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    Florence Robotic Intracorporeal Neobladder (FloRIN). A new reconfiguration strategy developed following the IDEAL guidelines.
    BJU Int 2017 Nov 15. Epub 2017 Nov 15.
    Department of Urology, University of Florence, Florence, Italy.
    Objective: To describe our step-by-step technique for robotic intracorporeal neobladder configuration, including the stages of conception, development and exploration of this surgical innovation, according to the IDEAL Collaboration guidelines.

    Patients And Methods: FloRIN neobladder was performed after the following main surgical steps: isolation of 50 cm of ileum; bowel anastomosis; urethro-ileal anastomosis creating an asymmetrical U shape (30 cm distally and 20 cm proximally to anastomosis), ileum detubularisation; posterior wall reconfiguration as an L; bladder neck reconstruction; anterior folding of the posterior plate to reach the 12 o'clock position; uretero-enteral "orthotopic" bilateral anastomosis. The idealization and development of FloRIN followed IDEAL guidelines recommended stages: Phase 1 (simulation) consisted in the neobladder robotic configuration on silicone models. Read More

    First North American validation and head-to-head comparison of four preoperative nomograms for prediction of lymph node invasion before radical prostatectomy.
    BJU Int 2017 Nov 10. Epub 2017 Nov 10.
    Cancer Prognostics and Health Outcomes Unit, University of Montreal Health Center, Montreal, Quebec, Canada.
    Objectives: To perform a head-to-head comparison of four nomograms, namely the Cagiannos, the 2012-Briganti, the Godoy and the online-Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center (MSKCC), for prediction of lymph node invasion (LNI) in a North American population.

    Materials & Methods: 19,775 clinically localized prostate cancer (PCa) patients underwent radical prostatectomy and pelvic lymph node dissection (PLND) were identified within the Surveillance Epidemiology and End Results (SEER) database. All four nomograms were tested with Heagerty's concordance index (C-index), calibration plots and decision curves analyses (DCA). Read More

    The NeuroSAFE Approach to Nerve Sparing in Robotic Assisted Radical Prostatectomy in a British Setting - A Prospective Observational Comparative Study.
    BJU Int 2017 Nov 10. Epub 2017 Nov 10.
    Hertfordshire and Bedfordshire Urological Cancer Centre at Lister Hospital Coreys Mill Lane, Stevenage, SG1 4AB.
    Objectives: To evaluate the NeuroSAFE technique in a British setting in men undergoing RALP.

    Patients And Methods: We retrospectively analysed our prospectively maintained database of patients who underwent RALP between Nov 2008 and Feb 2017. We examined preoperative pathological and functional parameters, intra-operative nerve sparing, post-operative histology as well as functional and oncological follow-up. Read More

    The implications of baseline bone health assessment at initiation of androgen deprivation therapy for prostate cancer.
    BJU Int 2017 Nov 10. Epub 2017 Nov 10.
    Dow Division of Health Services Research, Department of Urology, University of Michigan Health System.
    Objectives: To assess bone density testing (BDT) use among prostate cancer survivors receiving ADT, and downstream implications for osteoporosis and fracture diagnoses as well as pharmacologic osteoporosis treatment in a national integrated delivery system.

    Methods: We identified 17,017 men with prostate cancer who received any ADT between 2005 and 2014 using Veterans Health Administration cancer registry and administrative data. We identified claims for BDT within a 3-year period of ADT initiation. Read More

    Sporadic Primary Hyperparathyroidism and Stone Disease: a Comprehensive Metabolic Evaluation Before and After Parathyroidectomy.
    BJU Int 2017 Nov 10. Epub 2017 Nov 10.
    Section of Endourology Division of Urology, Hospital das Clínicas, University of Sao Paulo Medical School, Sao Paulo, Brazil.
    Objectives: to characterize the stone risk and the impact of parathyroidectomy on the metabolic profile of patients with primary hyperparathyroidism (PHPT) and urolithiasis.

