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    MiR-9, miR-21, and miR-155 as potential biomarkers for HPV positive and negative cervical cancer.
    BMC Cancer 2017 Sep 21;17(1):658. Epub 2017 Sep 21.
    Department of Biomedical Laboratory Science, College of Health Sciences, Yonsei University, Wonju-si, Gangwon-do, 26493, Republic of Korea.
    Background: Cervical cancer is the second leading cause of death among female patients with cancer in the world. High risk human papillomavirus has causal roles in cervical cancer initiation and progression by deregulating several cellular processes. However, HPV infection is not sufficient for cervical carcinoma development. Read More

    Association between tumour infiltrating lymphocytes, histotype and clinical outcome in epithelial ovarian cancer.
    BMC Cancer 2017 Sep 20;17(1):657. Epub 2017 Sep 20.
    Department of Pathology, CRUK Cambridge Institute, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, UK.
    Background: There is evidence that some ovarian tumours evoke an immune response, which can be assessed by tumour infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs). To facilitate adoption of TILs as a clinical biomarker, a standardised method for their H&E visual evaluation has been validated in breast cancer.

    Methods: We sought to investigate the prognostic significance of TILs in a study of 953 invasive epithelial ovarian cancer tumour samples, both primary and metastatic, from 707 patients from the prospective population-based SEARCH study. Read More

    Follow-up care after treatment for prostate cancer: protocol for an evaluation of a nurse-led supported self-management and remote surveillance programme.
    BMC Cancer 2017 Sep 19;17(1):656. Epub 2017 Sep 19.
    Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Southampton, Highfield, Southampton, SO17 1BJ, UK.
    Background: As more men survive a diagnosis of prostate cancer, alternative models of follow-up care that address men's enduring unmet needs and are economical to deliver are needed. This paper describes the protocol for an ongoing evaluation of a nurse-led supported self-management and remote surveillance programme implemented within the secondary care setting.

    Methods/design: The evaluation is taking place within a real clinical setting, comparing the outcomes of men enrolled in the Programme with the outcomes of a pre-service change cohort of men, using a repeated measures design. Read More

    The suppressive role of miR-542-5p in NSCLC: the evidence from clinical data and in vivo validation using a chick chorioallantoic membrane model.
    BMC Cancer 2017 Sep 19;17(1):655. Epub 2017 Sep 19.
    Department of Pathology, First Affiliated Hospital of Guangxi Medical University, 6 Shuangyong Road, Nanning, 530021, Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region, People's Republic of China.
    Background: Non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) has led to the highest cancer-related mortality for decades. To enhance the efficiency of early diagnosis and therapy, more efforts are urgently needed to reveal the origins of NSCLC. In this study, we explored the effect of miR-542-5p in NSCLC with clinical samples and in vivo models and further explored the prospective function of miR-542-5p though bioinformatics methods. Read More

    The outcome of prostate cancer patients treated with curative intent strongly depends on survival after metastatic progression.
    BMC Cancer 2017 Sep 18;17(1):651. Epub 2017 Sep 18.
    Medical oncology Unit, Oncology Institute of Southern Switzerland (IOSI), 6500, Bellinzona, Switzerland.
    Background: Five-year survival in patients with localized prostate cancer (PCa) is nearly 100%, but metastatic disease still remains incurable. Clinical management of metastatic patients has become increasingly complex as novel therapeutic strategies have emerged. This study aims at evaluating the impact of the first metastatic progression on the outcome of PCa patients treated with curative intent. Read More

    Analysis of B7-H4 expression in metastatic pleural adenocarcinoma and therapeutic potential of its antagonists.
    BMC Cancer 2017 Sep 18;17(1):652. Epub 2017 Sep 18.
    Respiratory Department, The First Affiliated Hospital of Soochow University, 188 Shizi Street, Suzhou, 215006, China.
    Background: The increasing incidence and poor outcome associated with malignant pleural effusion (MPE) requires finding an effective treatment for this disease. Inhibitory B7-H4 is expressed in many different human cancers but its role in malignant pleural tissue has yet to be established.

    Methods: Here, patients with metastatic pleural adenocarcinoma (MPA) or with early-stage lung adenocarcinoma were clinically and statistically analyzed. Read More

    Access to clinical trials among oncology patients: results of a cross sectional survey.
    BMC Cancer 2017 Sep 18;17(1):653. Epub 2017 Sep 18.
    Samson Institute for Health Research, University of South Australia, Adelaide, South Australia, Australia.
    Background: Clinical trials are necessary for the advancement of cancer treatment and care, however low rates of participation in such trials limit the generalisability of findings. The objective of this study was to examine the proportion of medical oncology outpatients in Australia who are invited and consent to participate in clinical trials and the factors associated with this.

