4,136 results match your criteria BMC Evolutionary Biology [Journal]


Last Glacial Maximum led to community-wide population expansion in a montane songbird radiation in highland Papua New Guinea.

BMC Evol Biol 2020 Jul 11;20(1):82. Epub 2020 Jul 11.

Department of Biological Science, National University of Singapore, 14 Science Drive 4, Singapore, 117543, Singapore.

Background: Quaternary climate fluctuations are an engine of biotic diversification. Global cooling cycles, such as the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM), are known to have fragmented the ranges of higher-latitude fauna and flora into smaller refugia, dramatically reducing species ranges. However, relatively less is known about the effects of cooling cycles on tropical biota. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12862-020-01646-zDOI Listing

Phylogenetic and spatial distribution of evolutionary diversification, isolation, and threat in turtles and crocodilians (non-avian archosauromorphs).

BMC Evol Biol 2020 Jul 10;20(1):81. Epub 2020 Jul 10.

Department of Biological Sciences, The George Washington University, Washington, DC, 20052, USA.

Background: The origin of turtles and crocodiles and their easily recognized body forms dates to the Triassic and Jurassic. Despite their long-term success, extant species diversity is low, and endangerment is extremely high compared to other terrestrial vertebrate groups, with ~ 65% of ~ 25 crocodilian and ~ 360 turtle species now threatened by exploitation and habitat loss. Here, we combine available molecular and morphological evidence with statistical and machine learning algorithms to present a phylogenetically informed, comprehensive assessment of diversification, threat status, and evolutionary distinctiveness of all extant species. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12862-020-01642-3DOI Listing

What makes a fang? Phylogenetic and ecological controls on tooth evolution in rear-fanged snakes.

BMC Evol Biol 2020 Jul 9;20(1):80. Epub 2020 Jul 9.

Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology & Museum of Zoology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI, USA.

Background: Fangs are a putative key innovation that revolutionized prey capture and feeding in snakes, and - along with their associated venom phenotypes - have made snakes perhaps the most medically-significant vertebrate animals. Three snake clades are known for their forward-positioned fangs, and these clades (Elapidae, Viperidae, and Atractaspidinae) contain the majority of snakes that are traditionally considered venomous. However, many other snakes are "rear-fanged": they possess potentially venom-delivering teeth situated at the rear end of the upper jaw. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12862-020-01645-0DOI Listing

Contribution to understanding the evolution of holometaboly: transformation of internal head structures during the metamorphosis in the green lacewing Chrysopa pallens (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae).

BMC Evol Biol 2020 Jun 29;20(1):79. Epub 2020 Jun 29.

Department of Biological Sciences, National University of Singapore, Singapore, 117543, Singapore.

Background: Metamorphosis remains one of the most complicated and poorly understood processes in insects. This is particularly so for the very dynamic transformations that take place within the pupal sheath of holometabolous insects. Only few studies address these transformations especially with regard to cranial structures of those holometabolous species where the larval and adult forms have a similar diet. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12862-020-01643-2DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7325100PMC

Counterbalancing the time-dependent effect on the human mitochondrial DNA molecular clock.

BMC Evol Biol 2020 Jun 29;20(1):78. Epub 2020 Jun 29.

Departamento de Genética, Universidad de La Laguna, E-38271 La Laguna, Tenerife, Spain.

Background: The molecular clock is an important genetic tool for estimating evolutionary timescales. However, the detection of a time-dependent effect on substitution rate estimates complicates its application. It has been suggested that demographic processes could be the main cause of this confounding effect. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12862-020-01640-5DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7325269PMC

One species, two developmental modes: a case of geographic poecilogony in marine gastropods.

BMC Evol Biol 2020 Jun 26;20(1):76. Epub 2020 Jun 26.

Department of Animal Diversity, Center of Natural History (CeNak), Universität Hamburg, Martin-Luther-King-Platz 3, 20146, Hamburg, Germany.

Background: Poecilogony, the presence of two developmental modes in the same animal species, is a rare phenomenon. Few cases of poecilogony have been suggested for marine invertebrates including molluscs and even less stood extensive testing, mostly revealing a species pair with differing developmental modes. We studied a textbook example of poecilogony in the viviparous snail Planaxis sulcatus (Gastropoda: Planaxidae), for the first time throughout its entire distribution range. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12862-020-01644-1DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7318368PMC

Prebiotic competition and evolution in self-replicating polynucleotides can explain the properties of DNA/RNA in modern living systems.

BMC Evol Biol 2020 Jun 26;20(1):75. Epub 2020 Jun 26.

Cancer Biology and Evolution Program, Tampa, FL, 33612, USA.

