Background: Mosquito coil (MC) emits insecticide upon burning which provides limited protection against lethal mosquito borne diseases. However, apart from killing the insect, toxicities associated with the inhalation of these insecticides poses severe health hazards. However, the use of MC is increasing day by day in third world countries in particular but, yet to receive enough attention of both policy maker and general public. Read More
Nordlandssykehuset HF, Department of Pathology, Bodø, Norway.
Background: Cervical cancer can be prevented by early detection and treatment for precancerous lesions. Since 1995, there has been a national cervical cancer screening program in Norway, where women aged 25-69 years are recommended to take Pap smears every three years. There are 17 cytology laboratories covering a population of 5 million people. Read More
Background: Primary breast angiosarcoma is defined as malignant proliferation showing endothelial differentiation. It is a very rare tumour (0.05% of primary mammary cancers), whose diagnosis can be difficult. Read More
Department of Infectious Diseases, Odense University Hospital, Odense, Denmark.
Background: Lumbar puncture with quantification of leukocytes and differential count of cellular subsets in the cerebrospinal fluid is a standard procedure in cases of suspected neuroinfectious conditions. However, a number of non-infectious causes may result in a low leukocyte number (0-1000 cells/ml). We wanted to assess the diagnostic diversity of unselected adult patients with pleocytosis in the cerebrospinal fluid. Read More
Background: Platelets and coagulation proteins contribute to the development of peripheral arterial disease, especially atherosclerotic disease. Several experimental studies have proven a significant correlation between hypercoagulability and atherosclerosis. We used dielectric blood coagulometry, which was initially designed to evaluate the coagulable status, to examine the coagulability of peripheral arterial disease patients, and investigated the factors that were significantly correlated with the results. Read More
Background: Malignant Deciduoid Mesothelioma (MDM) is an extremely rare variant of epithelioid mesothelioma. It was first described in young females, in the peritoneum, and its relation with asbestos was not well defined. Later reports, have shown that this variant may also occur in the pleura, the pericardium and the tunica vaginalis of elderly people, who had been exposed to asbestos. Read More
Background: Inflammatory myofibroblastic tumour (IMT) is a mesenchymal neoplasm of intermediate biological potential that may affect a wide range of anatomic sites but has a particular predilection for the lung and intra-abdominal soft tissues.
Case Presentation: We report here an exceptional case of inflammatory myofibroblastic tumor arising in the lacrimal gland and presenting as an orbital mass in a 24-year-old male.
Conclusion: This report aims to discuss the importance of histopathological and immunohistochemical findings in arriving at the diagnosis, which helps dictate the management, treatment and prognosis of the patient. Read More
Background: Hereditary non-polyposis colorectal cancer comprises Lynch syndrome and familial colorectal cancer type X (FCCTX). Differences in genetics, demographics and histopathology have been extensively studied. The purpose of this study is to characterize their immunoprofile of markers other than MMR proteins. Read More
Background: The pathophysiology and outcome of meningococcal septic shock is closely associated with the plasma level of N. meningitidis lipopolysaccharides (LPS, endotoxin) and the circulating level of meningococcal DNA. The aim of the present study was to quantify the number of N. Read More
Background: Advanced genomic techniques such as Next-Generation-Sequencing (NGS) and gene expression profiling, including NanoString, are vital for the development of personalised medicines, as they enable molecular disease classification. This has become increasingly important in the treatment of cancer, aiding patient selection. However, it requires efficient nucleic acid extraction often from formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissue (FFPE). Read More
Background: Some poorly differentiated thyroid carcinomas (PDTC) arise from pre-existing, well-differentiated carcinomas of follicular cell origin; however, others most likely arise de novo. The case of a PDTC adjacent to a pre-existing nodular goiter is very rare.
Case Presentation: A patient had a PDTC, a widely invasive, cellular tumor with cells that lacked the nuclear features of a papillary thyroid carcinoma. Read More
Background: As the major subfamily of receptor tyrosine, erythropoietin-producing hepatocellular (Eph) receptor has been related to progression and prognosis in different types of tumors. However, the role and mechanism of EPHA3 in gastric cancer is still not well understood.
Methods: Specimen were collected from 202 patients who underwent gastric resection for gastric adenocarcinoma. Read More
Background: The BD MAX™ Enteric Bacterial Panel (BDM-EBP) is designed and FDA-cleared to detect Salmonella, Shigella, Campylobacter, and Shiga toxin genes stx1/2 from stool samples. However, rectal swabs, which are not FDA-cleared for clinical testing with the BDM-EBP, are common specimens received from pediatric patients for enteric pathogen testing. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the ability of the BDM-EBP to detect stool pathogens from rectal swabs. Read More
Background: The growth of tumor cells is accompanied by mutations in nuclear and mitochondrial genomes creating marked genetic heterogeneity. Tumors also contain non-tumor cells of various origins. An observed somatic mitochondrial mutation would have occurred in a founding cell and spread through cell division. Read More
Background: The coexistence of Rosai-Dorfman disease (RDD) with Langerhans cell histiocytosis (LCH) is very rare, as to date only 17 cases have been reported in the english literature. The pathophysiology of this uncommon co-occurrence still remains enigmatic and a subject of various speculations.
