397 results match your criteria BJPsych open[Journal]


Montessori intervention for individuals with dementia: feasibility study of a culturally adapted psychosocial intervention in Pakistan (MIRACLE).

BJPsych Open 2020 Jul 2;6(4):e69. Epub 2020 Jul 2.

School of Medicine, Global Brain Health Institute, Trinity College Dublin, Ireland.

Background: Globally, nearly two-thirds of people with dementia reside in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs), yet research on how to support people with dementia in LMIC settings is sparse, particularly regarding the management of behavioural and psychological symptoms of dementia. Understanding how best to manage these symptoms of dementia with non-specialist approaches in LMICs is critical. One such approach is a non-pharmacological intervention based on the Montessori method. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1192/bjo.2020.49DOI Listing

Anxiety, depression and post-traumatic stress disorder in refugees resettling in high-income countries: systematic review and meta-analysis.

BJPsych Open 2020 Jul 2;6(4):e68. Epub 2020 Jul 2.

Faculty of Social and Behavioural Sciences, Clinical Psychology Department, Leiden University; and Leiden Institute of Brain and Cognition, Leiden University Medical Center, The Netherlands.

Background: The number of refugees is at its highest since the Second World War and on the rise. Many refugees suffer from anxiety, depression and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), but exact and up-to-date prevalence estimates are not available.

Aims: To report the pooled prevalence of anxiety and mood disorders and PTSD in general refugee populations residing in high-income countries and to detect sources of heterogeneity therein. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1192/bjo.2020.54DOI Listing

Clinical and methodological considerations for psychological treatment of cognitive impairment in major depressive disorder.

BJPsych Open 2020 Jun 29;6(4):e67. Epub 2020 Jun 29.

Department of Psychology, Queen's University, Kingston, Ontario, Canada.

Background: Cognitive impairment is considered a core feature of major depressive disorder (MDD) and research into psychological treatments aiming to address cognitive impairment are gaining momentum. Compared with the well-established research base of cognitive treatment trials in schizophrenia, including meta-analyses, mood disorder research is much more preliminary.

Aims: To focus on identifying the important factors to consider in developing larger-scale psychological treatment trials targeting cognitive impairment in mood disorders. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1192/bjo.2020.53DOI Listing

Mental well-being and recovery in serious mental illness: associations between mental well-being and functional status in the Health Survey for England 2014.

BJPsych Open 2020 Jun 18;6(4):e66. Epub 2020 Jun 18.

Mental Health Research Unit, School of Health and Related Research, University of Sheffield, UK.

Background: Mental illness and mental well-being are independent but correlated dimensions of mental health. Both are associated with social functioning (in opposite directions), but it is not known whether they modify the effects of one another. New treatment targets might emerge if improving mental well-being in people with serious mental illness improved functional outcomes independent of clinical status. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1192/bjo.2020.46DOI Listing

Investigating gender-specific effects of familial risk for attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder and other neurodevelopmental disorders in the Swedish population.

BJPsych Open 2020 Jun 18;6(4):e65. Epub 2020 Jun 18.

Department of Medical Epidemiology & Biostatistics, Karolinska Institutet; and School of Medical Sciences, Örebro University, Sweden.

Background: Many psychiatric disorders show gender differences in prevalence. Recent studies suggest that female patients diagnosed with anxiety and depression carry more genetic risks related to attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) compared with affected males.

Aims: In this register-based study, we aimed to test whether female patients who received clinical diagnoses of anxiety, depressive, bipolar and eating disorders are at higher familial risk for ADHD and other neurodevelopmental disorders, compared with diagnosed male patients. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1192/bjo.2020.47DOI Listing

General practitioners' and psychiatrists' attitudes towards antidepressant withdrawal.

BJPsych Open 2020 Jun 18;6(4):e64. Epub 2020 Jun 18.

University of Exeter Medical School Knowledge Spa, Royal Cornwall Hospital, Truro; and Adult ID, Neurodevelopmental services Truro, Cornwall Partnership NHS Foundation Trust, Truro, UK.