Background: We hypothesize prebiotic evolution of self-replicating macro-molecules (Alberts, Molecular biology of the cell, 2015; Orgel, Crit Rev Biochem Mol Biol 39:99-123, 2004; Hud, Nat Commun 9:5171) favoured the constituent nucleotides and biophysical properties observed in the RNA and DNA of modern organisms. Assumed initial conditions are a shallow tide pool, containing a racemic mix of diverse nucleotide monomers (Barks et al., Chembiochem 11:1240-1243, 2010; Krishnamurthy, Nat Commun 9:5175, 2018; Hirao, Curr Opin Chem Biol 10:622-627), subject to day/night thermal fluctuations (Piccirilli et al. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12862-020-01641-4DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7318430PMC

Museomics of tree squirrels: a dense taxon sampling of mitogenomes reveals hidden diversity, phenotypic convergence, and the need of a taxonomic overhaul.

BMC Evol Biol 2020 Jun 26;20(1):77. Epub 2020 Jun 26.

Center for Conservation Genomics, Smithsonian Conservation Biology Institute, National Zoological Park, Washington, DC, 20013, USA.

Background: Tree squirrels (Sciuridae, Sciurini), in particular the highly diverse Neotropical lineages, are amongst the most rapidly diversifying branches of the mammal tree of life but also some of the least known. Negligence of this group by systematists is likely a product of the difficulties in assessing morphological informative traits and of the scarcity or unavailability of fresh tissue samples for DNA sequencing. The highly discrepant taxonomic arrangements are a consequence of the lack of phylogenies and the exclusive phenotypic-based classifications, which can be misleading in a group with conservative morphology. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12862-020-01639-yDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7320592PMC

An exploration of the complex biogeographical history of the Neotropical banner-wing damselflies (Odonata: Polythoridae).

BMC Evol Biol 2020 Jun 24;20(1):74. Epub 2020 Jun 24.

Federated Department of Biological Sciences. Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey, Newark, NJ, USA.

Background: The New World Tropics has experienced a dynamic landscape across evolutionary history and harbors a high diversity of flora and fauna. While there are some studies addressing diversification in Neotropical vertebrates and plants, there is still a lack of knowledge in arthropods. Here we examine temporal and spatial diversification patterns in the damselfly family Polythoridae, which comprises seven genera with a total of 58 species distributed across much of Central and South America. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12862-020-01638-zDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7315476PMC

The origins and developments of sulfation-prone tyrosine-rich and acidic N- and C-terminal extensions of class ll and lll small leucine-rich repeat proteins shed light on connective tissue evolution in vertebrates.

BMC Evol Biol 2020 Jun 23;20(1):73. Epub 2020 Jun 23.

Department of Chemical Engineering, Biotechnology and Environmental Technology, University of Southern Denmark, Campusvej 55, 5230, Odense, Denmark.

Background: Small leucine-rich repeat protein (SLRP) family members contain conserved leucine-rich repeat motifs flanked by highly variable N- and C-terminal regions. Most class II and III SLRPs have tyrosine-rich N-terminal regions and some of these are sulfated. However, the evolutionary origin and conservation of the tyrosine-rich and acidic terminal regions remain undetermined. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12862-020-01634-3DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7310474PMC

Evolution and transition of expression trajectory during human brain development.

BMC Evol Biol 2020 Jun 23;20(1):72. Epub 2020 Jun 23.

State Key Laboratory of Genetic Resources and Evolution, Kunming Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Kunming, 650223, Yunnan, China.

Background: The remarkable abilities of the human brain are distinctive features that set us apart from other animals. However, our understanding of how the brain has changed in the human lineage remains incomplete, but is essential for understanding cognition, behavior, and brain disorders in humans. Here, we compared the expression trajectory in brain development between humans and rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta) to explore their divergent transcriptome profiles. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12862-020-01633-4DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7310562PMC
June 2020
3.368 Impact Factor

Ecological, genetic and evolutionary drivers of regional genetic differentiation in Arabidopsis thaliana.

BMC Evol Biol 2020 Jun 22;20(1):71. Epub 2020 Jun 22.

Departamento de Genética Molecular de Plantas, Centro Nacional de Biotecnología (CNB), Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas (CSIC), Madrid, Spain.

Background: Disentangling the drivers of genetic differentiation is one of the cornerstones in evolution. This is because genetic diversity, and the way in which it is partitioned within and among populations across space, is an important asset for the ability of populations to adapt and persist in changing environments. We tested three major hypotheses accounting for genetic differentiation-isolation-by-distance (IBD), isolation-by-environment (IBE) and isolation-by-resistance (IBR)-in the annual plant Arabidopsis thaliana across the Iberian Peninsula, the region with the largest genomic diversity. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12862-020-01635-2DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7310121PMC

Analysis of structural variants in four African cichlids highlights an association with developmental and immune related genes.

BMC Evol Biol 2020 Jun 22;20(1):69. Epub 2020 Jun 22.

Earlham Institute, Norwich Research Park, Colney Lane, Norwich, NR47UZ, UK.

