Background: The quality and yield of duck feathers are very important economic traits that might be controlled by miRNA regulation. The aim of the present study was to investigate the mechanism underlying the crosstalk between individual miRNAs and the activity of signaling pathways that control the growth of duck feathers during different periods. We therefore conducted a comprehensive investigation using Solexa sequencing technology on the Pekin duck microRNAome over six stages of feather development at days 11, 15, and 20 of embryonic development (during the hatching period), and at 1 day and 4 and 10 weeks posthatch. Read More
Background: The identification of DNA methyltransferases (Dnmt) expression patterns during development and their regulation is important to understand the epigenetic mechanisms that modulate larval plasticity in marine fish. In this study, dnmt1 and dnmt3 paralogs were identified in the flatfish Solea senegalensis and expression patterns in early developmental stages and juveniles were determined. Additionally, the regulation of Dnmt transcription by a specific inhibitor (5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine) and temperature was evaluated. Read More
BMC Dev Biol 2017 Jul 4;17(1):10. Epub 2017 Jul 4.
Department of Reproductive Biotechnology, Reproductive Biomedicine Research Center, Royan Institute for Biotechnology, ACECR, Royan St., Salman St., Khorasgan, Jey St, Isfahan, 8159358686, Iran.
Background: Cathepsin B is a lysosomal cysteine protease involved in apoptosis and oocytes which have lower developmental competence show higher expression of Cathepsin B. Furthermore, expression of Cathepsin B show a decreasing trend from oocyte toward blastocyst stage.
Results: Present study assessed the effect of cathepsin B inhibitor, E-64, on developmental competency and cryo-survival of pre-implantation ovine IVF derived embryos. Read More
Background: Mitochondrial alternative respiratory-chain enzymes are phylogenetically widespread, and buffer stresses affecting oxidative phosphorylation in species that possess them. However, they have been lost in the evolutionary lineages leading to vertebrates and arthropods, raising the question as to what survival or reproductive disadvantages they confer. Recent interest in using them in therapy lends a biomedical dimension to this question. Read More
Background: The tauGFP reporter fusion protein is produced nearly ubiquitously by the TgTP6.3 transgene in TP6.3 mice and its localisation to microtubules offers some advantages over soluble GFP as a lineage marker. Read More
Pluripotency defines the propensity of a cell to differentiate into, and generate, all somatic, as well as germ cells. The epiblast of the early mammalian embryo is the founder population of all germ layer derivatives and thus represents the bona fide in vivo pluripotent cell population. The so-called pluripotent state spans several days of development and is lost during gastrulation as epiblast cells make fate decisions towards a mesoderm, endoderm or ectoderm identity. Read More
Background: Loss of proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 5 (Pcsk5) results in multiple developmental anomalies including cardiac malformations, caudal regression, pre-sacral mass, renal agenesis, anteroposterior patterning defects, and tracheo-oesophageal and anorectal malformations, and is a model for VACTERL/caudal regression/Currarino syndromes (VACTERL association - Vertebral anomalies, Anal atresia, Cardiac defects, Tracheoesophageal fistula and/or Esophageal atresia, Renal & Radial anomalies and Limb defects).
Results: Using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), we examined heart development in mouse embryos with zygotic and cardiac specific deletion of Pcsk5. We show that conditional deletion of Pcsk5 in all epiblastic lineages recapitulates all developmental malformations except for tracheo-esophageal malformations. Read More
Background: Cranial neural crest cells (NCCs) are a unique embryonic cell type which give rise to a diverse array of derivatives extending from neurons and glia through to bone and cartilage. Depending on their point of origin along the antero-posterior axis cranial NCCs are rapidly sorted into distinct migratory streams that give rise to axial specific structures. These migratory streams mirror the underlying segmentation of the brain with NCCs exiting the diencephalon and midbrain following distinct paths compared to those exiting the hindbrain rhombomeres (r). Read More
Background: The molecular mechanisms underlying the development of the unusual echinoderm pentameral body plan and their likeness to mechanisms underlying the development of the bilateral plans of other deuterostomes are of interest in tracing body plan evolution. In this first study of the spatial expression of genes associated with Nodal and BMP2/4 signalling during the transition to pentamery in sea urchins, we investigate Heliocidaris erythrogramma, a species that provides access to the developing adult rudiment within days of fertilization.