    Subjects And Methods: We analyzed the prospectively collected charts of patients treated at our stone clinic from Jan/2001-Jan/2016 searching for patients with PHPT and urolithiasis. Imaging evaluation of the kidneys, bones and parathyroid glands were assessed. Read More

    Defining a Hba1c Value That Predicts Increased Risk Of Penile Implant Infection.
    BJU Int 2017 Nov 10. Epub 2017 Nov 10.
    Sexual& Reproductive Medicine Program, Urology Service, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, NY, USA.
    Objectives: To explore the association between HbA1C level and penile implant infection rates and to define a cut-off value that predicted implant infection.

    Patients And Methods: A multi center prospective study included all patients undergoing penile implant surgery between 2009-15. Preoperative, perioperative and postoperative management were identical for the entire cohort. Read More

    Intracorporeal robotic assisted radical cystectomy together with an enhanced recovery programme improves postoperative outcomes by aggregating marginal gains.
    BJU Int 2017 Nov 10. Epub 2017 Nov 10.
    Division of Surgery and Interventional Science, University College London, London, UK.
    Objective: To assess the cumulative effect of an enhanced recovery after surgery (ERAS) pathway and a minimally invasive RARC with intracorporeal urinary diversion (iRARC) in comparison to open radical cystectomy (ORC) on hospital length of stay (LOS) and perioperative outcomes.

    Materials & Methods: Between Feb 2009 and Oct 2017, 304 radical cystectomy cases were performed at a single institution (54 ORC, 250 RARC). Data were prospectively collected. Read More

    Surgical management of Azoospermia - Can the NHS England Clinical Commissioning Policy reduce geographical inequality of services?
    BJU Int 2017 Nov 3. Epub 2017 Nov 3.
    University College Hospital, London, United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland.
    Developments in assisted reproductive techniques (ART) have transformed the management of male factor infertility and the advent of intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) in 1993 was a landmark in the management of the infertile male. While this has been an undoubted success, it has led to a shift away from understanding and correcting the potential reversible causes of male factor infertility, to one that simply overcomes it with assisted reproductive techniques (ART). The aetiology of male infertility can broadly be divided into impaired spermatogenesis, or impaired sperm transport within the genital tract. Read More

    Strategies for success: A multi-institutional study on robotic partial nephrectomy for complex renal lesions.
    BJU Int 2017 Oct 26. Epub 2017 Oct 26.
    Department of Surgery, Austin Health The University of Melbourne, Victoria, Australia.
    Objective: Due to their size, location and proximity to the hilum, some complex renal tumours may preclude a minimally invasive approach to nephron sparing surgery. We describe our technique, illustrated with images and videos, of robotic partial nephrectomy for challenging renal tumours.

    Patients And Methods: A study of 249 patients who underwent robotic partial nephrectomy (RPN) in multiple institutions was performed. Read More

    Identifying the candidate for super extended staging pelvic lymph node dissection among patients with high-risk prostate cancer.
    BJU Int 2017 Oct 24. Epub 2017 Oct 24.
    Unit of Urology/Division of Oncology, URI, IRCCS Ospedale San Raffaele, Milan, Italy.
    Objectives: To assess if the preoperative lymph node invasion (LNI) risk could be used to tailor the extent of pelvic lymph node dissection (PLND) according to individual profile in prostate cancer (PCa) patients undergoing radical prostatectomy (RP) and to identify those who would benefit from the removal of the common iliac and presacral nodes.

    Patients And Methods: 471 high-risk PCa patients treated with RP and a super-extended PLND that included the removal of the pre-sacral and common iliac nodes between 2006 and 2016 were identified. The risk of LNI was calculated according to the Briganti nomogram. Read More

    Laparoscopic and robot-assisted vs open radical prostatectomy for the treatment of localized prostate cancer: a Cochrane systematic review.
    BJU Int 2017 Oct 24. Epub 2017 Oct 24.
    Department of Surgery, Monash University, Melbourne, Vic., Australia.
    Objective: To determine the effects of laparoscopic radical prostatectomy (LRP), or robot-assisted radical prostatectomy (RARP) compared with open radical prostatectomy (ORP) in men with localized prostate cancer.