Background: There has been a recent rise in antidepressant prescriptions. After the episode for which it was prescribed, the patient should ideally be supported in withdrawing the medication. There is increasing evidence for withdrawal symptoms (sometimes called discontinuation symptoms) occurring on ceasing treatment, sometimes having severe or prolonged effects. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1192/bjo.2020.48DOI Listing

Clinical diagnosis of Lewy body dementia.

BJPsych Open 2020 Jun 16;6(4):e61. Epub 2020 Jun 16.

Department of Psychiatry, University of Cambridge, UK.

Background: Lewy body dementia, consisting of both dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB) and Parkinson's disease dementia (PDD), is considerably under-recognised clinically compared with its frequency in autopsy series.

Aims: This study investigated the clinical diagnostic pathways of patients with Lewy body dementia to assess if difficulties in diagnosis may be contributing to these differences.

Method: We reviewed the medical notes of 74 people with DLB and 72 with non-DLB dementia matched for age, gender and cognitive performance, together with 38 people with PDD and 35 with Parkinson's disease, matched for age and gender, from two geographically distinct UK regions. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1192/bjo.2020.44DOI Listing

Inflammation as a treatment target in mood disorders: review.

BJPsych Open 2020 Jun 5;6(4):e60. Epub 2020 Jun 5.

Centre for Addiction and Mental Health, Department of Psychiatry, University of Toronto, Canada.

Background: Mood disorders, i.e. major depressive disorder (MDD) and bipolar disorders, are leading sources of disability worldwide. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1192/bjo.2020.43DOI Listing

Experience of transfer from child to adult mental health services of young people with autism spectrum disorder.

BJPsych Open 2020 Jun 3;6(4):e58. Epub 2020 Jun 3.

Population Health Sciences Institute, Newcastle University, UK.

Background: Transition from child-centred to adult mental health services has been reported as challenging for young people. It can be especially difficult for young people with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) as they manage the challenges of adolescence and navigate leaving child and adolescent mental health services (CAMHS).

Aims: This study examines the predictors of transfer to adult mental health services, and using a qualitative analysis, explores the young people's experiences of transition. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1192/bjo.2020.41DOI Listing

Typology of patients who use emergency departments for mental and substance use disorders.

BJPsych Open 2020 Jun 3;6(4):e59. Epub 2020 Jun 3.

School of Social Work, Laval University; and Addiction Rehabilitation Centre, University Integrated Health and Social Services Centre - Capitale-Nationale, Quebec, Canada.

Background: Identifying profiles of people with mental and substance use disorders who use emergency departments may help guide the development of interventions more appropriate to their particular characteristics and needs.

Aims: To develop a typology for the frequency of visits to the emergency department for mental health reasons based on the Andersen model.

Method: Questionnaires were completed by patients who attended an emergency department (n = 320), recruited in Quebec (Canada), and administrative data were obtained related to sociodemographic/socioeconomic characteristics, mental health diagnoses including alcohol and drug use, and emergency department and mental health service utilization. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1192/bjo.2020.39DOI Listing

Security needs among patients referred for high secure care in Broadmoor Hospital England.

BJPsych Open 2020 Jun 2;6(4):e55. Epub 2020 Jun 2.

Broadmoor Hospital and West London NHS Trust, UK.

Background: Security needs among patients referred to forensic mental health services have rarely been systematically studied.

Aims: To ascertain security needs among patients referred to a high secure hospital, Broadmoor High Secure Hospital, England. We also aimed to compare the security needs for those referred to mental illness services with those referred to personality disorder services in the hospital. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1192/bjo.2020.35DOI Listing

fifth anniversary editorial: history, accomplishments, trajectory and passion.

BJPsych Open 2020 Jun 1;6(4):e52. Epub 2020 Jun 1.

