22,037 results match your criteria Azathioprine Metabolism and TPMT


A case series and systematic literature review of anakinra and immunosuppression in idiopathic recurrent pericarditis.

J Cardiol Cases 2011 Oct 12;4(2):e93-e97. Epub 2011 Aug 12.

Centre for Amyloidosis & Acute Phase Proteins, Division of Medicine, Royal Free Campus, University College London Medical School, London, UK.

Idiopathic recurrent pericarditis (IRP) impairs quality of life. Although its precise etiology is not certain, it is believed to be immunologically mediated. Its optimal treatments are unknown. Read More

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October 2011

Coronary rupture after stent deployment in a patient under chronic immunosuppressive therapy.

J Cardiol Cases 2012 Nov 11;6(5):e145-e149. Epub 2012 Aug 11.

1st Department of Cardiology, Hippokration Hospital, Medical School, National & Kapodistrian University of Athens, 13 Astypaleas, Anoixi, Attiki 14569, Greece.

Coronary rupture during cardiac catheterization and angioplasty is an uncommon but serious complication. Predisposing factors to this dreadful complication are not well defined. We present a case of coronary artery rupture during an urgent percutaneous intervention in a patient under chronic immunosuppressive therapy with corticosteroids and azathioprine, despite intravascular ultrasound (IVUS) guidance. Read More

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November 2012

Follow-up study on Chinese children with relapsing MOG-IgG-associated central nervous system demyelination.

Mult Scler Relat Disord 2018 Dec 3;28:4-10. Epub 2018 Dec 3.

Department of Pediatrics, Peking University First Hospital, Beijing, China. Electronic address:

Background: Some studies have reported clinical features of relapsing MOG-IgG-associated CNS demyelination principally in Caucasians children. It is not clear whether Chinese children share the same phenotype.

Objective: To delineate the clinical characteristics in Chinese children with relapsing MOG-IgG-associated demyelination. Read More

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December 2018

Recurrent arterial ischemic stroke with good response to mycophenolate mofetil.

Eur J Paediatr Neurol 2018 Nov 14. Epub 2018 Nov 14.

Department of Paediatrics, Division of Paediatric Neurology, Ghent University Hospital, C. Heymanslaan 10, B-9000, Gent, Belgium. Electronic address:

Background: Arterial ischemic stroke is rare in childhood. Often, the diagnosis is made after considerable delay. A thorough workup to pinpoint the underlying etiology is necessary, as a correct diagnosis is the determining factor in treatment decision. Read More

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November 2018

Treatment of cardiac sarcoidosis: A comparative study of steroids and steroids plus immunosuppressive drugs.

Int J Cardiol 2018 Nov 30. Epub 2018 Nov 30.

Département de Médecine Interne, Hôpital Bichat, Université Paris Diderot, PRES Sorbonne Paris Cité, Assistance Publique Hôpitaux de Paris, Paris, France; Département Hospitalo-Universitaire FIRE (Fibrosis, Inflammation and Remodelling in Renal and Respiratory Diseases), Paris, France; INSERM U1149, Paris, France. Electronic address:

Background: We aimed to compare the efficacy of steroids alone or associated with immunosuppressive drugs for the prevention of relapse in cardiac sarcoidosis (CS).

Methods: In this monocentric multidisciplinary retrospective single center study, all consecutive patients with histologically proven sarcoidosis hospitalized from January 2012 to December 2016 were considered. All patients with symptomatic CS were studied. Read More

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November 2018

Livebirth after uterus transplantation from a deceased donor in a recipient with uterine infertility.

Lancet 2018 Dec 4. Epub 2018 Dec 4.

Division of Gynaecology, Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Hospital das Clínicas, University of São Paulo School of Medicine, São Paulo, Brazil.

Background: Uterus transplantation from live donors became a reality to treat infertility following a successful Swedish 2014 series, inspiring uterus transplantation centres and programmes worldwide. However, no case of livebirth via deceased donor uterus has, to our knowledge, been successfully achieved, raising doubts about its feasibility and viability, including whether the womb remains viable after prolonged ischaemia.

Methods: In September, 2016, a 32-year-old woman with congenital uterine absence (Mayer-Rokitansky-Küster-Hauser [MRKH] syndrome) underwent uterine transplantation in Hospital das Clínicas, University of São Paulo, Brazil, from a donor who died of subarachnoid haemorrhage. Read More

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December 2018
1 Read

Long-term follow-up of children and young adults with autoimmune hepatitis treated with cyclosporine.

Dig Liver Dis 2018 Nov 3. Epub 2018 Nov 3.