    Materials And Methods: We performed a comprehensive search using multiple databases (CENTRAL, MEDLINE, EMBASE) and abstract proceedings, with no restrictions on the language of publication or publication status, up until 9 June 2017. We included all randomized or pseudo-randomized controlled trials that directly compared LRP and RARP with ORP. Read More

    Associations of specific postoperative complications with costs after radical cystectomy.
    BJU Int 2017 Oct 24. Epub 2017 Oct 24.
    Division of Urologic Surgery, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Boston, MA, USA.
    Objective: To quantify the financial impact of complications after radical cystectomy (RC) and their associations with respective 90-day costs, as RC is a morbid surgery plagued by complications and the expenditure attributed to specific complications after RC is not well characterised.

    Patients And Methods: We used the Premier Hospital Database (Premier Inc., Charlotte, NC, USA) to identify 9 137 RC patients (weighted population of 57 553) from 360 hospitals between 2003 and 2013. Read More

    Early discharge and post-discharge outcomes in patients undergoing radical cystectomy for bladder cancer.
    BJU Int 2017 Oct 24. Epub 2017 Oct 24.
    Division of Urology, University of Pennsylvania Perelman School of Medicine, Philadelphia, PA, USA.
    Objective: To assess whether discharging patients early after radical cystectomy (RC) is associated with an increased risk of readmission and post-discharge complications.

    Materials And Methods: The National Surgical Quality Improvement Program database was queried to identify patients who underwent an elective RC from 2012 to 2015. Patients were stratified into two groups: those with a length of hospital stay (LOS) of 4-5 days (early-discharge group) and those with an LOS of 6-9 days (routine-discharge group). Read More

    Oxidative stress and its possible relation to lower urinary tract functional pathology.
    BJU Int 2017 Oct 24. Epub 2017 Oct 24.
    Institute for Regenerative Medicine, Wake Forest University School of Medicine, Winston Salem, NC, USA.
    Oxidative stress is considered to reflect an imbalance between the systemic manifestation of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species (RONS) and a biological system's ability to readily detoxify the reactive intermediates or to repair the resulting damage. RONS are not only harmful agents that cause oxidative damage in pathologies; they also have important roles as regulatory agents in a range of biological phenomena. They are normally generated as by-products of oxygen metabolism; however, environmental stressors (i. Read More

    A prospective randomised placebo-controlled study of the impact of dutasteride/tamsulosin combination therapy on sexual function domains in sexually active men with lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) secondary to benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH).
    BJU Int 2017 Oct 16. Epub 2017 Oct 16.
    New England Research Institutes, Watertown, MA, USA.
    Objective: To prospectively assess the impact of the fixed-dose combination (FDC) of the 5α-reductase inhibitor (5ARI), dutasteride 0.5 mg and the α1 -adrenoceptor antagonist, tamsulosin 0.4 mg (DUT-TAM FDC) therapy on sexual function domain scores in sexually active men with lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) secondary to benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH), using the Men's Sexual Health Questionnaire (MSHQ). Read More

    National cohort study comparing severe medium-term urinary complications after robot-assisted vs laparoscopic vs retropubic open radical prostatectomy.
    BJU Int 2017 Oct 15. Epub 2017 Oct 15.
    Department of Urology, Guy's and St Thomas' NHS Foundation Trust, London, UK.
    Objectives: To evaluate the occurrence of severe urinary complications within 2 years of surgery in men undergoing either robot-assisted radical prostatectomy (RARP), laparoscopic radical prostatectomy (LRP) or retropubic open radical prostatectomy (ORP).

    Patients And Methods: We conducted a population-based cohort study in men who underwent RARP (n = 4 947), LRP (n = 5 479) or ORP (n = 6 873) between 2008 and 2012 in the English National Health Service (NHS) using national cancer registry records linked to Hospital Episodes Statistics, an administrative database of admissions to NHS hospitals. We identified the occurrence of any severe urinary or severe stricture-related complication within 2 years of surgery using a validated tool. Read More

    Utilization and Quality Outcomes of cT1a, cT1b and cT2a Partial Nephrectomy: Analysis of the National Cancer Database.
    BJU Int 2017 Oct 15. Epub 2017 Oct 15.
    Departments of Radiation Medicine, University of California San Diego School of Medicine, La Jolla, California, USA.
    Objective: To describe utilization and compare quality outcomes of partial nephrectomy (PN) for cT1a, cT1b and cT2a renal mass using a large national database.

