2,917 results match your criteria Azotemia

Low-Flow Acute Kidney Injury: The Pathophysiology of Prerenal Azotemia, Abdominal Compartment Syndrome, and Obstructive Uropathy.

Clin J Am Soc Nephrol 2022 May 18. Epub 2022 May 18.

Division of Nephrology, Department of Medicine, Indiana University School of Medicine, Indianapolis, Indiana, and Department of Anatomy, Cell Biology and Integrative Physiology, Indiana University School of Medicine, Indianapolis, Indiana

AKI is a syndrome, not a disease. It results from many different primary and/or secondary etiologies and is often multifactorial, especially in the hospitalized patient. This review discusses the pathophysiology of three etiologies that cause AKI, those being kidney hypoperfusion, abdominal compartment syndrome, and urinary tract obstruction. Read More

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Leishmania tropica and Leishmania infantum infection in dogs and cats in central Israel.

Parasit Vectors 2022 May 10;15(1):147. Epub 2022 May 10.

The Koret School of Veterinary Medicine, The Hebrew University of Jerusalem, P. O. Box 12, 761001, Rehovot, Israel.

Background: Three species of Leishmania cause disease in humans in Israel and are endemic in the Middle East: Leishmania infantum, Leishmania tropica and Leishmania major. These species infect dogs and cats, but little is known about their prevalence in pet populations and their clinical manifestations. A study on dog and cat Leishmania infection was conducted in a focus of human L. Read More

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caused clinical babesiosis in a female Shih Tzu dog.

Vet Res Forum 2021 Dec 15;12(4):519-522. Epub 2021 Dec 15.

Department of Pathobiology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Urmia University, Urmia, Iran.

A 2-year-old female Shih Tzu dog was submitted with the history of anorexia and depression for one week and no prior surgery. Fever and pale mucosa were noticed in physical examination. Microscopic examination of the Giemsa-stained blood smear disclosed large form of  and single to four pear-shaped merozoites within erythrocytes (RBCs). Read More

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December 2021

[Frequency and diagnostic reliability of laboratory variables in cows with traumatic reticuloperitonitis and abomasal ulcers].

Tierarztl Prax Ausg G Grosstiere Nutztiere 2022 Apr 6;50(2):91-100. Epub 2022 May 6.

Departement für Nutztiere, Vetsuisse-Fakultät, Universität Zürich.

Objective: A number of laboratory abnormalities occurs in cows with traumatic reticuloperitonitis (TRP) as well as in those with abomasal ulcers (U; classified as type 1 to 5). The goal of our study was to compare the frequency of individual laboratory variables of cows with traumatic reticuloperitonitis and cows with abomasal ulcers and determine the diagnostic significance of individual laboratory variables.

Material And Methods: The present study included 182 healthy control cows, 503 cows with TRP, 94 cows with U1, 145 cows with U2, 60 cows with U3, 87 cows with U4 and 14 cows with U5. Read More

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Prognostic Factors for Cardiovascular Events in Elderly Patients with Community Acquired Pneumonia: Results from the CAP-China Network.

Clin Interv Aging 2022 23;17:603-614. Epub 2022 Apr 23.

National Clinical Research Center of Respiratory Diseases, Center for Respiratory Diseases, China-Japan Friendship Hospital; Department of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, China-Japan Friendship Hospital, Beijing, 100020, People's Republic of China.

Background: Limited data were available about the burden of cardiovascular events (CVEs) during hospitalization in elderly patients with community-acquired pneumonia (CAP). The aim was to assess the incidence, characteristics, predictive factors and outcomes of CVEs in elderly patients with CAP during hospitalization.

Methods: This study was a multicenter, retrospective research on hospitalized elderly patients with CAP from the CAP-China network. Read More

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Permissive azotemia during acute kidney injury enables more rapid renal recovery and less renal fibrosis: a hypothesis and clinical development plan.

Lakhmir S Chawla

Crit Care 2022 04 28;26(1):116. Epub 2022 Apr 28.

Department of Medicine, Veterans Affairs Medical Center, 3550 La Jolla Village Drive, San Diego, CA, USA.

