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    3699 results match your criteria BMC Evolutionary Biology [Journal]

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    Decadal stability in genetic variation and structure in the intertidal seaweed Fucus serratus (Heterokontophyta: Fucaceae).
    BMC Evol Biol 2018 Jun 15;18(1):94. Epub 2018 Jun 15.
    Faculty of Biosciences and Aquaculture, Nord University, 8049, Bodø, Norway.
    Background: The spatial distribution of genetic diversity and structure has important implications for conservation as it reveals a species' strong and weak points with regard to stability and evolutionary capacity. Temporal genetic stability is rarely tested in marine species other than commercially important fishes, but is crucial for the utility of temporal snapshots in conservation management. High and stable diversity can help to mitigate the predicted northward range shift of seaweeds under the impact of climate change. Read More

    Morphology of the bryozoan Cinctipora elegans (Cyclostomata, Cinctiporidae) with first data on its sexual reproduction and the cyclostome neuro-muscular system.
    BMC Evol Biol 2018 Jun 14;18(1):92. Epub 2018 Jun 14.
    Faculty of Life Sciences, Department of Integrative Zoology, University of Vienna, Althanstraße 14, 1090, Vienna, Austria.
    Background: Cyclostome bryozoans are an ancient group of marine colonial suspension-feeders comprising approximately 700 extant species. Previous morphological studies are mainly restricted to skeletal characters whereas data on soft tissues obtained by state-of-the-art methods are still lacking. In order to contribute to issues related to cyclostome ground pattern reconstruction, we analyzed the morphology of the neuromuscular system Cinctipora elegans by means of immunocytochemical staining, confocal laser scanning microscopy, histological sections and microCT imaging. Read More

    Chinstrap penguin population genetic structure: one or more populations along the Southern Ocean?
    BMC Evol Biol 2018 Jun 13;18(1):90. Epub 2018 Jun 13.
    Departamento de Ecosistemas y Medio Ambiente, Facultad de Agronomía e Ingeniería Forestal, Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile, Av. Vicuña Mackenna 4860, Macul, Santiago, Chile.
    Background: Historical factors, demography, reproduction and dispersal are crucial in determining the genetic structure of seabirds. In the Antarctic marine environment, penguins are a major component of the avian biomass, dominant predators and important bioindicators of ecological change. Populations of chinstrap penguins have decreased in nearly all their breeding sites, and their range is expanding throughout the Antarctic Peninsula. Read More

    Natural variation in genes potentially involved in plant architecture and adaptation in switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.).
    BMC Evol Biol 2018 Jun 14;18(1):91. Epub 2018 Jun 14.
    Institute of Plant Breeding, Genetics and Genomics (Department of Crop and Soil Sciences), and Department of Plant Biology, University of Georgia, Athens, GA, 30602, USA.
    Background: Advances in genomic technologies have expanded our ability to accurately and exhaustively detect natural genomic variants that can be applied in crop improvement and to increase our knowledge of plant evolution and adaptation. Switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.), an allotetraploid (2n = 4× = 36) perennial C4 grass (Poaceae family) native to North America and a feedstock crop for cellulosic biofuel production, has a large potential for genetic improvement due to its high genotypic and phenotypic variation. Read More

    Embryonic expression patterns and phylogenetic analysis of panarthropod sox genes: insight into nervous system development, segmentation and gonadogenesis.
    BMC Evol Biol 2018 Jun 8;18(1):88. Epub 2018 Jun 8.
    Uppsala University, Department of Earth Sciences, Palaeobiology, Villavägen 16, 75236, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Background: Sox (Sry-related high-mobility-group box) genes represent important factors in animal development. Relatively little, however, is known about the embryonic expression patterns and thus possible function(s) of Sox genes during ontogenesis in panarthropods (Arthropoda+Tardigrada+Onychophora). To date, studies have been restricted exclusively to higher insects, including the model system Drosophila melanogaster, with no comprehensive data available for any other arthropod group, or any tardigrade or onychophoran. Read More

    Correction to: A new species of Xenoturbella from the western Pacific Ocean and the evolution of Xenoturbella.
    BMC Evol Biol 2018 Jun 7;18(1):83. Epub 2018 Jun 7.
    Misaki Marine Biological Station, The University of Tokyo, 1024 Koajiro, Misaki, Miura, Kanagawa, 238-0225, Japan.
    After publication of Nakano et al. (2017) [1], the authors became aware of the fact that the new species-group name erected for the two specimens of a Japanese xenoturbellid species in the article is not available because Nakano et al. (2017) [1] does not meet the requirement of the amendment of Article 8. Read More

