Background: Sickle cell anaemia (SCA) is a major chronic health problem in Uganda. In patients with SCA, the level of foetal haemoglobin (HbF) has been found to be important in influencing the clinical course of the disease. Thus populations with high levels of HbF like those in Saudi Arabia have been described as having a milder clinical course with fewer complications as compared to populations with lower levels. Read More
Background: In some clinical situations, for which RCT are rare or impossible, the majority of the evidence comes from observational studies, but standard estimations could be biased because they ignore covariates that confound treatment decisions and outcomes.
Methods: Three observational studies were conducted to assess the benefit of Allo-SCT in hematological malignancies of multiple myeloma, follicular lymphoma and Hodgkin's disease. Two statistical analyses were performed: the propensity score (PS) matching approach and the inverse probability weighting (IPW) approach. Read More
Background: This case report highlights the relevance of quantifying the BCR-ABL gene in cerebrospinal fluid of patients with suspected relapse of chronic myeloid leukemia in the central nervous system.
Case Presentation: We report on a female patient with isolated central nervous system relapse of chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) during peripheral remission after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. The patient showed a progressive cognitive decline as the main symptom. Read More
Background: Syncytial giant cell hepatitis (GCH) is an uncommon and an underreported disease entity. In two previously reported cases of GCH in patients with Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia (CLL) liver failure ensued. Autoimmune and infective causes have been implicated but its etiology remains unclear. Read More
Background: The prevalence of monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance (MGUS), a premalignant plasma-cell disorder has not been determined in our geographic area Nigeria.
Methods: A cross sectional survey was carried on apparently healthy Nigerians selected by multistage sampling technique from the cosmopolitan city of Lagos, Nigeria. Subjects enrolled into the study had 2-step screening for the presence, type and concentration of monoclonal band. Read More
Background: Thalassemia is a common disorder worldwide with a predominant incidence in Mediterranean countries, North Africa, the Middle East, India, Central Asia, and Southeast Asia. Whilst substantial progress has been made towards the improvement of Health related quality of life (HRQoL) in western countries, scarce evidence-based data exists on HRQol of thalassemia children and adolescents living in developing countries.
Methods: We studied 60 thalassemia children from Middle Eastern countries with a median age of 10 years (range 5 to 17 years). Read More
Background: Sickle cell disease (or simply, SCD) is an inherited hemoglobinopathy which is mostly prevalent among persons of African descent. SCD results from a monogenic (Hemoglobin, beta) point-mutation (substitution of the base Adenine with Thymine at position six) that leads to replacement of the amino acid glutamic acid (E) with valine (V). Management of SCD within resource-poor settings is largely syndromic, since the option of cure offered by bone-marrow transplantation (BMT) is risky and unaffordable by most affected individuals. Read More
Background: Although G6PD deficiency is the most common genetically determined blood disorder among Iraqis, its molecular basis has only recently been studied among the Kurds in North Iraq, while studies focusing on Arabs in other parts of Iraq are still absent.
Methods: A total of 1810 apparently healthy adult male blood donors were randomly recruited from the national blood transfusion center in Baghdad. They were classified into G6PD deficient and non-deficient individuals based on the results of methemoglobin reduction test (MHRT), with confirmation of deficiency by subsequent enzyme assays. Read More
Background: Hemoglobin E is an important hemoglobin variant with a worldwide distribution. A number of hemoglobinopathies have been reported from Pakistan. However a comprehensive description of hemoglobin E syndromes for the country was never made. Read More
Background: Chronic immune thrombocytopenia (ITP) is a debilitating autoimmune disorder that causes a reduction in blood platelets and increased risk of bleeding. ITP is currently managed with various pharmacologic therapies and splenectomy.This study was conducted to assess patient perceived and reported treatment side effects, as well as the perceived burden or bother, and need to reduce or stop treatment, associated with these side effects among adult patients with chronic ITP. Read More
Background: We report a patient with cytogenetically confirmed Fanconi anaemia with associated diffuse bilateral pulmonary arterio-venous fistulae. This is only the second reported case of diffuse pulmonary arterio-venous fistulae with Fanconi anaemia.
