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    842 results match your criteria BMC Cell Biology [Journal]

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    MicroRNA-17-5p aggravates lipopolysaccharide-induced injury in nasal epithelial cells by targeting Smad7.
    BMC Cell Biol 2018 Feb 13;19(1). Epub 2018 Feb 13.
    Department of Allergy, Wuhan No.1 Hospital, No. 215, Zhongshan Avenue, Wuhan, 430022, China.
    Background: Globally, rhinitis is one of the most common chronic disorders. Despite availability of drugs to manage the symptomatology of rhinitis, researchers still focus on identification of novel molecular targets for better management. MicroRNAs are implicated in many biological and pathological processes. Read More

    Mechanically tuned 3 dimensional hydrogels support human mammary fibroblast growth and viability.
    BMC Cell Biol 2017 Dec 16;18(1):35. Epub 2017 Dec 16.
    Department of Biomedical Sciences, Georgia Philadelphia College of Osteopathic Medicine, Suwanee, GA, 30024, USA.
    Background: Carcinoma associated fibroblasts (CAFs or myofibroblasts) are activated fibroblasts which participate in breast tumor growth, angiogenesis, invasion, metastasis and therapy resistance. As such, recent efforts have been directed toward understanding the factors responsible for activation of the phenotype. In this study, we have investigated how changes in the mechanical stiffness of a 3D hydrogel alter the behavior and myofibroblast-like properties of human mammary fibroblasts (HMFs). Read More

    Molecular targets and signaling pathways regulated by nuclear translocation of syndecan-1.
    BMC Cell Biol 2017 Dec 8;18(1):34. Epub 2017 Dec 8.
    Department of Laboratory Medicine, Division of Pathology, Karolinska Institutet, SE-14186, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Background: The cell-surface heparan sulfate proteoglycan syndecan-1 is important for tumor cell proliferation, migration, and cell cycle regulation in a broad spectrum of malignancies. Syndecan-1, however, also translocates to the cell nucleus, where it might regulate various molecular functions.

    Results: We used a fibrosarcoma model to dissect the functions of syndecan-1 related to the nucleus and separate them from functions related to the cell-surface. Read More

    A novel interaction between kinase activities in regulation of cilia formation.
    BMC Cell Biol 2017 Nov 15;18(1):33. Epub 2017 Nov 15.
    Anatomy and Cell Biology, East Carolina University, Brody School of Medicine, Greenville, NC, USA.
    Background: The primary cilium is an extension of the cell membrane that encloses a microtubule-based axoneme. Primary cilia are essential for transmission of environmental cues that determine cell fate. Disruption of primary cilia function is the molecular basis of numerous developmental disorders. Read More

    Reduction of pluripotent gene expression in murine embryonic stem cells exposed to mechanical loading or Cyclo RGD peptide.
    BMC Cell Biol 2017 Nov 14;18(1):32. Epub 2017 Nov 14.
    McCaig Institute for Bone and Joint Health, University of Calgary, Calgary, AB, Canada.
    Background: Self-renewal and differentiation of embryonic stem cells (ESCs) is directed by biological and/or physical cues that regulate multiple signaling cascades. We have previously shown that mESCs seeded in a type I collagen matrix demonstrate a loss of pluripotent marker expression and differentiate towards an osteogenic lineage. In this study, we examined if this effect was mediated in part through Arginylglycylaspartic acid (RGD) dependent integrin activity and/or mechano-transduction. Read More

    Small molecule modulation of splicing factor expression is associated with rescue from cellular senescence.
    BMC Cell Biol 2017 Oct 17;18(1):31. Epub 2017 Oct 17.
    Institute of Biomedical and Clinical Sciences, University of Exeter Medical School, University of Exeter, Barrack Road, Exeter, Devon, EX2 5DW, UK.
    Background: Altered expression of mRNA splicing factors occurs with ageing in vivo and is thought to be an ageing mechanism. The accumulation of senescent cells also occurs in vivo with advancing age and causes much degenerative age-related pathology. However, the relationship between these two processes is opaque. Read More