Background: East African lake cichlids are one of the most impressive examples of an adaptive radiation. Independently in Lake Victoria, Tanganyika, and Malawi, several hundreds of species arose within the last 10 million to 100,000 years. Whereas most analyses in cichlids focused on nucleotide substitutions across species to investigate the genetic bases of this explosive radiation, to date, no study has investigated the contribution of structural variants (SVs) in the evolution of adaptive traits across the three Great Lakes of East Africa. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12862-020-01629-0DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7309985PMC

Lipidome analysis of milk composition in humans, monkeys, bovids, and pigs.

BMC Evol Biol 2020 Jun 19;20(1):70. Epub 2020 Jun 19.

Center for Neurobiology and Brain Restoration, Skolkovo Institute of Science and Technology, Moscow, 143028, Russia.

Background: Lipids contained in milk are an essential source of energy and structural materials for a growing neonate. Furthermore, lipids' long-chain unsaturated fatty acid residues can directly participate in neonatal tissue formation. Here, we used untargeted mass spectrometric measurements to assess milk lipid composition in seven mammalian species: humans, two macaque species, cows, goats, yaks, and pigs. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12862-020-01637-0DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7304121PMC

Shifting evolutionary sands: transcriptome characterization of the Aptostichus atomarius species complex.

BMC Evol Biol 2020 Jun 15;20(1):68. Epub 2020 Jun 15.

Department of Entomology and Nematology, University of California Davis, Academic Surge Building 1282, Davis, CA, 95616-5270, USA.

Background: Mygalomorph spiders represent a diverse, yet understudied lineage for which genomic level data has only recently become accessible through high-throughput genomic and transcriptomic sequencing methods. The Aptostichus atomarius species complex (family Euctenizidae) includes two coastal dune endemic members, each with inland sister species - affording exploration of dune adaptation associated patterns at the transcriptomic level. We apply an RNAseq approach to examine gene family conservation across the species complex and test for patterns of positive selection along branches leading to dune endemic species. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12862-020-01606-7DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7294663PMC

Evolutionary analysis of genes coding for Cysteine-RIch Secretory Proteins (CRISPs) in mammals.

BMC Evol Biol 2020 Jun 8;20(1):67. Epub 2020 Jun 8.

Department of Biodiversity and Evolutionary Biology, Museo Nacional de Ciencias Naturales (CSIC), c/José Gutiérrez Abascal 2, 28006, Madrid, Spain.

Background: Cysteine-RIch Secretory Proteins (CRISP) are expressed in the reproductive tract of mammalian males and are involved in fertilization and related processes. Due to their important role in sperm performance and sperm-egg interaction, these genes are likely to be exposed to strong selective pressures, including postcopulatory sexual selection and/or male-female coevolution. We here perform a comparative evolutionary analysis of Crisp genes in mammals. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12862-020-01632-5DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7278046PMC

A single mutation in the ACTR8 gene associated with lineage-specific expression in primates.

BMC Evol Biol 2020 Jun 5;20(1):66. Epub 2020 Jun 5.

National Primate Research Center, Korea Research Institute of Bioscience and Biotechnology (KRIBB), Cheongju, 28116, Korea.

Background: Alternative splicing (AS) generates various transcripts from a single gene and thus plays a significant role in transcriptomic diversity and proteomic complexity. Alu elements are primate-specific transposable elements (TEs) and can provide a donor or acceptor site for AS. In a study on TE-mediated AS, we recently identified a novel AluSz6-exonized ACTR8 transcript of the crab-eating monkey (Macaca fascicularis). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12862-020-01620-9DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7275561PMC

New haplochromine cichlid from the upper Miocene (9-10 MYA) of Central Kenya.

BMC Evol Biol 2020 Jun 5;20(1):65. Epub 2020 Jun 5.

Department of Earth and Environmental Sciences, Paleontology and Geobiology, Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität München, Richard-Wagner-Strasse 10, 80333, Munich, DE, Germany.

Background: The diversification process known as the Lake Tanganyika Radiation has given rise to the most speciose clade of African cichlids. Almost all cichlid species found in the lakes Tanganyika, Malawi and Victoria, comprising a total of 12-16 tribes, belong to this clade. Strikingly, all the species in the latter two lakes are members of the tribe Haplochromini, whose origin remains unclear. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12862-020-01602-xDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7275555PMC

An integrative phylogenomic approach to elucidate the evolutionary history and divergence times of Neuropterida (Insecta: Holometabola).

BMC Evol Biol 2020 Jun 3;20(1):64. Epub 2020 Jun 3.

Department of Evolutionary Biology, University of Vienna, 1090, Vienna, Austria.

Background: The latest advancements in DNA sequencing technologies have facilitated the resolution of the phylogeny of insects, yet parts of the tree of Holometabola remain unresolved. The phylogeny of Neuropterida has been extensively studied, but no strong consensus exists concerning the phylogenetic relationships within the order Neuroptera. Here, we assembled a novel transcriptomic dataset to address previously unresolved issues in the phylogeny of Neuropterida and to infer divergence times within the group. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12862-020-01631-6DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7268685PMC

Computed tomography sheds new light on the affinities of the enigmatic euarthropod Jianshania furcatus from the early Cambrian Chengjiang biota.