Pediatric Hepatology and Liver Transplantation, ISMETT UPMC Palermo, Palermo, Italy; Section of Pediatrics, Department of Medical Sciences, University of Ferrara, University Hospital Arcispedale Sant'Anna, Ferrara, Italy. Electronic address:

Background: Cyclosporine (CSA) is an alternative treatment for autoimmune hepatitis (AIH), however, its unknown long-term safety and efficacy have limited its use.

Aims: Examine the long-term outcome of children and young adults with AIH treated with CSA for at least 4 years.

Methods: Twenty patients were included in this retrospective study: 15 with classical AIH and 5 with autoimmune hepatitis/autoimmune sclerosing cholangitis overlap syndrome (ASC). Read More

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November 2018
1 Read

Epstein-Barr virus-associated hemophagocytic syndrome in a patient with ulcerative colitis during treatment with azathioprine: A case report and review of literature.

World J Clin Cases 2018 Nov;6(14):776-780

Department of General Internal Medicine, Saitama Medical University, Iruma-gun 350-0495, Saitama, Japan.

A 19-year-old female was diagnosed with ulcerative colitis when she presented with persistent melena, and has been treated with 5-aminosalicylic acid for 4 years, with additional azathioprine for 2 years at our hospital. The patient experienced high-grade fevers, chills, and cough five d prior to presenting to the outpatient unit. At first, the patient was suspected to have developed neutropenic fever; however, she was diagnosed with Epstein-Barr virus-associated hemophagocytic syndrome (EB-VAHS) upon fulfilling the diagnostic criteria after bone marrow aspiration. Read More

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November 2018
1 Read

Complete urological evaluation including sperm DNA fragmentation in male systemic lupus erythematosus patients.

Lupus 2018 Dec 3:961203318815764. Epub 2018 Dec 3.

1 Discipline of Urology, Hospital das Clinicas HCFMUSP, Sao Paulo, Brazil.

Objective: To evaluate sperm DNA fragmentation analysis in non-azoospermic male systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) patients.

Methods: Twenty-eight consecutive male SLE patients (American College of Rheumatology criteria) and 34 healthy controls were evaluated for demographic/exposures data, urological evaluation, hormone profile and sperm analysis (including sperm DNA fragmentation). Clinical features, disease activity/damage scores and treatment were also evaluated. Read More

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December 2018

Clinical characteristics of 153 Brazilian patients with neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder (NMOSD).

Mult Scler Relat Disord 2018 Nov 28;27:392-396. Epub 2018 Nov 28.

Department of Neurology, New York University, New York, NY, USA.

Background: The 2015 criteria for diagnosing neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder (NMOSD) have encouraged several groups across the world to report on their patients using these criteria. The disease typically manifests with severe relapses of optic neuritis, longitudinally extensive myelitis and/or brainstem syndromes, often leading to severe disability. Some patients are seropositive for antibodies against aquaporin-4 (AQP4), others are positive for anti-myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG), while a few are negative for both biomarkers. Read More

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November 2018

Vascular Behçet's syndrome: an update.

Intern Emerg Med 2018 Nov 29. Epub 2018 Nov 29.

Department of Experimental and Clinical Medicine, University of Firenze, Firenze, Italy.

Behçet's syndrome (BS) is a complex vasculitis, characterised by peculiar histological, pathogenetic and clinical features. Superficial venous thrombosis (SVT) and deep vein thrombosis (DVT) are the most frequent vascular involvements, affecting altogether 15-40% of BS patients. Atypical thrombosis is also an important clinical feature of BS, involving the vascular districts of the inferior and superior vena cava, suprahepatic veins with Budd-Chiari syndrome, portal vein, cerebral sinuses and right ventricle. Read More

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November 2018
2 Reads

Combined immunosuppressive treatment (CIST) in lupus nephritis: a multicenter, randomized controlled study.

Clin Rheumatol 2018 Nov 28. Epub 2018 Nov 28.

Department of Rheumatology and Immunology, Peking University People's Hospital, 11 Xizhimen South Street, Xicheng District, Beijing, 100044, China.

Objectives: The standard strategy for treating lupus nephritis comprises glucocorticoids together with either intravenous cyclophosphamide or oral mycophenolate mofetil, but the low remission rate is still a challenge in practice. This study was aimed to seek higher remission rate of lupus nephritis using a combined strategy.

Method: A 24-week trial was conducted in 17 rheumatology or nephrology centers in China. Read More

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November 2018
1 Read

Thiopurine S-methyltransferase (TPMT) Mutation Prevalence and Myelosuppression Frequency in North Indian Patients with Autoimmune Disorders.

J Assoc Physicians India 2018 May;66(5):39-44

Sir Ganga Ram Hospital, New Delhi.