    Unraveling historical introgression and resolving phylogenetic discord within Catostomus (Osteichthys: Catostomidae).
    BMC Evol Biol 2018 Jun 7;18(1):86. Epub 2018 Jun 7.
    Department of Biological Sciences, University of Arkansas, Fayetteville, AR, 72701, USA.
    Background: Porous species boundaries can be a source of conflicting hypotheses, particularly when coupled with variable data and/or methodological approaches. Their impacts can often be magnified when non-model organisms with complex histories of reticulation are investigated. One such example is the genus Catostomus (Osteichthys, Catostomidae), a freshwater fish clade with conflicting morphological and mitochondrial phylogenies. Read More

    Expected and unexpected evolution of plant RNA editing factors CLB19, CRR28 and RARE1: retention of CLB19 despite a phylogenetically deep loss of its two known editing targets in Poaceae.
    BMC Evol Biol 2018 Jun 7;18(1):85. Epub 2018 Jun 7.
    IZMB - Institut für Zelluläre und Molekulare Botanik, Abteilung Molekulare Evolution, Universität Bonn, Kirschallee 1, D-53115, Bonn, Germany.
    Background: C-to-U RNA editing in mitochondria and chloroplasts and the nuclear-encoded, RNA-binding PPR proteins acting as editing factors present a wide field of co-evolution between the different genetic systems in a plant cell. Recent studies on chloroplast editing factors RARE1 and CRR28 addressing one or two chloroplast editing sites, respectively, found them strictly conserved among 65 flowering plants as long as one of their RNA editing targets remained present.

    Results: Extending the earlier sampling to 117 angiosperms with high-quality genome or transcriptome data, we find more evidence confirming previous conclusions but now also identify cases for expected evolutionary transition states such as retention of RARE1 despite loss of its editing target or the degeneration of CRR28 truncating its carboxyterminal DYW domain. Read More

    Homeotic transformations reflect departure from the mammalian 'rule of seven' cervical vertebrae in sloths: inferences on the Hox code and morphological modularity of the mammalian neck.
    BMC Evol Biol 2018 Jun 7;18(1):84. Epub 2018 Jun 7.
    AG Morphologie und Formengeschichte, Institut für Biologie, Humboldt Universität zu Berlin, Philippstraße 13, 10115, Berlin, Germany.
    Background: Sloths are one of only two exceptions to the mammalian 'rule of seven' vertebrae in the neck. As a striking case of breaking the evolutionary constraint, the explanation for the exceptional number of cervical vertebrae in sloths is still under debate. Two diverging hypotheses, both ultimately linked to the low metabolic rate of sloths, have been proposed: hypothesis 1 involves morphological transformation of vertebrae due to changes in the Hox gene expression pattern and hypothesis 2 assumes that the Hox gene expression pattern is not altered and the identity of the vertebrae is not changed. Read More

    The inference of gray whale (Eschrichtius robustus) historical population attributes from whole-genome sequences.
    BMC Evol Biol 2018 Jun 7;18(1):87. Epub 2018 Jun 7.
    Department of Forestry & Natural Resources, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN, 47905, USA.
    Background: Commercial whaling caused extensive demographic declines in many great whale species, including gray whales that were extirpated from the Atlantic Ocean and dramatically reduced in the Pacific Ocean. The Eastern Pacific gray whale has recovered since the 1982 ban on commercial whaling, but the Western Pacific gray whale-once considered possibly extinct-consists of only about 200 individuals and is considered critically endangered by some international authorities. Herein, we use whole-genome sequencing to investigate the demographic history of gray whales from the Pacific and use environmental niche modelling to make predictions about future gene flow. Read More

    Influence of genome and bio-ecology on the prevalence of genome exchange in unisexuals of the Ambystoma complex.
    BMC Evol Biol 2018 May 31;18(1):82. Epub 2018 May 31.
    Departement of biological sciences, Université de Montréal, C.P. 6128, Succ. Centre-ville, Montréal, QC, H3C 317, Canada.
    Background: Unisexuals of the blue-spotted salamander complex are thought to reproduce by kleptogenesis. Genome exchanges associated with this sperm-dependent mode of reproduction are expected to result in a higher genetic variation and multiple ploidy levels compared to clonality. However, the existence of some populations exclusively formed of genetically identical individuals suggests that factors could prevent genome exchanges. Read More