Results: BMP2/4, and the putative downstream genes, Six1/2, Eya, Tbx2/3 and Msx were expressed in the earliest morphological manifestation of pentamery during development, the five hydrocoele lobes. Read More
Background: Lake Malawi cichlids represent one of a growing number of vertebrate models used to uncover the genetic and developmental basis of trait diversity. Rapid evolutionary radiation has resulted in species that share similar genomes but differ markedly in phenotypes including brains and behavior, nuptial coloration and the craniofacial skeleton. Research has begun to identify the genes, as well as the molecular and developmental pathways that underlie trait divergence. Read More
Background: Many parasites regulate their development to synchronize their life cycle with a compatible host. The parasitic nematode Heterodera glycines displays incomplete host-mediated hatching behavior wherein some H. glycines individuals hatch only in the presence of a host-derived cue while others hatch in water alone. Read More
Background: Thus far, a handful of genes have been shown to be related to the wing maturation process in insects. A novel heme peroxidase enzyme known as curly suppressor (Cysu)(formerly CG5873), have been characterized in this report because it is involved in wing morphogenesis. Using bioinformatics tools we found that Cysu is remarkably conserved in the genus Drosophila (>95%) as well as in invertebrates (>70%), although its vertebrate orthologs show poor homology. Read More
Background: An increase in the activity of the pituitary-gonad axis (PG-axis) and gonad development are essential for the onset of spawning migration in teleosts. In the fish Coilia nasus, gonad development and spawning migration up the Yangtze River occurs by the end of each summer. We hypothesized that gonadotropin releasing hormones receptor 2 (GnRH-R2), which together produce a signal that interacts with the PG-axis, may help to regulate spawning migration processes. Read More
BMC Dev Biol 2016 Nov 18;16(1):41. Epub 2016 Nov 18.
Children's Heart Center, the Second Affiliated Hospital & Yuying Children's Hospital, Institute of Cardiovascular Development and Translational Medicine, Wenzhou Medical University, No. 109, Xueyuan Road, Wenzhou, 325000, Zhejiang Province, People's Republic of China.
Background: Long non-coding RNAs (LncRNAs) have been identified to play important roles in epigenetic processes that underpin organogenesis. However, the role of LncRNAs in the regulation of transition from fetal to adult life of human heart has not been evaluated.
Methods: Immunofiuorescent staining was used to determine the extent of cardiac cell proliferation. Read More
Background: Homeobox genes encode a diverse set of transcription factors implicated in a vast range of biological processes including, but not limited to, embryonic cell fate specification and patterning. Although numerous studies report expression of particular sets of homeobox genes, a systematic analysis of the tissue specificity of homeobox genes is lacking.
Results: Here we analyse publicly-available transcriptome data from human and mouse developmental stages, and adult human tissues, to identify groups of homeobox genes with similar expression patterns. Read More
Background: Establishment of the left-right axis is important for positioning organs asymmetrically in the developing vertebrate-embryo. A number of factors like maternally deposited molecules have emerged essential in initiating the specification of the axis; the downstream events, however, are regulated by signal-transduction and gene-expression changes identifying which remains a crucial challenge. The EGF-CFC family member Cryptic, that functions as a co-receptor for some TGF-beta ligands, is developmentally expressed in higher mammals and mutations in the gene cause loss or change in left-right axis asymmetry. Read More
Background: Because ribosomes are ubiquitously required for protein production, it was long assumed that any inherited defect in ribosome manufacture would be embryonically lethal. However, several human congenital diseases have been found to be associated with mutations in ribosome biogenesis factors. Surprisingly, despite the global requirement for ribosomes, these "ribosomopathies" are characterized by distinct and tissue specific phenotypes. Read More
Background: Increased apposition of the frontal and parietal bones of the skull during embryogenesis may be a risk factor for the subsequent development of premature skull fusion, or craniosynostosis. Human craniosynostosis is a prevalent, and often serious embryological and neonatal pathology. Other than known mutations in a small number of contributing genes, the aetiology of craniosynostosis is largely unknown. Read More