Background: For many years, azathioprine and its active metabolite 6-merceptopurine are used as immunosuppressants for treatment of autoimmune disorders. However, azathioprine has low therapeutic index with myelosuppression as its predominant toxicity which is linked with thiopurine S-methyltransferase (TPMT) enzyme activity, which is involved in drug metabolism. TPMT activity is controlled by variants in TPMT gene. Read More

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May 2018
1 Read

Pemphigus Foliaceus-Repeated Treatment With Rituximab 7 Years After Initial Response: A Case Report.

Front Med (Lausanne) 2018 9;5:315. Epub 2018 Nov 9.

Department of Dermatology, Venerology and Allergology, Allergy-Center-Charité, Charité-Universitätsmedizin Berlin, Berlin, Germany.

Pemphigus foliaceus is an autoimmune skin disease mediated by autoantibodies directed against desmoglein-1 located in the upper epidermal layer. Rituximab, a monoclonal anit-CD20 antibody depleting b-cells, offers an effective treatment possibility for therapy-resistant pemphigus foliaceus. Here, we present the case of 55-year-old man who did not respond sufficiently to conventional treatment with prednisolone, azathioprine, and cyclophosphamide, but underwent almost complete remission after rituximab treatment. Read More

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November 2018

Necrotizing Autoimmune myopathy: A case report on statin induced rhabdomyolysis requiring immunosuppressive therapy.

Drug Discov Ther 2018 ;12(5):315-317

Department of Internal Medicine, Creighton University School of Medicine.

Statins can cause a wide spectrum of muscular adverse effects ranging from asymptomatic elevation of Creatine Kinase (CK), myalgia and exercise intolerance to rhabdomyolysis. Most of these effects generally resolve on stopping the medication. However, statins can be associated with a unique autoimmune myopathy wherein symptoms persist or even progress after statin discontinuation and require immunosuppressive therapy. Read More

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January 2018
7 Reads

The Impact of Immunosuppressive Drugs on Human Placental Explants.

Reprod Sci 2018 Nov 20:1933719118812739. Epub 2018 Nov 20.

1 Department of Cellular and Developmental Biology, Institute of Biomedical Sciences, University of São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil.

The use of immunosuppressive drugs guarantees the vitality of the graft and allows gestation in spite of intercurrences such as prematurity and intrauterine growth restriction. However, little is known about the direct effects of immunosuppressive drugs on placental cells. We investigated the effects of immunosuppressive drugs in the chorionic villous explants from human term placentas of healthy gestations. Read More

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November 2018

Induction of remission in autoimmune polyglandular syndrome type three (APS III): An old drug with new perspectives.

Clin Case Rep 2018 Nov 2;6(11):2178-2184. Epub 2018 Oct 2.

Internal Medicine Department, Faculty of Medicine Alexandria University Alexandria Egypt.

The autoimmune polyglandular syndrome is a sequential chain of autoimmune events. Whenever diagnosed, the clinician's target should be induction of remission and if possible hindering its progression especially if associated with refractory vitiligo, resistant Grave's, or unexplained hyperglycemia in T1DM. Azathioprine could be used for induction of remission in autoimmune polyglandular syndrome type three especially with vitiligo and autoimmune thyroiditis. Read More

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November 2018
8 Reads

Sweet syndrome: a rare feature of ANCA-associated vasculitis or unusual consequence of azathioprine-induced treatment.

Allergy Asthma Clin Immunol 2018 8;14:46. Epub 2018 Nov 8.

1Division of Nephrology, Department of Medicine, University Hospital Limerick, St Nessans Rd, Limerick, Ireland.

Background: Sweet syndrome is a rare skin condition characterised by fever, neutrophilia, and tender erythematous skin lesions and has been reported to occur in association with anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies (ANCA) as well as complicate treatment with azathioprine therapy. Azathioprine, a relatively safe immunosuppressive, is frequently used to maintain disease remission in the treatment of ANCA-associated vasculitis. The occurrence of Sweet syndrome in a patient with ANCA-positive vasculitis and following treatment with azathioprine prompted us to present this clinical case and share this unusually rare occurrence. Read More

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November 2018
2 Reads

Autoimmune pancreatitis in children: A single centre experience in diagnosis, management and long term follow up.

Pancreatology 2018 Nov 14. Epub 2018 Nov 14.

Paediatric Liver, GI & Nutrition Centre and MowatLabs, King's College Hospital NHS Foundation Trust, London, UK; Institute of Liver Studies, King's College Hospital, Faculty of Life Sciences & Medicine at King's College Hospital, London, UK. Electronic address:

Objectives: Autoimmune pancreatitis (AIP) is a rare form of chronic pancreatitis and data is limited in the paediatric population. We aim to describe in detail a cohort of paediatric patients with AIP including their presentation, investigations that led to their diagnosis, management and long-term follow up.