Preclinical models of acute kidney injury (AKI) consistently demonstrate that a uremic milieu enhances renal recovery and decreases kidney fibrosis. Similarly, significant decreases in monocyte/macrophage infiltration, complement levels, and other markers of inflammation in the injured kidney are observed across multiple studies and species. In essence, decreased renal clearance has the surprising and counterintuitive effect of being an effective treatment for AKI. Read More

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Effects of ferric citrate and intravenous iron sucrose on markers of mineral, bone, and iron homeostasis in a rat model of CKD-MBD.

Nephrol Dial Transplant 2022 Apr 28. Epub 2022 Apr 28.

Division of Nephrology, Indiana University School of Medicine, Indianapolis, IN, USA.

Background: Anemia and chronic kidney disease-mineral and bone disorder (CKD-MBD) are common and begin early in CKD. Limited studies have concurrently compared the effects of ferric citrate (FC) vs. IV iron on CKD-MBD and iron homeostasis in moderate CKD. Read More

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Long-term outcome of dogs recovering from acute kidney injury: 132 cases.

J Vet Intern Med 2022 Apr 28. Epub 2022 Apr 28.

Veterinary Teaching Hospital, Koret School of Veterinary Medicine, The Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Rehovot, Israel.

Background: Information regarding long-term outcome of dogs recovering from acute kidney injury (AKI) is limited.

Objectives: Determine the long-term outcome of dogs recovering from AKI and identify predictors for serum creatinine concentration (sCr) normalization and long-term outcome.

Animals: One hundred thirty-two dogs with AKI that survived ≥30 days postdischarge. Read More

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Uncommon Association of Mckittrick-Wheelock Syndrome and Infection in Acute Renal Failure.

Diagnostics (Basel) 2022 Mar 23;12(4). Epub 2022 Mar 23.

1st Surgery Department, "Grigore T. Popa" University of Medicine and Pharmacy, 700115 Iasi, Romania.

We present the case of a 71-year-old male who suffered an episode of acute renal failure caused by the uncommon association of two different diseases ( infection and McKittrick-Wheelock syndrome). He presented with hypovolemic shock, severe hypokalemia, hyponatremia, metabolic acidosis and acute renal failure; consequences of secretory diarrhea caused by a giant rectal tumor revealed from colonoscopy. The biopsy results revealed tubulo-villous adenoma with low/high grade dysplasia. Read More

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Presentation Variables Associated With the Development of Severe Post-obstructive Diuresis in Male Cats Following Relief of Urethral Obstruction.

Front Vet Sci 2022 5;9:783874. Epub 2022 Apr 5.

Department of Surgical and Radiological Sciences, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of California, Davis, Davis, CA, United States.

Background: Diuresis following relief of urethral obstruction is a potentially life-threatening complication of feline urethral obstruction. Evidence regarding the incidence of post-obstructive diuresis (POD) in cats is scarce. Establishing historical, physical examination, and initial clinicopathologic variables associated with risk for developing POD may better enable clinicians to direct treatment for this common feline emergency and to educate clients regarding financial expectations. Read More

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A potential life-threatening Asian funnel-web spider bite (Macrothele gigas) in central Taiwan.

Toxicon 2022 Jul 18;213:83-86. Epub 2022 Apr 18.

Division of Clinical Toxicology, Department of Emergency Medicine, Taichung Veterans General Hospital, Taiwan; College of Medicine, National Chung Hsing University, Taichung, Taiwan. Electronic address:

Five funnel-web spiders in the genus Macrothele are widely distributed to Taiwan. We herein reported the severe case of a woman bitten by a male Macrothele gigas who present with autonomic (i.e. Read More

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Epidermal growth factor deficiency predisposes to progressive renal disease.

FASEB J 2022 05;36(5):e22286

Department of Dermatology, Cutaneous Biology Research Center, Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Charlestown, Massachusetts, USA.

Epidermal growth factor (EGF) is produced in the kidney by thick ascending limbs of the loop of Henle and by distal convoluted tubules (DCTs). Reduced urinary EGF levels have been associated with chronic kidney disease but it is not known whether physiological levels of EGF protect the kidney from progressive renal disease. Here, we show that EGF-deficient mice on a mixed genetic background had increased urinary microalbumin, and a subset of these mice developed severe progressive renal disease with azotemia that was not seen in WT or TGFα-deficient littermates with this mixed genetic background. Read More

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A saliva urea test strip for use in feline and canine patients: a pilot study.