Background: Successful development of iSCNT (interspecies somatic cell nuclear transfer) embryos depends on complex interactions between ooplasmic and nuclear components, which can be compromised by genetic divergence. Transfer of ooplasm matching the genetic background of the somatic cell in iSCNT embryos is a valuable tool to study the degree of incompatibilities between nuclear and ooplasmic components. This study investigated the effects of ooplasm transfer (OT) on cattle (Bos taurus) and plains bison (Bison bison bison) embryos produced by iSCNT and supplemented with or without ooplasm from cattle or plains bison oocytes. Read More
Background: The multicellular volvocine alga Pleodorina is intermediate in organismal complexity between its unicellular relative, Chlamydomonas, and its multicellular relative, Volvox, which shows complete division of labor between different cell types. The volvocine green microalgae form a group of genera closely related to the genus Volvox within the order Volvocales (Chlorophyta). Embryos of multicellular volvocine algae consist of a cellular monolayer that, depending on the species, is either bowl-shaped or comprises a sphere. Read More
Background: Bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) signalling has emerged as a fundamental pathway in endothelial cell biology and deregulation of this pathway is implicated in several vascular disorders. BMP signalling output in endothelial cells is highly context- and dose-dependent. Phosphorylation of the BMP intracellular effectors, SMAD1/5/9, is routinely used to monitor BMP signalling activity. Read More
Background: Nuclear receptors are a highly conserved set of ligand binding transcription factors, with essential roles regulating aspects of vertebrate and invertebrate biology alike. Current understanding of nuclear receptor regulated gene expression in invertebrates remains sparse, limiting our ability to elucidate gene function and the conservation of developmental processes across phyla. Here, we studied nuclear receptor expression in the early life stages of the Pacific oyster, Crassostrea gigas, to identify at which specific key stages nuclear receptors are expressed RESULTS: We used quantitative RT-PCR to determine the expression profiles of 34 nuclear receptors, revealing three developmental key stages, during which nuclear receptor expression is dynamically regulated: embryogenesis, mid development from gastrulation to trochophore larva, and late larval development prior to metamorphosis. Read More
Background: Nuclear Factor-Kappa B (NF-kB) is a family of transcription factors that are important in embryonic development, inflammation, epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition and cancer. The 65 kDa RelA subunit is the major transcriptional activator of the NF-kB pathways. Whole-body deficiency of RelA leads to massive apoptosis of liver hepatocytes and death in utero. Read More
Background: HECT domain and ankyrin repeat containing E3 ubiquitin protein ligase 1 (HACE1) regulates a wide variety of cellular processes. It has been shown that one of the targets of HACE1 is the GTP-bound form of the small GTPase Rac1. However, the role of HACE1 in early development remains unknown. Read More
Background: Wnt11 is a member of the Wnt family of secreted signals controlling the early steps in ureteric bud (UB) branching. Due to the reported lethality of Wnt11 knockout embryos in utero, its role in later mammalian kidney organogenesis remains open. The presence of Wnt11 in the emerging tubular system suggests that it may have certain roles later in the development of the epithelial ductal system. Read More
Background: Left-right (LR) organ asymmetries are a common feature of metazoan animals. In many cases, laterality is established by a conserved asymmetric Nodal signaling cascade during embryogenesis. In most vertebrates, asymmetric nodal induction results from a cilia-driven leftward fluid flow at the left-right organizer (LRO), a ciliated epithelium present during gastrula/neurula stages. Read More
Background: The Hedgehog (HH) signalling pathway regulates cardiomyogenesis in vivo and in differentiating P19 embryonal carcinoma (EC) cells, a mouse embryonic stem (mES) cell model. To further assess the transcriptional role of HH signalling during cardiomyogenesis in stem cells, we studied the effects of overexpressing GLI2, a primary transducer of the HH signalling pathway, in mES cells.
Results: Stable GLI2 overexpression resulted in an enhancement of cardiac progenitor-enriched genes, Mef2c, Nkx2-5, and Tbx5 during mES cell differentiation. Read More
Background: Myostatin (MSTN) encodes a negative regulator of skeletal muscle mass that might have applications for promoting muscle growth in livestock. In this study, we aimed to test whether targeted MSTN editing, mediated by transcription activator-like effector nucleases (TALENs), is a viable approach to create myostatin-modified goats (Capra hircus).