    Methods: A sample of adult medical oncology patients was recruited from three Australian cancer treatment centres. Read More

    Aesthetic principles access thyroidectomy produces the best cosmetic outcomes as assessed using the patient and observer scar assessment scale.
    BMC Cancer 2017 Sep 18;17(1):654. Epub 2017 Sep 18.
    Department of Oncology, Beijing Friendship Hospital, Capital Medical University, 95 Yongan Raod, Xicheng District, Beijing, 100050, China.
    Background: Thyroid carcinoma (TC) is more likely to occur in young women. The aim of this study was to compare the aesthetic effect of different thyroidectomies.

    Methods: One hundred twenty female patients who underwent thyroidectomy were evenly distributed into three groups: conventional access (CA), aesthetic principles access (APA) and minimally invasive access (MIA). Read More

    Tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP/ACP5) promotes metastasis-related properties via TGFβ2/TβR and CD44 in MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells.
    BMC Cancer 2017 Sep 15;17(1):650. Epub 2017 Sep 15.
    Karolinska Institutet, Department of Laboratory Medicine (LABMED), H5, Division of Pathology, F46, Karolinska University Hospital, Huddinge, 141 86, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Background: Tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP/ACP5), a metalloenzyme that is characteristic for its expression in activated osteoclasts and in macrophages, has recently gained considerable focus as a driver of metastasis and was associated with clinically relevant parameters of cancer progression and cancer aggressiveness.

    Methods: MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells with different TRAP expression levels (overexpression and knockdown) were generated and characterized for protein expression and activity levels. Functional cell experiments, such as proliferation, migration and invasion assays were performed as well as global phosphoproteomic and proteomic analysis was conducted to connect molecular perturbations to the phenotypic changes. Read More

    Vemurafenib plus cobimetinib in unresectable stage IIIc or stage IV melanoma: response monitoring and resistance prediction with positron emission tomography and tumor characteristics (REPOSIT): study protocol of a phase II, open-label, multicenter study.
    BMC Cancer 2017 Sep 15;17(1):649. Epub 2017 Sep 15.
    Department of Medical Oncology, VU University Medical Center, Amsterdam, the Netherlands.
    Background: In patients with BRAFV600 mutated unresectable stage IIIc or metastatic melanoma, molecular targeted therapy with combined BRAF/MEK-inhibitor vemurafenib plus cobimetinib has shown a significantly improved progression-free survival and overall survival compared to treatment with vemurafenib alone. Nevertheless, the majority of BRAFV600 mutation-positive melanoma patients will eventually develop resistance to treatment. Molecular imaging with (18)F-Fluorodeoxyglucose ((18)F-FDG) PET has been used to monitor response to vemurafenib in some BRAFV600 mutated metastatic melanoma patients, showing a rapid decline of (18)F-FDG uptake within 2 weeks following treatment. Read More

    Can you un-ring the bell? A qualitative study of how affect influences cancer screening decisions.
    BMC Cancer 2017 Sep 13;17(1):647. Epub 2017 Sep 13.
    Community Health Sciences, College of Medicine, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Manitoba, S113-750 Bannatyne Avenue, Winnipeg, MB, R3E 0W3, Canada.
    Background: The belief that early detection is the best protection against cancer underlies cancer screening. Emerging research now suggests harms associated with early detection may sometimes outweigh the benefits. Governments, cancer agencies, and organizations that publish screening guidelines have found it is difficult to "un-ring the bell" on the message that "early detection is your best protection" because of its widespread communication and enduring resonance. Read More

    FOXP3 Is a HCC suppressor gene and Acts through regulating the TGF-β/Smad2/3 signaling pathway.
    BMC Cancer 2017 Sep 13;17(1):648. Epub 2017 Sep 13.
    Liver Cancer Institute, Zhongshan Hospital, and Key Laboratory of Carcinogenesis and Cancer Invasion (Ministry of Education), Fudan University, 180 Fenglin Road, Shanghai, 200032, People's Republic of China.
    Background: FOXP3 has been discovered to be expressed in tumor cells and participate in the regulation of tumor behavior. Herein, we investigated the clinical relevance and biological significance of FOXP3 expression in human hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC).

    Methods: Expression profile of FOXP3 was analyzed using real-time RT-PCR, western blotting and immunofluorescence on HCC cell lines, and immunostaing of a tissue microarray containing of 240 primary HCC samples. Read More

    A phase I open-label dose-escalation study of the anti-HER3 monoclonal antibody LJM716 in patients with advanced squamous cell carcinoma of the esophagus or head and neck and HER2-overexpressing breast or gastric cancer.
    BMC Cancer 2017 Sep 12;17(1):646. Epub 2017 Sep 12.
    Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul, Republic of Korea.
    Background: Human epidermal growth factor receptor 3 (HER3) is important in maintaining epidermal growth factor receptor-driven cancers and mediating resistance to targeted therapy. A phase I study of anti-HER3 monoclonal antibody LJM716 was conducted with the primary objective to identify the maximum tolerated dose (MTD) and/or recommended dose for expansion (RDE), and dosing schedule. Secondary objectives were to characterize safety/tolerability, pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics, and preliminary antitumor activity. Read More