Case Presentation: We report a case of a 30-year-old female patient who presented with a pathologic fracture of the left proximal femur. Read More
Background: Takostsubo (stress) cardiomyopathy (TC) is a clinical syndrome featuring transient left ventricular dysfunction and wall-motion abnormalities, usually following emotional or physical stress. The diagnosis of TC depends on fulfillment of multiple clinical criteria. Although the pathogenesis has not been firmly established, myocardial cathecholamine toxicity is thought to represent a primary mechanism. Read More
Background: Urothelial bladder carcinoma (UBC) is one of the most prevalent cancers in men worldwide. Human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) expression has been detected in a wide range of urothelial carcinoma. Despite many reports in the literature, the prognostic significance of this overexpression remains unclear. Read More
Background: Detection of vascular invasion by hematoxylin and eosin staining is the current pathological assessment practice to diagnose breast carcinoma. However, conventional hematoxylin and eosin staining failed to distinguish between blood vessel invasion and lymphatic vessel invasion. Both are important prognostic criteria however with different outcomes. Read More
Background: Mycetoma is a chronic granulomatous infectious disease caused by filamentous bacteria or by fungi. The disease is endemic in certain tropical and subtropical areas of the world but can be found elsewhere posing sometimes a diagnostic challenge for clinicians.
Case Presentation: A 65-year- old man presented with a right foot swelling evolving for 25 years. Read More
Background: The recent study described a better outcome in acute promyelocytic leukemia patients treated with all-trans retinoic acid and arsenic oxide compared to those treated with all-trans retinoic acid combined with conventional chemotherapy. The pivotal study indicated that favorable-risk acute promyelocytic leukemia patients can be cured without any cytotoxic chemotherapy. Even high-risk patients are treatable with cytotoxic agents. Read More
Background: Sickle cell disease (SCD) is a class of hemoglobinopathy resulting from a single mutation in the ß-globin chain inducing the substitution of valine for glutamic acid at the sixth amino acid position which leads to the production of abnormal haemoglobin (haemoglobin S [HbS]). Studies demonstrated the implication of oxidative stress in the development of the sickle cell disease.
Methods: The study aim was to determine the level of oxidative stress markers in a group of sickle cell homozygous patients (SS) in the Yaounde Central Hospital above 15 years of age. Read More
Background: Omega-3 long chain-polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFAs)-docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), docosapentaenoic acid (DPA) and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA)- and omega-6 LC-PUFA arachidonic acid (ARA), are essential for optimum physical and mental development in children. Prior to this study, the blood omega-3 LC-PUFA levels were unknown in Zimbabwean children, particularly in those aged 7-9 years, despite the documented benefits of LC-PUFAs. Documentation of the LC-PUFA levels in this age group would help determine whether interventions, such as fortification, are necessary. Read More
Background: Podocalyxin-like protein (PODXL) is a cell surface transmembrane glycoprotein, the expression of which has been associated with poor prognosis in a range of malignancies. The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of PODXL expression on survival in esophageal and gastric adenocarcinoma.
Methods: The study cohort consists of a consecutive series of 174 patients with esophageal (including the gastroesophageal junction) or gastric adenocarcinoma, surgically treated between 2006 and 2010 and not subjected to neoadjuvant treatment. Read More
Background: Calcifications of atherosclerotic plaques represent a controversial issue as they either lead to the stabilization or rupture of the lesion. However, the cellular key players involved in the progression of the calcified plaques have not yet been described. The primary reason for this lacuna is that decalcification procedures impair protein and nucleic acids contained in the calcified tissue. Read More
Background: Effective management of trauma-related invasive fungal wound infections (IFIs) depends on early diagnosis and timely initiation of treatment. We evaluated the utility of routine staining, histochemical stains and frozen section for fungal element identification.
Methods: A total of 383 histopathological specimens collected from 66 combat-injured United States military personnel with IFIs were independently reviewed by two pathologists. Read More
Background: Sebaceous carcinoma (SC) is a rare malignancy, occurring predominantly in eyelids. Till date, only 25 cases of sebaceous carcinoma (SC) of the parotid gland have been reported in world literature.