J Vet Diagn Invest 2022 May 12;34(3):496-503. Epub 2022 Apr 12.

Alberta Veterinary Laboratories, Calgary, AB, Canada.

We evaluated a saliva urea test strip (Kidney-Chek; SN Biomedical), as a rapid, noninvasive method to screen for azotemia. The test is a semiquantitative method that assesses 7 levels of saliva urea concentration, and indirectly serum urea, from <3 to >17 mmol/L. Ninety-two dogs (14 azotemic) with serum urea of 1. Read More

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Effectiveness and Adverse Events of Cyclophosphamide, Vincristine, and Prednisolone Chemotherapy in Feline Mediastinal Lymphoma Naturally Infected with Feline Leukemia Virus.

Animals (Basel) 2022 Mar 31;12(7). Epub 2022 Mar 31.

Department of Companion Animal Clinical Sciences, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Kasetsart University, 50 Ngamwongwan Rd., Lat Yao, Chatuchak, Bangkok 10900, Thailand.

Feline leukemia virus (FeLV) infection is considered a poor prognostic factor for feline lymphoma. This study investigated the prevalence of cats suffering from feline lymphoma with natural infection of the feline leukemia virus, as well as clinical signs, adverse events, and survival time after cyclophosphamide, vincristine and prednisolone (COP) chemotherapy. This retrospective study involved 92 cats diagnosed with mediastinal or mediastinal plus other anatomical sites of lymphoma and treated with COP chemotherapy. Read More

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Acute Kidney Injury in Dogs and Cats.

Linda Ross

Vet Clin North Am Small Anim Pract 2022 May 1;52(3):659-672. Epub 2022 Apr 1.

Department of Clinical Sciences, Cummings School of Veterinary Medicine, Tufts University, 200 Westboro Road, North Grafton, MA 01536, USA. Electronic address:

Acute kidney injury can cause significant morbidity and mortality in dogs and cats. Knowledge of the pathophysiology of renal damage can be beneficial to prevention and treatment. There are many causes of acute kidney injury, and the prognosis for each can vary. Read More

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Successful treatment of hypodipsic/adipsic hypernatremia in a cat with lobar holoprosencephaly using oral desmopressin.

JFMS Open Rep 2022 Jan-Jun;8(1):20551169221082542. Epub 2022 Mar 23.

Department of Veterinary Clinical Sciences, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN, USA.

Case Summary: A 2-year-old female spayed domestic shorthair cat was presented with a history of collapse, possible hypodipsia/adipsia, severe dehydration and hypernatremia. MRI of the brain revealed a failure of separation of the cerebral hemispheres as characterized by an absence of the rostral part of the corpus callosum, fornix and septum pellucidum and the presence of a single fused lateral ventricle. A diagnosis of hypodipsic/adipsic hypernatremia with lobar holoprosencephaly was made. Read More

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J Zoo Wildl Med 2022 Mar;53(1):1-10

San Diego Zoo, Jennings Medical Center, San Diego Zoo Wildlife Alliance, San Diego, CA 92112, USA.

Obstructive and incidental urolithiasis cases were evaluated in 5 Asian colobine monkey species (= 21 individuals) that included 12 silvery langurs (), 6 spectacled langurs (), 1 Javan langur (), 1 François' langur (), and 1 red-shanked douc langur () from eight zoologic institutions. All institutions that responded were Association of Zoos and Aquariums, European Association of Zoos and Aquaria, or World Association of Zoos and Aquariums accredited. Males were more commonly represented in the total number of cases (86%), and all cases of obstructive urolithiasis occurred in males. Read More

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Bronchoscopy and Lung Fine-Needle Aspiration for Antemortem Evaluation of Pulmonary Involvement in Dogs with Naturally Occurring Canine Leishmaniosis.

Pathogens 2022 Mar 17;11(3). Epub 2022 Mar 17.

Companion Animal Clinic (Medicine Unit), School of Veterinary Medicine, Faculty of Health Sciences, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, 54627 Τhessaloniki, Greece.