Methods: We retrospectively reviewed the data of 6 patients diagnosed with AIP over an 10-year period. Read More

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November 2018
1 Read

Antioxidative Efficacy of a Supplement and Its Effect on the Plasma Amino Acid Profile in Inflammatory Bowel Disease: A Randomised, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Trial.

Nutrients 2018 Nov 16;10(11). Epub 2018 Nov 16.

Department of Dietetics and Nutritional Science, School of Health Science and Education, Harokopio University, 17671 Athens, Greece.

Oxidative stress is present in patients with Inflammatory Bowel Disease (IBD), and natural supplements with antioxidant properties have been investigated as a non-pharmacological approach. The objective of the present study was to assess the effects of a natural (PL) supplement on oxidative stress biomarkers and to characterise the plasma-free amino acid (AA) profiles of patients with active IBD (Crohn's disease (CD) = 40, ulcerative colitis (UC) = 20). The activity was determined according to 5 ≤ Harvey Bradshaw Index ≤ 16 or 2 ≤ Partial Mayo Score ≤ 6. Read More

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November 2018
2 Reads

Red Blood cell IMPDH activity in adults and children with or without azathioprine: relationship between thiopurine metabolites, ITPA and TPMT activities.

Basic Clin Pharmacol Toxicol 2018 Nov 19. Epub 2018 Nov 19.

Université de Lyon, Université Lyon 1, UMR CNRS 5305, Pharmacie Clinique, Pharmacocinétique et Evaluation du Médicament, Lyon, France.

Inosine MonoPhosphate DeHydrogenase (IMPDH) is considered as the limiting enzyme of thiopurine metabolism for the formation of 6-Thioguanine nucleotides (6-TGN). No data are available on the influence of RBCs IMPDH activity on the metabolism of thiopurine drugs in subjects with IBD. The aim of this study was 1/ To carry out a phenotypic study of RBCs IMPDH activity in adults and children treated or not with azathioprine (AZA) for autoimmune diseases. Read More

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November 2018
6 Reads

Thiopurine Methyltransferase genetic polymorphisms and activity and metabolic products of azathioprine in patients with inflammatory bowel disease.

Endocr Metab Immune Disord Drug Targets 2018 Nov 19. Epub 2018 Nov 19.

Golestan Research Center of Gasteroenterolgy and Hepatology, Golestan University of Medical Sciences, Gorgan, Golestan Province. Iran.

Background: Thiopurine S-methyltransferase (TPMT) is a cytoplasmic enzyme that catalyzes thiopurine drugs, such as 6-mercaptopurine, 6-thioguanine, and azathioprine. There is a correlation between thiopurine drug metabolism, response, and toxicity and genetic polymorphism of TPMT. The aim of this study is to assess TPMT genetic polymorphisms activity and metabolic products of AZA in patients with IBD. Read More

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November 2018
4 Reads

Treatment of Cutaneous Lichen Planus (Part 2): A Review of Systemic Therapies.

J Dermatolog Treat 2018 Nov 17:1-40. Epub 2018 Nov 17.

b Department of Dermatology , University of KwaZulu-Natal & Nelson Mandela School of Medicine , Durban , South Africa.

Background: Although numerous medications are available for the treatment of cutaneous lichen planus (CLP), recurrence is common and there is a lack of evidence of efficacy of many treatment options. Part 1 reviewed consolidated evidence from topical therapies and phototherapy. In Part 2, all systemic treatments are assessed. Read More

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November 2018
3 Reads

Statin Use is Associated with Improved Outcomes of Patients With Primary Sclerosing Cholangitis.

Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol 2018 Nov 15. Epub 2018 Nov 15.

Department of Medicine Huddinge, Unit of Gastroenterology and Rheumatology, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden; Division of Hepatology, Department of Upper GI Disease, Karolinska University Hospital, Stockholm, Sweden. Electronic address:

Background & Aims: There is increasing evidence that statins can benefit patients with chronic liver diseases, but their effects have not been studied in patients with primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC). We performed a nationwide study in Sweden to determine the effects of exposure to drugs, including statins, in patients with PSC.

Methods: We studied a population-based cohort of patients in Sweden with PSC and concomitant ulcerative colitis or Crohn´s disease from 2005 through 2014 (n=2914), followed through 2016. Read More

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November 2018
4 Reads

Clinical Pharmacogenetics Implementation Consortium (CPIC) guideline for thiopurine dosing based on TPMT and NUDT15 genotypes: 2018 update.