    Integrator complex subunit 6 (INTS6) inhibits hepatocellular carcinoma growth by Wnt pathway and serve as a prognostic marker.
    BMC Cancer 2017 Sep 12;17(1):644. Epub 2017 Sep 12.
    Department of Hepatobiliary Surgery, Guangzhou First People's Hospital, Guangzhou, 510180, China.
    Background: Integrator complex subunit 6 (INTS6) was found to play a tumour suppressing role in certain types of solid tumours. In this study, we wanted to determine the expression level of INTS6 in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and evaluate its clinical characteristics and mechanisms in HCC patients (Lui and Lu, European Journal of Cancer, 51:S94, 2015).

    Methods: First, we used a microarray analysis to explore the mRNA expression levels in HCC and paired normal liver tissues; second, we used qRT-PCR to measure the INTS6 mRNA levels in a cohort of 50 HCC tissues and adjacent normal liver tissues; third, we used Western blot analyses to detect the INTS6 protein levels in 20 paired HCC and normal liver tissues; fourth, we used immunohistochemistry to determine the INTS6 expression levels in 70 archived paraffin-embedded HCC samples. Read More

    The safety and efficacy of transarterial chemoembolization combined with sorafenib and sorafenib mono-therapy in patients with BCLC stage B/C hepatocellular carcinoma.
    BMC Cancer 2017 Sep 12;17(1):645. Epub 2017 Sep 12.
    Department of Hepatobiliary Surgery, Affiliated Tumor Hospital of Guangxi Medical University, He Di Rd #71, Nanning, 530021, People's Republic of China.
    Background: Sorafenib and transarterial chemoembolization (TACE) are recommended therapies for advanced hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), but their combined efficacy remains unclear.

    Methods: Between August 2004 and November 2014, 104 patients with BCLC stage B/C HCC were enrolled at the Affiliated Tumor Hospital of Guangxi Medical University, China. Forty-eight patients were treated with sorafenib alone (sorafenib group) and 56 with TACE plus sorafenib (TACE + sorafenib group). Read More

    Neutrophil-lymphocyte ratio complements volumetric staging as prognostic factor in patients treated with definitive radiotherapy for oropharyngeal cancer.
    BMC Cancer 2017 Sep 11;17(1):643. Epub 2017 Sep 11.
    Department of Radiation Oncology, University Hospital Zurich, Rämistrasse 100, CH-8091, Zürich, Switzerland.
    Background: Volumetric tumor staging has been shown as superior prognostic tool compared to the conventional TNM system in patients undergoing definitive intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) for head and neck cancer. Recently, clinical immunoscores such as the neutrophil-lymphocyte ratio (NLR) have been investigated as prognostic markers in several tumor entities. The aim of this study was to assess the combined prognostic value of NLR and tumor volume in patients treated with IMRT for oropharyngeal cancer (OC). Read More

    Involvement of DPP9 in gene fusions in serous ovarian carcinoma.
    BMC Cancer 2017 Sep 11;17(1):642. Epub 2017 Sep 11.
    Section for Cancer Cytogenetics, Institute for Cancer Genetics and Informatics, The Norwegian Radium Hospital, Oslo University Hospital, Oslo, Norway.
    Background: A fusion gene is a hybrid gene consisting of parts from two previously independent genes. Chromosomal rearrangements leading to gene breakage are frequent in high-grade serous ovarian carcinomas and have been reported as a common mechanism for inactivating tumor suppressor genes. However, no fusion genes have been repeatedly reported to be recurrent driver events in ovarian carcinogenesis. Read More

    XIAP over-expression is an independent poor prognostic marker in Middle Eastern breast cancer and can be targeted to induce efficient apoptosis.
    BMC Cancer 2017 Sep 11;17(1):640. Epub 2017 Sep 11.
    Human Cancer Genomic Research, King Faisal Specialist Hospital and Research Cancer, MBC#98-16, P.O. Box 3354, Riyadh, 11211, Saudi Arabia.
    Background: Breast cancer is the most common cancer in females and is ranked second in cancer-related deaths all over the world in women. Despite improvement in diagnosis, the survival rate of this disease has still not improved. X-linked Inhibitor of Apoptosis (XIAP) has been shown to be over-expressed in various cancers leading to poor overall survival. Read More

    BRCA2 carriers with male breast cancer show elevated tumour methylation.
    BMC Cancer 2017 Sep 11;17(1):641. Epub 2017 Sep 11.
    Molecular Pathology Research and Development Laboratory, Department of Pathology, Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre, Melbourne, VIC, 3000, Australia.
    Background: Male breast cancer (MBC) represents a poorly characterised group of tumours, the management of which is largely based on practices established for female breast cancer. However, recent studies demonstrate biological and molecular differences likely to impact on tumour behaviour and therefore patient outcome. The aim of this study was to investigate methylation of a panel of commonly methylated breast cancer genes in familial MBCs. Read More