BMC Evol Biol 2020 Jun 1;20(1):62. Epub 2020 Jun 1.

Yunnan Key Laboratory for Palaeobiology, Institute of Palaeontology, Yunnan University, Kunming, 650500, China.

Background: The Chengjiang biota is one of the most species-rich Cambrian Konservat-Lagerstätten, and preserves a community dominated by non-biomineralized euarthropods. However, several Chengjiang euarthropods have an unfamiliar morphology, are extremely rare, or incompletely preserved.

Results: We employed micro-computed tomography to restudy the enigmatic euarthropod Jianshania furcatus. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12862-020-01625-4DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7268425PMC

The green-brown polymorphism of the club-legged grasshopper Gomphocerus sibiricus is heritable and appears genetically simple.

BMC Evol Biol 2020 Jun 1;20(1):63. Epub 2020 Jun 1.

Population Ecology Group, Institute of Ecology and Evolution, Friedrich Schiller University Jena, Dornburger Straße 159, 07743, Jena, Germany.

Background: Local coexistence of distinct, genetically determined color morphs can be unstable and transitional. Stable, long-term coexistence requires some form of balancing selection to protect morphs from getting lost by directional selection or genetic drift. However, not all phenotypic polymorphism need to have a genetic basis. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12862-020-01630-7DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7268444PMC

Hybridization and introgression between Helicoverpa armigera and H. zea: an adaptational bridge.

BMC Evol Biol 2020 May 25;20(1):61. Epub 2020 May 25.

Department of Entomology and Acarology, University of São Paulo, Luiz de Queiroz College of Agriculture, Piracicaba, São Paulo, 13418900, Brazil.

Background: Invasion of organisms into new ecosystems is increasingly common, due to the global trade in commodities. One of the most complex post-invasion scenarios occurs when an invasive species is related to a native pest, and even more so when they can hybridize and produce fertile progeny. The global pest Helicoverpa armigera was first detected in Brazil in 2013 and generated a wave of speculations about the possibility of hybridization with the native sister taxon Helicoverpa zea. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12862-020-01621-8DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7249340PMC

The puzzling mitochondrial phylogeography of the black soldier fly (Hermetia illucens), the commercially most important insect protein species.

BMC Evol Biol 2020 May 24;20(1):60. Epub 2020 May 24.

VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland Ltd, TT2 Tietotie 2, P.O. Box 1000, FI-02044 VTT, Espoo, Finland.

Background: The black soldier fly (Diptera: Stratiomyidae, Hermetia illucens) is renowned for its bioconversion ability of organic matter, and is the worldwide most widely used source of insect protein. Despite varying extensively in morphology, it is widely assumed that all black soldier flies belong to the same species, Hermetia illucens. We here screened about 600 field-collected and cultured flies from 39 countries and six biogeographic regions to test this assumption based on data for three genes (mitochondrial COI, nuclear ITS2 & 28S rDNA) and in order to gain insights into the phylogeography of the species. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12862-020-01627-2DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7247124PMC

Aligning functional network constraint to evolutionary outcomes.

BMC Evol Biol 2020 May 24;20(1):58. Epub 2020 May 24.

Department of Biological and Marine Sciences, University of Hull, Cottingham Road, Kingston-Upon-Hull, HU6 7RX, UK.

Background: Functional constraint through genomic architecture is suggested to be an important dimension of genome evolution, but quantitative evidence for this idea is rare. In this contribution, existing evidence and discussions on genomic architecture as constraint for convergent evolution, rapid adaptation, and genic adaptation are summarized into alternative, testable hypotheses. Network architecture statistics from protein-protein interaction networks are then used to calculate differences in evolutionary outcomes on the example of genomic evolution in yeast, and the results are used to evaluate statistical support for these longstanding hypotheses. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12862-020-01613-8DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7245893PMC

The features of polyglutamine regions depend on their evolutionary stability.

BMC Evol Biol 2020 May 24;20(1):59. Epub 2020 May 24.

Institute of Organismic and Molecular Evolution, Faculty of Biology, Johannes Gutenberg University Mainz, Hanns-Dieter-Hüsch-Weg 15, 55128, Mainz, Germany.

Background: Polyglutamine regions (polyQ) are one of the most studied and prevalent homorepeats in eukaryotes. They have a particular length-dependent codon usage, which relates to a characteristic CAG-slippage mechanism. Pathologically expanded tracts of polyQ are known to form aggregates and are involved in the development of several human neurodegenerative diseases. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12862-020-01626-3DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7247214PMC
May 2020
3.368 Impact Factor

MtOrt: an empirical mitochondrial amino acid substitution model for evolutionary studies of Orthoptera insects.