    Mind the gap! The mitochondrial control region and its power as a phylogenetic marker in echinoids.
    BMC Evol Biol 2018 May 30;18(1):80. Epub 2018 May 30.
    Natural History Museum Vienna, Central Research Laboratories, 1010, Vienna, Austria.
    Background: In Metazoa, mitochondrial markers are the most commonly used targets for inferring species-level molecular phylogenies due to their extremely low rate of recombination, maternal inheritance, ease of use and fast substitution rate in comparison to nuclear DNA. The mitochondrial control region (CR) is the main non-coding area of the mitochondrial genome and contains the mitochondrial origin of replication and transcription. While sequences of the cytochrome oxidase subunit 1 (COI) and 16S rRNA genes are the prime mitochondrial markers in phylogenetic studies, the highly variable CR is typically ignored and not targeted in such analyses. Read More

    Origin, evolution, and divergence of plant class C GH9 endoglucanases.
    BMC Evol Biol 2018 May 30;18(1):79. Epub 2018 May 30.
    Crop Genetics and Informatics Group, School of Computational and Integrative Sciences, Jawaharlal Nehru University, New Delhi, 110067, India.
    Background: Glycoside hydrolases of the GH9 family encode cellulases that predominantly function as endoglucanases and have wide applications in the food, paper, pharmaceutical, and biofuel industries. The partitioning of plant GH9 endoglucanases, into classes A, B, and C, is based on the differential presence of transmembrane, signal peptide, and the carbohydrate binding module (CBM49). There is considerable debate on the distribution and the functions of these enzymes which may vary in different organisms. Read More

    A targeted in situ hybridization screen identifies putative seminal fluid proteins in a simultaneously hermaphroditic flatworm.
    BMC Evol Biol 2018 May 30;18(1):81. Epub 2018 May 30.
    Evolutionary Biology, Bielefeld University, Konsequenz 45, 33615, Bielefeld, Germany.
    Background: Along with sperm, in many taxa ejaculates also contain large numbers of seminal fluid proteins (SFPs). SFPs and sperm are transferred to the mating partner, where they are thought to play key roles in mediating post-mating sexual selection. They modulate the partner's behavior and physiology in ways that influence the reproductive success of both partners, thus potentially leading to sexual conflict. Read More

    Cryptic Plutella species show deep divergence despite the capacity to hybridize.
    BMC Evol Biol 2018 May 29;18(1):77. Epub 2018 May 29.
    School of Biological Sciences, The University of Adelaide, Adelaide, 5005, Australia.
    Background: Understanding genomic and phenotypic diversity among cryptic pest taxa has important implications for the management of pests and diseases. The diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella L., has been intensively studied due to its ability to evolve insecticide resistance and status as the world's most destructive pest of brassicaceous crops. Read More

    The effects of repeated whole genome duplication events on the evolution of cytokinin signaling pathway.
    BMC Evol Biol 2018 May 29;18(1):76. Epub 2018 May 29.
    Institute of Applied Genetics, Freie Universität Berlin, Berlin, Germany.
    Background: It is thought that after whole-genome duplications (WGDs), a large fraction of the duplicated gene copies is lost over time while few duplicates are retained. Which factors promote survival or death of a duplicate remains unclear and the underlying mechanisms are poorly understood. According to the model of gene dosage balance, genes encoding interacting proteins are predicted to be preferentially co-retained after WGDs. Read More

    Correction to: Mandibulate convergence in an armoured Cambrian stem chelicerate.
    BMC Evol Biol 2018 May 29;18(1):78. Epub 2018 May 29.
    Present address: State Key Laboratory of Palaeobiology and Stratigraphy, Nanjing Institute of Geology and Palaeontology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Nanjing, China.
    The original article [1] had 4 paragraphs which contained erroneous information. In this correction article the correct and incorrect information is shown. Read More

    Phylogeographic patterns of the desert poplar in Northwest China shaped by both geology and climatic oscillations.
    BMC Evol Biol 2018 May 25;18(1):75. Epub 2018 May 25.
    Institute of Desertification Studies, Chinese Academy of Forestry, Xiangshan road, Haidian district, Beijing, 100091, China.
    Background: The effects of historical geology and climatic events on the evolution of plants around the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau region have been at the center of debate for years. To identify the influence of the uplift of the Tianshan Mountains and/or climatic oscillations on the evolution of plants in arid northwest China, we investigated the phylogeography of the Euphrates poplar (Populus euphratica) using chloroplast DNA (cpDNA) sequences and nuclear microsatellites, and estimated its historical distribution using Ecological Niche Modeling (ENM).

