c DNA vaccine was prepared and its immunogenicity and therapeutic effects were evaluated. Read More

    Lipopolysaccharide mediates immuno-pathological alterations in young chicken liver through TLR4 signaling.
    BMC Immunol 2017 Feb 27;18(1):12. Epub 2017 Feb 27.
    Department of Basic Veterinary Medicine, College of Animal Science and Veterinary Medicine, Huazhong Agricultural University, Wuhan, Hubei, 430070, China.
    Background: Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) induces acute liver injury and the complex mechanisms include the activation of toll like receptor 4 (TLR4) signaling pathway in many species. However, immuno-pathological changes during TLR4 signaling under LPS stress in acute liver injury is poorly understood in avian species. The present investigation was therefore carried out to evaluate these alterations in TLR4 signaling pathway during acute liver injury in young chickens. Read More

    In vitro evidence of efficacy and safety of a polymerized cat dander extract for allergen immunotherapy.
    BMC Immunol 2017 Feb 24;18(1):10. Epub 2017 Feb 24.
    Research & Development, Laboratorios LETI, S.L., Calle del Sol n° 5, 28760, Madrid, Tres Cantos, Spain.
    Background: Allergy to cat epithelia is highly prevalent, being the major recommendation for allergy sufferers its avoidance. However, this is not always feasible. Allergen specific immunotherapy is therefore recommended for these patients. Read More

    Fms-like tyrosine kinase-3 ligand increases resistance to burn wound infection through effects on plasmacytoid dendritic cells.
    BMC Immunol 2017 Feb 22;18(1). Epub 2017 Feb 22.
    Department of Anesthesiology, University of Texas Medical Branch and Shriners Hospitals for Children, 301 University Boulevard, Galveston, TX, 77555-0877, USA.
    Background: Patients experiencing large thermal injuries are susceptible to opportunistic infections that can delay recovery and lead to sepsis. Dendritic cells (DC) are important for the detection of pathogens and activation of the innate and acquired immune responses. DCs are significantly decreased in burn patients early after injury, and the development of sepsis is associated with persistent DC depletion. Read More

    Association between IL-17 and IgA in the joints of patients with inflammatory arthropathies.
    BMC Immunol 2017 Feb 6;18(1). Epub 2017 Feb 6.
    Division of Immunology, Faculty of Chemistry, Biochemistry and Pharmacy, National University of San Luis, Ejército de los Andes 950, San Luis, Argentina.
    Background: Hyperactive secretion and pathogenic effects of interleukin (IL)-17 and IgA have been detected in different arthropathies. Recent evidence has revealed that TH17 cytokines regulate mucosal IgA secretion. However, it is unknown whether and how IL-17 mediates synovial IgA production. Read More

    Tumor necrosis factor alpha inhibitors have no effect on a human T-lymphotropic virus type-I (HTLV-I)-infected cell line from patients with HTLV-I-associated myelopathy.
    BMC Immunol 2017 Feb 3;18(1). Epub 2017 Feb 3.
    Department of Immunology and Rheumatology, Nagasaki University Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences, Nagasaki, Japan.
    Background: While tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) inhibitors (TNFi) and other biologics are very effective against autoimmune diseases, they can also cause infectious diseases. Therefore, it is important to clarify whether the TNFi sometimes used to treat patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) complicated with human T-lymphotropic virus type-I (HTLV-I) infection have the unintended side effect of promoting HTLV-I proliferation.

    Methods: We used the HTLV-I-infected cell line HCT-5, derived from spinal fluid cells of a patient with HTLV-I associated myelopathy, to evaluate the production of cytokines and chemokines, TNF-α receptor (TNFR), the expression of HTLV-I associated genes, the HTLV-I proviral load (PVL), the expression of HTLV-I structural protein, and apoptosis. Read More

    Effect of cryopreservation on delineation of immune cell subpopulations in tumor specimens as determinated by multiparametric single cell mass cytometry analysis.
    BMC Immunol 2017 Feb 2;18(1). Epub 2017 Feb 2.
    Department of Pharmacology, Cellular Pharmacology, Merck and Co. Inc, 33 Avenue Louis Pasteur, Boston, 02115, MA, USA.
    Background: Comprehensive understanding of cellular immune subsets involved in regulation of tumor progression is central to the development of cancer immunotherapies. Single cell immunophenotyping has historically been accomplished by flow cytometry (FC) analysis, enabling the analysis of up to 18 markers. Recent advancements in mass cytometry (MC) have facilitated detection of over 50 markers, utilizing high resolving power of mass spectrometry (MS). Read More