Case Presentation: A 16 year old Sri Lankan boy, with a cytogenetically confirmed Fanconi anaemia was admitted to University Medical Unit, National Hospital of Sri Lanka for further assessment and treatment. Read More
Background: Recommendations given for intravenous iron treatment are typically not supported by a high level of evidence. This meta-analysis addressed this by summarising the available date from clinical trials of ferric carboxymaltose using clinical trial reports and published reports.
Methods: Clinical trial reports were supplemented by electronic literature searches comparing ferric carboxymaltose with active comparators or placebo. Read More
Background: Dyskeratosis congenita (DC) is a progressive, multi-system, inherited disorder of telomere biology with high risks of morbidity and mortality from bone marrow failure, hematologic malignancy, solid tumors and pulmonary fibrosis. Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) can cure the bone marrow failure, but it does not eliminate the risks of other complications, for which life-long surveillance is required. Pulmonary fibrosis is a progressive and lethal complication of DC. Read More
Background: Several studies have shown that the pathophysiology of homozygous sickle cell anaemia (SCA) results in a myriad of metabolic, nutritional, haematological and clinical effects that interact with other co-morbid factors to determine the quality of life and life expectancy of afflicted patients. Because of its critical roles in nutrition and metabolism, inflammation, haematopoiesis and cellular immunity, this study determined the plasma levels of leptin in steady and unsteady states of HbSS in Nigerian patients.
Methods: A total of 51 SCA patients aged 5 - 35 years with 34 (61. Read More
Background: Interpreting the erythroid lineage in populations with high frequency of α+ thalassemia allele is challenging due to the high prevalence of α+ thalassemia homozygotes. For such populations, separate reference values for normal and α+ thalassemia homozygotes are needed.
Methods: We studied the erythroid lineage in 1,079 citizens of United Arab Emirates (UAE). Read More
Background: There are many descriptions of the association of pica with iron deficiency in adults, but there are few reports in which observations available at diagnosis of iron deficiency were analyzed using multivariable techniques to identify significant predictors of pica. We sought to identify clinical and laboratory correlates of pica in adults with iron deficiency or depletion using univariable and stepwise forward logistic regression analyses.
Methods: We reviewed charts of 262 non-pregnant adult outpatients (ages ≥18 y) who required treatment with intravenous iron dextran. Read More
Background: Chronic Myeloid Leukemia (CML) is caused by the abnormal fusion protein BCR-ABL1, a constitutively active tyrosine kinase and product of the Philadelphia chromosome. Gleevec (Imatinib mesylate) is a selective inhibitor of this kinase. Treatment with this agent is known to result in hematologic, cytogenetic, and molecular responses. Read More
Background: The monitoring of BCR-ABL transcript levels by real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) has become important to assess minimal residual disease (MRD) and standard of care in the treatment of chronic myeloid leukemia (CML). In this study, we performed a prospective, sequential analysis using RT-qPCR monitoring of BCR-ABL gene rearrangements in blood samples from 91 CML patients in chronic phase (CP) who achieved complete cytogenetic remission (CCyR) and major molecular remission (MMR) throughout imatinib treatment.
Methods: The absolute level of BCR-ABL transcript from peripheral blood was serially measured every 4 to 12 weeks by RT-qPCR. Read More
Background: Glucose-6-Phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) is a key enzyme of the pentose monophosphate pathway, and its deficiency is the most common inherited enzymopathy worldwide. G6PD deficiency is common among Iraqis, including those of the Kurdish ethnic group, however no study of significance has ever addressed the molecular basis of this disorder in this population. The aim of this study is to determine the prevalence of this enzymopathy and its molecular basis among Iraqi Kurds. Read More
Background: The first survey on sickle cell disease (SCD) done in Uganda in 1949, reported the district of Bundibugyo in Western Uganda to have the highest sickle cell trait (SCT) prevalence (45%). This is believed to be the highest in the whole world. According to the same survey, the prevalence of SCT in the districts of Mbale and Sironko in the East was 20-28%, whilst the districts of Mbarara and Ntungamo in the West had 1-5%. Read More
Background: Reference ranges are available for different blood cell counts. These ranges treat each cell type independently and do not consider possible correlations between cell types.
