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    907 results match your criteria BMC Developmental Biology [Journal]

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    Expression and function of microRNA-9 in the mid-hindbrain area of embryonic chick.
    BMC Dev Biol 2018 Feb 22;18(1). Epub 2018 Feb 22.
    Institute of Clinical Anatomy and Cell Analysis, University of Tuebingen, Oesterbergstrasse 3, D-72074, Tuebingen, Germany.
    Background: MiR-9 is a small non-coding RNA that is highly conserved between species and primarily expressed in the central nervous system (CNS). It is known to influence proliferation and neuronal differentiation in the brain and spinal cord of different vertebrates. Different studies have pointed to regional and species-specific differences in the response of neural progenitors to miR-9. Read More

    Dynamics of promoter bivalency and RNAP II pausing in mouse stem and differentiated cells.
    BMC Dev Biol 2018 Feb 20;18(1). Epub 2018 Feb 20.
    Division of Developmental Biology, The Roslin Institute and Royal (Dick) School of Veterinary Studies, University of Edinburgh, Easter Bush Campus, Midlothian, EH25 9RG, UK.
    Background: Mammalian embryonic stem cells display a unique epigenetic and transcriptional state to facilitate pluripotency by maintaining lineage-specification genes in a poised state. Two epigenetic and transcription processes involved in maintaining poised state are bivalent chromatin, characterized by the simultaneous presence of activating and repressive histone methylation marks, and RNA polymerase II (RNAPII) promoter proximal pausing. However, the dynamics of histone modifications and RNAPII at promoters in diverse cellular contexts remains underexplored. Read More

    Opsin expression patterns coincide with photoreceptor development during pupal development in the honey bee, Apis mellifera.
    BMC Dev Biol 2018 Jan 30;18(1). Epub 2018 Jan 30.
    Department of Behavioral Physiology and Sociobiology, Biozentrum, University of Würzburg, Würzburg, Germany.
    Background: The compound eyes of insects allow them to catch photons and convert the energy into electric signals. All compound eyes consist of numerous ommatidia, each comprising a fixed number of photoreceptors. Different ommatidial types are characterized by a specific set of photoreceptors differing in spectral sensitivity. Read More

    In vivo imaging of epithelial wound healing in the cnidarian Clytia hemisphaerica demonstrates early evolution of purse string and cell crawling closure mechanisms.
    BMC Dev Biol 2017 Dec 19;17(1):17. Epub 2017 Dec 19.
    Department of Molecular Genetics and Cell Biology, The University of Chicago, 929 East 57th Street, Chicago, IL, 60637, USA.
    Background: All animals have mechanisms for healing damage to the epithelial sheets that cover the body and line internal cavities. Epithelial wounds heal either by cells crawling over the wound gap, by contraction of a super-cellular actin cable ("purse string") that surrounds the wound, or some combination of the two mechanisms. Both cell crawling and purse string closure of epithelial wounds are widely observed across vertebrates and invertebrates, suggesting early evolution of these mechanisms. Read More

    The asymmetric cell division machinery in the spiral-cleaving egg and embryo of the marine annelid Platynereis dumerilii.
    BMC Dev Biol 2017 Dec 11;17(1):16. Epub 2017 Dec 11.
    Department of Genetics, Development and Cell Biology, Iowa State University, 503 Science Hall II, Ames, IA, 50011, USA.
    Background: Over one third of all animal phyla utilize a mode of early embryogenesis called 'spiral cleavage' to divide the fertilized egg into embryonic cells with different cell fates. This mode is characterized by a series of invariant, stereotypic, asymmetric cell divisions (ACDs) that generates cells of different size and defined position within the early embryo. Astonishingly, very little is known about the underlying molecular machinery to orchestrate these ACDs in spiral-cleaving embryos. Read More

    Tol2 transposon-mediated transgenesis in the Midas cichlid (Amphilophus citrinellus) - towards understanding gene function and regulatory evolution in an ecological model system for rapid phenotypic diversification.
    BMC Dev Biol 2017 Nov 23;17(1):15. Epub 2017 Nov 23.
    Chair in Zoology and Evolutionary Biology, Department of Biology, University of Konstanz, Constance, Germany.
    Background: The Midas cichlid species complex (Amphilophus spp.) is widely known among evolutionary biologists as a model system for sympatric speciation and adaptive phenotypic divergence within extremely short periods of time (a few hundred generations). The repeated parallel evolution of adaptive phenotypes in this radiation, combined with their near genetic identity, makes them an excellent model for studying phenotypic diversification. Read More