Departments of Psychiatry, Neurology and Anesthesiology, Rutgers Robert Wood Johnson Medical School, New Jersey, USA; and Department of Psychological Medicine, Institute of Psychiatry, Psychology & Neuroscience, King's College London, UK.

BJPsych Open has come of age. This editorial celebrates the journal's fifth anniversary by reviewing the history of BJPsych Open, what we have accomplished, where we strive to go (our planned trajectory) and the passion of being an Editor-in-Chief. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1192/bjo.2020.34DOI Listing

Exploring the relationship between auditory hallucinations, trauma and dissociation.

BJPsych Open 2020 May 20;6(3):e54. Epub 2020 May 20.

School of Psychological Sciences, University of Western Australia, Perth; and Clinical Research Centre, Graylands Campus, North Metropolitan Health Service, Mental Health, Perth, Australia.

Background: It is clinically imperative to better understand the relationship between trauma, auditory hallucinations and dissociation. The personal narrative of trauma has enormous significance for each individual and is also important for the clinician, who must use this information to decide on a diagnosis and treatment approach.

Aims: To better understand whether dissociation contributes in a significant way to hallucinations in individuals with and without trauma histories. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1192/bjo.2020.31DOI Listing

Impact of dissociation on the effectiveness of psychotherapy for post-traumatic stress disorder: meta-analysis.

BJPsych Open 2020 May 19;6(3):e53. Epub 2020 May 19.

PSYTREC, Bilthoven; and Radboud University, Behavioural Science Institute, the Netherlands.

Background: Many patients with post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) experience dissociative symptoms. The question of whether these dissociative symptoms negatively influence the effectiveness of psychotherapy for PTSD is unresolved.

Aims: To determine the influence of dissociative symptoms on psychotherapy outcome in PTSD. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1192/bjo.2020.30DOI Listing

Development of the RMT20, a composite screener to identify common mental disorders.

BJPsych Open 2020 May 18;6(3):e50. Epub 2020 May 18.

Centre for Mental Health Research, Research School of Population Health, The Australian National University, Australia.

Background: There are few very brief measures that accurately identify multiple common mental disorders.

Aims: The aim of this study was to develop and assess the psychometric properties of a new composite measure to screen for five common mental disorders.

Method: Two cross-sectional psychometric surveys were used to develop (n = 3175) and validate (n = 3620) the new measure, the Rapid Measurement Toolkit-20 (RMT20) against diagnostic criteria. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1192/bjo.2020.37DOI Listing

Carers' views on autism and eating disorders comorbidity: qualitative study.

BJPsych Open 2020 May 18;6(3):e51. Epub 2020 May 18.

National Eating Disorder Service, South London and Maudsley NHS Foundation Trust, UK; and Department of Psychological Medicine, Kings College London, UK.

Background: Patients with co-occurring anorexia nervosa and autism respond differently to eating disorder treatments. Previous interviews with patients with both conditions and clinicians working in eating disorder services has highlighted service and treatment adaptations might be beneficial and could improve outcomes for these individuals.

Aims: The aim of this study was to explore carers' experiences of current treatment approaches for people with autism who have anorexia nervosa, and their views on how these can be improved. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1192/bjo.2020.36DOI Listing

Role of apolipoprotein E epsilon 4 (*ε4) as an independent risk factor for incident depression over a 12-year period in cognitively intact adults across the lifespan.

BJPsych Open 2020 May 8;6(3):e47. Epub 2020 May 8.

School of Psychology, University of New South Wales, Australia; and Neuroscience Research Australia, Australia.

Background: The apolipoprotein E ε4 allele (APOE*ε4) is indicated as a risk for Alzheimer's disease and other age-related diseases. The risk attributable to APOE*ε4 for depression is less clear and may be because of confounding of the relationship between dementia and depression.

Aims: We examined the risk of APOE* ε4 for incident depression and depressive symptomology over a 12-year period across the adult lifespan. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1192/bjo.2020.29DOI Listing

Predictors of mental health and academic outcomes in first-year university students: Identifying prevention and early-intervention targets.