BMC Evol Biol 2020 May 19;20(1):57. Epub 2020 May 19.

College of Life Sciences, Shaanxi Normal University, No. 620, West Chang'an Avenue, Xi'an, 710119, Shaanxi, China.

Background: Amino acid substitution models play an important role in inferring phylogenies from proteins. Although different amino acid substitution models have been proposed, only a few were estimated from mitochondrial protein sequences for specific taxa such as the mtArt model for Arthropoda. The increasing of mitochondrial genome data from broad Orthoptera taxa provides an opportunity to estimate the Orthoptera-specific mitochondrial amino acid empirical model. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12862-020-01623-6DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7236349PMC

The amylase gene cluster in house mice (Mus musculus) was subject to repeated introgression including the rescue of a pseudogene.

BMC Evol Biol 2020 May 15;20(1):56. Epub 2020 May 15.

Max-Planck Institute for Evolutionary Biology, 24306, Plön, Germany.

Background: Amylase gene clusters have been implicated in adaptive copy number changes in response to the amount of starch in the diet of humans and mammals. However, this interpretation has been questioned for humans and for mammals there is a paucity of information from natural populations.

Results: Using optical mapping and genome read information, we show here that the amylase cluster in natural house mouse populations is indeed copy-number variable for Amy2b paralogous gene copies (called Amy2a1 - Amy2a5), but a direct connection to starch diet is not evident. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12862-020-01624-5DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7227347PMC

Improving the performance of Bayesian phylogenetic inference under relaxed clock models.

BMC Evol Biol 2020 May 14;20(1):54. Epub 2020 May 14.

School of Computer Science, University of Auckland, Auckland, New Zealand.

Background: Bayesian MCMC has become a common approach for phylogenetic inference. But the growing size of molecular sequence data sets has created a pressing need to improve the computational efficiency of Bayesian phylogenetic inference algorithms.

Results: This paper develops a new algorithm to improve the efficiency of Bayesian phylogenetic inference for models that include a per-branch rate parameter. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12862-020-01609-4DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7222466PMC

The TERB1-TERB2-MAJIN complex of mouse meiotic telomeres dates back to the common ancestor of metazoans.

BMC Evol Biol 2020 May 14;20(1):55. Epub 2020 May 14.

Department of Cell and Developmental Biology, Biocenter, University of Würzburg, 97074, Würzburg, Germany.

Background: Meiosis is essential for sexual reproduction and generates genetically diverse haploid gametes from a diploid germ cell. Reduction of ploidy depends on active chromosome movements during early meiotic prophase I. Chromosome movements require telomere attachment to the nuclear envelope. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12862-020-01612-9DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7227075PMC

A coarse-graining, ultrametric approach to resolve the phylogeny of prokaryotic strains with frequent homologous recombination.

Authors:
Tin Yau Pang

BMC Evol Biol 2020 May 7;20(1):52. Epub 2020 May 7.

Computational Cell Biology, Heinrich Heine University, 40225, Düsseldorf, Germany.

Background: A frequent event in the evolution of prokaryotic genomes is homologous recombination, where a foreign DNA stretch replaces a genomic region similar in sequence. Recombination can affect the relative position of two genomes in a phylogenetic reconstruction in two different ways: (i) one genome can recombine with a DNA stretch that is similar to the other genome, thereby reducing their pairwise sequence divergence; (ii) one genome can recombine with a DNA stretch from an outgroup genome, increasing the pairwise divergence. While several recombination-aware phylogenetic algorithms exist, many of these cannot account for both types of recombination; some algorithms can, but do so inefficiently. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12862-020-01616-5DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7204016PMC

A life-history perspective on sexual selection in a polygamous species.

BMC Evol Biol 2020 May 7;20(1):53. Epub 2020 May 7.

Institute for Biodiversity and Ecosystem Dynamics, University of Amsterdam, Science Park 904, 1098 XH, Amsterdam, Netherlands.

Background: Ever since Darwin, evolutionary biologists have studied sexual selection driving differences in appearance and behaviour between males and females. An unchallenged paradigm in such studies is that one sex (usually the male) signals its quality as a mate to the other sex (usually the female), who is choosy in accepting a partner. Here, we hypothesize that in polygamous species these roles change dynamically with the mating status of males and females, depending on direct reproductive costs and benefits of multiple matings, and on sperm competition. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12862-020-01618-3DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7206733PMC

Chloroplast (Cp) Transcriptome of P. davidiana Dode×P. bolleana Lauch provides insight into the Cp drought response and Populus Cp phylogeny.

BMC Evol Biol 2020 May 6;20(1):51. Epub 2020 May 6.

State Key Laboratory of Tree Genetics and Breeding, Northeast Forestry University, 26 Hexing Road, Harbin, 150040, China.