    Honokiol improved chondrogenesis and suppressed inflammation in human umbilical cord derived mesenchymal stem cells via blocking nuclear factor-κB pathway.
    BMC Cell Biol 2017 Aug 29;18(1):29. Epub 2017 Aug 29.
    Department of Orthopaedics, The First Affiliated Hospital, College of Medicine, Xi'an Jiaotong University, Xi'an, 710061, People's Republic of China.
    Background: Cartilage degradation is the significant pathological process in osteoarthritis (OA). Inflammatory cytokines, such as interleukin-1β (IL-1β), activate various downstream mediators contributing to OA pathology. Recently, stem cell-based cartilage repair emerges as a potential therapeutic strategy that being widely studied, whereas, the outcome is still far from clinical application. Read More

    Coral cell separation and isolation by fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS).
    BMC Cell Biol 2017 Aug 29;18(1):30. Epub 2017 Aug 29.
    University of Miami, Rosenstiel School of Marine and Atmospheric Science, 4600 Rickenbacker Causeway, Florida, 33149, USA.
    Background: Generalized methods for understanding the cell biology of non-model species are quite rare, yet very much needed. In order to address this issue, we have modified a technique traditionally used in the biomedical field for ecological and evolutionary research. Fluorescent activated cell sorting (FACS) is often used for sorting and identifying cell populations. Read More

    EphA receptors and ephrin-A ligands are upregulated by monocytic differentiation/maturation and promote cell adhesion and protrusion formation in HL60 monocytes.
    BMC Cell Biol 2017 Aug 29;18(1):28. Epub 2017 Aug 29.
    Laboratory of Veterinary Anatomy, Graduate School of Life and Environmental Sciences, Osaka Prefecture University, 1-58 Rinku-Ourai-Kita, Izumisano, Osaka, 598-8531, Japan.
    Background: Eph signaling is known to induce contrasting cell behaviors such as promoting and inhibiting cell adhesion/spreading by altering F-actin organization and influencing integrin activities. We have previously demonstrated that EphA2 stimulation by ephrin-A1 promotes cell adhesion through interaction with integrins and integrin ligands in two monocyte/macrophage cell lines. Although mature mononuclear leukocytes express several members of the EphA/ephrin-A subclass, their expression has not been examined in monocytes undergoing during differentiation and maturation. Read More

    Cladosporol A triggers apoptosis sensitivity by ROS-mediated autophagic flux in human breast cancer cells.
    BMC Cell Biol 2017 Jul 20;18(1):26. Epub 2017 Jul 20.
    Cancer Pharmacology Division, CSIR-Indian Institute of Integrative Medicine, Jammu, India.
    Background: Endophytes have proven to be an invaluable resource of chemically diverse secondary metabolites that act as excellent lead compounds for anticancer drug discovery. Here we report the promising cytotoxic effects of Cladosporol A (HPLC purified >98%) isolated from endophytic fungus Cladosporium cladosporioides collected from Datura innoxia. Cladosporol A was subjected to in vitro cytotoxicity assay against NCI60 panel of human cancer cells using MTT assay. Read More

    The M-phase specific hyperphosphorylation of Staufen2 involved the cyclin-dependent kinase CDK1.
    BMC Cell Biol 2017 Jul 14;18(1):25. Epub 2017 Jul 14.
    Département de biochimie et médecine moléculaire, Faculté de médecine, Université de Montréal, 2900 Edouard Montpetit, Montréal, QC, H3T 1J4, Canada.
    Background: Staufen2 (STAU2) is an RNA-binding protein involved in the post-transcriptional regulation of gene expression. This protein was shown to be required for organ formation and cell differentiation. Although STAU2 functions have been reported in neuronal cells, its role in dividing cells remains deeply uncharacterized. Read More

    External magnetic field promotes homing of magnetized stem cells following subcutaneous injection.
    BMC Cell Biol 2017 May 26;18(1):24. Epub 2017 May 26.
    Department of Nuclear Medicine, the First Hospital Affiliated to Jinan University, No. 613 Huangpu West Road, Guangzhou, 510630, China.
    Background: Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are multipotent stromal cells that have the ability to self-renew and migrate to sites of pathology. In vivo tracking of MSCs provides insights into both, the underlying mechanisms of MSC transformation and their potential as gene delivery vehicles. The aim of our study was to assess the ability of superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIONs)-labeled Wharton's Jelly of the human umbilical cord-derived MSCs (WJ-MSCs) to carry the green fluorescent protein (GFP) gene to cutaneous injury sites in a murine model. Read More

    Adenylyl cyclase mRNA localizes to the posterior of polarized DICTYOSTELIUM cells during chemotaxis.
    BMC Cell Biol 2017 May 25;18(1):23. Epub 2017 May 25.
    Laboratory of Cellular and Molecular Biology, Center for Cancer Research, 37 Convent Drive, Bldg.37/Rm2066, NCI, NIH, Bethesda, MD, 20892-4256, USA.
    Background: In Dictyostelium discoideum, vesicular transport of the adenylyl cyclase A (ACA) to the posterior of polarized cells is essential to relay exogenous 3',5'-cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) signals during chemotaxis and for the collective migration of cells in head-to-tail arrangements called streams.

