70,328 results match your criteria Avitaminosis A
Medicine (Baltimore) 2018 Nov;97(46):e12662
Department of Gastroenterology.
Background: Vitamin D (VitD) deficiency is prevalent in patient with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Recent studies have found that VitD can induce and maintain IBD remission through antibiosis, anti-inflammatory, and repair of intestinal mucosal barriers, thus improving the patient's disease activity and quality-of-life. The purpose of this meta-analysis is to evaluate the therapeutic effect and safety of VitD in the treatment of IBD. Read More
BMC Gastroenterol 2018 Nov 8;18(1):172. Epub 2018 Nov 8.
Gastroenterology and Endoscopy Unit, Fondazione IRCCS Ca' Granda Ospedale Maggiore Policlinico, Milan, Italy.
Background: Chronic autoimmune atrophic gastritis (CAAG) is an autoimmune disease characterized by hypo/achlorhydria. A role of CAAG in the pathogenesis of nutritional deficiencies has been reported, therefore we hypothesized a possible association between CAAG and 25-OH-Vitamin D [25(OH)D] deficiency. Aim of the present study is to evaluate the prevalence of 25(OH)D deficiency in CAAG patients. Read More
N Engl J Med 2018 11;379(19):1880-1
Medical University of South Carolina, Charleston, SC
N Engl J Med 2018 11;379(19):1881
International Center for Diarrheal Disease Research, Bangladesh, Dhaka, Bangladesh
Pan Afr Med J 2018 20;30:152. Epub 2018 Jun 20.
Department of Paediatrics 2, Unit of Endocrinology and Neuropediatrics, Children's Hospital, Faculty of Medicine and Pharmacy, University Mohammed V, Rabat, Morocco.
A vitamin B12 deficiency in infants is rare, but may sometimes be seen in breastfed babies of strict vegetarian mothers. Vitamin B12, also known as cobalamin, is only found in meat and other animal products. Most babies have a sufficient supply as long as the mother was not deficient herself. Read More
Yonsei Med J 2018 Nov;59(9):1064-1071
Department of Infectious Diseases, Taihe Hospital, Hubei University of Medicine, Shiyan, Hubei, China.
Purpose: To explore the influence of S100 calcium binding protein A4 (S100A4) knockout (KO) on methionine-choline-deficient (MCD) diet-induced non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) in mice.
Materials And Methods: S100A4 KO mice (n=20) and their wild-type (WT) counterparts (n=20) were randomly divided into KO/MCD, Ko/methionine-choline-sufficient (MCS), WT/MCD, and WT/MCS groups. After 8 weeks of feeding, blood lipid and liver function-related indexes were measured. Read More
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2018 10 15;115(43):10836-10844. Epub 2018 Oct 15.
Nutrition and Metabolism Center, Children's Hospital Oakland Research Institute (CHORI), Oakland, CA 94609-1809
It is proposed that proteins/enzymes be classified into two classes according to their essentiality for immediate survival/reproduction and their function in long-term health: that is, survival proteins versus longevity proteins. As proposed by the triage theory, a modest deficiency of one of the nutrients/cofactors triggers a built-in rationing mechanism that favors the proteins needed for immediate survival and reproduction (survival proteins) while sacrificing those needed to protect against future damage (longevity proteins). Impairment of the function of longevity proteins results in an insidious acceleration of the risk of diseases associated with aging. Read More
Pediatr Ann 2018 10;47(10):e383-e384
Pediatr Dermatol 2018 Nov 11;35(6):796-799. Epub 2018 Oct 11.
Division of Pediatric Neurology, Department of Pediatrics, Dayanand Medical College & Hospital, Ludhiana, Punjab, India.
Background/objectives: Vitamin B deficiency in infants is uncommonly reported from developed countries and generally lacks dermatologic manifestations. On the contrary, infantile vitamin B deficiency is common in India and cutaneous manifestations are a constant feature, although often overshadowed by neurologic and hematological manifestations. The aim of this study was to describe the skin changes of vitamin B deficiency in infants. Read More
Rev Soc Bras Med Trop 2018 Sep-Oct;51(5):596-602
Programa de Pós-Graduação Strictu Senso em Ciências da Saúde: Infectologia e Medicina Tropical, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Belo Horizonte, MG, Brasil.