    Methods: Retrospective analysis of patients from the US National Cancer Database who underwent PN for cT1a/cT1b/T2a renal cell carcinoma between 2004-2013. We examined utilization of PN over time and quality indicators [positive surgical margin (PSM) and 30-day postoperative readmission rates (30Day-Readmit)]. Read More

    Impact of ureteroscopy before radical nephroureterectomy for upper tract urothelial carcinomas on oncological outcomes: a meta-analysis.
    BJU Int 2017 Oct 15. Epub 2017 Oct 15.
    Department of Urology, Peking University First Hospital, Beijing, China.
    Objectives: To investigate whether ureteroscopy (URS) before radical nephroureterectomy (RNU) for upper tract urothelial carcinomas (UTUCs) has an impact on oncological outcomes.

    Patients And Methods: We performed a systematic literature search of PubMed, Web of Science, and EMBASE for citations published prior to September 2017 that described URS performed on patients with UTUC and conducted a standard meta-analysis on survival outcomes.

    Results: Our meta-analysis included eight eligible studies containing 3975 patients. Read More

    Incidentally detected testicular lesions <10 mm in diameter: can orchidectomy be avoided?
    BJU Int 2017 Oct 15. Epub 2017 Oct 15.
    Barts Cancer Institute, Queen Mary University of London, London, UK.
    Objective: To investigate the pathology of excised testicular lesions <10 mm in size.

    Patients And Methods: The pathological reports of 2 681 patients with testicular lesions from Barts Health NHS Trust and Oxford University Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust were reviewed as part of a service evaluation audit from January 2003 to May 2016. Cases in which the lesion had a maximum diameter of <10 mm were selected. Read More

    Multicentre evaluation of magnetic resonance imaging supported transperineal prostate biopsy in biopsy-naïve men with suspicion of prostate cancer.
    BJU Int 2017 Oct 11. Epub 2017 Oct 11.
    CamPARI Clinic, Addenbrooke's Hospital and University of Cambridge, Cambridge, UK.
    Objectives: To analyse the detection rates of primary magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-fusion transperineal prostate biopsy using combined targeted and systematic core distribution in three tertiary referral centres.

    Patients And Methods: In this multicentre, prospective outcome study, 807 consecutive biopsy-naïve patients underwent MRI-guided transperineal prostate biopsy, as the first diagnostic intervention, between 10/2012 and 05/2016. MRI was reported following the Prostate Imaging-Reporting and Data System (PI-RADS) criteria. Read More

    Multiple growth periods predict unfavourable pathology in patients with small renal masses.
    BJU Int 2017 Oct 9. Epub 2017 Oct 9.
    Department of Urology, James Buchanan Brady Urological Institute, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD, USA.
    Objective: To use the number of positive growth periods as a characterization of the growth of small renal masses in order to determine potential predictors of malignancy.

    Patients And Methods: Patients who underwent axial imaging at multiple time points prior to surgical resection for a small renal mass were queried. Patients were categorized based on their pathological tumour grade and stage: favourable (benign, chromophobe and low-grade pT1-2 renal cell carcinoma [RCC]) vs unfavourable (high-grade of any stage and low-grade pT3-4 RCC). Read More

    Impact of bladder cancer on health-related quality of life.
    BJU Int 2017 Oct 8. Epub 2017 Oct 8.
    Lineberger Comprehensive Cancer Center, Multidisciplinary Genitourinary Oncology, UNC, Chapel Hill, NC, USA.
    Objectives: To identify changes in health-related quality of life (HRQoL) after diagnosis of bladder cancer in older adults in comparison with a group of adults without bladder cancer (controls).

    Patients And Methods: Data from the Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results registries were linked with Medicare Health Outcomes Survey (MHOS) data. Medicare beneficiaries aged ≥65 years in the period 1998-2013, who were diagnosed with bladder cancer between baseline and follow-up through the MHOS, were matched with control subjects without cancer using propensity scores. Read More

    Cost analysis of open radical cystectomy versus robot-assisted radical cystectomy.
    BJU Int 2017 Oct 6. Epub 2017 Oct 6.
    Bristol Urological Institute, Bristol, UK.
    Objectives: To perform a cost analysis comparing the cost of robot-assisted radical cystectomy (RARC) with open RC (ORC) in a UK tertiary referral centre and to identify the key cost drivers.