Methods: Participants were identified from the Community Health Index as survivors of the 1947 Scottish Mental Survey, all born in 1936, who were resident in Lothian (potential n = 3,810) and invited to participate in the study. Read More
Although the biochemistry of hereditary angioedema (HAE) is fairly well understood today, the lag in diagnosis of a decade or more suggests that clinicians have low awareness of this disease. This lag in diagnosis and hence treatment certainly stems from the rarity and complexity of the presentation which can be easily mistaken for allergic and non-allergic reactions alike. The symptoms of the disease include acute swelling of any or multiple parts of the body. Read More
Background: In 2004, wheat flour fortification (WFF) with iron was implemented in Kazakhstan as a public health strategy to increase the iron intake of all women of childbearing age and of children. In 2003, before starting the flour fortification program, a communication campaign on health education took place in a region with a high prevalence of iron deficiency anemia (IDA). The present study aimed to evaluate the prevalence of anemia, iron deficiency and IDA before and after the campaign. Read More
Background: Knowledge of the factors associated with health-related quality of life (HRQOL) among patients with thalassemia is essential in developing more suitable clinical, counseling, and social support programs to improve treatment outcomes of these patients. In light of the limited research in this area, this study aims to examine factors associated with HRQOL among children and adolescents with thalassemia in Thailand.
Methods: A cross-sectional survey was conducted in three selected hospitals in Thailand during June to November 2006. Read More
Background: In Ethiopia, the existence of iron deficiency anemia is controversial despite the fact that Ethiopia is one of the least developed in Africa with a high burden of nutrient deficiencies.
Methods: The first large nutrition study of a representative sample of women in Ethiopia was conducted from June to July 2005 and a systematically selected sub-sample of 970 of these subjects, 15 to 49 years old, were used in this analysis of nutritional anemia. Hemoglobin was measured from capillary blood using a portable HemoCue photometer. Read More
Background: Sickle cell disease (SCD) is now the most common genetic condition in the world including the UK with an estimate of over 12,500 affected people and over 300 new births per year. Blood transfusion therapy plays a very important role as a disease-modifying strategy in severe SCD e.g. Read More
Background: Hematological abnormalities are a common complication of HIV infection. These abnormalities increase as the disease advances. Bone marrow abnormalities occur in all stages of HIV infection. Read More
Background: We studied the application of the BCR-ABL1 + 9q34 tri-colour dual fusion fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) system in the characterization of fusion signal pattern and the monitoring of residual disease in chronic myelogenous leukaemia (CML). The signal constellation on metaphases with the tri-colour dual fusion system was defined. The knowledge of various signal patterns obtained from the different genetic rearrangements was further applied to the analysis of hybridization signals on interphase nuclei. Read More
Background: Benign neutropenia, i.e., neutropenia not associated with an increased risk of infection, may result in serious medical consequences when a 'standard' definition of neutropenia (absolute neutrophil count (ANC) < 1. Read More
Background: Sickle cell disease is the most frequent hereditary disease in Brazil, and people with the disease may be hospitalised several times in the course of their lives. The purpose of this study was to estimate the hazard ratios of factors associated with the time between hospital admissions.
Methods: The study sample comprised all patients admitted, from 2000 to 2004, to a university hospital in Rio de Janeiro State, south-east Brazil, as a result of acute complications from sickle cell disease (SCD). Read More
Background: Primary eosinophlia associated with the FIP1L1-PDGFRA rearrangement represents a subset of chronic eosinophilic leukaemia (CEL) and affected patients are very sensitive to imatinib treatment. This study was undertaken in order to examine the prevalence and the associated clinicopathologic and genetic features of FIP1L1-PDGFRA rearrangement in a cohort of 15 adult patients presenting with profound eosinophilia (> 1.5 x 109/L). Read More
Background: Although it is widely appreciated that vigorous physical activity can increase the risk of bleeding episodes in children with haemophilia, the magnitude of the increase in risk is not known. Accurate risk estimates could inform decisions made by children with haemophilia and their parents about participation in physical activity and aid the development of optimal prophylactic schedules. The aim of this study is to provide an accurate estimate of the risks of bleeding associated with vigorous physical activity in children with haemophilia. Read More
Background: Influenza vaccines are recommended for administration by the intramuscular route. However, many physicians use the subcutaneous route for patients receiving an oral anticoagulant because this route is thought to induce fewer hemorrhagic side effects. Our aim is to assess the safety of intramuscular administration of influenza vaccine in patients on oral anticoagulation therapy. Read More
Background: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the impact of recombinant human erythropoietin (rHuEPO) use for anemia of critical illness at a practice site where delayed initiation is common.