Background: Raw second-generation (2G) lignocellulosic biomass materials have the potential for development into a sustainable and renewable source of energy. Poplar is regarded as a promising 2G material (P. davidiana Dode×P. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12862-020-01622-7DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7201580PMC

Shedding light: a phylotranscriptomic perspective illuminates the origin of photosymbiosis in marine bivalves.

BMC Evol Biol 2020 May 1;20(1):50. Epub 2020 May 1.

Organismic and Evolutionary Biology, Harvard University, Cambridge, USA.

Background: Photosymbiotic associations between metazoan hosts and photosynthetic dinoflagellates are crucial to the trophic and structural integrity of many marine ecosystems, including coral reefs. Although extensive efforts have been devoted to study the short-term ecological interactions between coral hosts and their symbionts, long-term evolutionary dynamics of photosymbiosis in many marine animals are not well understood. Within Bivalvia, the second largest class of mollusks, obligate photosymbiosis is found in two marine lineages: the giant clams (subfamily Tridacninae) and the heart cockles (subfamily Fraginae), both in the family Cardiidae. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12862-020-01614-7DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7195748PMC

The genetic basis of hybrid male sterility in sympatric Primulina species.

BMC Evol Biol 2020 Apr 29;20(1):49. Epub 2020 Apr 29.

Key Laboratory of Plant Resources Conservation and Sustainable Utilization, South China Botanical Garden, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou, 510650, China.

Background: Sympatric sister species provide an opportunity to investigate the genetic mechanisms and evolutionary forces that maintain species boundaries. The persistence of morphologically and genetically distinct populations in sympatry can only occur if some degree of reproductive isolation exists. A pair of sympatric sister species of Primulina (P. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12862-020-01617-4DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7191819PMC

Pattern and timing of diversification in the African freshwater fish genus Distichodus (Characiformes: Distichodontidae).

BMC Evol Biol 2020 Apr 26;20(1):48. Epub 2020 Apr 26.

Department of Ichthyology, American Museum of Natural History, Central Park West at 79th Street, New York, NY, 10024, USA.

Background: Distichodus is a clade of tropical freshwater fishes currently comprising 25 named species distributed continent-wide throughout the Nilo-Sudan and most Sub-Saharan drainages. This study investigates the phylogenetic relationships, timing of diversification, and biogeographic history of the genus from a taxonomically comprehensive mutilocus dataset analyzed using Maximum Likelihood and Bayesian methods of phylogenetic inference, coalescence-based species-tree estimation, divergence time estimation, and inference of geographic range evolution.

Results: Analyses of comparative DNA sequence data in a phylogenetic context reveal the existence of two major clades of similar species-level diversity and provide support for the monophyletic status of most sampled species. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12862-020-01615-6DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7184684PMC

Maladaptive plasticity facilitates evolution of thermal tolerance during an experimental range shift.

BMC Evol Biol 2020 Apr 23;20(1):47. Epub 2020 Apr 23.

School of Biological Sciences, Zoology Building, University of Aberdeen, Aberdeen, AB24 2TZ, UK.

Background: Many organisms are responding to climate change with dramatic range shifts, involving plastic and genetic changes to cope with novel climate regimes found at higher latitudes. Using experimental lineages of the seed beetle Callosobruchus maculatus, we simulated the initial phase of colonisation to progressively cooler and/or more variable conditions, to investigate how adaptation and phenotypic plasticity contribute to shifts in thermal tolerance during colonisation of novel climates.

Results: We show that heat and cold tolerance rapidly evolve during the initial stages of adaptation to progressively cooler and more variable climates. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12862-020-1589-7DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7181507PMC

Ultramicrostructural reductions in teeth: implications for dietary transition from non-avian dinosaurs to birds.

BMC Evol Biol 2020 Apr 21;20(1):46. Epub 2020 Apr 21.

Key Laboratory of Vertebrate Evolution and Human Origins of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Institute of Vertebrate Paleontology and Paleoanthropology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 142 Xizhimenwai Street, Beijing, 100044, China.

Background: Tooth morphology within theropod dinosaurs has been extensively investigated and shows high disparity throughout the Cretaceous. Changes or diversification in feeding ecology, i.e. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12862-020-01611-wDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7171806PMC

Phylogeography and genetic diversity of the copepod family Cyclopidae (Crustacea: Cyclopoida) from freshwater ecosystems of Southeast Nigeria.

BMC Evol Biol 2020 Apr 21;20(1):45. Epub 2020 Apr 21.

MOE Key Laboratory for Biodiversity Science and Ecological Engineering, School of Life Science, Fudan University, Songhu Road 2005, Shanghai, China.

Background: Copepods are key components of aquatic ecosystems and can help regulate the global carbon cycle. Much attention has been paid to the species diversity of copepods worldwide, but the phylogeography and genetic diversity of copepods in Nigeria is unexplored.