    Distinct molecular subtypes of uterine leiomyosarcoma respond differently to chemotherapy treatment.
    BMC Cancer 2017 Sep 11;17(1):639. Epub 2017 Sep 11.
    Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Joint National Laboratory for Antibody Drug Engineering, Institute of Biomedical Informatics, Medical School, Henan University, Kaifeng, 475004, China.
    Background: Uterine leiomyosarcoma (ULMS) is an aggressive form of soft tissue tumors. The molecular heterogeneity and pathogenesis of ULMS are not well understood.

    Methods: Expression profiling data were used to determine the possibility and optimal number of ULMS molecular subtypes. Read More

    Inhibition of PI3K-AKT-mTOR pathway sensitizes endometrial cancer cell lines to PARP inhibitors.
    BMC Cancer 2017 Sep 8;17(1):638. Epub 2017 Sep 8.
    Division of Gynecologic Oncology, Jewish General Hospital, McGill University, Montreal, QC, Canada.
    Background: Phosphatase and Tensin homolog (PTEN) is a tumor suppressor gene. Loss of its function is the most frequent genetic alteration in endometrioid endometrial cancers (70-80%) and high grade tumors (90%). We assessed the sensitivity of endometrial cancer cell lines to PARP inhibitors (olaparib and BMN-673) and a PI3K inhibitor (BKM-120), alone or in combination, in the context of their PTEN mutation status. Read More

    IGF1R activation and the in vitro antiproliferative efficacy of IGF1R inhibitor are inversely correlated with IGFBP5 expression in bladder cancer.
    BMC Cancer 2017 Sep 7;17(1):636. Epub 2017 Sep 7.
    Institut Curie, PSL Research University, CNRS, UMR144, Equipe Labellisée Ligue contre le Cancer, 75005, Paris, France.
    Background: The insulin growth factor (IGF) pathway has been proposed as a potential therapeutic target in bladder cancer. We characterized the expression of components of the IGF pathway - insulin growth factor receptors (INSR, IGF1R, IGF2R), ligands (INS, IGF1, IGF2), and binding proteins (IGFBP1-7, IGF2BP1-3) - in bladder cancer and its correlation with IGF1R activation, and the anti-proliferative efficacy of an IGF1R kinase inhibitor in this setting.

    Methods: We analyzed transcriptomic data from two independent bladder cancer datasets, corresponding to 200 tumoral and five normal urothelium samples. Read More

    New use of low-dose aspirin and risk of colorectal cancer by stage at diagnosis: a nested case-control study in UK general practice.
    BMC Cancer 2017 Sep 7;17(1):637. Epub 2017 Sep 7.
    Spanish Centre for Pharmacoepidemiologic Research, c/ Almirante 28, 2°, 28004, Madrid, Spain.
    Background: Evidence from clinical trial populations suggests low-dose aspirin reduces the risk of colorectal cancer (CRC). Part of this reduction in risk might be due to protection against metastatic disease.

    Methods: We investigated the risk of CRC among new-users of low-dose aspirin (75-300 mg), including risk by stage at diagnosis. Read More

    Tissue microarray analysis indicates hedgehog signaling as a potential prognostic factor in intermediate-risk prostate cancer.
    BMC Cancer 2017 Sep 6;17(1):634. Epub 2017 Sep 6.
    Department of Oncology, CRUK/MRC Oxford Institute for Radiation Oncology, University of Oxford, Oxford, UK.
    Background: Prostate cancer (PCa) is a heterogeneous disease with a variable natural history, genetics, and treatment outcome. The Hedgehog (Hh) signaling pathway is increasingly recognized as being potentially important for the development and progression of PCa. In this retrospective study, we compared the activation status of the Hh signaling pathway between benign and tumor tissue, and evaluated the clinical significance of Hh signaling in PCa. Read More

    Reduced ovarian reserve in young early breast cancer patients: preliminary data from a prospective cohort trial.
    BMC Cancer 2017 Sep 6;17(1):632. Epub 2017 Sep 6.
    OB/GYN, University of Kiel, UKSH, Arnold-Heller-Straße 3, 24105, Kiel, Germany.
    Background: The numerous side effects of chemotherapy in patients with breast cancer are well known. However, the precise effects of chemotherapy on ovarian function in premenopausal women are poorly investigated. The patients are at risk of developing sexual hormone deficiency and impaired fertility. Read More