Clin Pharmacol Ther 2018 Nov 17. Epub 2018 Nov 17.

Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, St. Jude Children's Research Hospital, Memphis, TN, USA.

TPMT activity exhibits a monogenic co-dominant inheritance and catabolizes thiopurines. TPMT variant alleles are associated with low enzyme activity and pronounced pharmalogic effecs of thiopurines. Loss-of-function alleles in the NUDT15 gene are common in Asians and Hispanics and reduces the degradation of active thiopurine nucleotide metabolites, also predisposing to myelosuppression. Read More

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November 2018
7 Reads

Well-controlled autoimmune hepatitis treatment withdrawal may be safely accomplished without liver-biopsy guidance.

Gastroenterol Rep (Oxf) 2018 Nov 13;6(4):284-290. Epub 2018 Jul 13.

Digestive Disease Institute, Department of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, OH, USA.

Background: Autoimmune hepatitis may flare up after treatment withdrawal, especially in those who had not achieved histological remission but had normal liver enzymes. The European Association for the Study of the Liver (EASL) and the American Association for the Study of Liver Disease (AASLD) Guidelines recommend performing liver biopsy before treatment withdrawal. The aim of the study is to define the outcome of treatment withdrawal in adults with well-controlled disease for 2 years with and without liver-biopsy guidance. Read More

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November 2018
3 Reads

Multiple sclerosis: disease modifying therapy and the human leukocyte antigen.

Arq Neuropsiquiatr 2018 Oct;76(10):697-704

Universidade Federal do Paraná, Hospital de Clínicas, Serviço de Neurologia, Curitiba PR, Brasil.

Objective: To investigate the potential relationship between the human leukocyte antigen (HLA) type (class I and II) and the response to several disease-modifying therapies (DMTs) in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS).

Methods: We analyzed clinical data of 87 patients with MS at the beginning and end of each type of DMT including the disease duration, Expanded Disability Status Scale and Multiple Sclerosis Severity Score (MSSS). Genotyping of HLA-DRB1, HLA-DPB1, HLA-DQB1, HLA-A, HLA-B and HLA-C alleles were identified using high-resolution techniques. Read More

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October 2018
8 Reads

Biochemical Markers, Genotype, and Inflammation in Pediatric Inflammatory Bowel Disease: A Danish Population-Based Study.

Dig Dis 2018 Nov 13:1-7. Epub 2018 Nov 13.

Department of Pediatrics, Hvidovre University Hospital, Copenhagen,

Background: Our aim was to characterize the biochemical markers at diagnosis in patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), to assess the utility of these to predict disease course and investigate if genotype influences biochemical markers of inflammation.

Summary: Patients were included from a population-based pediatric IBD cohort from Eastern Denmark. Data on biochemical markers and medical as well as surgical treatment were registered at diagnosis, 30 days, 6 and 12 months after diagnosis. Read More

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November 2018
6 Reads

Efficacy and safety of biological therapy compared to synthetic immunomodulatory drugs or placebo in the treatment of Behçet's disease associated uveitis: a systematic review.

Rheumatol Int 2018 Nov 12. Epub 2018 Nov 12.

University Hospital Marques of Valdecilla, Santander, Spain.

The aim of this study is to compare the efficacy and safety of biological therapy with cyclosporin A (CsA), azathioprine (AZA), or placebo in uveitis flares and other ocular outcomes in patients with Behçet disease. A comprehensive and sensitive search in MEDLINE, EMBASE, and the Cochrane Library was performed. We selected articles including: (1) adult patients with Behçet's and uveitis; (2) on biological therapies; (3) placebo or active control with CsA or AZA; (4) analyzing efficacy (number of uveitis flares, macular edema, etc. Read More

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November 2018
3 Reads

A Case of Acute Pemphigus Vulgaris Relapses Associated with Cocaine Use and Review of the Literature.

Dermatol Ther (Heidelb) 2018 Dec 10;8(4):653-663. Epub 2018 Nov 10.

Department of Neurology, Alzheimer Research Center Groningen, University of Groningen, University Medical Center Groningen, Groningen, The Netherlands.

Pemphigus is a bullous autoimmune disease that affects the skin and mucous membranes. It is very difficult to establish the etiology and the triggering factors that influence reactivations in pemphigus vulgaris (PV). The case of a 33-year-old male with chronic history of intranasal cocaine consumption is presented in this report. Read More

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December 2018
6 Reads

Immunoglobulin G4-related disease with recurrent uveitis and kidney tumor mimicking childhood polyarteritis nodosa: a rare case report.