Results: Using a mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I marker, we preformed phylogenetic and phylogeographic analyses for Cyclopidae copepods in Southeast Nigeria. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12862-020-01608-5DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7171763PMC

Nuclear phylogeography of the temperate tree species Chiranthodendron pentadactylon (Malvaceae): Quaternary relicts in Mesoamerican cloud forests.

BMC Evol Biol 2020 Apr 19;20(1):44. Epub 2020 Apr 19.

Departamento de Botánica y Zoología, Centro Universitario de Ciencias Biológicas y Agropecuarias, Universidad de Guadalajara, Camino Ing. Ramón Padilla Sánchez 2100, Nextipac, 45200, Nextipac, Zapopan, Jalisco, México.

Background: The Mexican hand tree or Canac (Chiranthodendron pentadactylon) is a temperate tree species of cloud and pine-oak forests of southern Mexico and Guatemala. Its characteristic hand-shaped flower is used in folk medicine and has constituted the iconic symbol of the Sociedad Botánica de México since 1940. Here, the evolutionary history of this species was estimated through phylogeographic analyses of nuclear DNA sequences obtained through restriction site associated DNA sequencing and ecological niche modeling. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12862-020-01605-8DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7168997PMC

Host-parasite interactions in non-native invasive species are dependent on the levels of standing genetic variation at the immune locus.

BMC Evol Biol 2020 Apr 16;20(1):43. Epub 2020 Apr 16.

Mammal Research Institute, Polish Academy of Sciences, ul. Stoczek 1, 17-230, Białowieża, Poland.

Background: Parasites may mediate the success of biological invasions through their effect on host fitness and thus, on host population growth and stability. However, a release from the pressure of parasites is strongly related to the genetic differentiation of the host. In invasive host populations, the number of available genetic variants, allowing them to 'fight' the infection, are likely to be influenced by founder events and genetic drift. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12862-020-01610-xDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7164242PMC

A unified nomenclature for vertebrate olfactory receptors.

BMC Evol Biol 2020 Apr 15;20(1):42. Epub 2020 Apr 15.

Department of Molecular Genetics, Weizmann Institute of Science, 76100, Rehovot, Israel.

Background: Olfactory receptors (ORs) are G protein-coupled receptors with a crucial role in odor detection. A typical mammalian genome harbors ~ 1000 OR genes and pseudogenes; however, different gene duplication/deletion events have occurred in each species, resulting in complex orthology relationships. While the human OR nomenclature is widely accepted and based on phylogenetic classification into 18 families and further into subfamilies, for other mammals different and multiple nomenclature systems are currently in use, thus concealing important evolutionary and functional insights. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12862-020-01607-6DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7160942PMC

Transcriptome Ortholog Alignment Sequence Tools (TOAST) for phylogenomic dataset assembly.

BMC Evol Biol 2020 Mar 30;20(1):41. Epub 2020 Mar 30.

Department of Molecular Biomedical Sciences, NC State University, Raleigh, NC, USA.

Background: Advances in next-generation sequencing technologies have reduced the cost of whole transcriptome analyses, allowing characterization of non-model species at unprecedented levels. The rapid pace of transcriptomic sequencing has driven the public accumulation of a wealth of data for phylogenomic analyses, however lack of tools aimed towards phylogeneticists to efficiently identify orthologous sequences currently hinders effective harnessing of this resource.

Results: We introduce TOAST, an open source R software package that can utilize the ortholog searches based on the software Benchmarking Universal Single-Copy Orthologs (BUSCO) to assemble multiple sequence alignments of orthologous loci from transcriptomes for any group of organisms. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12862-020-01603-wDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7106827PMC

Distinct patterns of pigment development underlie convergent hyperpigmentation between nocturnal and diurnal geckos (Squamata: Gekkota).

BMC Evol Biol 2020 Mar 27;20(1):40. Epub 2020 Mar 27.

Department of Biology and Center for Biodiversity and Ecosystem Stewardship, Villanova University, 800 Lancaster Avenue, Villanova, PA, 19085, USA.

Background: Evolutionary transitions in temporal niche necessitates specialized morphology, physiology, and behaviors. Diurnal, heliothermic squamates (lizards and snakes) that bask require protection from ultraviolet radiation (UV) that can damage internal organs such as the brain, viscera, and gonads. Many smaller squamates have accomplished this protection by hyperpigmentation of the peritoneum and subcutaneous dorsum. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12862-020-01604-9DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7099784PMC

Multiple independent chromosomal fusions accompanied the radiation of the Antarctic teleost genus Trematomus (Notothenioidei:Nototheniidae).

BMC Evol Biol 2020 Mar 20;20(1):39. Epub 2020 Mar 20.

Sorbonne Université, CNRS, Université des Antilles, Evolution Paris Seine - Institut de Biologie Paris Seine (EPS - IBPS), 75005, Paris, France.