    Results: Using fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH), we discovered that the ACA mRNA is asymmetrically distributed at the posterior of polarized cells. Using both standard estimators and Monte Carlo simulation methods, we found that the ACA mRNA enrichment depends on the position of the cell within a stream, with the posterior localization of ACA mRNA being strongest for cells at the end of a stream. Read More

    ULK1 phosphorylates Sec23A and mediates autophagy-induced inhibition of ER-to-Golgi traffic.
    BMC Cell Biol 2017 May 10;18(1):22. Epub 2017 May 10.
    School of Biomedical Sciences, Shatin, N.T., Hong Kong, Special Administrative Region of China.
    Background: Autophagy is an inducible autodigestive process that allows cells to recycle proteins and other materials for survival during stress and nutrient deprived conditions. The kinase ULK1 is required to activate this process. ULK1 phosphorylates a number of target proteins and regulates many cellular processes including the early secretory pathway. Read More

    Loss of pericyte smoothened activity in mice with genetic deficiency of leptin.
    BMC Cell Biol 2017 Apr 20;18(1):20. Epub 2017 Apr 20.
    Department of Medicine, Division of Gastroenterology, Duke University, 905 S. LaSalle Street, Snyderman Building, Suite 1073, Durham, NC, 27710, USA.
    Background: Obesity is associated with multiple diseases, but it is unclear how obesity promotes progressive tissue damage. Recovery from injury requires repair, an energy-expensive process that is coupled to energy availability at the cellular level. The satiety factor, leptin, is a key component of the sensor that matches cellular energy utilization to available energy supplies. Read More

    Intermittent parathyroid hormone (PTH) promotes cementogenesis and alleviates the catabolic effects of mechanical strain in cementoblasts.
    BMC Cell Biol 2017 Apr 20;18(1):19. Epub 2017 Apr 20.
    Department of Orthodontics, West China Hospital of Stomatology, Sichuan University, No. 14, 3rd Section, Renmin South Road, Chengdu, 610041, China.
    Background: External root resorption, commonly starting from cementum, is a severe side effect of orthodontic treatment. In this pathological process and repairing course followed, cementoblasts play a significant role. Previous studies implicated that parathyroid hormone (PTH) could act on committed osteoblast precursors to promote differentiation, and inhibit apoptosis. Read More

    Dental pulp pluripotent-like stem cells (DPPSC), a new stem cell population with chromosomal stability and osteogenic capacity for biomaterials evaluation.
    BMC Cell Biol 2017 Apr 21;18(1):21. Epub 2017 Apr 21.
    Regenerative Medicine Research Institute, Universitat Internacional de Catalunya, Barcelona, Spain.
    Background: Biomaterials are widely used to regenerate or substitute bone tissue. In order to evaluate their potential use for clinical applications, these need to be tested and evaluated in vitro with cell culture models. Frequently, immortalized osteoblastic cell lines are used in these studies. Read More

    Stress induced nuclear granules form in response to accumulation of misfolded proteins in Caenorhabditis elegans.
    BMC Cell Biol 2017 Apr 19;18(1):18. Epub 2017 Apr 19.
    Department of Biology, Middle Tennessee State University, 1301 E. Main Street, Murfreesboro, TN, 37132, USA.
    Background: Environmental stress can affect the viability or fecundity of an organism. Environmental stressors may affect the genome or the proteome and can cause cellular distress by contributing to protein damage or misfolding. This study examines the cellular response to environmental stress in the germline of the nematode, C. Read More

    Impact of the MDM2 splice-variants MDM2-A, MDM2-B and MDM2-C on cytotoxic stress response in breast cancer cells.
    BMC Cell Biol 2017 Apr 17;18(1):17. Epub 2017 Apr 17.
    Section of Oncology, Department of Clinical Science, University of Bergen, 5020, Bergen, Norway.
    Background: The murine double minute 2 (MDM2) is an oncogene and a negative regulator of the tumor suppressor protein p53. MDM2 is known to be amplified in numerous human cancers, and upregulation of MDM2 is considered to be an alternative mechanism of p53 inactivation. The presence of many splice variants of MDM2 has been observed in both normal tissues and malignant cells; however their impact and functional properties in response to chemotherapy treatment are not fully understood. Read More