    Unique N-terminal sequences in two Runx1 isoforms are dispensable for Runx1 function.
    BMC Dev Biol 2017 Oct 18;17(1):14. Epub 2017 Oct 18.
    Laboratory for Transcriptional Regulation, RIKEN Center for Integrative Medical Sciences (IMS). 1-7-22 Suehiro-cho, Tsurumi-ku, Yokohama, 230-0045, Japan.
    Background: The Runt-related transcription factors (Runx) are a family of evolutionarily conserved transcriptional regulators that play multiple roles in the developmental control of various cell types. Among the three mammalian Runx proteins, Runx1 is essential for definitive hematopoiesis and its dysfunction leads to human leukemogenesis. There are two promoters, distal (P1) and proximal (P2), in the Runx1 gene, which produce two Runx1 isoforms with distinct N-terminal amino acid sequences, P1-Runx1 and P2-Runx1. Read More

    Respective contribution of the cephalic neural crest and mesoderm to SIX1-expressing head territories in the avian embryo.
    BMC Dev Biol 2017 Oct 10;17(1):13. Epub 2017 Oct 10.
    Sorbonne Universités, UPMC Univ Paris 06, INSERM, CNRS, Institut de la Vision, 17 rue Moreau, 75012, Paris, France.
    Background: Vertebrate head development depends on a series of interactions between many cell populations of distinct embryological origins. Cranial mesenchymal tissues have a dual embryonic source: - the neural crest (NC), which generates most of craniofacial skeleton, dermis, pericytes, fat cells, and tenocytes; and - the mesoderm, which yields muscles, blood vessel endothelia and some posterior cranial bones. The molecular players that orchestrate co-development of cephalic NC and mesodermal cells to properly construct the head of vertebrates remain poorly understood. Read More

    Integrative analysis of the Pekin duck (Anas anas) MicroRNAome during feather follicle development.
    BMC Dev Biol 2017 Jul 20;17(1):12. Epub 2017 Jul 20.
    College of Animal Science and Technology, Anhui Agricultural University, Hefei, People's Republic of China.
    Background: The quality and yield of duck feathers are very important economic traits that might be controlled by miRNA regulation. The aim of the present study was to investigate the mechanism underlying the crosstalk between individual miRNAs and the activity of signaling pathways that control the growth of duck feathers during different periods. We therefore conducted a comprehensive investigation using Solexa sequencing technology on the Pekin duck microRNAome over six stages of feather development at days 11, 15, and 20 of embryonic development (during the hatching period), and at 1 day and 4 and 10 weeks posthatch. Read More

    Phylogeny, expression patterns and regulation of DNA Methyltransferases in early development of the flatfish, Solea senegalensis.
    BMC Dev Biol 2017 Jul 17;17(1):11. Epub 2017 Jul 17.
    IFAPA Centro El Toruño, Junta de Andalucía, Camino Tiro Pichón s/n, 11500 El Puerto de Santa María, Cádiz, Spain.
    Background: The identification of DNA methyltransferases (Dnmt) expression patterns during development and their regulation is important to understand the epigenetic mechanisms that modulate larval plasticity in marine fish. In this study, dnmt1 and dnmt3 paralogs were identified in the flatfish Solea senegalensis and expression patterns in early developmental stages and juveniles were determined. Additionally, the regulation of Dnmt transcription by a specific inhibitor (5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine) and temperature was evaluated. Read More

    Cathepsin B inhibitor improves developmental competency and cryo-tolerance of in vitro ovine embryos.
    BMC Dev Biol 2017 Jul 4;17(1):10. Epub 2017 Jul 4.
    Department of Reproductive Biotechnology, Reproductive Biomedicine Research Center, Royan Institute for Biotechnology, ACECR, Royan St., Salman St., Khorasgan, Jey St, Isfahan, 8159358686, Iran.
    Background: Cathepsin B is a lysosomal cysteine protease involved in apoptosis and oocytes which have lower developmental competence show higher expression of Cathepsin B. Furthermore, expression of Cathepsin B show a decreasing trend from oocyte toward blastocyst stage.