    Patients And Methods: Data on hospital length of stay (LOS), operative time (OT), transfusion rate, and volume and complication rate were obtained from a prospectively updated institutional database for patients undergoing RARC or ORC. A cost decision tree model was created. Read More

    Intraductal carcinoma of the prostate can evade androgen deprivation, with emergence of castrate-tolerant cells.
    BJU Int 2017 Oct 4. Epub 2017 Oct 4.
    Department of Anatomy and Developmental Biology, Biomedicine Discovery Institute, Cancer Program, Monash University, Melbourne, Vic., Australia.
    Objective: To determine the relevance of intraductal carcinoma of the prostate (IDC-P) in advanced prostate cancer by first examining whether IDC-P was originally present in patients who later developed advanced prostate cancer and then using patient-derived xenografts (PDXs) to investigate the response of IDC-P to androgen deprivation therapy (ADT).

    Materials And Methods: We conducted a retrospective pathology review of IDC-P in primary prostate biopsy or surgery specimens from 38 men who subsequently developed advanced prostate cancer. Overall survival was calculated using the Kaplan-Meier method. Read More

    Survival outcomes for patients with localised upper tract urothelial carcinoma managed with non-definitive treatment.
    BJU Int 2017 Oct 3. Epub 2017 Oct 3.
    Department of Urology, Yale School of Medicine, New Haven, CT, USA.
    Objective: To investigate the outcomes of patients with upper tract urothelial carcinoma (UTUC) with non-definitive therapy, which currently remains unknown.

    Patients And Methods: We used the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) database to identify individuals with a localised, histologically confirmed kidney/renal pelvis and ureteric UC. Survival analysis using the Kaplan-Meier method was performed. Read More

    Prognostic value of urinary prostate cancer antigen 3 (PCA3) during active surveillance of patients with low-risk prostate cancer receiving 5α-reductase inhibitors.
    BJU Int 2017 Oct 3. Epub 2017 Oct 3.
    Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Québec-Université Laval, Québec, QC, Canada.
    Objectives: To determine the clinical performance of the urinary prostate cancer antigen 3 (PCA3) test to predict the risk of Gleason grade re-classification amongst men receiving a 5α-reductase inhibitor (5ARI) during active surveillance (AS) for prostate cancer.

    Patients And Methods: Patients with low-risk prostate cancer were enrolled in a prospective Phase II study of AS complemented with prescription of a 5ARI. A repeat biopsy was taken within the first year and annually according to physician and patient preference. Read More



    Surgical management of penile carcinoma in situ: results from an international collaborative study and review of the literature.
    BJU Int 2017 Oct 3. Epub 2017 Oct 3.
    Department of Genitourinary Oncology, H. Lee Moffitt Cancer Center & Research Institute, Tampa, FL, USA.
    Objectives: To evaluate recurrence after penile-sparing surgery (PSS) in the management of carcinoma in situ (CIS) of the penis in a large multicentre cohort of patients.

    Patients And Methods: We identified consecutive patients from five major academic centres, treated between June 1986 and November 2014, who underwent PSS for pathologically proven penile CIS. The primary outcome was local recurrence-free survival (RFS), which was estimated using the Kaplan-Meier method. Read More

    The accuracy of patients' perceptions of the risks associated with localised prostate cancer treatments.
    BJU Int 2017 Sep 28. Epub 2017 Sep 28.
    Department of, Urology, University Medical Center Utrecht, Utrecht, The Netherlands.
    Objectives: To assess the accuracy of patients' perceptions of the risks associated with localised prostate cancer treatments (radical prostatectomy [RP], radiotherapy [RT], and active surveillance [AS]), and to identify correlates of misperceptions.