    Results: We found that the Euphrates poplar differed from another desert poplar, P. Read More

    Biogeography of Coptis Salisb. (Ranunculales, Ranunculaceae, Coptidoideae), an Eastern Asian and North American genus.
    BMC Evol Biol 2018 May 24;18(1):74. Epub 2018 May 24.
    State Key Laboratory of Systematic and Evolutionary Botany, Institute of Botany, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, 100093, China.
    Background: Numerous studies have favored dispersal (colonization) over vicariance (past fragmentation) events to explain eastern Asian-North American distribution patterns. In plants, however the disjunction between eastern Asia and western North America has been rarely examined using the integration of phylogenetic, molecular dating, and biogeographical methods. Meanwhile, the biogeographic patterns within eastern Asia remain poorly understood. Read More

    Homeosis in a scorpion supports a telopodal origin of pectines and components of the book lungs.
    BMC Evol Biol 2018 May 21;18(1):73. Epub 2018 May 21.
    Department of Integrative Biology, University of Wisconsin-Madison, 352 Birge Hall, 430 Lincoln Drive, Madison, WI, 53706, USA.
    Background: The morphological and functional evolution of appendages has played a key role in the diversification of arthropods. While the ancestral arthropod appendage is held to be polyramous, terrestriality is associated with the reduction or loss of appendage rami, which may obscure the homology of different appendage derivatives. Proxies for appendage homology have included surveys of cross-reactive antibodies for wing markers like Nubbin/PDM, which have suggested that the abdominal appendages of arachnids (e. Read More

    Different adaptive strategies in E. coli populations evolving under macronutrient limitation and metal ion limitation.
    BMC Evol Biol 2018 May 18;18(1):72. Epub 2018 May 18.
    Department of Ecology and Evolution, Stony Brook University, 650 Life Sciences Building, Stony Brook, NY, 11794, USA.
    Background: Adaptive responses to nutrient limitation involve mutations that increase the efficiency of usage or uptake of the limiting nutrient. However, starvation of different nutrients has contrasting effects on physiology, resulting in different evolutionary responses. Most studies performed to understand these evolutionary responses have focused only on macronutrient limitation. Read More

    Phylogenomic analysis of Apoidea sheds new light on the sister group of bees.
    BMC Evol Biol 2018 May 18;18(1):71. Epub 2018 May 18.
    Museum für Naturkunde, Leibniz Institute for Evolution and Biodiversity Science, Invalidenstraße 43, 10115, Berlin, Germany.
    Background: Apoid wasps and bees (Apoidea) are an ecologically and morphologically diverse group of Hymenoptera, with some species of bees having evolved eusocial societies. Major problems for our understanding of the evolutionary history of Apoidea have been the difficulty to trace the phylogenetic origin and to reliably estimate the geological age of bees. To address these issues, we compiled a comprehensive phylogenomic dataset by simultaneously analyzing target DNA enrichment and transcriptomic sequence data, comprising 195 single-copy protein-coding genes and covering all major lineages of apoid wasps and bee families. Read More

    A comparison of methods for estimating substitution rates from ancient DNA sequence data.
    BMC Evol Biol 2018 May 16;18(1):70. Epub 2018 May 16.
    School of Life and Environmental Sciences, University of Sydney, Sydney, Australia.
    Background: Phylogenetic analysis of DNA from modern and ancient samples allows the reconstruction of important demographic and evolutionary processes. A critical component of these analyses is the estimation of evolutionary rates, which can be calibrated using information about the ages of the samples. However, the reliability of these rate estimates can be negatively affected by among-lineage rate variation and non-random sampling. Read More

    Recently evolved human-specific methylated regions are enriched in schizophrenia signals.
    BMC Evol Biol 2018 May 11;18(1):63. Epub 2018 May 11.
    NORMENT - K.G. Jebsen Center for Psychosis Research, Department of Clinical Science, University of Bergen, Bergen, Norway.
    Background: One explanation for the persistence of schizophrenia despite the reduced fertility of patients is that it is a by-product of recent human evolution. This hypothesis is supported by evidence suggesting that recently-evolved genomic regions in humans are involved in the genetic risk for schizophrenia. Using summary statistics from genome-wide association studies (GWAS) of schizophrenia and 11 other phenotypes, we tested for enrichment of association with GWAS traits in regions that have undergone methylation changes in the human lineage compared to Neanderthals and Denisovans, i. Read More

    Binary-state speciation and extinction method is conditionally robust to realistic violations of its assumptions.
    BMC Evol Biol 2018 May 8;18(1):69. Epub 2018 May 8.
    Department of Biology and Microbiology, South Dakota State University, Brookings, USA.
    Background: Phylogenetic comparative methods allow us to test evolutionary hypotheses without the benefit of an extensive fossil record. These methods, however, make simplifying assumptions, among them that clades are always increasing or stable in diversity, an assumption we know to be false. This study simulates hypothetical clades to test whether the Binary State Speciation and Extinction (BiSSE) method can be used to correctly detect relative differences in diversification rate between ancestral and derived character states even as net diversification rates are declining overall. Read More