    Testis-specific ATP synthase peripheral stalk subunits required for tissue-specific mitochondrial morphogenesis in Drosophila.
    BMC Cell Biol 2017 Mar 23;18(1):16. Epub 2017 Mar 23.
    Department of Biology, Davidson College, Davidson, NC, USA.
    Background: In Drosophila early post-meiotic spermatids, mitochondria undergo dramatic shaping into the Nebenkern, a spherical body with complex internal structure that contains two interwrapped giant mitochondrial derivatives. The purpose of this study was to elucidate genetic and molecular mechanisms underlying the shaping of this structure.

    Results: The knotted onions (knon) gene encodes an unconventionally large testis-specific paralog of ATP synthase subunit d and is required for internal structure of the Nebenkern as well as its subsequent disassembly and elongation. Read More

    Mesenchymal stem cells and myoblast differentiation under HGF and IGF-1 stimulation for 3D skeletal muscle tissue engineering.
    BMC Cell Biol 2017 Feb 28;18(1):15. Epub 2017 Feb 28.
    Department of Plastic and Hand Surgery and Laboratory for Tissue Engineering and Regenerative Medicine, University Hospital of Erlangen, Friedrich-Alexander University of Erlangen-Nürnberg (FAU), Krankenhausstraße 12, 91054, Erlangen, Germany.
    Background: Volumetric muscle loss caused by trauma or after tumour surgery exceeds the natural regeneration capacity of skeletal muscle. Hence, the future goal of tissue engineering (TE) is the replacement and repair of lost muscle tissue by newly generating skeletal muscle combining different cell sources, such as myoblasts and mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), within a three-dimensional matrix. Latest research showed that seeding skeletal muscle cells on aligned constructs enhance the formation of myotubes as well as cell alignment and may provide a further step towards the clinical application of engineered skeletal muscle. Read More

    Hinokitiol induces DNA demethylation via DNMT1 and UHRF1 inhibition in colon cancer cells.
    BMC Cell Biol 2017 Feb 27;18(1):14. Epub 2017 Feb 27.
    Department of Anatomy, Institute of Human Genetics, Korea University College of Medicine, 73, Inchon-ro, Seongbuk-gu, Seoul, 02841, Republic of Korea.
    Background: DNA hypermethylation is a key epigenetic mechanism for the silencing of many genes in cancer. Hinokitiol, a tropolone-related natural compound, is known to induce apoptosis and cell cycle arrest and has anti-inflammatory and anti-tumor activities. However, the relationship between hinokitiol and DNA methylation is not clear. Read More

    Bmp-12 activates tenogenic pathway in human adipose stem cells and affects their immunomodulatory and secretory properties.
    BMC Cell Biol 2017 Feb 18;18(1):13. Epub 2017 Feb 18.
    Department of Immunology, Transplantology and Internal Medicine, Transplantation Institute, Medical University of Warsaw, Nowogrodzka str. 59, 02-006, Warsaw, Poland.
    Background: Cell-based therapy is a treatment method in tendon injuries. Bone morphogenic protein 12 (BMP-12) possesses tenogenic activity and was proposed as a differentiating factor for stem cells directed to transplantation. However, BMPs belong to pleiotropic TGF-β superfamily and have diverse effect on cells. Read More

    Variation in human dental pulp stem cell ageing profiles reflect contrasting proliferative and regenerative capabilities.
    BMC Cell Biol 2017 Feb 2;18(1):12. Epub 2017 Feb 2.
    Mineralised Tissue Group, Oral and Biomedical Sciences, School of Dentistry, College of Biomedical and Life Sciences, Cardiff University, Heath Park, CF14 4XY, Cardiff, UK.
    Background: Dental pulp stem cells (DPSCs) are increasingly being recognized as a viable cell source for regenerative medicine. Although significant variations in their ex vivo expansion are well-established, DPSC proliferative heterogeneity remains poorly understood, despite such characteristics influencing their regenerative and therapeutic potential. This study assessed clonal human DPSC regenerative potential and the impact of cellular senescence on these responses, to better understand DPSC functional behaviour. Read More