    Results: Present study assessed the effect of cathepsin B inhibitor, E-64, on developmental competency and cryo-survival of pre-implantation ovine IVF derived embryos. Read More

    Expression of Ciona intestinalis AOX causes male reproductive defects in Drosophila melanogaster.
    BMC Dev Biol 2017 Jul 3;17(1). Epub 2017 Jul 3.
    Institute of Biosciences and Medical Technology, Tampere University Hospital, University of Tampere, FI-33014, Tampere, Finland.
    Background: Mitochondrial alternative respiratory-chain enzymes are phylogenetically widespread, and buffer stresses affecting oxidative phosphorylation in species that possess them. However, they have been lost in the evolutionary lineages leading to vertebrates and arthropods, raising the question as to what survival or reproductive disadvantages they confer. Recent interest in using them in therapy lends a biomedical dimension to this question. Read More

    Comparison of two related lines of tauGFP transgenic mice designed for lineage tracing.
    BMC Dev Biol 2017 Jun 29;17(1). Epub 2017 Jun 29.
    Genes and Development Group, Centre for Integrative Physiology, Clinical Sciences, University of Edinburgh Medical School, Hugh Robson Building, George Square, Edinburgh, EH8 9XD, UK.
    Background: The tauGFP reporter fusion protein is produced nearly ubiquitously by the TgTP6.3 transgene in TP6.3 mice and its localisation to microtubules offers some advantages over soluble GFP as a lineage marker. Read More

    The many faces of Pluripotency: in vitro adaptations of a continuum of in vivo states.
    BMC Dev Biol 2017 Jun 13;17(1). Epub 2017 Jun 13.
    Developmental Biology Program, Sloan Kettering Institute, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, New York, NY, 10065, USA.
    Pluripotency defines the propensity of a cell to differentiate into, and generate, all somatic, as well as germ cells. The epiblast of the early mammalian embryo is the founder population of all germ layer derivatives and thus represents the bona fide in vivo pluripotent cell population. The so-called pluripotent state spans several days of development and is lost during gastrulation as epiblast cells make fate decisions towards a mesoderm, endoderm or ectoderm identity. Read More

    Pcsk5 is required in the early cranio-cardiac mesoderm for heart development.
    BMC Dev Biol 2017 Apr 26;17(1). Epub 2017 Apr 26.
    Division of Cardiovascular Medicine, Radcliffe Department of Medicine, University of Oxford, the Wellcome Trust Centre for Human Genetics, Roosevelt Drive, Oxford, OX3 7BN, UK.
    Background: Loss of proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 5 (Pcsk5) results in multiple developmental anomalies including cardiac malformations, caudal regression, pre-sacral mass, renal agenesis, anteroposterior patterning defects, and tracheo-oesophageal and anorectal malformations, and is a model for VACTERL/caudal regression/Currarino syndromes (VACTERL association - Vertebral anomalies, Anal atresia, Cardiac defects, Tracheoesophageal fistula and/or Esophageal atresia, Renal & Radial anomalies and Limb defects).

    Results: Using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), we examined heart development in mouse embryos with zygotic and cardiac specific deletion of Pcsk5. We show that conditional deletion of Pcsk5 in all epiblastic lineages recapitulates all developmental malformations except for tracheo-esophageal malformations. Read More

    Transcriptome profiling reveals expression signatures of cranial neural crest cells arising from different axial levels.
    BMC Dev Biol 2017 04 13;17(1). Epub 2017 Apr 13.
    Centre for Cancer Biology, University of South Australia and SA Pathology, Frome Road, Adelaide, SA, 5000, Australia.
    Background: Cranial neural crest cells (NCCs) are a unique embryonic cell type which give rise to a diverse array of derivatives extending from neurons and glia through to bone and cartilage. Depending on their point of origin along the antero-posterior axis cranial NCCs are rapidly sorted into distinct migratory streams that give rise to axial specific structures. These migratory streams mirror the underlying segmentation of the brain with NCCs exiting the diencephalon and midbrain following distinct paths compared to those exiting the hindbrain rhombomeres (r). Read More

    Nodal and BMP expression during the transition to pentamery in the sea urchin Heliocidaris erythrogramma: insights into patterning the enigmatic echinoderm body plan.
    BMC Dev Biol 2017 Feb 13;17(1). Epub 2017 Feb 13.
    School of Medical Science and Bosch Institute, The University of Sydney, Sydney, NSW, 2006, Australia.
    Background: The molecular mechanisms underlying the development of the unusual echinoderm pentameral body plan and their likeness to mechanisms underlying the development of the bilateral plans of other deuterostomes are of interest in tracing body plan evolution. In this first study of the spatial expression of genes associated with Nodal and BMP2/4 signalling during the transition to pentamery in sea urchins, we investigate Heliocidaris erythrogramma, a species that provides access to the developing adult rudiment within days of fertilization.