    Phylogeography of Aegean green toads (Bufo viridis subgroup): continental hybrid swarm vs. insular diversification with discovery of a new island endemic.
    BMC Evol Biol 2018 May 2;18(1):67. Epub 2018 May 2.
    Leibniz-Institute of Freshwater Ecology and Inland Fisheries (IGB), Müggelseedamm 301, D-12587, Berlin, Germany.
    Background: Debated aspects in speciation research concern the amount of gene flow between incipient species under secondary contact and the modes by which post-zygotic isolation accumulates. Secondary contact zones of allopatric lineages, involving varying levels of divergence, provide natural settings for comparative studies, for which the Aegean (Eastern Mediterranean) geography offers unique scenarios. In Palearctic green toads (Bufo viridis subgroup or Bufotes), Plio-Pleistocene (~ 2. Read More

    A phylogenetic analysis of the Primnoidae (Anthozoa: Octocorallia: Calcaxonia) with analyses of character evolution and a key to the genera and subgenera.
    BMC Evol Biol 2018 May 2;18(1):66. Epub 2018 May 2.
    Department of Invertebrate Zoology, National Museum of Natural History, Smithsonian Institution, Smithsonian Institution, PO Box 37012, MRC 163, Washington, DC, 20013-7012, USA.
    Background: Previous phylogenetic analyses of primnoid octocorals utilizing morphological or molecular data have each recovered evolutionary relationships among genera that are largely incongruent with each other, with some exceptions. In an effort to reconcile molecular-based phylogenies with morphological characters, phylogenetic reconstructions were performed with 33 of 43 primnoid genera using four loci (mtMutS, COI, 28S and 18S), and ancestral state reconstructions were performed using 9 taxonomically relevant characters. In addition, an updated illustrated key to the current 48 genus-level (43 genera, 5 subgenera) primnoids is presented. Read More

    Genomic insights into natural selection in the common loon (Gavia immer): evidence for aquatic adaptation.
    BMC Evol Biol 2018 Apr 27;18(1):64. Epub 2018 Apr 27.
    Biology Department, Northern Michigan University, 1401 Presque Isle Avenue, Marquette, 49950, Michigan, USA.
    Background: The common loon (Gavia immer) is one of five species that comprise the avian order Gaviiformes. Loons are specialized divers, reaching depths up to 60 m while staying submerged for intervals up to three minutes. In this study we used comparative genomics to investigate the genetic basis of the common loon adaptations to its ecological niche. Read More

    Extensive mitochondrial gene rearrangements in Ctenophora: insights from benthic Platyctenida.
    BMC Evol Biol 2018 Apr 27;18(1):65. Epub 2018 Apr 27.
    School of Zoology, Tel-Aviv University, Tel-Aviv, Israel.
    Background: Complete mitochondrial (mt) genomes have been sequenced for thousands of animals and represent a molecule of choice for many evolutionary studies. Nevertheless, some animal groups have remained under-sampled. Ctenophora (comb jellies) is one such example, with only two complete mt sequences determined hitherto for this phylum, which encompasses ca. Read More

    Host genotype and environment affect the trade-off between horizontal and vertical transmission of the parasite Edhazardia aedis.
    BMC Evol Biol 2018 Apr 24;18(1):59. Epub 2018 Apr 24.
    Institute of Biology, University of Neuchâtel, Rue Emile-Argand 11, 2000, Neuchâtel, Switzerland.
    Background: If a parasite is able to transmit horizontally or vertically, which transmission mode will it choose? We investigated how the growth conditions and the genotype of the mosquito Aedes aegypti affect the transmission mode of the parasite Edhazardia aedis.

    Results: In poor conditions the parasites were more likely to be transmitted horizontally, whereas in favourable conditions they were more likely to be transmitted vertically. Unfavourable conditions delayed emergence, giving the parasite more time to produce its horizontally transmitted stage; in more favourable conditions mosquitoes have greater reproductive success, increasing the effectiveness of vertical transmission. Read More

    Admixture, evolution, and variation in reproductive isolation in the Boechera puberula clade.
    BMC Evol Biol 2018 Apr 25;18(1):61. Epub 2018 Apr 25.
    Biology Department, Utah State University, 5305 Old Main Hill, Logan, UT, 84322, USA.
    Background: Hybridization is very common in plants, and the incorporation of new alleles into existing lineages (i.e. admixture) can blur species boundaries. Read More