BJPsych Open 2020 May 8;6(3):e46. Epub 2020 May 8.

Department of Psychiatry, University of Oxford, UK.

Background: Although there is growing interest in mental health problems in university students there is limited understanding of the scope of need and determinants to inform intervention efforts.

Aims: To longitudinally examine the extent and persistence of mental health symptoms and the importance of psychosocial and lifestyle factors for student mental health and academic outcomes.

Method: Undergraduates at a Canadian university were invited to complete electronic surveys at entry and completion of their first year. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1192/bjo.2020.24DOI Listing

Patients' and clinicians' perspectives on relevant treatment outcomes in depression: qualitative study.

BJPsych Open 2020 May 4;6(3):e44. Epub 2020 May 4.

University of Groningen, University Medical Center Groningen, Department of Health Sciences, Applied Health Research, Groningen, the Netherlands.

Background: Although symptomatic remission is considered the optimal outcome in depression, this is not always achieved. Furthermore, symptom indicators do not fully capture patients' and clinicians' perspectives on remission. Broader indicators of (partial) remission from depression should be considered. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1192/bjo.2020.27DOI Listing

Regional analysis of UK primary care prescribing and adult service referrals for young people with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder: from little to very little.

Authors:
Samuele Cortese

BJPsych Open 2020 Apr 30;6(3):e43. Epub 2020 Apr 30.

Centre for Innovation in Mental Health, School of Psychology, Faculty of Environmental and Life Sciences, University of Southampton, UK; Clinical and Experimental Sciences (CNS and Psychiatry), Faculty of Medicine, University of Southampton, UK; Solent NHS Trust, UK; New York University Child Study Center, USA; and Division of Psychiatry and Applied Psychology, School of Medicine, University of Nottingham, UK.

Drawing on data from the Clinical Practice Research Datalink, Price et al reported UK regional variations in primary care prescribing and referral rates to adult mental health services for young people with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in transition from child and adolescent mental health services. Overall, considering that around 65% of young adults with childhood ADHD present with impairing ADHD symptoms and up to 90% of individuals with ADHD may benefit from ADHD medications, the study by Price et al shows that the rate of appropriate treatment for youngsters in the transition period varies from low to very low across the UK. As such, there is a continuous need for education and training for patients, their families, mental health professionals and commissioners, to eradicate the misconception that, in the majority of the cases, ADHD remits during adolescence and to support the devolvement of appropriate services for the evidence-based management of adult ADHD across the UK. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1192/bjo.2020.28DOI Listing

Long-term effect of cognitive-behavioural therapy in patients with Hypochondriacal Disorder.

BJPsych Open 2020 Apr 29;6(3):e42. Epub 2020 Apr 29.

Department of Clinical Science, University of Bergen, Norway.

Background: Cognitive-behavioural therapy (CBT) is an effective treatment for Hypochondriacal Disorder, but the long-term effect has not been examined extensively.

Aims: To investigate the long-term effect of CBT on Hypochondriacal Disorder using several mental health measures. Follow-up time was at least 10 years. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1192/bjo.2020.22DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7189575PMC

Comparison of short-term (saliva) and long-term (hair) cortisol levels in out-patients with melancholic and non-melancholic major depression.

BJPsych Open 2020 Apr 23;6(3):e41. Epub 2020 Apr 23.

Department of Psychological Medicine, Institute of Psychiatry, Psychology and Neuroscience, King's College London & South London and Maudsley NHS Foundation Trust, Kent, UK.

Background: Major depressive episodes (MDEs) show diverse cortisol level alterations. Heterogeneity in symptom profiles, symptom severity and cortisol specimens may explain these heterogeneous results. Less severely ill out-patients with a non-melancholic MDE (NM-MDE) may have a variation in the rhythm of cortisol secretion rather than in its concentration. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1192/bjo.2020.8DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7189571PMC

Cognitive side-effects of electroconvulsive therapy: what are they, how to monitor them and what to tell patients.