    Results: BMP2/4, and the putative downstream genes, Six1/2, Eya, Tbx2/3 and Msx were expressed in the earliest morphological manifestation of pentamery during development, the five hydrocoele lobes. Read More

    A compendium of developmental gene expression in Lake Malawi cichlid fishes.
    BMC Dev Biol 2017 Feb 3;17(1). Epub 2017 Feb 3.
    Georgia Institute of Technology, School of Biological Sciences and Institute for Bioengineering and Bioscience, Atlanta, GA, USA.
    Background: Lake Malawi cichlids represent one of a growing number of vertebrate models used to uncover the genetic and developmental basis of trait diversity. Rapid evolutionary radiation has resulted in species that share similar genomes but differ markedly in phenotypes including brains and behavior, nuptial coloration and the craniofacial skeleton. Research has begun to identify the genes, as well as the molecular and developmental pathways that underlie trait divergence. Read More

    Embryogenesis in the parasitic nematode Heterodera glycines is independent of host-derived hatching stimulation.
    BMC Dev Biol 2017 Jan 11;17(1). Epub 2017 Jan 11.
    Department of Crop Sciences, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, 1102 S. Goodwin Ave, Urbana, 61801, IL, USA.
    Background: Many parasites regulate their development to synchronize their life cycle with a compatible host. The parasitic nematode Heterodera glycines displays incomplete host-mediated hatching behavior wherein some H. glycines individuals hatch only in the presence of a host-derived cue while others hatch in water alone. Read More

    The essential requirement of an animal heme peroxidase protein during the wing maturation process in Drosophila.
    BMC Dev Biol 2017 Jan 11;17(1). Epub 2017 Jan 11.
    Biology Department, Howard University, 415 College Street, 20059, Washington, DC, NW, USA.
    Background: Thus far, a handful of genes have been shown to be related to the wing maturation process in insects. A novel heme peroxidase enzyme known as curly suppressor (Cysu)(formerly CG5873), have been characterized in this report because it is involved in wing morphogenesis. Using bioinformatics tools we found that Cysu is remarkably conserved in the genus Drosophila (>95%) as well as in invertebrates (>70%), although its vertebrate orthologs show poor homology. Read More

    Changes of gonadotropin-releasing hormone receptor 2 during the anadromous spawning migration in Coilia nasus.
    BMC Dev Biol 2016 11 24;16(1):42. Epub 2016 Nov 24.
    Key Laboratory of Freshwater Animal Breeding, Ministry of Agriculture, Huazhong Agricultural University, Wuhan, 430070, China.
    Background: An increase in the activity of the pituitary-gonad axis (PG-axis) and gonad development are essential for the onset of spawning migration in teleosts. In the fish Coilia nasus, gonad development and spawning migration up the Yangtze River occurs by the end of each summer. We hypothesized that gonadotropin releasing hormones receptor 2 (GnRH-R2), which together produce a signal that interacts with the PG-axis, may help to regulate spawning migration processes. Read More

    Microarray analysis reveals a potential role of LncRNAs expression in cardiac cell proliferation.
    BMC Dev Biol 2016 11 18;16(1):41. Epub 2016 Nov 18.
    Children's Heart Center, the Second Affiliated Hospital & Yuying Children's Hospital, Institute of Cardiovascular Development and Translational Medicine, Wenzhou Medical University, No. 109, Xueyuan Road, Wenzhou, 325000, Zhejiang Province, People's Republic of China.
    Background: Long non-coding RNAs (LncRNAs) have been identified to play important roles in epigenetic processes that underpin organogenesis. However, the role of LncRNAs in the regulation of transition from fetal to adult life of human heart has not been evaluated.

    Methods: Immunofiuorescent staining was used to determine the extent of cardiac cell proliferation. Read More

    Diversity of human and mouse homeobox gene expression in development and adult tissues.
    BMC Dev Biol 2016 11 3;16(1):40. Epub 2016 Nov 3.
    Department of Zoology, University of Oxford, South Parks Road, Oxford, OX1 3PS, UK.
    Background: Homeobox genes encode a diverse set of transcription factors implicated in a vast range of biological processes including, but not limited to, embryonic cell fate specification and patterning. Although numerous studies report expression of particular sets of homeobox genes, a systematic analysis of the tissue specificity of homeobox genes is lacking.

    Results: Here we analyse publicly-available transcriptome data from human and mouse developmental stages, and adult human tissues, to identify groups of homeobox genes with similar expression patterns. Read More

    Left-right axis asymmetry determining human Cryptic gene is transcriptionally repressed by Snail.
    BMC Dev Biol 2016 10 28;16(1):39. Epub 2016 Oct 28.
    Department of Biotechnology, Bhupat & Jyoti Mehta School of Biosciences, Indian Institute of Technology Madras, Chennai, 600036, India.
    Background: Establishment of the left-right axis is important for positioning organs asymmetrically in the developing vertebrate-embryo. A number of factors like maternally deposited molecules have emerged essential in initiating the specification of the axis; the downstream events, however, are regulated by signal-transduction and gene-expression changes identifying which remains a crucial challenge. The EGF-CFC family member Cryptic, that functions as a co-receptor for some TGF-beta ligands, is developmentally expressed in higher mammals and mutations in the gene cause loss or change in left-right axis asymmetry. Read More