    Nuclear and structural dynamics during the establishment of a specialized effector-secreting cell by Magnaporthe oryzae in living rice cells.
    BMC Cell Biol 2017 Jan 26;18(1):11. Epub 2017 Jan 26.
    Department of Plant Biology, University of Georgia, Athens, GA, 30602, USA.
    Background: To cause an economically important blast disease on rice, the filamentous fungus Magnaporthe oryzae forms a specialized infection structure, called an appressorium, to penetrate host cells. Once inside host cells, the fungus produces a filamentous primary hypha that differentiates into multicellular bulbous invasive hyphae (IH), which are surrounded by a host-derived membrane. These hyphae secrete cytoplasmic effectors that enter host cells presumably via the biotrophic interfacial complex (BIC). Read More

    Focus on lens connexins.
    BMC Cell Biol 2017 Jan 17;18(Suppl 1). Epub 2017 Jan 17.
    Institute of Biophysics, Leibniz University Hannover, Hannover, Germany.
    The lens is an avascular organ composed of an anterior epithelial cell layer and fiber cells that form the bulk of the organ. The lens expresses connexin43 (Cx43), connexin46 (Cx46) and connexin50 (Cx50). Epithelial Cx50 has critical roles in cell proliferation and differentiation, likely involving growth factor-dependent signaling pathways. Read More

    Gap junctions and hemichannels: communicating cell death in neurodevelopment and disease.
    BMC Cell Biol 2017 Jan 17;18(Suppl 1). Epub 2017 Jan 17.
    Department of Cellular & Physiological Sciences, Faculty of Medicine, Life Sciences Institute, The University of British Columbia, 2350 Health Sciences Mall, Vancouver, BC, V6T 1Z3, Canada.
    Gap junctions are unique membrane channels that play a significant role in intercellular communication in the developing and mature central nervous system (CNS). These channels are composed of connexin proteins that oligomerize into hexamers to form connexons or hemichannels. Many different connexins are expressed in the CNS, with some specificity with regard to the cell types in which distinct connexins are found, as well as the timepoints when they are expressed in the developing and mature CNS. Read More

    Accessing gap-junction channel structure-function relationships through molecular modeling and simulations.
    BMC Cell Biol 2017 Jan 17;18(Suppl 1). Epub 2017 Jan 17.
    Computational Biology Lab. Fundación Ciencia & Vida, Santiago, Chile.
    Background: Gap junction channels (GJCs) are massive protein channels connecting the cytoplasm of adjacent cells. These channels allow intercellular transfer of molecules up to ~1 kDa, including water, ions and other metabolites. Unveiling structure-function relationships coded into the molecular architecture of these channels is necessary to gain insight on their vast biological function including electrical synapse, inflammation, development and tissular homeostasis. Read More

    Cardiac Cx43, Cx40 and Cx45 co-assembling: involvement of connexins epitopes in formation of hemichannels and Gap junction channels.
    BMC Cell Biol 2017 Jan 17;18(Suppl 1). Epub 2017 Jan 17.
    IHU Liryc, Electrophysiology and Heart Modeling Institute, Fondation Bordeaux Université, Campus X. Arnozan, Avenue Haut Leveque, 33600, Pessac- Bordeaux, France.
    Background: This review comes after the International Gap Junction Conference (IGJC 2015) and describes the current knowledge on the function of the specific motifs of connexins in the regulation of the formation of gap junction channels. Moreover the review is complemented by a summarized description of the distinct contribution of gap junction channels in the electrical coupling.

    Results: Complementary biochemical and functional characterization on cell models and primary cells have improved our understanding on the oligomerization of connexins and the formation and the electrical properties of gap junction channels. Read More

    Intermittent hypoxia causes NOX2-dependent remodeling of atrial connexins.
    BMC Cell Biol 2017 Jan 17;18(Suppl 1). Epub 2017 Jan 17.
    Department of Pediatrics, University of Chicago, 900 E. 57th St. KCBD 5152, Chicago, IL, 60637, USA.
    Background: Obstructive sleep apnea has been linked to the development of heart disease and arrhythmias, including atrial fibrillation. Since altered conduction through gap junction channels can contribute to the pathogenesis of such arrhythmias, we examined the abundance and distributions of the major cardiac gap junction proteins, connexin40 (Cx40) and connexin43 (Cx43) in mice treated with sleep fragmentation or intermittent hypoxia (IH) as animal models of the components of obstructive sleep apnea.