    Giardia-specific cellular immune responses in post-giardiasis chronic fatigue syndrome.
    BMC Immunol 2017 Jan 28;18(1). Epub 2017 Jan 28.
    Department of Clinical Science, Lab-building 8.floor, University of Bergen, N-5021, Bergen, Norway.
    Background: The role of pathogen specific cellular immune responses against the eliciting pathogen in development of post-infectious chronic fatigue syndrome (PI-CFS) is not known and such studies are difficult to perform. The aim of this study was to evaluate specific anti-Giardia cellular immunity in cases that developed CFS after Giardia infection compared to cases that recovered well. Patients reporting chronic fatigue in a questionnaire study three years after a Giardia outbreak were clinically evaluated five years after the outbreak and grouped according to Fukuda criteria for CFS and idiopathic chronic fatigue. Read More

    Antigen presenting capacity of murine splenic myeloid cells.
    BMC Immunol 2017 Jan 11;18(1). Epub 2017 Jan 11.
    Clem Jones Research Centre for Regenerative Medicine, Bond University, Gold Coast, Queensland, Australia.
    Background: The spleen is an important site for hematopoiesis. It supports development of myeloid cells from bone marrow-derived precursors entering from blood. Myeloid subsets in spleen are not well characterised although dendritic cell (DC) subsets are clearly defined in terms of phenotype, development and functional role. Read More

    Role of intestinal microbiota and metabolites on gut homeostasis and human diseases.
    BMC Immunol 2017 Jan 6;18(1). Epub 2017 Jan 6.
    Key Laboratory of Developmental Genes and Human Disease, Ministry of Education, Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Medical School, Southeast University, Nanjing, 210009, People's Republic of China.
    Background: A vast diversity of microbes colonizes in the human gastrointestinal tract, referred to intestinal microbiota. Microbiota and products thereof are indispensable for shaping the development and function of host innate immune system, thereby exerting multifaceted impacts in gut health.

    Methods: This paper reviews the effects on immunity of gut microbe-derived nucleic acids, and gut microbial metabolites, as well as the involvement of commensals in the gut homeostasis. Read More

    Oxidative stress biomarkers and their relationship with cytokine concentrations in overweight/obese pregnant women and their neonates.
    BMC Immunol 2017 Jan 7;18(1). Epub 2017 Jan 7.
    Basic Medical Sciences, TEC-ABC School of Medicine, Tecnologico de Monterrey Carlos Graef Fernandez 154-114, 05120, Mexico City, Mexico.
    Background: Oxidative damage present in obese/overweight mothers may lead to further oxidative stress conditions or inflammation in maternal and cord blood samples. Thirty-four pregnant women/newborn pairs were included in this study to assess the presence of oxidative stress biomarkers and their relationship with serum cytokine concentrations. Oxidative stress biomarkers and antioxidant enzymes were compared between the mother/offspring pairs. Read More

    Porphyromonas gingivalis activates NFκB and MAPK pathways in human oral epithelial cells.
    BMC Immunol 2017 Jan 5;18(1). Epub 2017 Jan 5.
    Department of Periodontology, Justus-Liebig-University of Giessen, Giessen, Germany.
    Background: The bacterial biofilm at the gingival margin induces a host immune reaction. In this local inflammation epithelial cells defend the host against bacterial challenge. Porphyromonas gingivalis (P. Read More

    Immune modulation of CD4(+)CD25(+) regulatory T cells by zoledronic acid.
    BMC Immunol 2016 Nov 25;17(1):45. Epub 2016 Nov 25.
    Department of Medical Laboratory Science, I-Shou University, Kaohsiung, Taiwan.
    Background: CD4(+)CD25(+) regulatory T (Treg) cells suppress tumor immunity by inhibiting immune cells. Manipulation of Treg cells represents a new strategy for cancer treatment. Zoledronic acid (ZA), a nitrogen-containing bisphosphonate, inhibits the expression of receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa-B ligand (RANKL) on osteoblasts to inhibit osteoclastogenesis. Read More

    Optimization and evaluation of Luminex performance with supernatants of antigen-stimulated peripheral blood mononuclear cells.
    BMC Immunol 2016 Nov 11;17(1):44. Epub 2016 Nov 11.
    INSERM, U955, Equipe 16, Créteil, F-94010, France.
    Background: The Luminex bead-based multiplex assay is useful for quantifying immune mediators such as cytokines and chemokines. Cross-comparisons of reagents for this technique from different suppliers have already been performed using serum or plasma but rarely with supernatants collected from antigen-stimulated peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC). Here, we first describe an optimization protocol for cell culture including quantity of cells and culture duration to obtain reproducible cytokine and chemokine quantifications. Read More