    Expression of ribosomopathy genes during Xenopus tropicalis embryogenesis.
    BMC Dev Biol 2016 10 26;16(1):38. Epub 2016 Oct 26.
    Program in Vertebrate Developmental Biology, Departments of Pediatrics and Genetics, Yale University School of Medicine, 333 Cedar Street, New Haven, CT, 06510, USA.
    Background: Because ribosomes are ubiquitously required for protein production, it was long assumed that any inherited defect in ribosome manufacture would be embryonically lethal. However, several human congenital diseases have been found to be associated with mutations in ribosome biogenesis factors. Surprisingly, despite the global requirement for ribosomes, these "ribosomopathies" are characterized by distinct and tissue specific phenotypes. Read More

    Mice lacking the conserved transcription factor Grainyhead-like 3 (Grhl3) display increased apposition of the frontal and parietal bones during embryonic development.
    BMC Dev Biol 2016 10 18;16(1):37. Epub 2016 Oct 18.
    Department of Medicine, Monash University Central Clinical School, Prahran, VIC, 3004, Australia.
    Background: Increased apposition of the frontal and parietal bones of the skull during embryogenesis may be a risk factor for the subsequent development of premature skull fusion, or craniosynostosis. Human craniosynostosis is a prevalent, and often serious embryological and neonatal pathology. Other than known mutations in a small number of contributing genes, the aetiology of craniosynostosis is largely unknown. Read More

    Lack of effects of ooplasm transfer on early development of interspecies somatic cell nuclear transfer bison embryos.
    BMC Dev Biol 2016 10 13;16(1):36. Epub 2016 Oct 13.
    Department of Biomedical Sciences, University of Guelph, 50 Stone Road E, Guelph, Ontario, N1G 2W1, Canada.
    Background: Successful development of iSCNT (interspecies somatic cell nuclear transfer) embryos depends on complex interactions between ooplasmic and nuclear components, which can be compromised by genetic divergence. Transfer of ooplasm matching the genetic background of the somatic cell in iSCNT embryos is a valuable tool to study the degree of incompatibilities between nuclear and ooplasmic components. This study investigated the effects of ooplasm transfer (OT) on cattle (Bos taurus) and plains bison (Bison bison bison) embryos produced by iSCNT and supplemented with or without ooplasm from cattle or plains bison oocytes. Read More

    Distinct shape-shifting regimes of bowl-shaped cell sheets - embryonic inversion in the multicellular green alga Pleodorina.
    BMC Dev Biol 2016 10 13;16(1):35. Epub 2016 Oct 13.
    Department of Cellular and Developmental Biology of Plants, University of Bielefeld, Universitätsstr. 25, 33615, Bielefeld, Germany.
    Background: The multicellular volvocine alga Pleodorina is intermediate in organismal complexity between its unicellular relative, Chlamydomonas, and its multicellular relative, Volvox, which shows complete division of labor between different cell types. The volvocine green microalgae form a group of genera closely related to the genus Volvox within the order Volvocales (Chlorophyta). Embryos of multicellular volvocine algae consist of a cellular monolayer that, depending on the species, is either bowl-shaped or comprises a sphere. Read More

    BMP-SMAD signalling output is highly regionalized in cardiovascular and lymphatic endothelial networks.
    BMC Dev Biol 2016 10 10;16(1):34. Epub 2016 Oct 10.
    VIB Center for the Biology of Disease, VIB, Leuven, Belgium.
    Background: Bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) signalling has emerged as a fundamental pathway in endothelial cell biology and deregulation of this pathway is implicated in several vascular disorders. BMP signalling output in endothelial cells is highly context- and dose-dependent. Phosphorylation of the BMP intracellular effectors, SMAD1/5/9, is routinely used to monitor BMP signalling activity. Read More

    Dynamics of nuclear receptor gene expression during Pacific oyster development.
    BMC Dev Biol 2016 Sep 29;16(1):33. Epub 2016 Sep 29.
    School of Biosciences, College of Life and Environmental Sciences, University of Exeter, Stocker Road, Exeter, EX4 4QD, UK.
    Background: Nuclear receptors are a highly conserved set of ligand binding transcription factors, with essential roles regulating aspects of vertebrate and invertebrate biology alike. Current understanding of nuclear receptor regulated gene expression in invertebrates remains sparse, limiting our ability to elucidate gene function and the conservation of developmental processes across phyla. Here, we studied nuclear receptor expression in the early life stages of the Pacific oyster, Crassostrea gigas, to identify at which specific key stages nuclear receptors are expressed RESULTS: We used quantitative RT-PCR to determine the expression profiles of 34 nuclear receptors, revealing three developmental key stages, during which nuclear receptor expression is dynamically regulated: embryogenesis, mid development from gastrulation to trochophore larva, and late larval development prior to metamorphosis. Read More