Clinical manifestations from the lower respiratory tract are rare in canine leishmaniosis (CanL), making bronchoscopy and lung fine-needle aspiration (FNA) seldomly justified. The aim of this prospective study was to investigate the involvement of in the lungs of dogs with naturally occurring CanL by bronchoscopy and examination of bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF), bronchial mucosa biopsies, and FNA, using immunodiagnostics. Dogs with relevant concurrent diseases and azotemia were excluded. Read More

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Association between urinary N-acetyl-β-glucosaminidase activity-urinary creatinine concentration ratio and risk of disability and all-cause mortality.

PLoS One 2022 25;17(3):e0265637. Epub 2022 Mar 25.

Division of Cardiovascular Medicine, Kobe University Graduate School of Medicine, Kobe, Japan.

Background: Recent studies have suggested that chronic kidney disease is associated with cardiovascular disease, dementia, and frailty, all of which cause disability and early death. We investigated whether increased activity of urinary N-acetyl-β-glucosaminidase (NAG), a marker of kidney injury, is associated with risk of disability or all-cause mortality in a general population.

Methods: Follow-up data from the Hidaka Cohort Study, a population-based cohort study of members of a Japanese rural community, were obtained via questionnaires completed by participants or their relatives. Read More

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Ethylene glycol toxicosis in milk-fed dairy calves.

Acta Vet Scand 2022 Mar 24;64(1). Epub 2022 Mar 24.

Department of Veterinary Clinical Sciences, University of Copenhagen, 1870, Frederiksberg C, Denmark.

Background: Ethylene glycol (EG) (antifreeze) toxicosis has mostly been reported in dogs and cats, while reports on EG toxicosis in cattle are sparse. We report EG toxicosis in 25 milk-fed calves associated with a leak in the cooling pipes in a milk taxi. The milk taxi was connected to a geothermal heating system in which EG was used as antifreeze. Read More

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Nasal colonization by Entamoeba gingivalis in a 13-year-old Italian Greyhound.

Vet Clin Pathol 2022 Mar 10. Epub 2022 Mar 10.

Department of Veterinary Biosciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH.

A 13-year-old 4.6 kg castrated male Italian Greyhound was presented for evaluation of sneezing, bilateral epistaxis and mucoid nasal discharge of approximately 3 months duration. Severe periodontal disease was noted on physical exam. Read More

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Hip Fracture Risk According to Diabetic Kidney Disease Phenotype in a Korean Population.

Endocrinol Metab (Seoul) 2022 02 28;37(1):148-158. Epub 2022 Feb 28.

Division of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Department of Internal Medicine, Dongguk University Ilsan Hospital, Goyang, Korea.

Background: Diabetic kidney disease (DKD) is associated with an elevated risk of fractures. However, little is known about the association between proteinuric or non-proteinuric DKD and the risk of hip fracture. Thus, we investigated the incidence of hip fractures among Korean adults with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) stratified by DKD phenotype. Read More

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February 2022

A standard hemodialysis prescription to prevent osmotic demyelination in hyponatremic patients requiring dialysis.

Ther Apher Dial 2022 Feb 24. Epub 2022 Feb 24.

Faculty of Medicine, Department of Nephrology, Hacettepe University, Ankara, Turkey.

Introduction: We aimed to investigate the effect of a standard hemodialysis prescription in hyponatremic patients requiring hemodialysis on the development of osmotic demyelination syndrome.

Methods: Ninety-nine patients who were treated with hemodialysis for the first time and had a pre-dialysis sodium value of ≤125 meq/L included in the study. Standard hemodialysis treatment was applied to all patients. Read More

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February 2022

Suspected Primary Spontaneous Asymptomatic Pneumothorax in a Cat.

Case Rep Vet Med 2022 14;2022:2827118. Epub 2022 Feb 14.

Department of Veterinary Clinical Sciences, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH, USA.