Results: We obtained a pair of TALENs (MTAL-2) that could recognize and cut the targeted MSTN site in the goat genome. Read More
Background: There is a gap in knowledge regarding the cardiovascular system in fish conjoined twins, and regarding the cardiovascular morphogenesis of conjoined twins in general. We examined the cardiovascular system in a pair of fully developed ventrally conjoined salmonid twins (45.5 g body weight), and the arrangement of the blood vessels during early development in ventrally conjoined yolk sac larvae salmonid twins (<0. Read More
Background: Ion-transport mechanisms and gap junctions are known to cooperate in creating bioelectric phenomena, like pH gradients, voltage gradients and ion fluxes within single cells, tissues, organs, and whole organisms. Such phenomena have been shown to play regulatory roles in a variety of developmental and regenerative processes. Using Drosophila oogenesis as a model system, we aim at characterizing in detail the mechanisms underlying bioelectric phenomena in order to reveal their regulatory functions. Read More
Background: Birt-Hogg-Dubé syndrome (BHD) is a dominantly inherited familial cancer syndrome characterised by the development of benign skin fibrofolliculomas, multiple lung and kidney cysts, spontaneous pneumothorax and susceptibility to renal cell carcinoma. BHD is caused by mutations in the gene encoding Folliculin (FLCN). Little is known about what FLCN does in a healthy individual and how best to treat those with BHD. Read More
Background: Selective plane illumination microscopy (SPIM a type of light-sheet microscopy) involves focusing a thin sheet of laser light through a specimen at right angles to the objective lens. As only the thin section of the specimen at the focal plane of the lens is illuminated, out of focus light is naturally absent and toxicity due to light (phototoxicity) is greatly reduced enabling longer term live imaging. OpenSPIM is an open access platform (Pitrone et al. Read More
Background: Current knowledge of the human fetal and embryonic development relies on early descriptive studies of humans and from experimental studies of laboratory animals and embryos. Taking the upper extremity as an example, this study explores the potential of magnetic resonance microscopy (MRM) for the assessment of the development of the fetal upper extremity and discusses its correlation with histological findings.
Background: Flatworms possess pluripotent stem cells that can give rise to all cell types, which allows them to restore lost body parts after injury or amputation. This makes flatworms excellent model systems for studying regeneration. In this study, we present the adhesive organs of a marine flatworm as a simple model system for organ regeneration. Read More
Background: Definitive endoderm (DE) gives rise to the respiratory apparatus and digestive tract. Sox17 and Cxcr4 are useful markers of the DE. Previously, we identified a novel DE marker, Decay accelerating factor 1(Daf1/CD55), by identifying DE specific genes from the expression profile of DE derived from mouse embryonic stem cells (ESCs) by microarray analysis, and in situ hybridization of early embryos. Read More
Background: A large number of online atlases and databases have been developed to mange the rapidly growing amount of data describing embryogenesis. As these community resources continue to evolve, it is important to understand how representations of anatomy can facilitate the sharing and integration of data. In addition, attention to the design of the interfaces is critical to make online resources useful and usable. Read More
Background: The RNA polymerase II transcriptional Mediator subunit Med12 is broadly implicated in vertebrate brain development, and genetic variation in human MED12 is associated with X-linked intellectual disability and neuropsychiatric disorders. Although prior studies have begun to elaborate the functional contribution of Med12 within key neurodevelopmental pathways, a more complete description of Med12 function in the developing nervous system, including the specific biological networks and cellular processes under its regulatory influence, remains to be established. Herein, we sought to clarify the global contribution of Med12 to neural stem cell (NSC) biology through unbiased transcriptome profiling of mouse embryonic stem (ES) cell-derived NSCs following RNAi-mediated Med12 depletion. Read More
Background: The pituitary gland is a highly vascularized tissue that requires coordinated interactions between the neural ectoderm, oral ectoderm, and head mesenchyme during development for proper physiological function. The interactions between the neural ectoderm and oral ectoderm, especially the role of the pituitary organizer in shaping the pituitary precursor, Rathke's pouch, are well described. However, less is known about the role of head mesenchyme in pituitary organogenesis. Read More