    Generation and characterization of a novel transgenic mouse harboring conditional nuclear factor-kappa B/RelA knockout alleles.
    BMC Dev Biol 2016 Sep 23;16(1):32. Epub 2016 Sep 23.
    Departments of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston, TX, USA.
    Background: Nuclear Factor-Kappa B (NF-kB) is a family of transcription factors that are important in embryonic development, inflammation, epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition and cancer. The 65 kDa RelA subunit is the major transcriptional activator of the NF-kB pathways. Whole-body deficiency of RelA leads to massive apoptosis of liver hepatocytes and death in utero. Read More

    The E3 ubiquitin ligase Hace1 is required for early embryonic development in Xenopus laevis.
    BMC Dev Biol 2016 Sep 21;16(1):31. Epub 2016 Sep 21.
    Department of Cell and Developmental Biology, Graduate School of Biostudies, Kyoto University, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto, 606-8502, Japan.
    Background: HECT domain and ankyrin repeat containing E3 ubiquitin protein ligase 1 (HACE1) regulates a wide variety of cellular processes. It has been shown that one of the targets of HACE1 is the GTP-bound form of the small GTPase Rac1. However, the role of HACE1 in early development remains unknown. Read More

    Impairment of Wnt11 function leads to kidney tubular abnormalities and secondary glomerular cystogenesis.
    BMC Dev Biol 2016 08 31;16(1):30. Epub 2016 Aug 31.
    Biocenter Oulu, Laboratory of Developmental Biology, Faculty of Biochemistry and Molecular Medicine, Oulu Center for Cell Matrix Research, University of Oulu, Aapistie 5A, Oulu, 90014, Finland.
    Background: Wnt11 is a member of the Wnt family of secreted signals controlling the early steps in ureteric bud (UB) branching. Due to the reported lethality of Wnt11 knockout embryos in utero, its role in later mammalian kidney organogenesis remains open. The presence of Wnt11 in the emerging tubular system suggests that it may have certain roles later in the development of the epithelial ductal system. Read More

    Cilia are required for asymmetric nodal induction in the sea urchin embryo.
    BMC Dev Biol 2016 08 23;16(1):28. Epub 2016 Aug 23.
    University of Hohenheim, Institute of Zoology, 70593, Stuttgart, Germany.
    Background: Left-right (LR) organ asymmetries are a common feature of metazoan animals. In many cases, laterality is established by a conserved asymmetric Nodal signaling cascade during embryogenesis. In most vertebrates, asymmetric nodal induction results from a cilia-driven leftward fluid flow at the left-right organizer (LRO), a ciliated epithelium present during gastrula/neurula stages. Read More

    BRG1 interacts with GLI2 and binds Mef2c gene in a hedgehog signalling dependent manner during in vitro cardiomyogenesis.
    BMC Dev Biol 2016 08 2;16(1):27. Epub 2016 Aug 2.
    Department of Biochemistry, Microbiology and Immunology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Ottawa, 451 Smyth Rd, K1H 8M5, Ottawa, Canada.
    Background: The Hedgehog (HH) signalling pathway regulates cardiomyogenesis in vivo and in differentiating P19 embryonal carcinoma (EC) cells, a mouse embryonic stem (mES) cell model. To further assess the transcriptional role of HH signalling during cardiomyogenesis in stem cells, we studied the effects of overexpressing GLI2, a primary transducer of the HH signalling pathway, in mES cells.

    Results: Stable GLI2 overexpression resulted in an enhancement of cardiac progenitor-enriched genes, Mef2c, Nkx2-5, and Tbx5 during mES cell differentiation. Read More

    Efficient TALEN-mediated myostatin gene editing in goats.
    BMC Dev Biol 2016 07 27;16(1):26. Epub 2016 Jul 27.
    College of Veterinary Medicine, Yangzhou University, No. 12 Wenhui Road, Yangzhou, 225009, Jiangsu Province, People's Republic of China.
    Background: Myostatin (MSTN) encodes a negative regulator of skeletal muscle mass that might have applications for promoting muscle growth in livestock. In this study, we aimed to test whether targeted MSTN editing, mediated by transcription activator-like effector nucleases (TALENs), is a viable approach to create myostatin-modified goats (Capra hircus).