BJPsych Open 2020 Apr 17;6(3):e40. Epub 2020 Apr 17.

Treatment Algorithm Group; Academic Department of Psychiatry, Northern Sydney Local Health District; Sydney Medical School Northern, University of Sydney; and CADE Clinic, Royal North Shore Hospital, Northern Sydney Local Health District, Australia.

Background: Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) is recommended in treatment guidelines as an efficacious therapy for treatment-resistant depression. However, it has been associated with loss of autobiographical memory and short-term reduction in new learning.

Aims: To provide clinically useful guidelines to aid clinicians in informing patients regarding the cognitive side-effects of ECT and in monitoring these during a course of ECT, using complex data. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1192/bjo.2020.17DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7191622PMC

A global needs assessment in times of a global crisis: world psychiatry response to the COVID-19 pandemic.

BJPsych Open 2020 Apr 6;6(3):e48. Epub 2020 Apr 6.

Institute of Psychiatric Phenomics and Genomics (IPPG), Ludwig-Maximilians-University Munich, Germany; and Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, SUNY Upstate Medical University, USA.

The COVID-19 pandemic has stunned the global community with marked social and psychological ramifications. There are key challenges for psychiatry that require urgent attention to ensure mental health well-being for all - COVID-19-positive patients, healthcare professionals, first responders, people with psychiatric disorders and the general population. This editorial outlines some of these challenges and research questions, and serves as a preliminary framework of what needs to be addressed. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1192/bjo.2020.25DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7211994PMC

Australian Indigenous model of mental healthcare based on transdiagnostic cognitive-behavioural therapy co-designed with the Indigenous community: protocol for a randomised controlled trial.

BJPsych Open 2020 Apr 6;6(3):e33. Epub 2020 Apr 6.

Rural Clinical School, Faculty of Medicine, The University of Queensland, Australia.

Background: A four- to seven-fold increase in the prevalence of current mood, anxiety, substance use and any mental disorders in Indigenous adults compared with non-Indigenous Australians has been reported. A lifetime prevalence of major depressive disorder was 23.9%. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1192/bjo.2020.16DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7176826PMC

Defining and predicting service utilisation in young adulthood following childhood treatment of an eating disorder.

BJPsych Open 2020 Apr 6;6(3):e37. Epub 2020 Apr 6.

South London and Maudsley NHS Foundation Trust, UK; and Institute of Psychiatry, Psychology and Neuroscience, King's College London, UK.

Background: Eating disorder services are often separated into child and adolescent eating disorder services (CAEDSs) and adult eating disorder services (AEDSs). Most patients in CAEDSs present with first-episode illness of short duration, which with appropriate treatment, have a good prognosis. However, some individuals receive further treatment as adults. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1192/bjo.2020.13DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7176893PMC

Subjective memory impairment after electroconvulsive therapy - potentially modifiable?

BJPsych Open 2020 Apr 6;6(3):e38. Epub 2020 Apr 6.

Canterbury District Health Board, New Zealand; and Department of Psychological Medicine, University of Otago, Christchurch, New Zealand.

Memory impairment is an important side-effect of electroconvulsive therapy (ECT). However, predicting which patients are at increased risk of developing this is difficult. The study by Sigström et al compares patients' experience of memory difficulties before and after ECT and suggests that patients with negative expectations of ECT's memory effects are more likely to have subjective memory worsening post-ECT. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1192/bjo.2020.20DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7189405PMC

Economic burden of maternal depression among women with a low income in Cape Town, South Africa.

BJPsych Open 2020 Apr 3;6(3):e36. Epub 2020 Apr 3.

Alan J Flisher Centre for Public Mental Health, Department of Psychiatry and Mental Health, University of Cape Town, South Africa.

Background: Maternal depression is a notable concern, yet little evidence exists on its economic burden in low- and middle-income countries.