Case Presentation: A 33 year-old male presented with left sided laterocervical mass. Read More
Background: Repeat cytology and HPV testing is used in triage of women with minor cytological lesions. The objective of this study was to evaluate 14-type HPV DNA and 5-type HPV mRNA testing in delayed triage of women with ASC-US/LSIL.
Methods: We compared a DNA test (Roche Cobas 4800) and an 5-type mRNA test (PreTect HPV-Proofer). Read More
Background: Cellular angiofibroma represents a newly described, site specific tumor. Histologically, CAF is a benign mesenchymal neoplasm characterized by two principal components: bland spindle cells and prominent small to medium-sized vessels with mural hyalinization. The indolent nature of the lesion is underscored by the uniformity of its constituent stromal cells, and their lack of nuclear atypia. Read More
Background: In the spectrum of molecular alterations found in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), somatic mutations in the WNT/β-catenin pathway and the p53/cell cycle control pathway are among the most frequent ones. It has been suggested that both mutations occur in a mutually exclusive manner and they are used as molecular classifiers in HCC classification proposals.
Case Presentation: Here, we report the case of a treatment-naïve mixed hepatocellular/cholangiocellular carcinoma (HCC/CCC) with morphological and genetic intratumor heterogeneity. Read More
Background: Primary thyroid lymphoma is an uncommon pathological entity that accounts for only 1 to 5 % of all thyroid malignancies. Primary Burkitt lymphoma of the thyroid gland is very rare. This article presents the first Moroccan case of a primary BL of the thyroid to be reported in the literature to date. Read More
Background: Teratomas are a germ cell tumors composed of two or more tissues which originate from ectoderm, endoderm or mesoderm. These tumors commonly arise from the ovary although other extragonadal sites can be involved, especially in children.
Case Presentation: We report a case of a 21-year-old female of Sukuma ethnicity from the northern region of Tanzania who presented with abdominal pain and distension, fever, and abnormal vaginal discharge for the previous three weeks. Read More
Background: Phyllodes tumors are rare fibroepithelial tumors accounting for less than 1 % of all breast neoplasms. They are malignant in 20 % of cases. Only a few cases of malignant phyllodes tumors metastatic to bone have been reported. Read More
Background: Adverse local tissue reaction (ALTR), characterized by a heterogeneous cellular inflammatory infiltrate and the presence of corrosion products in the periprosthetic soft tissues, has been recognized as a mechanism of failure in total hip replacement (THA). Different histological subtypes may have unique needs for longitudinal clinical follow-up and complication rates after revision arthroplasty. The purpose of this study was to describe the histological patterns observed in the periprosthetic tissue of failed THA in three different implant classes due to ALTR and their association with clinical features of implant failure. Read More
Institute of Human Development, Faculty of Medical and Human Sciences, University of Manchester, Oxford Rd, Manchester, M13 9PL UK ; Maternal and Fetal Health Research Centre, 5th floor (Research), St Mary's Hospital, Oxford Road, Manchester, M13 9WL UK.
Background: Stillbirth is frequently the result of pathological processes involving the placenta. Understanding the significance of specific lesions is hindered by qualitative subjective evaluation. We hypothesised that quantitative assessment of placental morphology would identify alterations between different causes of stillbirth and that placental phenotype would be independent of post-mortem effects and differ between live births and stillbirths with the same condition. Read More
Background: Leiomyosarcoma is a rare malignant mesenchymal tumor that represents 5-7 % of all soft tissue sarcomas. The occurrence of this tumor in the salivary glands is exceptional. Only five cases are reported in the submandibular gland. Read More
Background: The role of vitamin E in breast cancer prevention and treatment has been widely investigated, and the different tocopherols that comprise this nutrient have been shown to have divergent associations with cancer outcome. Our previous studies have shown that α-Tocopherol-associated protein (TAP), a vitamin E binding protein, may function as a tumor suppressor-like factor in breast carcinogenesis. The current study addresses the association of TAP expression with breast cancer clinical outcomes. Read More
Background: Phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate 3-kinase, catalytic subunit alpha, PIK3CA, is one of the most frequently mutated genes in breast cancer, and the mutation status of PIK3CA has clinical relevance related to response to therapy. The aim of our study was to investigate the mutation status of PIK3CA gene and to evaluate the concordance between NGS and SGS for the most important hotspot regions in exon 9 and 20, to investigate additional hotspots outside of these exons using NGS, and to correlate the PIK3CA mutation status with the clinicopathological characteristics of the cohort.