    Patterns of geographic variation of thermal adapted candidate genes in Drosophila subobscura sex chromosome arrangements.
    BMC Evol Biol 2018 Apr 24;18(1):60. Epub 2018 Apr 24.
    Departament de Genètica, Microbiologia i Estadística and IRBio, Facultat de Biologia, Universitat de Barcelona, 08028, Barcelona, Spain.
    Background: The role of chromosomal arrangements in adaptation is supported by the repeatable clinal variation in inversion frequencies across continents in colonizing species such as Drosophila subobscura. However, there is a lack of knowledge on the genetic variation in genes within inversions, possibly targets of climatic selection, across a geographic latitudinal gradient. In the present study we analysed four candidate loci for thermal adaptation, located close to the breakpoints, in two chromosomal arrangements of the sex (A) chromosome of Drosophila subobscura with different thermal preferences. Read More

    Chromosomal evolution and phylogeny in the Nullicauda group (Chiroptera, Phyllostomidae): evidence from multidirectional chromosome painting.
    BMC Evol Biol 2018 Apr 25;18(1):62. Epub 2018 Apr 25.
    Laboratório de Citogenética, CEABIO, ICB, Universidade Federal do Pará, Av. Bernardo Sayão, sn. Guamá, Belém, Pará, 66075-900, Brazil.
    Background: The family Phyllostomidae (Chiroptera) shows wide morphological, molecular and cytogenetic variation; many disagreements regarding its phylogeny and taxonomy remains to be resolved. In this study, we use chromosome painting with whole chromosome probes from the Phyllostomidae Phyllostomus hastatus and Carollia brevicauda to determine the rearrangements among several genera of the Nullicauda group (subfamilies Gliphonycterinae, Carolliinae, Rhinophyllinae and Stenodermatinae).

    Results: These data, when compared with previously published chromosome homology maps, allow the construction of a phylogeny comparable to those previously obtained by morphological and molecular analysis. Read More

    Emergence of the Asian lineage dengue virus type 3 genotype III in Malaysia.
    BMC Evol Biol 2018 Apr 24;18(1):58. Epub 2018 Apr 24.
    Tropical Infectious Diseases Research and Education Centre (TIDREC), University of Malaya, 50603, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.
    Background: Dengue virus type 3 genotype III (DENV3/III) is associated with increased number of severe infections when it emerged in the Americas and Asia. We had previously demonstrated that the DENV3/III was introduced into Malaysia in the late 2000s. We investigated the genetic diversity of DENV3/III strains recovered from Malaysia and examined their phylogenetic relationships against other DENV3/III strains isolated globally. Read More

    Role of genetic introgression during the evolution of cultivated rice (Oryza sativa L.).
    BMC Evol Biol 2018 Apr 23;18(1):57. Epub 2018 Apr 23.
    School of Earth and Environmental Sciences, Manchester Institute of Biotechnology, University of Manchester, Manchester, M1 7DN, UK.
    Background: Models for the origins of cultivated rice currently fall into two groups: ones that identify independent domestications of the indica, japonica and possibly also the aus types, and others that propose that the domestication phenotype was initially acquired by japonica, the underlying alleles then transferred by introgression to other pre-domesticated populations, giving the indica and aus varieties. Identifying the impact of past gene flow on cultivated rice genomes is therefore crucial to distinguishing between these models and understanding the domestication history of rice. To this end, we used population-scale polymorphism data to identify the progenitor gene pools of indica, japonica and aus. Read More

    Evolving in the highlands: the case of the Neotropical Lerma live-bearing Poeciliopsis infans (Woolman, 1894) (Cyprinodontiformes: Poeciliidae) in Central Mexico.
    BMC Evol Biol 2018 Apr 20;18(1):56. Epub 2018 Apr 20.
    Departamento de Biodiversidad y Biología Evolutiva, Museo Nacional de Ciencias Naturales. CSIC, Madrid, Spain.
    Background: Volcanic and tectonic activities in conjunction with Quaternary climate are the main events that shaped the geographical distribution of genetic variation of many lineages. Poeciliopsis infans is the only poeciliid species that was able to colonize the temperate highlands of central Mexico. We inferred the phylogenetic relationships, biogeographic history, and historical demography in the widespread Neotropical species P. Read More

    Assessing the benefits of horizontal gene transfer by laboratory evolution and genome sequencing.
    BMC Evol Biol 2018 Apr 19;18(1):54. Epub 2018 Apr 19.
    Institute of Evolutionary Biology and Environmental Studies, University of Zurich, Zurich, Switzerland.
    Background: Recombination is widespread across the tree of life, because it helps purge deleterious mutations and creates novel adaptive traits. In prokaryotes, it often takes the form of horizontal gene transfer from a donor to a recipient bacterium. While such transfer is widespread in natural communities, its immediate fitness benefits are usually unknown. Read More