    Results: We obtained a pair of TALENs (MTAL-2) that could recognize and cut the targeted MSTN site in the goat genome. Read More

    Salmonid fish: model organisms to study cardiovascular morphogenesis in conjoined twins?
    BMC Dev Biol 2016 07 16;16(1):25. Epub 2016 Jul 16.
    Department of Biology, University of Bergen, Bergen, Norway.
    Background: There is a gap in knowledge regarding the cardiovascular system in fish conjoined twins, and regarding the cardiovascular morphogenesis of conjoined twins in general. We examined the cardiovascular system in a pair of fully developed ventrally conjoined salmonid twins (45.5 g body weight), and the arrangement of the blood vessels during early development in ventrally conjoined yolk sac larvae salmonid twins (<0. Read More

    Relating proton pumps with gap junctions: colocalization of ductin, the channel-forming subunit c of V-ATPase, with subunit a and with innexins 2 and 3 during Drosophila oogenesis.
    BMC Dev Biol 2016 07 13;16(1):24. Epub 2016 Jul 13.
    Institut für Biologie II, RWTH Aachen University, Abt. Zoologie und Humanbiologie, Worringerweg 3, 52056, Aachen, Germany.
    Background: Ion-transport mechanisms and gap junctions are known to cooperate in creating bioelectric phenomena, like pH gradients, voltage gradients and ion fluxes within single cells, tissues, organs, and whole organisms. Such phenomena have been shown to play regulatory roles in a variety of developmental and regenerative processes. Using Drosophila oogenesis as a model system, we aim at characterizing in detail the mechanisms underlying bioelectric phenomena in order to reveal their regulatory functions. Read More

    Expression and knockdown of zebrafish folliculin suggests requirement for embryonic brain morphogenesis.
    BMC Dev Biol 2016 07 8;16(1):23. Epub 2016 Jul 8.
    School of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, College of Medical and Dental Sciences, University of Birmingham, Edgbaston, Birmingham, B15 2TT, UK.
    Background: Birt-Hogg-Dubé syndrome (BHD) is a dominantly inherited familial cancer syndrome characterised by the development of benign skin fibrofolliculomas, multiple lung and kidney cysts, spontaneous pneumothorax and susceptibility to renal cell carcinoma. BHD is caused by mutations in the gene encoding Folliculin (FLCN). Little is known about what FLCN does in a healthy individual and how best to treat those with BHD. Read More

    Light-sheet microscopy for everyone? Experience of building an OpenSPIM to study flatworm development.
    BMC Dev Biol 2016 06 30;16(1):22. Epub 2016 Jun 30.
    Department of Genetics, Evolution and Environment, University College London, London, WC1E 6BT, UK.
    Background: Selective plane illumination microscopy (SPIM a type of light-sheet microscopy) involves focusing a thin sheet of laser light through a specimen at right angles to the objective lens. As only the thin section of the specimen at the focal plane of the lens is illuminated, out of focus light is naturally absent and toxicity due to light (phototoxicity) is greatly reduced enabling longer term live imaging. OpenSPIM is an open access platform (Pitrone et al. Read More

    MR microscopy of the human fetal upper extremity - a proof-of-principle study.
    BMC Dev Biol 2016 06 18;16(1):21. Epub 2016 Jun 18.
    Department of Diagnostic Radiology and Neuroradiology, University Medicine Greifswald, Ferdinand-Sauerbruch-Str. 1, 17475, Greifswald, Germany.
    Background: Current knowledge of the human fetal and embryonic development relies on early descriptive studies of humans and from experimental studies of laboratory animals and embryos. Taking the upper extremity as an example, this study explores the potential of magnetic resonance microscopy (MRM) for the assessment of the development of the fetal upper extremity and discusses its correlation with histological findings.

    Methods: Ex vivo MRM at 7. Read More

    Adhesive organ regeneration in Macrostomum lignano.
    BMC Dev Biol 2016 06 2;16(1):20. Epub 2016 Jun 2.
    Institute of Zoology and Center of Molecular Bioscience Innsbruck, University of Innsbruck, Technikerstr. 25, A-6020, Innsbruck, Austria.
    Background: Flatworms possess pluripotent stem cells that can give rise to all cell types, which allows them to restore lost body parts after injury or amputation. This makes flatworms excellent model systems for studying regeneration. In this study, we present the adhesive organs of a marine flatworm as a simple model system for organ regeneration. Read More