    Patients And Methods: We used baseline data (questionnaires completed after treatment information was provided but before treatment) of 426 patients with newly diagnosed localised prostate cancer who participated (87% response rate) in a prospective, longitudinal, multicentre study. Patients' pretreatment perceptions of differences in adverse outcomes of treatments were compared to those based on the literature. Read More

    A novel tool for predicting extracapsular extension during graded partial nerve sparing in radical prostatectomy.
    BJU Int 2017 Sep 22. Epub 2017 Sep 22.
    Department of Urology, Ospedale Policlinico e Nuovo Ospedale Civile S. Agostino Estense Modena, University of Modena and Reggio Emilia, Modena, Italy.
    Objectives: To create a statistical tool for the estimation of extracapsular extension (ECE) level of prostate cancer and determine the nerve-sparing (NS) approach that can be safely performed during radical prostatectomy (RP).

    Patients And Methods: A total of 11 794 lobes, from 6 360 patients who underwent robot-assisted RP between 2008 and 2016 were evaluated. Clinicopathological features were included in a statistical algorithm for the prediction of the maximum ECE width. Read More

    Role of oestrogen receptor-α and -β in bladder tissue of patients with a clinical diagnosis of benign prostatic hyperplasia.
    BJU Int 2017 Sep 21. Epub 2017 Sep 21.
    Department of Pathology, SMS Medical College, Jaipur, Rajasthan, India.
    Objectives: To study the differential expression of oestrogen receptor (ER) subtypes in human urinary bladder tissue using immunohistochemistry (IHC) methods and to explore their correlation with various measures of lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS).

    Methods: In this prospective case-control study, the case group comprised 34 patients with bothersome LUTS who underwent transurethral resection of prostate (TURP), while the control group comprised 19 age-matched, otherwise healthy patients who underwent cystoscopy to investigate microscopic haematuria. Cystoscopy and bladder biopsy were performed in both groups. Read More

    Quality of life after brachytherapy or bilateral nerve-sparing robot-assisted radical prostatectomy for prostate cancer: a prospective cohort.
    BJU Int 2017 Sep 20. Epub 2017 Sep 20.
    Department of Radiation Oncology, Division of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX, USA.
    Objective: To provide comparative data on quality of life (QoL) after prostate cancer treatment to help patients make an informed decision regarding their choice of treatment.

    Methods: Patients with pathologically proven, non-metastatic, T1-T3bN0 prostate cancer were included in this prospective non-randomized study if they were to receive treatment with curative intent. Sample size was at least 181 patients per cohort/treatment type. Read More

    Increased accuracy of a novel mRNA-based urine test for bladder cancer surveillance.
    BJU Int 2017 Sep 20. Epub 2017 Sep 20.
    Department of Urology, Medical University Innsbruck, Innsbruck, Austria.
    Objectives: To evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of the Xpert Bladder Cancer (BC) Monitor, compared with cystoscopy and cytology in the oncological follow-up of non-muscle-invasive bladder cancer (NMIBC).

    Material And Methods: A total of 140 patients with a history of NMIBC undergoing routine surveillance at our institution were enrolled prospectively in this study (ISRCTN study registry number 37210907). Urine cytology was evaluated according to the Paris classification system. Read More

    Real-world uptake, safety profile and outcomes of docetaxel in newly diagnosed metastatic prostate cancer.
    BJU Int 2017 Sep 20. Epub 2017 Sep 20.
    The Beatson West of Scotland Cancer Centre, Glasgow, UK.
    Objectives: To investigate the uptake, safety and efficacy of docetaxel chemotherapy in hormone-naïve metastatic prostate cancer (mPC) in the first year of use outside of a clinical trial.

    Patients And Methods: Patients in the West of Scotland Cancer Network with newly diagnosed mPC were identified from the regional multidisciplinary team meetings and their treatment details were collected from electronic patient records. The rate of febrile neutropenia, hospitalisations, time to progression, and overall survival were compared between those patients who received docetaxel and androgen-deprivation therapy (ADT), or ADT alone using survival analysis. Read More

    Outcomes of inflatable penile prosthesis insertion in 247 patients completing female to male gender reassignment surgery.
    BJU Int 2017 Sep 23. Epub 2017 Sep 23.
    Institute of Urology, University College London Hospitals, London, UK.
    Objectives: To assess the oucomes of penile prosthesis (PP) implantation after total phallic reconstruction secondary to gender dysphoria.

    Patients And Methods: We conducted a retrospective single-centre analysis of 247 consecutive patients. The recruitment period was January 2001 to October 2015. Read More

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