    Ecological opportunity may facilitate diversification in Palearctic freshwater organisms: a case study on hydrobiid gastropods.
    BMC Evol Biol 2018 Apr 19;18(1):55. Epub 2018 Apr 19.
    Animal Ecology and Systematics, Justus Liebig University, Heinrich-Buff-Ring 26-32 (IFZ), D-35392, Giessen, Germany.
    Background: Differences in species richness among phylogenetic clades are attributed to clade age and/or variation in diversification rates. Access to ecological opportunity may trigger a temporary increase in diversification rates and ecomorphological variation. In addition, lower body temperatures in poikilothermic animals may result in decreasing speciation rates as proposed by the metabolic theory of ecology. Read More

    Evidence for late Pleistocene origin of Astyanax mexicanus cavefish.
    BMC Evol Biol 2018 Apr 18;18(1):43. Epub 2018 Apr 18.
    Évolution, Génomes, Comportement, Écologie, CNRS, IRD, Univ Paris-Sud. Université Paris-Saclay, F-91198, Gif-sur-Yvette, France.
    Background: Cavefish populations belonging to the Mexican tetra species Astyanax mexicanus are outstanding models to study the tempo and mode of adaptation to a radical environmental change. They are currently assigned to two main groups, the so-called "old" and "new" lineages, which would have populated several caves independently and at different times. However, we do not have yet accurate estimations of the time frames of evolution of these populations. Read More

    Parapatric genetic divergence among deep evolutionary lineages in the Mediterranean green crab, Carcinus aestuarii (Brachyura, Portunoidea, Carcinidae), accounts for a sharp phylogeographic break in the Eastern Mediterranean.
    BMC Evol Biol 2018 Apr 11;18(1):53. Epub 2018 Apr 11.
    Zoology & Evolutionary Biology, Universität Regensburg, D-93040, Regensburg, Germany.
    Background: Recently, population genetic studies of Mediterranean marine species highlighted patterns of genetic divergence and phylogeographic breaks, due to the interplay between impacts of Pleistocene climate shifts and contemporary hydrographical barriers. These factors markedly shaped the distribution of marine organisms and their genetic makeup. The present study is part of an ongoing effort to understand the phylogeography and evolutionary history of the highly dispersive Mediterranean green crab, Carcinus aestuarii (Nardo, 1847), across the Mediterranean Sea. Read More

    Tracing the evolution of the heterotrimeric G protein α subunit in Metazoa.
    BMC Evol Biol 2018 Apr 11;18(1):51. Epub 2018 Apr 11.
    Bioinformatics Group, Department of Computer Science, Leipzig University, Leipzig, Germany.
    Background: Heterotrimeric G proteins are fundamental signaling proteins composed of three subunits, Gα and a Gβγ dimer. The role of Gα as a molecular switch is critical for transmitting and amplifying intracellular signaling cascades initiated by an activated G protein Coupled Receptor (GPCR). Despite their biochemical and therapeutic importance, the study of G protein evolution has been limited to the scope of a few model organisms. Read More

    Contrasting life histories contribute to divergent patterns of genetic diversity and population connectivity in freshwater sculpin fishes.
    BMC Evol Biol 2018 Apr 11;18(1):52. Epub 2018 Apr 11.
    Molecular Ecology and Evolution Laboratory, Department of Biological Science, Sangji University, Wonju, South Korea.
    Background: Life history characteristics are considered important factors influencing the evolutionary processes of natural populations, including the patterns of population genetic structure of a species. The sister species Cottus hangiongensis and C. koreanus are small bottom-dwelling freshwater sculpin fishes from South Korea that display marked life history divergence but are morphologically nearly indistinguishable. Read More

    Malaria parasites of long-tailed macaques in Sarawak, Malaysian Borneo: a novel species and demographic and evolutionary histories.
    BMC Evol Biol 2018 Apr 10;18(1):49. Epub 2018 Apr 10.
    Malaria Research Centre, Faculty of Medicine & Health Sciences, Universiti Malaysia Sarawak, 94300, Kota Samarahan, Sarawak, Malaysia.
    Background: Non-human primates have long been identified to harbour different species of Plasmodium. Long-tailed macaques (Macaca fascicularis), in particular, are reservoirs for P. knowlesi, P. Read More

    Disjunct distribution and distinct intraspecific diversification of Eothenomys melanogaster in South China.
    BMC Evol Biol 2018 Apr 10;18(1):50. Epub 2018 Apr 10.
    Key Laboratory of Zoological Systematics and Evolution, Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 1 Beichen West Road, Chaoyang District, Beijing, 100101, People's Republic of China.
    Background: South China encompasses complex and diverse landforms, giving rise to high biological diversity and endemism from the Hengduan Mountains to Taiwan Island. Many species are widely distributed across South China with similar disjunct distribution patterns. To explore the causes of these disjunct distribution patterns and their genetic consequences, we investigated the endemic species Père David's Chinese Vole (Eothenomys melanogaster) by integrating geological and ecological factors. Read More