Methods: In the current study, next-generation sequencing (NGS) and Sanger Sequencing (SGS) was used for the mutational analysis of PIK3CA in 186 breast carcinomas. Read More
Background: Lung cancer is one of the most common malignant neoplasms worldwide and has a high mortality rate. To enable individualized therapy regimens, a better understanding of the molecular tumor biology has still to be elucidated. The expression of the cell surface protein CD24 has already been claimed to be associated with shorter patient survival in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), however, the prognostic value and applicability of CD24 immunostaining in paraffin embedded tissue specimens has been questioned due to the recent acknowledgement of restricted epitope specificity of the commonly used antibody SN3b. Read More
Background: The "stem cell theory of cancer" states that a subpopulation of cells with stem cell-like properties plays a central role in the formation, sustainment, spread, and drug resistant characteristics of malignant tumors. Recent studies have isolated distinct cell populations from infantile hemangiomas that display properties equivalent to aberrant progenitor cells, suggesting that, in addition to malignant tumors, benign tumors may also contain a stem cell-like component.
Methods: In this study, the expression levels of the embryonic stem cell reprogramming factors Oct4, Nanog, Myc, Sox2, and Klf4 were examined via immunohistochemistry in a panel of 71 benign, borderline, and malignant vascular tumors including capillary hemangioma, cavernous hemangioma, granulomatous hemangioma, venous hemangioma, hemangioendothelioma, hemangiopericytoma, and angiosarcoma. Read More
Background: Previously, we have used clinical and gene expression data from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) to model a pathway-based index predicting outcomes in ovarian carcinoma. This data were obtained from snap-frozen tissue measured with the Affymetrix U133 platform. In the current study, we correlate the data used to model with data derived from TaqMan qPCR both snap frozen and paraffin embedded (FFPE) samples. Read More
Background: Cervical cancer is the leading cause of cancer related death among women in developing countries. Cervical cancer is preceded by cervical surface epithelial cell abnormalities (ECA) which can be detected by Pap smear test. Simultaneous human papillomavirus and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection increases cervical cancer. Read More
Background: The spontaneous rupture of hepatic metastases is rare compared to that of primary hepatic tumors. In addition, vemurafenib, a selective inhibitor of the mutant BRAF protein or gene product, has been reported to be extremely effective in patients with metastatic melanoma who harbor a BRAF V600E mutation.
Case Presentation: A 44-year-old female had previously undergone surgery for resection of a malignant melanoma in the lower right leg. Read More
Background: Breast cancer is a heterogeneous disease composed of multiple subgroups with different molecular alterations, cellular composition, clinical behaviour, and response to treatment. This study evaluates the occurrence of the various subtypes and their clinical and pathological behaviour in the Ghanaian breast cancer population at the Korle Bu Teaching Hospital (KBTH).
Methods: Retrospective review of case notes of patients who had completed treatment for breast cancer at the KBTH within the last 5 years was conducted between April 2011 and March 2012. Read More
Background: The use of dried blood spot (DBS) sampling is an alternative to traditional venous blood collection, and particularly useful for people living in rural and remote areas, and for those who are infirm, house-bound or time-poor. The objective of this study was to assess whether the measurement of glycated haemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) in DBS samples provided comparative and acceptably precise results.
Methods: Venous and capillary blood samples were collected from 115 adult participants. Read More
Background: The mevalonate pathway synthetizes cholesterol, steroid hormones, and non-steriod isoprenoids necessary for cell survival. 3-Hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme A reductase (HMGCR) is the rate-limiting enzyme of the mevalonate pathway and the target for statin treatment. HMGCR expression in breast tumors has recently been proposed to hold prognostic and treatment-predictive information. Read More
Background: Gastrointestinal food allergy (GIFA) occurs in 2 to 4 % of children, the majority of whom are infants (<1 year of age). Although endoscopy is considered the gold standard for diagnosing GIFA, it is invasive and requires general anaesthesia. Therefore, we aimed to investigate whether in infants with GIFA, gastrointestinal symptoms predict histological findings in order to help optimise the care pathway for such patients. Read More
Background: Clinical laboratories frequently receive orders to perform additional tests on existing specimens ('add-ons'). Previous studies have examined add-on ordering patterns over short periods of time. The objective of this study was to analyze add-on ordering patterns over an extended time period. Read More
Background: Adenocarcinoma of the periampullary region is associated with poor prognosis and new prognostic and treatment predictive biomarkers are needed for improved treatment. Membranous expression of podocalyxin-like 1(PODXL), which is a cell-adhesion glycoprotein and stem cell marker, has been found to correlate with an aggressive tumour phenotype and adverse outcome in several cancer types. The aim of the present study was to examine the clinicopathological correlates, prognostic and predictive significance of tumour-specific PODXL expression in a retrospective cohort of pancreatic and periampullary carcinoma, morphologically divided into intestinal type (I-type) and pancreatobiliary type (PB-type) tumours. Read More