Background: Insect metamorphosis relies on temporal and spatial cues that are precisely controlled. Previous studies in Drosophila have shown that untimely activation of genes that are essential to metamorphosis results in growth defects, developmental delay and death. Multiple factors exist that safeguard these genes against dysregulated expression. Read More
Background: Wnt5a and Mrfzb1 genes are involved in the regulation of tooth size, and their expression levels are similar to that of Bmp7 during morphogenesis, including during the cap and early bell stages of tooth formation. We previously reported that Usag-1-deficient mice form supernumerary maxillary incisors. Thus, we hypothesized that BMP7 and USAG-1 signaling molecules may play important roles in tooth morphogenesis. Read More
Background: During early development of the nervous system, gene expression patterns are known to vary widely depending on the specific developmental trajectories of different structures. Observable changes in gene expression profiles throughout development are determined by an underlying network of precise regulatory interactions between individual genes. Elucidating the organizing principles that shape this gene regulatory network is one of the central goals of developmental biology. Read More
Background: The contribution of programmed cell death (PCD) to muscle wasting disorders remains a matter of debate. Drosophila melanogaster metamorphosis offers the opportunity to study muscle cell death in the context of development. Using live cell imaging of the abdomen, two groups of larval muscles can be observed, doomed muscles that undergo histolysis and persistent muscles that are remodelled and survive into adulthood. Read More
State Key Laboratory of Military Stomatology, Research and Development Center for Tissue Engineering, School of Stomatology, Fourth Military Medical University, 1st Kang-fu Road, Xi'an, 710032, Shaanxi, China.
Background: We previously reported that the pluripotent stem cells can differentiate into cardiomyocytes (CMs) by co-culture with neonatal CMs (NCMs) in vitro. However, the involving mechanism is not clear.
Methods: Mouse induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) were cultured in hanging drops to form embryoid bodies (EBs) and to induce myocardial differentiation. Read More
Background: Detailed descriptions of the early development of parasitic nematodes are seldom available. The embryonic development of the plant-parasitic nematode Meloidogyne incognita was studied, focusing on the early events.
Results: A fixed pattern of repeated cell cleavages was observed, resulting in the appearance of the six founder cells 3 days after the first cell division. Read More
Background: Mollusca is the second largest phylum in nature. The shell of molluscs is a remarkable example of a natural composite biomaterial. Biomineralization and how it affects mollusks is a popular research topic. Read More
Background: It has been suggested that the ectopic expression of PDX1, a dominant pancreatic transcription factor, plays a critical role in the developmental programming of the pancreas even from cells of unrelated tissues such as keratinocytes and amniotic fluid stem cells. In this study we have chosen to drive pancreatic development in human amnion epithelial cells by inducing endogenous PDX1 expression. Further, we have investigated the role of Epidermal Growth Factor (EGF) and Poly-L-Ornithine (PLO) on this differentiation process. Read More
Background: Akt (PKB) is a serine threonine protein kinase downstream of the phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) pathway. In mammals, Akt is ubiquitously expressed and is associated with regulation of cellular proliferation, metabolism, cell growth and cell death. Akt has been widely studied for its central role in physiology and disease, in particular cancer where it has become an attractive pharmacological target. Read More
Background: Time-lapse imaging has proven highly valuable for studying development, yielding data of much finer resolution than traditional "still-shot" studies and allowing direct examination of tissue and cell dynamics. A major challenge for time-lapse imaging of animals is keeping specimens immobile yet healthy for extended periods of time. Although this is often feasible for embryos, the difficulty of immobilizing typically motile juvenile and adult stages remains a persistent obstacle to time-lapse imaging of post-embryonic development. Read More
Background: Microenvironments called niches maintain resident stem cell populations by balancing self-renewal with differentiation, but the genetic regulation of this process is unclear. The niche of the Drosophila testis is well-characterized and genetically tractable, making it ideal for investigating the molecular regulation of stem cell biology. The JAK/STAT pathway, activated by signals from a niche component called the hub, maintains both germline and somatic stem cells. Read More