Acta Reumatol Port 2018 Jul-Sep;43(3):226-229

Instituto da Criança, Hospital das Clínicas, Faculdade de Medicina, Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo, SP, Brasil.

Introduction: Immunoglobulin G4-related disease (IgG4-RD) is an condition rarely reported in children. Additionally, IgG4-RD may rarely mimic vasculitis in adults and may infrequently present with uveitis. In our service, 6,198 patients were followed-up and only one (0. Read More

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November 2018
2 Reads

Treatment of alopecia areata: An Australian expert consensus statement.

Australas J Dermatol 2018 Nov 8. Epub 2018 Nov 8.

Sinclair Dermatology, East Melbourne, Victoria, Australia.

Alopecia areata (AA) severity varies from a single small patch to complete loss of scalp hair, body hair, eyelashes and eyebrows. While 40% of all affected individuals only ever get one patch and will achieve a spontaneous complete durable remission within 6 months, 27% will develop additional patches but still achieve complete durable remission within 12 months and 33% will develop chronic AA. Without systemic treatment, 55% of individuals with chronic AA will have persistent multifocal relapsing and remitting disease, 30% will ultimately develop alopecia totalis and 15% will develop alopecia universalis. Read More

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November 2018
12 Reads

Prognostic Factors for Survival and Relapse in ANCA-Associated Vasculitis with Renal Involvement: A Clinical Long-Term Follow-Up Study.

Int J Nephrol 2018 16;2018:6369814. Epub 2018 Oct 16.

Abdomen Center, Nephrology, Helsinki University Hospital, Helsinki, Finland.

Aim: We describe the clinical pattern of ANCA-associated vasculitis (AAV) and assess long-term prognostic factors of patients and renal survival and relapse.

Methods: Data from 85 patients with renal biopsy-proven AAV at a single center with up to 20-year [median 16.2 years (95% CI 14. Read More

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October 2018
16 Reads

Diagnosis and Treatment of NMO Spectrum Disorder and MOG-Encephalomyelitis.

Front Neurol 2018 23;9:888. Epub 2018 Oct 23.

NeuroCure Clinical Research Center, Charité - Universitätsmedizin Berlin, Corporate Member of Freie Universität Berlin, Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin, and Berlin Institute of Health, Berlin, Germany.

Neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorders (NMOSD) are autoantibody mediated chronic inflammatory diseases. Serum antibodies (Abs) against the aquaporin-4 water channel lead to recurrent attacks of optic neuritis, myelitis and/or brainstem syndromes. In some patients with symptoms of NMOSD, no AQP4-Abs but Abs against myelin-oligodendrocyte-glycoprotein (MOG) are detectable. Read More

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October 2018
7 Reads

Eosinophilic Granulomatosis with Polyangiitis (Churg-Strauss).

Semin Respir Crit Care Med 2018 Aug 7;39(4):471-481. Epub 2018 Nov 7.

Department of Internal Medicine, Referral Center for Rare Systemic and Autoimmune Diseases, Hôpital Cochin, Université Paris Descartes, Paris, France.

Eosinophilic granulomatosis with polyangiitis (EGPA), formerly called Churg-Strauss syndrome, is a systemic necrotizing vasculitis of small- and medium-size vessels, characterized by asthma and blood eosinophilia. EGPA typically occurs in patients with preexisting asthma, and involves the skin, lungs, and peripheral nerves. Poor-prognosis factors (i. Read More

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August 2018
5 Reads

Novel therapeutic targets in autoimmune hepatitis.

J Autoimmun 2018 Dec 4;95:34-46. Epub 2018 Nov 4.

Department of Gastroenterology, Hepatology and Endocrinology, Hannover Medical School, Hannover, Germany; German Centre for Infection Research (DZIF), Partner Site Hannover-Braunschweig, Germany; Helmholtz Centre for Infection Research (HZI), Braunschweig, Germany. Electronic address:

Autoimmune hepatitis (AIH) is an orphan disease characterized by an autoimmune attack against hepatocytes. The exact sequence of events that leads to a breach of tolerance is incompletely understood. Current hypotheses suggest that environmental agents such as toxins or infectious agents like viruses cause a tissue damage that initiates autoimmunity in genetically susceptible individuals. Read More

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December 2018
7 Reads

A risk score system to timely manage treatment in Crohn's disease: a cohort study.

BMC Gastroenterol 2018 Nov 6;18(1):164. Epub 2018 Nov 6.

Dipartimento di Medicina Interna e Specialità Mediche, Università "Sapienza", Policlinico "Umberto I", V.le del Policlinico, 155, 00161, Rome, Italy.