    Results: Wild type C57BL/6 mice or mice lacking NADPH 2 (NOX2) oxidase activity (gp91phox(-/Y)) were exposed to room air or to SF or IH for 6 weeks. Read More

    Pannexin channel and connexin hemichannel expression in vascular function and inflammation.
    BMC Cell Biol 2017 Jan 17;18(Suppl 1). Epub 2017 Jan 17.
    Departamento de Fisiología, Facultad de Ciencias Biológicas, Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile, Santiago, Chile.
    Control of blood flow distribution and tissue homeostasis depend on the tight regulation of and coordination between the microvascular network and circulating blood cells. Channels formed by connexins or pannexins that connect the intra- and extracellular compartments allow the release of paracrine signals, such as ATP and prostaglandins, and thus play a central role in achieving fine regulation and coordination of vascular function. This review focuses on vascular connexin hemichannels and pannexin channels. Read More

    Release of endothelial cell associated VEGFR2 during TGF-β modulated angiogenesis in vitro.
    BMC Cell Biol 2017 Jan 23;18(1):10. Epub 2017 Jan 23.
    Department of Biomedical Sciences, Ontario Veterinary College, University of Guelph, OVC Room 3645, Guelph, N1G 2W1, ON, Canada.
    Background: Sprouting angiogenesis requires vascular endothelial proliferation, migration and morphogenesis. The process is regulated by soluble factors, principally vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), and via bidirectional signaling through the Jagged/Notch system, leading to assignment of tip cell and stalk cell identity. The cytokine transforming growth factor beta (TGF-β) can either stimulate or inhibit angiogenesis via its differential surface receptor signaling. Read More

    miR-27b inhibits fibroblast activation via targeting TGFβ signaling pathway.
    BMC Cell Biol 2017 Jan 17;18(1). Epub 2017 Jan 17.
    Lundberg-Kienlen Lung Biology and Toxicology Laboratory, Department of Physiological Sciences, Stillwater, OK, USA.
    Background: MicroRNAs are a group of small RNAs that regulate gene expression at the posttranscriptional level. They regulate almost every aspect of cellular processes. In this study, we investigated whether miR-27b regulates pulmonary fibroblast activation. Read More

    Nuclear envelope structural proteins facilitate nuclear shape changes accompanying embryonic differentiation and fidelity of gene expression.
    BMC Cell Biol 2017 Jan 14;18(1). Epub 2017 Jan 14.
    Department of Cell Biology, Sylvester Comprehensive Cancer Center, University of Miami Miller School of Medicine, Papanicolaou Building, Room 415 [M877] 1550 NW 10th Avenue, Miami, FL, 33136, USA.
    Background: Nuclear size and shape are specific to a cell type, function, and location, and can serve as indicators of disease and development. We previously found that lamin A/C and associated nuclear envelope structural proteins were upregulated when murine embryonic stem (ES) cells differentiated to primitive endoderm cells. Here we further investigated the morphological changes of nuclei that accompany this differentiation. Read More

    Hierarchical imaging: a new concept for targeted imaging of large volumes from cells to tissues.
    BMC Cell Biol 2016 Dec 12;17(1):38. Epub 2016 Dec 12.
    Cryo Electron Microscopy, Centre for Advanced Materials, Universität Heidelberg, Im Neuenheimer Feld 267, D-691120, Heidelberg, Germany.
    Background: Imaging large volumes such as entire cells or small model organisms at nanoscale resolution seemed an unrealistic, rather tedious task so far. Now, technical advances have lead to several electron microscopy (EM) large volume imaging techniques. One is array tomography, where ribbons of ultrathin serial sections are deposited on solid substrates like silicon wafers or glass coverslips. Read More

    Nuclear envelope structural defect underlies the main cause of aneuploidy in ovarian carcinogenesis.
    BMC Cell Biol 2016 Nov 22;17(1):37. Epub 2016 Nov 22.
    Sylvester Comprehensive Cancer Center/University of Miami, Miami, Florida, 33136, USA.
    Background: The Cancer Atlas project has shown that p53 is the only commonly (96 %) mutated gene found in high-grade serous epithelial ovarian cancer, the major histological subtype. Another general genetic change is extensive aneuploidy caused by chromosomal numerical instability, which is thought to promote malignant transformation. Conventionally, aneuploidy is thought to be the result of mitotic errors and chromosomal nondisjunction during mitosis. Read More