    Testosterone inhibits the growth of prostate cancer xenografts in nude mice.
    BMC Cancer 2017 Sep 7;17(1):635. Epub 2017 Sep 7.
    Scott Department of Urology, Baylor College of Medicine, Jones Building 506C, One Baylor Plaza, Houston, TX, 77030, USA.
    Background: Traditional beliefs of androgen's stimulating effects on the growth of prostate cancer (PCa) have been challenged in recent years. Our previous in vitro study indicated that physiological normal levels of androgens inhibited the proliferation of PCa cells. In this in vivo study, the ability of testosterone (T) to inhibit PCa growth was assessed by testing the tumor incidence rate and tumor growth rate of PCa xenografts on nude mice. Read More

    Disease-stabilizing treatment based on all-trans retinoic acid and valproic acid in acute myeloid leukemia - identification of responders by gene expression profiling of pretreatment leukemic cells.
    BMC Cancer 2017 Sep 6;17(1):630. Epub 2017 Sep 6.
    Section for Hematology, Institute of Clinical Science, University of Bergen, Bergen, Norway.
    Background: Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is an aggressive malignancy only cured by intensive therapy. However, many elderly and unfit patients cannot receive such treatment due to an unacceptable risk of treatment-related morbidity and mortality. Disease-stabilizing therapy is then the only possible strategy, one alternative being treatment based on all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA) combined with the histone deacetylase inhibitor valproic acid and possibly low-toxicity conventional chemotherapy. Read More

    Positive regulation of prostate cancer cell growth by lipid droplet forming and processing enzymes DGAT1 and ABHD5.
    BMC Cancer 2017 Sep 6;17(1):631. Epub 2017 Sep 6.
    College of Medicine, Roseman University of Health Sciences, 10530 Discovery drive, Las Vegas, NV, 89135, USA.
    Background: Neoplastic cells proliferate rapidly and obtain requisite building blocks by reprogramming metabolic pathways that favor growth. Previously, we observed that prostate cancer cells uptake and store lipids in the form of lipid droplets, providing building blocks for membrane synthesis, to facilitate proliferation and growth. Mechanisms of lipid uptake, lipid droplet dynamics and their contribution to cancer growth have yet to be defined. Read More

    Extranodal natural killer/T-cell lymphoma in Malawi: a report of three cases.
    BMC Cancer 2017 Sep 6;17(1):633. Epub 2017 Sep 6.
    UNC Project-Malawi, Private Bag A104, Lilongwe, Malawi.
    Background: Extranodal NK/T-cell lymphoma (ENKTCL) reports from sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) are remarkably rare, despite early childhood acquisition and high prevalence of the causative infectious agent, Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), and frequent occurrence of other lymphoproliferative disorders causally associated with EBV.

    Case Presentations: At a national teaching hospital in Malawi, three patients of African descent were seen with ENKTCL between 2013 and 2014. Patients were aged between 29 and 60 years, two with craniofacial involvement and one with a primary abdominal tumor, and all were HIV-negative. Read More

    Circadian disruption promotes tumor growth by anabolic host metabolism; experimental evidence in a rat model.
    BMC Cancer 2017 Sep 6;17(1):625. Epub 2017 Sep 6.
    Departamento de Anatomía, Facultad de Medicina, UNAM, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Ciudad Universitaria, 04510, México City, Mexico.
    Background: Light at night creates a conflicting signal to the biological clock and disrupts circadian physiology. In rodents, light at night increases the risk to develop mood disorders, overweight, disrupted energy metabolism, immune dysfunction and cancer. We hypothesized that constant light (LL) in rats may facilitate tumor growth via disrupted metabolism and increased inflammatory response in the host, inducing a propitious microenvironment for tumor cells. Read More

    CHEK2 c.1100delC mutation is associated with an increased risk for male breast cancer in Finnish patient population.
    BMC Cancer 2017 Sep 5;17(1):620. Epub 2017 Sep 5.
    Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of Helsinki and Helsinki University Hospital, Helsinki, Finland.
    Background: Several susceptibility genes have been established for female breast cancer, of which mutations in BRCA1 and especially in BRCA2 are also known risk factors for male breast cancer (MBC). The role of other breast cancer genes in MBC is less well understood.

    Methods: In this study, we have genotyped 68 MBC patients for the known breast or ovarian cancer associated mutations in the Finnish population in CHEK2, PALB2, RAD51C, RAD51D, and FANCM genes. Read More

    Stress alters the expression of cancer-related genes in the prostate.
    BMC Cancer 2017 Sep 5;17(1):621. Epub 2017 Sep 5.
    Department of Biological Sciences and Border Biomedical Research Center, The University of Texas at El Paso, 500 West University Avenue, El Paso, TX, 79968, USA.
    Background: Prostate cancer is a major contributor to mortality worldwide, and significant efforts are being undertaken to decipher specific cellular and molecular pathways underlying the disease. Chronic stress is known to suppress reproductive function and promote tumor progression in several cancer models, but our understanding of the mechanisms through which stress contributes to cancer development and progression is incomplete. We therefore examined the relationship between stress, modulation of the gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) system, and changes in the expression of cancer-related genes in the rat prostate. Read More