    A new fast method for inferring multiple consensus trees using k-medoids.
    BMC Evol Biol 2018 Apr 5;18(1):48. Epub 2018 Apr 5.
    Département d'Informatique, Université du Québec à Montréal, Case postale 8888, Succursale Centre-ville, Montréal, H3C 3P8, Canada.
    Background: Gene trees carry important information about specific evolutionary patterns which characterize the evolution of the corresponding gene families. However, a reliable species consensus tree cannot be inferred from a multiple sequence alignment of a single gene family or from the concatenation of alignments corresponding to gene families having different evolutionary histories. These evolutionary histories can be quite different due to horizontal transfer events or to ancient gene duplications which cause the emergence of paralogs within a genome. Read More

    Comparison of ventral organ development across Pycnogonida (Arthropoda, Chelicerata) provides evidence for a plesiomorphic mode of late neurogenesis in sea spiders and myriapods.
    BMC Evol Biol 2018 Apr 5;18(1):47. Epub 2018 Apr 5.
    Wellesley College, Neuroscience Program, 106 Central Street, Wellesley, MA, 02481, USA.
    Background: Comparative studies of neuroanatomy and neurodevelopment provide valuable information for phylogenetic inference. Beyond that, they reveal transformations of neuroanatomical structures during animal evolution and modifications in the developmental processes that have shaped these structures. In the extremely diverse Arthropoda, such comparative studies contribute with ever-increasing structural resolution and taxon coverage to our understanding of nervous system evolution. Read More

    The prevalence of terraced treescapes in analyses of phylogenetic data sets.
    BMC Evol Biol 2018 Apr 4;18(1):46. Epub 2018 Apr 4.
    Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, University of Arizona, 1041 E. Lowell St, Tucson, AZ, 85721, USA.
    Background: The pattern of data availability in a phylogenetic data set may lead to the formation of terraces, collections of equally optimal trees. Terraces can arise in tree space if trees are scored with parsimony or with partitioned, edge-unlinked maximum likelihood. Theory predicts that terraces can be large, but their prevalence in contemporary data sets has never been surveyed. Read More

    Evolutionary transitions in body plan and reproductive mode alter maintenance metabolism in squamates.
    BMC Evol Biol 2018 Apr 3;18(1):45. Epub 2018 Apr 3.
    Jiangsu Key Laboratory for Biodiversity and Biotechnology, College of Life Sciences, Nanjing Normal University, Nanjing, Jiangsu, 210023, China.
    Background: Energy (resources) acquired by animals should be allocated towards competing demands, maintenance, growth, reproduction and fat storage. Reproduction has the second lowest priority in energy allocation and only is allowed after meeting the energetic demands for maintenance and growth. This hierarchical allocation of energy suggests the hypothesis that species or taxa with high maintenance costs would be less likely to invest more energy in reproduction or to evolve an energetically more expensive mode of reproduction. Read More

    Phylogenomics and barcoding of Panax: toward the identification of ginseng species.
    BMC Evol Biol 2018 Apr 3;18(1):44. Epub 2018 Apr 3.
    The Natural History Museum, University of Oslo, Oslo, Norway.
    Background: The economic value of ginseng in the global medicinal plant trade is estimated to be in excess of US$2.1 billion. At the same time, the evolutionary placement of ginseng (Panax ginseng) and the complex evolutionary history of the genus is poorly understood despite several molecular phylogenetic studies. Read More

    Earliest ontogeny of early Cambrian acrotretoid brachiopods - first evidence for metamorphosis and its implications.
    BMC Evol Biol 2018 Apr 2;18(1):42. Epub 2018 Apr 2.
    Shaanxi Key laboratory of Early Life and Environments and Department of Geology, State Key Laboratory of Continental Dynamics, Northwest University, Xi'an, 710069, China.
    Background: Our understanding of the ontogeny of Palaeozoic brachiopods has changed significantly during the last two decades. However, the micromorphic acrotretoids have received relatively little attention, resulting in a poor knowledge of their ontogeny, origin and earliest evolution. The uniquely well preserved early Cambrian fossil records in South China provide a great new opportunity to investigate the phylogenetically important ontogeny of the earliest acrotretoid brachiopods, and give new details of the dramatic changes in anatomy of acrotretoid brachiopods during the transition from planktotrophic larvae to filter feeding sedentary juveniles. Read More

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