Methods: Retrospective medical record review involving patients treated with rHuEPO for anemia of critical illness. Those patients given rHuEPO or diagnosed with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) prior to ICU admission were excluded. Read More
Background: Warfarin is a coumarin anti-coagulant, used widely for the therapeutic and prophylactic anticoagulation. Although, it is considered as a life saving medicine, it is associated with the significant adverse effects including intra-abdominal bleeding, which have been very well documented in literature. However, the presentation of warfarin induced intra-peritoneal bleeding as an acute appendicitis has not been reported in English literature. Read More
Background: Thrombosis is the fatal and disabling consequence of cardiovascular diseases, the leading cause of mortality and morbidity in Western countries. Two inbred mouse strains, C57BL/6J and A/J, have marked differences in susceptibility to obesity, atherosclerosis, and vessel remodeling. However, it is unclear how these diverse genetic backgrounds influence pathways known to regulate thrombosis and hemostasis. Read More
Background: Some studies have found that lower parity and higher or lower social class (depending on the study) are associated with increased risks of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL). Such findings have led to suggestions that infection could play a role in the causation of this disease. An earlier New Zealand study found a protective effect of parental marriage on the risk of childhood ALL, and studies elsewhere have reported increased risks in relation to older parental ages. Read More
Background: Although myocardial infiltration with leukemic blasts is a known finding in patients with acute leukemia, this phenomenon in myelodysplasia is not reported in the literature. Cardiac symptoms in patients with myelodysplasia are often due to anemia and may be due to iron overload and side effects of therapy.
Case Presentation: Herein we report the first case of neoplastic infiltration of the heart with associated myocardial necrosis in a patient with myelodysplasia. Read More
Background: In the context of sickle cell anemia, peripheral blood indexes provide key information that is also potentially influenced by age. Therefore, it is necessary to understand the extent and nature of interactions between sickle cell anemia and age, especially in situations where there is a high prevalence of sickle cell anemia.
Methods: In a cross-sectional study of 374 subjects with varying hemoglobin S (HbS) status, we characterized the interaction between age and sickle hemoglobin using principal components analysis. Read More
Background: Children with haemophilia have lower levels of fitness and strength than their healthy peers. We present the protocol of a study designed to determine whether an exercise intervention improves quality of life, aerobic fitness and strength in children with haemophilia.
Methods/design: The study will be a randomised, assessor-blinded, controlled trial of exercise treatment. Read More
Background: In 1983, Graham Hughes described a condition of Antiphospholipid Syndrome in which there was a danger of thrombosis. The condition is readily detectable by blood tests and, once diagnosed; the risk of further thrombosis can be significantly reduced by anticoagulation treatments. Affected groups of patients can be distinguished by a specific blood test - the detection of antiphospholipid antibody (Ref-1). Read More
Background: It has been reported that some persons with hemochromatosis have low total blood lymphocyte counts, but the reason for this is unknown.
Methods: We measured total blood lymphocyte counts using an automated blood cell counter in 146 hemochromatosis probands (88 men, 58 women) with HFE C282Y homozygosity who were diagnosed in medical care. Univariate and multivariate analyses of total blood lymphocyte counts were evaluated using these variables: sex; age, transferrin saturation, and serum ferritin concentration at diagnosis; units of blood removed by phlebotomy to achieve iron depletion; and human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-A and -B alleles and haplotypes. Read More
Background: We have previously demonstrated that therapy with orally administered L-glutamine improves nicotinamide adenosine dinucleotide (NAD) redox potential of sickle red blood cells (RBC). On further analysis of L-glutamine therapy for sickle cell anemia patients, the effect of L-glutamine on adhesion of sickle RBC to human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) was examined.