    ERp29 controls invasion and metastasis of gastric carcinoma by inhibition of epithelial-mesenchymal transition via PI3K/Aktsignaling pathway.
    BMC Cancer 2017 Sep 6;17(1):626. Epub 2017 Sep 6.
    Key Laboratory of Ministry of Education for Gastrointestinal Cancer, School of Basic Medical Sciences, Fujian Medical University, 1 Xueyuan Road, Minhou, Fuzhou, Fujian, 350108, China.
    Background: Gastric cancer (GC) accounts for the fourth most occurring malignancy and the third major cause of cancer death. Identifying novel molecular signaling pathways participating in gastric tumorigenesis and progression is pivotal for rational design of targeted therapies to improve advanced GC outcome. Recently, the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) protein 29 (ERp29) has been shown to inversely associate with primary tumor development and function as a tumor suppressor in breast cancer. Read More

    Cytotoxicity of replication-competent adenoviruses powered by an exogenous regulatory region is not linearly correlated with the viral infectivity/gene expression or with the E1A-activating ability but is associated with the p53 genotypes.
    BMC Cancer 2017 Sep 5;17(1):622. Epub 2017 Sep 5.
    Division of Pathology and Cell Therapy, Chiba Cancer Center Research Institute, Chiba, Japan.
    Background: Replication-competent adenoviruses (Ad) produced cytotoxic effects on infected tumors and have been examined for the clinical applicability. A biomarkers to predict the cytotoxicity is valuable in a clinical setting.

    Methods: We constructed type 5 Ad (Ad5) of which the expression of E1A gene was activated by a 5' regulatory sequences of survivin, midkine or cyclooxygenase-2, which were highly expressed in human tumors. Read More

    A survey of the clinicopathological and molecular characteristics of patients with suspected Lynch syndrome in Latin America.
    BMC Cancer 2017 Sep 5;17(1):623. Epub 2017 Sep 5.
    Department of Tumor Biology, Institute for Cancer Research, Oslo University Hospital, Oslo, Norway.
    Background: Genetic counselling and testing for Lynch syndrome (LS) have recently been introduced in several Latin America countries. We aimed to characterize the clinical, molecular and mismatch repair (MMR) variants spectrum of patients with suspected LS in Latin America.

    Methods: Eleven LS hereditary cancer registries and 34 published LS databases were used to identify unrelated families that fulfilled the Amsterdam II (AMSII) criteria and/or the Bethesda guidelines or suggestive of a dominant colorectal (CRC) inheritance syndrome. Read More

    The values of neutrophil-lymphocyte ratio and/or prostate-specific antigen in discriminating real Gleason score ≥ 7 prostate cancer from group of biopsy-based Gleason score ≤ 6.
    BMC Cancer 2017 Sep 6;17(1):629. Epub 2017 Sep 6.
    Department of Urology, Chinese PLA General Hospital/PLA Medical School, Beijing, 100853, People's Republic of China.
    Background: The discrepant concordance between biopsy and radical prostatectomy (RP) specimen are well reported. To validate the clinical usefulness of neutrophil-lymphocyte ratio (NLR) in discriminating real GS ≥ 7 PCa from biopsy-based GS ≤ 6 PCa in comparison with serum total prostate-specific antigen (tPSA) and value of their combination.

    Methods: One hundred one patients who underwent physical examinations incidentally found elevated tPSA and subsequently received biopsy with a conclusion of GS ≤ 6 and RP with an interval of 4-6 weeks after biopsy were enrolled. Read More

    Development and external validation of nomograms to predict the risk of skeletal metastasis at the time of diagnosis and skeletal metastasis-free survival in nasopharyngeal carcinoma.
    BMC Cancer 2017 Sep 6;17(1):628. Epub 2017 Sep 6.
    Sun Yat-sen University Cancer Center, 651 East Dong Feng Road, Guangzhou, 510060, China.
    Background: The skeletal system is the most common site of distant metastasis in nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC); various prognostic factors have been reported for skeletal metastasis, though most studies have focused on a single factor. We aimed to establish nomograms to effectively predict skeletal metastasis at initial diagnosis (SMAD) and skeletal metastasis-free survival (SMFS) in NPC.