Aims: This study assessed societal costs and economic outcomes across pregnancy to 12 months postpartum comparing women with depression with those without depression. Trial registration: ClinicalTrials. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1192/bjo.2020.15DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7176833PMC

Long-term impact of the expansion of a hospital liaison psychiatry service on patient care and costs following emergency department attendances for self-harm.

BJPsych Open 2020 Apr 2;6(3):e34. Epub 2020 Apr 2.

The National Institute for Health Research Applied Research Collaboration West (NIHR ARC West), University Hospitals Bristol NHS Foundation Trust; and Population Health Sciences, Bristol Medical School, University of Bristol, UK.

Background: In September 2014, as part of a national initiative to increase access to liaison psychiatry services, the liaison psychiatry services at Bristol Royal Infirmary received new investment of £250 000 per annum, expanding its availability from 40 to 98 h per week. The long-term impact on patient outcomes and costs, of patients presenting to the emergency department with self-harm, is unknown.

Aims: To assess the long-term impact of the investment on patient care outcomes and costs, of patients presenting to the emergency department with self-harm. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1192/bjo.2020.18DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7176831PMC

Effectiveness of treatment for 6813 patients with mental health conditions in Cambridgeshire: a cross-sectional study.

BJPsych Open 2020 Mar 20;6(2):e30. Epub 2020 Mar 20.

Windsor Research Unit, Fulbourn Hospital, UK.

Background: The Health of the Nation Outcomes Scales (HoNOS) has been widely used as an outcome measure in UK mental health settings for the past decade. The data-set gathered provides a unique opportunity to evaluate the effectiveness of the totality of mental healthcare in 'real-world' conditions; much of our clinical evidence currently comes from highly parameterised clinical trials investigating single interventions in highly selected patients.

Aims: To examine all outcomes measured by HoNOS for a range of diagnostic groups, evaluate the influence of patient demographics on those outcomes, and observe changes in patient groups over time. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1192/bjo.2020.14DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7176875PMC

Transdiagnostic neurocognitive subgroups and functional course in young people with emerging mental disorders: a cohort study.

BJPsych Open 2020 Mar 19;6(2):e31. Epub 2020 Mar 19.

Brain and Mind Centre, University of Sydney, Australia.

Background: Neurocognitive impairments robustly predict functional outcome. However, heterogeneity in neurocognition is common within diagnostic groups, and data-driven analyses reveal homogeneous neurocognitive subgroups cutting across diagnostic boundaries.

Aims: To determine whether data-driven neurocognitive subgroups of young people with emerging mental disorders are associated with 3-year functional course. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1192/bjo.2020.12DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7176869PMC

What do we know about long-term treatment outcomes for severe depressive disorders?

BJPsych Open 2020 Mar 17;6(2):e28. Epub 2020 Mar 17.

Department of Psychological Medicine, Institute of Psychiatry, Psychology & Neuroscience, King's College London, London, UK.

In a recent issue of BJPsych Open, McPherson & Hengartner (see https://doi.org/10.1192/bjo. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1192/bjo.2020.10DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7176894PMC

Community perceptions of barriers to management of chronic psychotic disorders and knowledge and attitudes about long-acting injectable antipsychotic medication: qualitative study in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania.

BJPsych Open 2020 Mar 11;6(2):e27. Epub 2020 Mar 11.

Department of Psychiatry and Neurological and Behavioral Outcomes Center, Case Western Reserve University School of Medicine, USA.

Background: Low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) experience a disproportionate burden from chronic psychotic disorders (CPDs), which are the most disabling conditions among people aged 10-24 in Sub-Saharan Africa. Poor medication adherence is seen in approximately half of individuals with CPDs in Sub-Saharan Africa, and is a major driver of relapse. A CPD treatment approach that combines the use of long-acting injectable (LAI) antipsychotic medications with a brief and practical customised adherence-enhancement behavioural intervention (CAE-L) was recently developed and tested for use in the USA. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1192/bjo.2020.4DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7176827PMC

Long-term subjective memory after electroconvulsive therapy.