    Late stage definitive endodermal differentiation can be defined by Daf1 expression.
    BMC Dev Biol 2016 05 31;16(1):19. Epub 2016 May 31.
    School of Life Science and Technology, Tokyo Institute of Technology, 4259-B-25 Nagatsuta-cho, Midori-ku, Yokohama, Kanagawa, 226-8501, Japan.
    Background: Definitive endoderm (DE) gives rise to the respiratory apparatus and digestive tract. Sox17 and Cxcr4 are useful markers of the DE. Previously, we identified a novel DE marker, Decay accelerating factor 1(Daf1/CD55), by identifying DE specific genes from the expression profile of DE derived from mouse embryonic stem cells (ESCs) by microarray analysis, and in situ hybridization of early embryos. Read More

    Representation of anatomy in online atlases and databases: a survey and collection of patterns for interface design.
    BMC Dev Biol 2016 05 21;16(1):18. Epub 2016 May 21.
    Department of Biological Structure, School of Medicine, University of Washington, Seattle, WA, USA.
    Background: A large number of online atlases and databases have been developed to mange the rapidly growing amount of data describing embryogenesis. As these community resources continue to evolve, it is important to understand how representations of anatomy can facilitate the sharing and integration of data. In addition, attention to the design of the interfaces is critical to make online resources useful and usable. Read More

    Mediator subunit Med12 contributes to the maintenance of neural stem cell identity.
    BMC Dev Biol 2016 05 17;16(1):17. Epub 2016 May 17.
    Department of Molecular Medicine and Institute of Biotechnology, The University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio, San Antonio, TX, 78229-3900, USA.
    Background: The RNA polymerase II transcriptional Mediator subunit Med12 is broadly implicated in vertebrate brain development, and genetic variation in human MED12 is associated with X-linked intellectual disability and neuropsychiatric disorders. Although prior studies have begun to elaborate the functional contribution of Med12 within key neurodevelopmental pathways, a more complete description of Med12 function in the developing nervous system, including the specific biological networks and cellular processes under its regulatory influence, remains to be established. Herein, we sought to clarify the global contribution of Med12 to neural stem cell (NSC) biology through unbiased transcriptome profiling of mouse embryonic stem (ES) cell-derived NSCs following RNAi-mediated Med12 depletion. Read More

    β-catenin is required in the neural crest and mesencephalon for pituitary gland organogenesis.
    BMC Dev Biol 2016 05 16;16(1):16. Epub 2016 May 16.
    Department of Human Genetics, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI, 48109, USA.
    Background: The pituitary gland is a highly vascularized tissue that requires coordinated interactions between the neural ectoderm, oral ectoderm, and head mesenchyme during development for proper physiological function. The interactions between the neural ectoderm and oral ectoderm, especially the role of the pituitary organizer in shaping the pituitary precursor, Rathke's pouch, are well described. However, less is known about the role of head mesenchyme in pituitary organogenesis. Read More

    A critical role for the Drosophila dopamine D1-like receptor Dop1R2 at the onset of metamorphosis.
    BMC Dev Biol 2016 05 16;16(1):15. Epub 2016 May 16.
    Molecular Cardiology Research Institute, Tufts Medical Center, Boston, MA, 02111, USA.
    Background: Insect metamorphosis relies on temporal and spatial cues that are precisely controlled. Previous studies in Drosophila have shown that untimely activation of genes that are essential to metamorphosis results in growth defects, developmental delay and death. Multiple factors exist that safeguard these genes against dysregulated expression. Read More

    Effects of Usag-1 and Bmp7 deficiencies on murine tooth morphogenesis.
    BMC Dev Biol 2016 May 13;16:14. Epub 2016 May 13.
    Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Graduate School of Medicine, Kyoto University, Shogoin-Kawahara-cho 54, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto, 606-8397, Japan.
    Background: Wnt5a and Mrfzb1 genes are involved in the regulation of tooth size, and their expression levels are similar to that of Bmp7 during morphogenesis, including during the cap and early bell stages of tooth formation. We previously reported that Usag-1-deficient mice form supernumerary maxillary incisors. Thus, we hypothesized that BMP7 and USAG-1 signaling molecules may play important roles in tooth morphogenesis. Read More

    Modular reorganization of the global network of gene regulatory interactions during perinatal human brain development.
    BMC Dev Biol 2016 May 12;16:13. Epub 2016 May 12.
    School of Life Sciences, University of Lincoln, Lincoln, LN6 7DL, UK.
    Background: During early development of the nervous system, gene expression patterns are known to vary widely depending on the specific developmental trajectories of different structures. Observable changes in gene expression profiles throughout development are determined by an underlying network of precise regulatory interactions between individual genes. Elucidating the organizing principles that shape this gene regulatory network is one of the central goals of developmental biology. Read More

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