    Methods: A total of 2685 patients with NPC who received bone scintigraphy (BS) and/or 18F-deoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography (18F-FDG PET/CT) and 2496 patients without skeletal metastasis were retrospectively assessed to develop individual nomograms for SMAD and SMFS. Read More

    Prognostic consequences of implementing cancer patient pathways in Denmark: a comparative cohort study of symptomatic cancer patients in primary care.
    BMC Cancer 2017 Sep 6;17(1):627. Epub 2017 Sep 6.
    Research Centre for Cancer Diagnosis in Primary Care, Research Unit for General Practice, Department of Public Health, Aarhus University, Bartholins Allé 2, DK-8000, Aarhus C, Denmark.
    Background: Cancer Patient Pathways (CPPs) were introduced in 2000-2015 in several European countries, including Denmark, to reduce the time to diagnosis and treatment initiation and ultimately improve patient survival. Yet, the prognostic consequences of implementing CPPs remain unknown for symptomatic cancer patients diagnosed through primary care. We aimed to compare survival and mortality among symptomatic patients diagnosed through a primary care route before, during and after the CPP implementation in Denmark. Read More

    The association between smoking and breast cancer characteristics and outcome.
    BMC Cancer 2017 Sep 6;17(1):624. Epub 2017 Sep 6.
    Institute of Oncology, Davidoff Cancer Center, Beilinson Hospital, Rabin Medical Center, 39 Jabotinski St., Petach Tikva, Israel.
    Background: Smoking is associated with an increased incidence of hormone receptor positive breast cancer. Data regarding worse breast cancer outcome in smokers are accumulating. Current literature regarding the impact of smoking on breast cancer characteristics is limited. Read More

    Programmed cell death ligand 1 cut-point is associated with reduced disease specific survival in resected pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma.
    BMC Cancer 2017 Sep 5;17(1):618. Epub 2017 Sep 5.
    Division of Anatomical Pathology, Vancouver General Hospital, Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada.
    Background: Programmed cell death 1 (PD1) inhibitors have recently shown promising anti-cancer effects in a number of solid tumor types. A predictive biomarker to this class of drugs has not been clearly identified; however, overexpression of the PD1 ligand (PD-L1) has shown particular promise in lung adenocarcinoma. In this study, we explore the staining characteristics, prevalence, and clinico-molecular correlates of PD-L1 overexpression in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC). Read More

    3,6-Dihydroxyflavone regulates microRNA-34a through DNA methylation.
    BMC Cancer 2017 Sep 5;17(1):619. Epub 2017 Sep 5.
    Research Center for Nutrition Correspondence and Food Safety, Third Military Medical University, Chongqing Key Laboratory of Nutrition and Food Safety, 30 Gaotanyan Street, Shapingba District, Chongqing, 400038, China.
    Background: Breast cancer is the common cancer in China. In previous study, we determined that 3,6-dihydroxyflavone (3,6-DHF) increases miR-34a significantly in breast carcinogenesis, but the mechanism remains unclear.

    Methods: We used qRT-PCR to analyze miR-34a and ten-eleven translocation (TET)1, TET2, TET3 levels in breast cancer cells. Read More

    Up-modulation of PLC-β2 reduces the number and malignancy of triple-negative breast tumor cells with a CD133(+)/EpCAM(+) phenotype: a promising target for preventing progression of TNBC.
    BMC Cancer 2017 Sep 4;17(1):617. Epub 2017 Sep 4.
    Signal Transduction Unit, Division of Anatomy and Histology, Department of Morphology, Surgery and Experimental Medicine, University of Ferrara, Via Fossato di Mortara, 70, 44121, Ferrara, Italy.
    Background: The malignant potential of triple negative breast cancer (TNBC) is also dependent on a sub-population of cells with a stem-like phenotype. Among the cancer stem cell markers, CD133 and EpCAM strongly correlate with breast tumor aggressiveness, suggesting that simultaneous targeting of the two surface antigens may be beneficial in treatment of TNBC. Since in TNBC-derived cells we demonstrated that PLC-β2 induces the conversion of CD133(high) to CD133(low) cells, here we explored its possible role in down-modulating the expression of both CD133 and EpCAM and, ultimately, in reducing the number of TNBC cells with a stem-like phenotype. Read More

    Association between self-perception of aging, view of cancer and health of older patients in oncology: a one-year longitudinal study.
    BMC Cancer 2017 Sep 2;17(1):614. Epub 2017 Sep 2.
    Psychology of Aging Unit, Department of Psychology, University of Liège (ULg), Traverse des Architectes (B63c), 4000, Liege, BE, Belgium.
    Background: Identifying older people affected by cancer who are more at risk of negative health outcomes is a major issue in health initiatives focusing on medical effectiveness. In this regard, psychological risk factors such as patients' perception of their own aging and cancer could be used as indicators to improve customization of cancer care. We hypothesize that more negative self-perception of aging (SPA) and view of cancer could be linked to worse physical and mental health outcomes in cancer patients. Read More

    Adjuvant chemotherapy versus chemoradiotherapy for small cell lung cancer with lymph node metastasis: a retrospective observational study with use of a national database in Japan.
    BMC Cancer 2017 Sep 2;17(1):613. Epub 2017 Sep 2.
    Department of Respiratory Medicine, Graduate School of Medicine, The University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo, 113-8655, Japan.
    Background: The optimal postoperative treatment strategy for small cell lung cancer (SCLC) remains unclear, especially in patients with lymph node metastasis. We aimed to compare the outcomes of patients with SCLC and lymph node metastasis treated with postoperative adjuvant chemotherapy or chemoradiotherapy.