    A functional endosomal pathway is necessary for lysosome biogenesis in Drosophila.
    BMC Cell Biol 2016 Nov 16;17(1):36. Epub 2016 Nov 16.
    Université Grenoble-Alpes, F-38041, Grenoble, France.
    Background: Lysosomes are the major catabolic compartment within eukaryotic cells, and their biogenesis requires the integration of the biosynthetic and endosomal pathways. Endocytosis and autophagy are the primary inputs of the lysosomal degradation pathway. Endocytosis is specifically needed for the degradation of membrane proteins whereas autophagy is responsible for the degradation of cytoplasmic components. Read More

    Expressed alleles of imprinted IGF2, DLK1 and MEG3 colocalize in 3D-preserved nuclei of porcine fetal cells.
    BMC Cell Biol 2016 Oct 1;17(1):35. Epub 2016 Oct 1.
    GenPhySE, Université de Toulouse, INRA, INPT, ENVT, Castanet Tolosan, France.
    Background: To explore the relationship between spatial genome organization and gene expression in the interphase nucleus, we used a genomic imprinting model, which offers parental-specific gene expression. Using 3D FISH in porcine fetal liver cells, we compared the nuclear organization of the two parental alleles (expressed or not) of insulin-like growth factor 2 (IGF2), a paternally imprinted gene located on chromosome 2. We investigated whether its nuclear positioning favors specific locus associations. Read More

    Loss of hif-1 promotes resistance to the exogenous mitochondrial stressor ethidium bromide in Caenorhabditis elegans.
    BMC Cell Biol 2016 Sep 13;17 Suppl 1:34. Epub 2016 Sep 13.
    Department of Biology, York University, Toronto, Canada.
    Background: Mitochondrial dysfunction is one of the leading causes of neurological disorders in humans. Mitochondrial perturbations lead to adaptive mechanisms that include HIF-1 stabilization, though the consequences of increased levels of HIF-1 following mitochondrial stress remain poorly understood.

    Results: Using Caenorhabditis elegans, we show that a hif-1 loss-of-function mutation confers resistance towards the mitochondrial toxin ethidium bromide (EtBr) and suppresses EtBr-induced production of ROS. Read More

    High resolution imaging reveals heterogeneity in chromatin states between cells that is not inherited through cell division.
    BMC Cell Biol 2016 09 8;17(1):33. Epub 2016 Sep 8.
    Centre for Gene Regulation and Expression, College of Life Sciences, University of Dundee, Dundee, DD1 5EH, UK.
    Background: Genomes of eukaryotes exist as chromatin, and it is known that different chromatin states can influence gene regulation. Chromatin is not a static structure, but is known to be dynamic and vary between cells. In order to monitor the organisation of chromatin in live cells we have engineered fluorescent fusion proteins which recognize specific operator sequences to tag pairs of syntenic gene loci. Read More

    A specific FMNL2 isoform is up-regulated in invasive cells.
    BMC Cell Biol 2016 08 30;17(1):32. Epub 2016 Aug 30.
    Department of Cellular and Molecular Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, University of Ottawa, 451 Smyth Road, Ottawa, ON, K1H 8M5, Canada.
    Background: Formins are a highly conserved family of cytoskeletal remodeling proteins. A growing body of evidence suggests that formins play key roles in the progression and spread of a variety of cancers. There are 15 human formin proteins and of these the Diaphanous-Related Formins (DRFs) are the best characterized. Read More

    Prolactin-induced PAK1 tyrosyl phosphorylation promotes FAK dephosphorylation, breast cancer cell motility, invasion and metastasis.
    BMC Cell Biol 2016 08 20;17(1):31. Epub 2016 Aug 20.
    Department of Biological Sciences, University of Toledo, 2801 W. Bancroft Street, Toledo, 43606-3390, OH, USA.
    Background: The serine/threonine kinase PAK1 is an important regulator of cell motility. Both PAK1 and the hormone/cytokine prolactin (PRL) have been implicated in breast cancer cell motility, however, the exact mechanisms guiding PRL/PAK1 signaling in breast cancer cells have not been fully elucidated. Our lab has previously demonstrated that PRL-activated tyrosine kinase JAK2 phosphorylates PAK1 on tyrosines 153, 201, and 285, and that tyrosyl phosphorylated PAK1 (pTyr-PAK1) augments migration and invasion of breast cancer cells. Read More

    Aneuploidy screening of embryonic stem cell clones by metaphase karyotyping and droplet digital polymerase chain reaction.
    BMC Cell Biol 2016 08 5;17(1):30. Epub 2016 Aug 5.
    The Mary Lyon Centre, Medical Research Council Harwell Institute, Harwell Science and Innovation Campus, Didcot, OX11 0RD, Oxon, UK.
    Background: Karyotypic integrity is essential for the successful germline transmission of alleles mutated in embryonic stem (ES) cells. Classical methods for the identification of aneuploidy involve cytological analyses that are both time consuming and require rare expertise to identify mouse chromosomes.