    The UT family of MHC class I loci unique to non-eutherian mammals has limited polymorphism and tissue specific patterns of expression in the opossum.
    BMC Immunol 2016 Nov 8;17(1):43. Epub 2016 Nov 8.
    Department of Biology, Center for Evolutionary and Theoretical Immunology, University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM, 87131, USA.
    Background: The Major Histocompatibility Complex (MHC) class I family of genes encode for molecules that have well-conserved structures, but have evolved to perform diverse functions. The availability of the gray, short-tailed opossum, Monodelphis domestica whole genome sequence has allowed for analysis of MHC class I gene content in this marsupial. Utilization of a novel method to search for MHC related domain structures revealed a previously unknown family of MHC class I-related genes. Read More

    Lipoproteins attenuate TLR2 and TLR4 activation by bacteria and bacterial ligands with differences in affinity and kinetics.
    BMC Immunol 2016 Oct 28;17(1):42. Epub 2016 Oct 28.
    Nutricia Research, Utrecht, The Netherlands.
    Background: The small intestine is a specialized compartment were close interactions take place between host, microbes, food antigens and dietary fatty acids. Dietary fats get absorbed by epithelial cells and processed into a range of lipoprotein particles after which they are basolaterally secreted and collected in the lymphatics. In contrast to the colon, the small intestine is covered only by a thin mucus coat that allows for intimate interactions between host-cells and microbes. Read More

    Inhibition of histone methyltransferase EZH2 ameliorates early acute renal allograft rejection in rats.
    BMC Immunol 2016 Oct 26;17(1):41. Epub 2016 Oct 26.
    Department of Urology, Zhongshan Hospital, Fudan University, Shanghai, 200032, China.
    Background: Although histone methyltransferases EZH2 has been proved to have significant regulatory effect on the immune rejection after hematopoietic stem cell transplantation, its role in solid-organ transplantation remains uncovered. In this study, we investigate whether histone methylation regulation can impact renal allograft rejection in rat models.

    Results: Allogeneic rat renal transplantation model (Wistar to Lewis) was established, and the recipients were administrated with EZH2 inhibitor DZNep after transplantation. Read More

    Distinct phenotypic subpopulations of circulating CD4(+)CXCR5(+) follicular helper T cells in children with active IgA vasculitis.
    BMC Immunol 2016 Oct 21;17(1):40. Epub 2016 Oct 21.
    Genetic Diagnosis Center, The First Hospital of Jilin University, Changchun, 130021, China.
    Background: Circulating follicular helper T (Tfh) cells are a heterogeneous population of CD4(+) helper T cells that promotes pathogenic immune responses in autoimmune diseases. In this study, we examined the status of different subpopulations of Tfh cells in peripheral circulation and their associations with various clinical characteristics of IgA vasculitis (IgAV).

    Methods: According to the phenotypic expressions of different molecules, focus was given on six subpopulations of Tfh cells: CD4(+)CXCR5(+), CD4(+)CXCR5(+)ICOS(+), CD4(+)CXCR5(+)ICOS(+)PD-1(+), CD4(+)CXCR5(+)ICOS(high)PD-1(high), CD4(+)CXCR5(+)ICOS(-)PD-1(+), and CXCR5(+)CD45RA(-)IL-21(+). Read More

    Chitosan gel vaccine protects against tumour growth in an intracaecal mouse model of cancer by modulating systemic immune responses.
    BMC Immunol 2016 Oct 18;17(1):39. Epub 2016 Oct 18.
    Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Otago School of Medical Sciences, University of Otago, PO Box 56, Dunedin, 9054, New Zealand.
    Background: Vaccination generating a robust memory population of CD8(+) T cells may provide protection against cancer. However, immune therapies for cancer are influenced by the local tumour immune microenvironment. An infiltrate of T cells into tumours of people with colorectal cancer has proven to be a significant indicator of good prognosis. Read More

    A new high-throughput sequencing method for determining diversity and similarity of T cell receptor (TCR) α and β repertoires and identifying potential new invariant TCR α chains.
    BMC Immunol 2016 Oct 11;17(1):38. Epub 2016 Oct 11.
    Repertoire Genesis Incorporation, 104 Saito-Bioincubator, 7-7-15, Saito-asagi, Ibaraki, Osaka, 567-0085, Japan.
    Background: High-throughput sequencing of T cell receptor (TCR) genes is a powerful tool for analyses of antigen specificity, clonality and diversity of T lymphocytes. Here, we developed a new TCR repertoire analysis method using 454 DNA sequencing technology in combination with an adaptor-ligation mediated polymerase chain reaction (PCR). This method allows the amplification of all TCR genes without PCR bias. Read More

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