    Methods: We retrospectively collected data on patients with postoperative SCLC diagnosed with N1 and N2 lymph node metastasis from the Diagnosis Procedure Combination database in Japan, between July 2010 and March 2015. Read More

    Role of adjuvant chemotherapy in locally advanced rectal cancer with ypT0-3N0 after preoperative chemoradiation therapy and surgery.
    BMC Cancer 2017 Sep 2;17(1):615. Epub 2017 Sep 2.
    Division of Medical Oncology, Department of Internal Medicine, Yonsei Cancer Center, 50-1 Yonsei-ro, Seodaemun-gu, Seoul, 120-752, South Korea.
    Background: We aimed to explore the clinical benefit of adjuvant chemotherapy (AC) with fluoropyrimidine in patients with ypT0-3N0 rectal cancer after preoperative chemoradiation therapy (CRT) followed by total mesorectal excision (TME).

    Methods: Patients with ypT0-3N0 rectal cancer after preoperative CRT and TME were included using prospectively collected tumor registry cohort between January 2001 and December 2013. Patients were categorized into two groups according to the receipt of AC. Read More

    Uncommon presentation of a rare tumour - incidental finding in an asymptomatic patient: case report and comprehensive review of the literature on intrapericardial solitary fibrous tumours.
    BMC Cancer 2017 Sep 2;17(1):612. Epub 2017 Sep 2.
    Heart and Vascular Center, Semmelweis University, 68 Varosmajor St, Budapest, H-1122, Hungary.
    Background: A solitary fibrous tumour is a rare, mainly benign spindle cell mesenchymal tumour most commonly originating from the pleura. An intrapericardial location of a solitary fibrous tumour is extremely unusual. We present a case of an asymptomatic patient with a slow-growing massive benign cardiac solitary fibrous tumour. Read More

    Updating vital status by tracking in the community among patients with epidemic Kaposi sarcoma who are lost to follow-up in sub-Saharan Africa.
    BMC Cancer 2017 Sep 2;17(1):611. Epub 2017 Sep 2.
    University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, CA, United States.
    Background: Throughout most of sub-Saharan Africa (and, indeed, most resource-limited areas), lack of death registries prohibits linkage of cancer diagnoses and precludes the most expeditious approach to determining cancer survival. Instead, estimation of cancer survival often uses clinical records, which have some mortality data but are replete with patients who are lost to follow-up (LTFU), some of which may be caused by undocumented death. The end result is that accurate estimation of cancer survival is rarely performed. Read More

    Trends in risk classification and primary therapy of Japanese patients with prostate cancer in Nara urological research and treatment group (NURTG) - comparison between 2004-2006, 2007-2009, and 2010-2012.
    BMC Cancer 2017 Sep 2;17(1):616. Epub 2017 Sep 2.
    Department of Urology, Nara Medical University, Nara, Japan.
    Background: To assess the trends in risk classification and primary therapy of Japanese prostate cancer patients who were diagnosed between 2004 and 2012.

    Methods: A total of 7768 patients who were newly diagnosed with prostate cancer at Nara Medical University and its 23 affiliated hospitals between 2004 and 2012 were enrolled. The trends in risk classification and primary therapy in 2004-2006 (prior period), 2007-2009 (middle period), and 2010-2012 (latter period) were compared. Read More

    Effectiveness of PIVKA-II in the detection of hepatocellular carcinoma based on real-world clinical data.
    BMC Cancer 2017 Sep 1;17(1):608. Epub 2017 Sep 1.
    Department of Infectious Diseases, Southwest Hospital, Third Military Medical University, Chongqing, 400038, China.
    Background: Protein Induced by Vitamin K Absence or Antagonist-II (PIVKA-II) is an efficient biomarker specific for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Some researchers have proved that levels of PIVKA-II reflect HCC oncogenesis and progression. However, the effectiveness of PIVKA-II based on real-world clnical data has barely been studied. Read More

    Downregulation of GPR155 as a prognostic factor after curative resection of hepatocellular carcinoma.
    BMC Cancer 2017 Sep 1;17(1):610. Epub 2017 Sep 1.
    Department of Gastroenterological Surgery (Surgery II), Nagoya University Graduate School of Medicine, 65 Tsurumai-cho, Showa-ku, Nagoya, 466-8550, Japan.
    Background: Molecular biomarkers capable of predicting recurrence patterns and prognosis are helpful for risk stratification and providing appropriate treatment to patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). In this study, we focused on G protein-coupled receptor 155 (GPR155), a cell surface signaling protein, as a candidate biomarker.

    Methods: We analyzed GPR155 expression, DNA methylation, and copy number in HCC cell lines. Read More

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