    Results: As part of the International Mouse Phenotyping Consortium, we gathered data from over 1,500 ES cell clones and found that the germline transmission (GLT) efficiency of clones is compromised when over 50 % of cells harbour chromosome number abnormalities. Read More

    Kinesin-2 and kinesin-9 have atypical functions during ciliogenesis in the male gametophyte of Marsilea vestita.
    BMC Cell Biol 2016 07 16;17(1):29. Epub 2016 Jul 16.
    Department of Cell Biology and Molecular Genetics, University of Maryland at College Park, College Park, MD, 20742, USA.
    Background: Spermatogenesis in the semi-aquatic fern, Marsilea vestita, is a rapid, synchronous process that is initiated when dry microspores are placed in water. Development is post-transcriptionally driven and can be divided into two phases. The first phase consists of nine mitotic division cycles that produce 7 sterile cells and 32 spermatids. Read More

    Early changes in the metabolic profile of activated CD8(+) T cells.
    BMC Cell Biol 2016 07 7;17(1):28. Epub 2016 Jul 7.
    Institute of Molecular and Clinical Immunology, Otto-von-Guericke-University, Magdeburg, Germany.
    Background: Antigenic stimulation of the T cell receptor (TCR) initiates a change from a resting state into an activated one, which ultimately results in proliferation and the acquisition of effector functions. To accomplish this task, T cells require dramatic changes in metabolism. Therefore, we investigated changes of metabolic intermediates indicating for crucial metabolic pathways reflecting the status of T cells. Read More

    Extra-renal locations of the a4 subunit of H(+)ATPase.
    BMC Cell Biol 2016 07 2;17(1):27. Epub 2016 Jul 2.
    Department of Medical Genetics, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, UK.
    Background: Vacuolar-type proton pumps help maintain acid-base homeostasis either within intracellular compartments or at specialised plasma membranes. In mammals they are made up of 13 subunits, which form two functional domains. A number of the subunits have variants that display tissue restricted expression patterns such that in specialised cell types they replace the generic subunits at some sub-cellular locations. Read More

    Specific localization of nesprin-1-α2, the short isoform of nesprin-1 with a KASH domain, in developing, fetal and regenerating muscle, using a new monoclonal antibody.
    BMC Cell Biol 2016 06 27;17(1):26. Epub 2016 Jun 27.
    Wolfson Centre for Inherited Neuromuscular Disease, RJAH Orthopaedic Hospital, Oswestry, SY10 7AG, UK.
    Background: Nesprin-1-giant (1008kD) is a protein of the outer nuclear membrane that links nuclei to the actin cytoskeleton via amino-terminal calponin homology domains. The short nesprin-1 isoform, nesprin-1-α2, is present only in skeletal and cardiac muscle and several pathogenic mutations occur within it, but the functions of this short isoform without calponin homology domains are unclear. The aim of this study was to determine mRNA levels and protein localization of nesprin-1-α2 at different stages of muscle development in order to shed light on its functions. Read More

    Microvesicles derived from hypoxia/reoxygenation-treated human umbilical vein endothelial cells promote apoptosis and oxidative stress in H9c2 cardiomyocytes.
    BMC Cell Biol 2016 06 23;17(1):25. Epub 2016 Jun 23.
    Department of Pharmacology, School of Basic Medical Sciences, Tianjin Medical University, No. 22, Qixiangtai Road, Heping District, Tianjin, 300070, People's Republic of China.
    Background: Vascular endothelial dysfunction is the closely related determinant of ischemic heart disease (IHD). Endothelial dysfunction and ischemia/reperfusion injury (IRI) have been associated with an increase in microvesicles (MVs) in vivo. However, the potential contribution of endothelial microvesicles (EMVs) to myocardial damage is unclear. Read More

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