Spontaneous pneumothorax (SPT) is a documented emergency of the respiratory tract condition classified as either primary or secondary based on the presence of underlying pulmonary conditions. All reported SPT in the feline literature are evaluated for respiratory clinical signs. Primary SPT without underlying pathology or without clinical signs is not reported in cats. Read More

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February 2022

Case Report: Imaging Features and Successful Management of Ureteral Stenosis in a Kitten With Bilateral Atypical Papillary Transitional Mucosal Hyperplasia.

Front Vet Sci 2021 3;8:796638. Epub 2022 Feb 3.

College of Veterinary Medicine, Jeonbuk National University, Jeonbuk, South Korea.

A 3-month-old cat weighing 2.62 kg was brought to the VIP Animal Medical Center with vomiting, diarrhea, anorexia, and depression. Laboratory findings confirmed azotemia with elevated blood urea nitrogen (BUN) (168. Read More

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February 2022

Case Report: Acute Kidney Injury Due to Chronic Milk-Alkali Syndrome in a Patient With Colon Cancer.

Front Med (Lausanne) 2022 4;9:834107. Epub 2022 Feb 4.

Department of Internal Medicine, Gyeongsang National University Hospital, Jinju, South Korea.

Background: Common causes of hypercalcemia include primary hyperparathyroidism and paraneoplastic syndrome of malignancy. Because of this, physicians can easily miss extrinsic causes of hypercalcemia such as milk-alkali syndrome in patients with cancer. We successfully treated a case of acute kidney injury due to severe hypercalcemia caused by milk-alkali syndrome due to long-term milk drinking in a patient with colon cancer. Read More

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February 2022

Polycystic Kidney Disease in 3 Juvenile Rainbow Lorikeets ().

J Avian Med Surg 2022 Jan;35(4):464-474

University of Queensland-Gatton Campus, The University of Queensland, Gatton QLD 4343, Australia.

This case series describes polycystic kidney disease in 3 (2 male, 1 female) 2-month-old, juvenile rainbow lorikeets (). The lorikeets diagnosed with polycystic kidney disease were the progeny of full sibling parents that were being intentionally line bred for the purpose of establishing a rainbow lorikeet with the blue color mutation. Clinically the juvenile lorikeets were presented with clinical signs of lethargy, dehydration, regurgitation, anorexia, polyuria, and pelvic limb paresis. Read More

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January 2022

Acute kidney injury in dogs: Etiology, clinical and clinicopathologic findings, prognostic markers, and outcome.

J Vet Intern Med 2022 Mar 1;36(2):609-618. Epub 2022 Feb 1.

Veterinary Teaching Hospital, Koret School of Veterinary Medicine, The Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Rehovot, Israel.

Background: Acute kidney injury (AKI) is a common, potentially fatal condition.

Objectives: To characterize the etiologies, clinical and clinicopathologic findings, hospitalization period, and outcome of dogs with AKI and to identify markers of negative prognosis.

Animals: Two hundred forty-nine client-own dogs diagnosed with AKI and hospitalized at a veterinary teaching hospital. Read More

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Postrenal Azotemia in a Gastric Cancer Patient Revealed the Coincidence of Ureteral Metastasis and Contralateral Ureteral Stone: A Case Report.

Case Rep Oncol 2021 Sep-Dec;14(3):1660-1664. Epub 2021 Nov 18.

Urology Research Center, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Metastatic ureteral masses are not rare, but isolated ureteral metastasis from the origin of gastric cancer is rare. Ureteral metastasis is usually unilateral and does not lead to postrenal azotemia unless in single kidney patients. Herein, we describe an 80-year-old man with a history of nonmetastatic gastric cancer who presented with postrenal azotemia due to the coincidence of right distal ureteral metastasis and left distal ureteral stone. Read More

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November 2021

A Prospective study of Emphysematous Pyelonephritis in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes.

Indian J Nephrol 2021 Nov-Dec;31(6):536-543. Epub 2021 Nov 9.

Department of Medicine, subdivision Nephrology, SRMS IMS Bareilly, Uttar Pradesh, India.

Introduction: Emphysematous pyelonephritis (EPN) is a necrotizing infection of the renal parenchyma. There is a lack of studies on follow up of EPN patients. The study aimed to explore the effect of EPN in patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D) on glycemic and renal parameters on follow up, and factors suggesting the failure of medical treatment. Read More

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November 2021