BJPsych Open 2020 Mar 9;6(2):e26. Epub 2020 Mar 9.

Department of Psychiatry and Neurochemistry, Institute of Neuroscience and Physiology, Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg; and Department of Medical Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.

Background: There have been reports of long-term subjective memory worsening after electroconvulsive therapy (ECT).

Aims: To study the prevalence and risk factors of long-term subjective memory worsening among patients receiving ECT in routine clinical practice.

Method: Patients (n = 535, of whom 277 were included in the final analysis) were recruited from eight Swedish hospitals. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1192/bjo.2020.9DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7176828PMC

Structured Psychological Support for people with personality disorder: feasibility randomised controlled trial of a low-intensity intervention.

BJPsych Open 2020 Mar 2;6(2):e25. Epub 2020 Mar 2.

Clinical Psychology, Cambridgeshire and Peterborough NHS Foundation Trust, UK.

Background: National guidance cautions against low-intensity interventions for people with personality disorder, but evidence from trials is lacking.

Aims: To test the feasibility of conducting a randomised trial of a low-intensity intervention for people with personality disorder.

Method: Single-blind, feasibility trial (trial registration: ISRCTN14994755). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1192/bjo.2020.7DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7176836PMC

Discontinuing psychotropic drug treatment.

BJPsych Open 2020 Feb 19;6(2):e24. Epub 2020 Feb 19.

Professor of Psychiatry (Neuroscience), Department of Psychiatry, Harvard Medical School; and International Consortium for Mood & Psychotic Disorders Research, McLean Hospital, USA.

Interruption of ongoing treatment with benzodiazepines, antidepressants, antipsychotics and mood stabilisers including lithium can be followed by clinically significant withdrawal reactions within hours or days, as well as later increases in relapses or recurrences of the illness being treated. Such observations support the view that stopping treatment is not equivalent to being untreated. With lithium, antipsychotics and antidepressants, there is consistent evidence that abrupt or rapid discontinuation is followed by earlier clinical worsening than with more gradual removal of treatment. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1192/bjo.2020.6DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7176895PMC
February 2020

Measuring outcomes in trials of interventions for people who self-harm: qualitative study of service users' views.

BJPsych Open 2020 Feb 12;6(2):e22. Epub 2020 Feb 12.

Consultant Senior Lecturer in Public Health Medicine, Public Health Medicine, Bristol Medical School, University of Bristol, UK.

Background: Patients often have very different ideas from clinicians about what they want treatments to achieve. Their views on what outcomes are important are not always reflected in trials.

Aims: To elicit the views of people who self-harm on the most commonly used outcome measures and to identify the outcomes that matter to them. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1192/bjo.2019.93DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7176829PMC
February 2020

Intensive support for adults with intellectual disability and behaviours that challenge: a survey of provision and service typologies in England.

BJPsych Open 2020 Feb 11;6(2):e20. Epub 2020 Feb 11.

Assistant Professor, Division of Psychiatry, University College London, UK.

Background: Approximately 18% of adults with intellectual disabilities living in the community display behaviours that challenge. Intensive support teams (ISTs) have been recommended to provide high-quality responsive care aimed at avoiding unnecessary admissions and reducing lengthy in-patient stays.

Aims: To identify and describe the geographical distribution and characteristics of ISTs, and to develop a typology of IST service models in England. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1192/bjo.2020.2DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7176866PMC
February 2020

Cognitive decline and mortality in a community-based sample of homeless and precariously housed adults: 9-year prospective study.

BJPsych Open 2020 Feb 11;6(2):e21. Epub 2020 Feb 11.

Department of Psychiatry, University of British Columbia; and British Columbia Mental Health and Substance Use Services Research Institute, Canada.

Background: Homeless and precariously housed individuals experience a high burden of comorbid illnesses, and excess mortality. Cross-sectional studies report a high rate of cognitive impairment. Long-term trajectories have not been well investigated in this group. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1192/bjo.2020.3DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7176832PMC
February 2020