Background: Clinical severity and intestinal lesions of Crohn's disease (CD) usually progress over time and require a step up adjustment of the therapy either to prevent or to treat complications. The aim of the study was to  develop a simple risk scoring system to assess in individual CD patients the risk of disease progression and the need for more intensive treatment and monitoring.

Methods: Prospective cohort study (January 2002-September 2014) including 160 CD patients (93 female, median age 31 years; disease behavior (B)1 25%, B2 55. Read More

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November 2018
8 Reads

Childhood-onset Takayasu arteritis: A 15-year experience from a tertiary referral center.

Int J Rheum Dis 2018 Nov 5. Epub 2018 Nov 5.

Department of Pediatric Rheumatology, Cerrahpasa Medical Faculty, Istanbul University, Istanbul, Turkey.

Aim: To describe clinical manifestations, angiographic findings, treatment, activity and damage of our Takayasu arteritis patients.

Method: The patients who met European League Against Rheumatism/Paediatric Rheumatology International Trials Organisation/Paediatric Rheumatology European Society classification criteria for childhood-onset Takayasu arteritis were reviewed in a retrospective longitudinal manner from 2002 to 2017. Extent of the disease was assessed by Disease Extent Index for Takayasu Arteritis (DEI. Read More

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November 2018
4 Reads

De novo autoimmune hepatitis -is this different in adults compared to children?

J Autoimmun 2018 Dec 3;95:26-33. Epub 2018 Nov 3.

Institute of Liver Studies, Mowat Labs, King's College Hospital, London, United Kingdom.

De novo autoimmune hepatitis (AIH) is an unusual cause of graft dysfunction after liver transplantation. This entity was originally described in 1996 in children transplanted for conditions other than AIH, who developed biochemical and histological features similar to AIH and responded to the therapy of classical AIH with steroids and azathioprine. In the last two decades, there have been reports of occurrence of de novo AIH in pediatric and adult liver transplant recipients, in the latter often being given different nomenclature including 'plasma cell hepatitis'. Read More

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December 2018
3 Reads

Effectiveness of renoprotective approaches for persistent proteinuria in lupus nephritis: more than just immunosuppression.

Lupus 2018 Dec 4;27(14):2215-2219. Epub 2018 Nov 4.

Rheumatology Division, Hospital das Clinicas da Faculdade de Medicina, Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil.

Objective: The objective of this study is to evaluate the efficacy of a tightly controlled renoprotective protocol in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) patients with persistent proteinuria.

Methods: Thirteen SLE patients with nephritis and persistent proteinuria (>1 g/24 hours) were included. The protocol consisted of regular clinical evaluations every two weeks to assess blood pressure (BP, target <130/80 mmHg), adherence to therapy, diet and smoking. Read More

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December 2018
4 Reads

Cancer-associated retinopathy preceding the diagnosis of cancer.

BMC Ophthalmol 2018 Nov 3;18(1):285. Epub 2018 Nov 3.

Department of Ophthalmology, National Referral Center for rare Ocular Diseases, Hôpital Cochin, APHP, Université Paris Descartes, Paris, France.

Background: The early diagnosis of cancer is of crucial importance and a key prognostic factor. Cancer-associated retinopathy (CAR) can be symptomatic prior to other manifestations directly related to malignant tumors. The aim of this study was to show that, in selected cases, ophthalmic findings are consistent enough with the diagnosis of CAR to trigger investigations aimed at detecting a previously unknown malignancy. Read More

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November 2018
4 Reads

Mycophenolate mofetil treatment in patients with autoimmune hepatitis failing standard therapy with prednisolone and azathioprine.

Dig Liver Dis 2018 Oct 12. Epub 2018 Oct 12.

Division of Gastroenterology, Department of Gastroenterology, Dermatology and Rheumatology, Karolinska University Hospital, Stockholm, Sweden; Department of Medicine, Solna, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden. Electronic address:

Background: Data on rescue treatment of autoimmune hepatitis in patients that fail standard treatment are sparse.

Aims: To report our long-term experience with mycophenolate mofetil.

Methods: Retrospective study in 22 patients with autoimmune hepatitis who failed azathioprine and prednisolone due to adverse events (n = 14, 64%), lack of remission (n = 5, 23%) or a combination (n = 3, 13%). Read More

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October 2018
5 Reads

Neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorders (NMO-SD) in a Sub-Saharan Africa country: A preliminary study of sixteen Senegalese cases.

Mult Scler Relat Disord 2018 Oct 26;27:179-183. Epub 2018 Oct 26.

Neurology Department of Fann Teaching Hospital, BP 5035, Dakar, Senegal.