Background: Chromosomal rearrangements are thought to be an important driving force underlying lineage diversification, but their link to speciation continues to be debated. Antarctic teleost fish of the family Nototheniidae (Notothenioidei) diversified in a changing environmental context, which led to ecological, morphological, and genetic differentiation among populations. In addition, extensive chromosomal repatterning accompanied species divergence in several clades. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12862-020-1600-3DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7082932PMC

Complex patterns of reticulate evolution in opportunistic weeds (Potentilla L., Rosaceae), as revealed by low-copy nuclear markers.

BMC Evol Biol 2020 Mar 18;20(1):38. Epub 2020 Mar 18.

Department of Natural History, University Museum, University of Bergen, Postboks 7800, N-5020, Bergen, Norway.

Background: Most cinquefoils (Potentilla L., Rosaceae) are polyploids, ranging from tetraploid (4x) to dodecaploid (12x), diploids being a rare exception. Previous studies based on ribosomal and chloroplast data indicated that Norwegian cinquefoil (P. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12862-020-1597-7DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7079425PMC

Genus level molecular phylogeny of Aegisthidae Gisbrecht, 1893 (Copepoda: Harpacticoida) reveals morphological adaptations to deep-sea and plagic habitats.

BMC Evol Biol 2020 03 14;20(1):36. Epub 2020 Mar 14.

Senckenberg am Meer, German Centre for Marine Biodiversity Research, Südstrand 44, 26382, Wilhelmshaven, Germany.

Background: The family Aegisthidae is known as typical component of deep-sea hyperbenthic waters that gradually colonized other marine environments. The phylogenetic relationships within this family have been examined here including hyperbenthic, planktonic, benthic forms and two associated Aegisthidae species.

Results: Ninety four specimens belong to 14 genera were studied using 18S and 28S rRNA and COI mtDNA. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12862-020-1594-xDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7071595PMC

Delimitation of five astome ciliate species isolated from the digestive tube of three ecologically different groups of lumbricid earthworms, using the internal transcribed spacer region and the hypervariable D1/D2 region of the 28S rRNA gene.

BMC Evol Biol 2020 03 14;20(1):37. Epub 2020 Mar 14.

Department of Zoology, Faculty of Natural Sciences, Comenius University in Bratislava, Bratislava, 842 15, Slovak Republic.

Background: Various ecological groups of earthworms very likely constitute sharply isolated niches that might permit speciation of their symbiotic ciliates, even though no distinct morphological features appear to be recognizable among ciliates originating from different host groups. The nuclear highly variable ITS1-5.8S-ITS2 region and the hypervariable D1/D2 region of the 28S rRNA gene have proven to be useful tools for the delimitation of species boundaries in closely related free-living ciliate taxa. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12862-020-1601-2DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7071660PMC

Juvenile diet quality and intensity of sexual conflict in the mite Sancassania berlesei.

BMC Evol Biol 2020 03 12;20(1):35. Epub 2020 Mar 12.

Evolutionary Biology Group, Faculty of Biology, Adam Mickiewicz University Poznań, ul. Uniwersytetu Poznańskiego 6, 61-614, Poznań, Poland.

Background: Differing evolutionary interests of males and females may result in sexual conflict, whereby traits or behaviours that are beneficial for male reproductive success (e.g., traits related to male-male competition) are costly for females. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12862-020-1599-5DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7069193PMC

Phenology-dependent cold exposure and thermal performance of Ostrinia nubilalis ecotypes.

BMC Evol Biol 2020 03 6;20(1):34. Epub 2020 Mar 6.

Department of Biology, Tufts University, 200 Boston Ave, Suite 4700, Medford, MA, 02155, USA.

Background: Understanding adaptation involves establishing connections between selective agents and beneficial population responses. However, relatively little attention has been paid to seasonal adaptation, in part, because it requires complex and integrative knowledge about seasonally fluctuating environmental factors, the effects of variable phenology on exposure to those factors, and evidence for temporal specialization. In the European corn borer moth, Ostrinia nubilalis, sympatric pheromone strains exploit the same host plant (Zea mays) but may genetically differ in phenology and be reproductively "isolated by time. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12862-020-1598-6DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7059338PMC

Unusual sequence characteristics of human chromosome 19 are conserved across 11 nonhuman primates.

BMC Evol Biol 2020 02 27;20(1):33. Epub 2020 Feb 27.

Human Genome Sequencing Center, Baylor College of Medicine, One Baylor Plaza, Mail Stop: BCM226, Houston, TX, 77030, USA.

Background: Human chromosome 19 has many unique characteristics including gene density more than double the genome-wide average and 20 large tandemly clustered gene families. It also has the highest GC content of any chromosome, especially outside gene clusters. The high GC content and concomitant high content of hypermutable CpG sites raises the possibility chromosome 19 exhibits higher levels of nucleotide diversity both within and between species, and may possess greater variation in DNA methylation that regulates gene expression. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12862-020-1595-9DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7045612PMC
February 2020