Methods: The first part of the experiment was conducted with the blood samples of the 5 adult sickle cell anemia patients who had been on L-glutamine therapy for at least 4 weeks on a dosage of 30 grams per day compared to those of patient control group. Read More
BACKGROUND: Rotational thromboelastography (ROTEG) has been proposed as a monitoring tool that can be used to monitor treatment of hemophilia with recombinant factor VIIa (rFVIIa). In these studies special non-standard reagents were used as activators of the coagulation. The aim of this study was to evaluate if standard ROTEG analysis could be used for monitoring of effects of recombinant factor VIIa (rFVIIa) on Hydroxy Ethyl Starch-induced dilutional coagulopathy. Read More
BACKGROUND: With chronic infection, hepatitis C virus (HCV) RNA can be detected in B cells and associated with B-cell disorders, but these are not well defined. METHODS: The relationship between HCV infection and lymphocyte subpopulations was evaluated rigorously in 120 asymptomatic hemophilic patients, randomly selected from a prospective cohort study. CD4+ T cells, CD8+ T cells, CD19+ B cells, and CD56+ NK cells were quantified by flow cytometry using cryopreserved peripheral blood mononuclear cells of 24 hemophilic patients in each of five age-matched groups [uninfected; chronic HCV with or without human immunodeficiency virus (HIV); and cleared HCV with or without HIV]. Read More
BACKGROUND: Allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT) is performed mainly in patients with high-risk or advanced hematologic malignancies and congenital or acquired aplastic anemias. In the context of the significant risk of graft failure after allo-HSCT from alternative donors and the risk of relapse in recipients transplanted for malignancy, the precise monitoring of posttransplant hematopoietic chimerism is of utmost interest. Useful molecular methods for chimerism quantification after allogeneic transplantation, aimed at distinguishing precisely between donor's and recipient's cells, are PCR-based analyses of polymorphic DNA markers. Read More
BACKGROUND: Platelet transfusion is universally employed in acute leukemia. Platelet concentrate supernatants contain high concentrations of biologic mediators that might impair immunity. We investigated whether washed platelet and red cell transfusions could improve clinical outcomes in adult patients with acute leukemia. Read More
BACKGROUND: Drug-induced agranulocytosis, a severe side effect marked by a deficit or absolute lack of granulocytic white blood cells, is a rare side-effect of the anti-inflammatory drug sulphasalazine. Mutations in the human neutrophil elastase gene (ELA2), causing increased intracellular concentration of this serine protease, inhibits neutrophil differentiation in severe congenital neutropenia (SCN). Since the clinical symptoms of agranulocytosis and SCN are similar, we hypothesized that it may origin from a common genetic variation in ELA2 or that sulphasalazine may affect human neutrophil elastase activity and protein expression. Read More
BACKGROUND: In view of clinical observations and laboratory results that support a central role of the spleen in idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura (ITP) pathophysiology, we studied the effect of splenectomy on type-1 and type-2 cytokine gene expression in an adult ITP case, refractory to conservative treatment. CASE PRESENTATION: The patient was subjected to splenectomy 9 months after the diagnosis with complete response, attaining platelet counts over 150 x 106/L within 10 days after the operation. Two consecutive blood samples were obtained from the patient, 3 and 7 months after the splenectomy for the purposes of this study. Read More
BACKGROUND: Mutations in the gene coding for the RNA component of telomerase, hTERC, have been found in autosomal dominant dyskeratosis congenita (DC) and aplastic anemia. Paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria (PNH) is a clonal blood disorder associated with aplastic anemia and characterized by the presence of one or more clones of blood cells lacking glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI) anchored proteins due to a somatic mutation in the PIGA gene. METHODS: We searched for mutations in DNA extracted from PNH patients by amplification of the hTERC gene and denaturing high performance liquid chromatography (dHPLC). Read More