Background: Neuromyelitis optica (NMO) is an autoimmune disease of the central nervous system. In Sub-Saharan Africa, publications are rare and deal with isolated cases. Our goal was to analyze the characteristics of NMO spectrum disorders in a Senegalese cohort compiled in Dakar. Read More

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October 2018
1 Read

Successful DAA Treatment and Global Improvement in a Cirrhotic Patient with Concomitant HCV Infection and Autoimmune Hepatitis.

Dig Dis Sci 2018 Nov 1. Epub 2018 Nov 1.

Gastroenterology Unit, Department of Internal Medicine, University of Genoa, Viale Benedetto XV, No.6, 16132, Genoa, Italy.

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November 2018
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Secondary Adrenal Insufficiency after Treatment with Budesonide for Autoimmune Hepatitis.

Case Rep Gastroenterol 2018 Sep-Dec;12(3):597-601. Epub 2018 Oct 2.

Department of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Ghent University Hospital, Ghent, Belgium.

Autoimmune hepatitis (AIH) is a rare cause of chronic liver disease. The backbone of treatment is immunosuppressive medication, typically prednisolone as induction therapy and azathioprine as a maintenance therapy. Side effects of the long-term use of systemic corticosteroids are well known and have led to the use of alternative induction regimens. Read More

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October 2018
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[Pancytopenia associated with thioguanine use].

Ned Tijdschr Geneeskd 2018 Oct 18;162. Epub 2018 Oct 18.

Deventer Ziekenhuis, afd. Interne Geneeskunde.

Thiopurine drugs, such as thioguanine, mercaptopurine and azathioprine, are used for treating inflammatory bowel disease, such as ulcerative colitis. One must be aware of the serious side effects these drugs can have (e.g. Read More

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October 2018
2 Reads

Cyclophosphamide-induced severe acute hepatitis in a rheumatic disease: case-based review.

Rheumatol Int 2018 Oct 30. Epub 2018 Oct 30.

Division of Rheumatology, Department of Internal Medicine, Eskişehir Osmangazi University, 26480, Eskisehir, Turkey.

In rheumatology practice, the risk of hepatotoxicity from medications, including non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, notably, and methotrexate, sulfasalazine, leflunomide, and azathioprine is highly recognized by the rheumatologists. On the other hand, hepatotoxicity is neither a commonly expected nor a well-known side effect of cyclophosphamide (CYC) which is particularly used for vital organ involvements in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) and systemic vasculitis. Here we reported a 19-year-old case of SLE who, while on oral CYC treatment of 100 mg/day, was detected to have asymptomatic liver enzyme elevation and then developed acute hepatitis due to intravenously administered high-dose (1 g) CYC for neuro-lupus. Read More

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October 2018
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A Retrospective Study of Systemic Treatment of Severe Atopic Dermatitis With Azathioprine: Effectiveness and Tolerance in 11 Pediatric Patients.

Actas Dermosifiliogr 2018 Oct 27. Epub 2018 Oct 27.

Departamento de Dermatología, Hospital Infantil Universitario Niño Jesús, Madrid, España. Electronic address:

Background: Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a chronic inflammatory skin disease that typically affects children. Severe forms may have a profound effect on patients' quality of life. Some forms are resistant to conventional treatment and require the use of systemic immunosuppressants such as azathioprine (AZA) to adequately manage the disease. Read More

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October 2018
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The management of autoimmune diseases in preconception, pregnancy and lactation.

G Ital Dermatol Venereol 2018 Oct 29. Epub 2018 Oct 29.

Section of Dermatology, San Martino Polyclinic Hospital, DISSAL, University of Genoa, Genoa, Italy.

Autoimmune skin diseases can occur in pregnancy, and the treatment is often required to control both maternal disease and fetal outcomes. Moreover, the control of mother's diseases and fetal health is a challenge for dermatologists because of the teratogenic effects of many drugs. So it is important to know exactly which drugs, can be administrated in the different stage of pregnancy. Read More

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October 2018
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Recurrent and de novo autoimmune hepatitis.

Liver Transpl 2018 Oct 30. Epub 2018 Oct 30.

Division of Gastroenterology & Liver Unit, University of Alberta Hospital, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada.

Clinical indications for liver transplantation (LT) in patients with autoimmune hepatitis (AIH) are identical to those of patients with other chronic liver diseases that end in acute or semi-acute liver failure, decompensated cirrhosis, or hepatocellular carcinoma. Recurrent disease after LT has been reported in 10-50% of patients with AIH, and the frequency of detection is influenced in part by the use of protocol or clinically indicated liver biopsy. De novo AIH connotes the development of AIH in patients transplanted for liver diseases other than AIH, and it has been reported in 5-10% of pediatric and 1-2% of adult recipients. Read More

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October 2018
6 Reads