Introduction: The prevalence of low bone mass is 3 times higher in people living with human immunodeficiency virus (PLWH) and using antiretrovirals than in the HIV-unaffected population. Changes in vitamin D levels is one of the factors associated with decreased bone mass. The objective of this study is to evaluate the low bone mass and altered vitamin D levels in PLWH who have not been exposed to antiretrovirals. Read More
Rev Assoc Med Bras (1992) 2018 May;64(5):438-442
The Second Internal Medicine-Neurology, Jilin Electric Power Hospital, Nanguan, Changchun, China.
Objective: The present study aims to investigate whether hyperhomocysteinemia (HHcy) affects the outcomes of the thrombolytic treatment for patients with AIS.
Methods: A sample of 120 AIS patients were recruited and grouped according to their serum homocysteine (Hcy) levels. The National Institute of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) was obtained before treatment and 7 days after it to evaluate neurological outcomes; modified Rankin Scale (mRS) was obtained 12 weeks later to assess functional outcomes. Read More
Arch Endocrinol Metab 2018 Aug;62(4):452-459
Department of Surgery, Jawaharlal Institute of Postgraduate Medical Education and Research (JIPMER), Pondicherry, India.
Objective: This study was conducted to assess the serum 25-hydroxy (OH) vitamin D levels in patients with breast cancer compared to healthy controls and to identify its association with aggressive breast cancer phenotypes.
Materials And Methods: Serum 25-OH vitamin D levels of 78 breast cancer patients and 78 matched healthy controls were estimated using ELISA. The cases and controls were matched with respect to age, menopausal status, parity, weight, height and co-morbidities. Read More
Lakartidningen 2017 09 12;114. Epub 2017 Sep 12.
Umea Universitet Medicinska fakulteten - Institutionen för klinisk vetenskap - psykiatri, Sunderby Forskningsenhet Umea, Sweden Umea Universitet Medicinska fakulteten - Institutionen för klinisk vetenskap - psykiatri, Sunderby Forskningsenhet Umea, Sweden.
Pediatr Int 2018 Oct 8;60(10):991-992. Epub 2018 Oct 8.
Department of Pediatrics, Kobe University Graduate School of Medicine, Kobe, Japan.
J Mol Histol 2018 Dec 8;49(6):589-597. Epub 2018 Oct 8.
Laboratory of Reproductive Biology, School of Public Health and Management, Chongqing Medical University, No. 1 Yixueyuan Road, Yuzhong District, Box 197, Chongqing, 400016, People's Republic of China.
Folate deficiency is a major risk factor of birth defects. Mechanistic studies on folate deficiency resulting in birth defects have mainly focused on fetal development. There have been few studies on folate deficiency from the point of view of the mother's uterus. Read More
Medicine (Baltimore) 2018 Oct;97(40):e12734
College of Medicine, King Saud University.
Background: Vitamin D deficiency is highly prevalent among children with epilepsy. Lack of high-quality evidence led to variability among scientific societies recommendations. Therefore, we aim to determine the efficacy of different common doses used in the pediatric practice to maintain optimal 25-hydroxy vitamin D (25 [OH] vitamin D) level in children with epilepsy and normal baseline 25 (OH) vitamin D level over 6 months of supplementation. Read More
Medicine (Baltimore) 2018 Oct;97(40):e12090
Service de Néphrologie, Hôpital Bichat-Claude Bernard, AP-HP, DHU Fire.
Rationale: Malakoplakia is a rare disease characterized by the presence of nongranulomatous macrophage infiltration. In most cases, it affects the urinary tract. Malakoplakia can cause acute kidney injury when it is localized in the kidneys. Read More
Reprod Biol Endocrinol 2018 Oct 4;16(1):94. Epub 2018 Oct 4.
Research Center for Biochemistry and Nutrition in Metabolic Diseases, Kashan University of Medical Sciences, Kashan, I.R, Iran.
Background: Vitamin D deficiency in women diagnosed with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) remarkably decreases the chance of pregnancy, which might be related to its impact on metabolic abnormalities in these patients. It is hypothesized that vitamin D supplementation influences metabolic profile of these patients and indirectly might affect fertility and the outcomes. Therefore, this study was conducted to determine the effects of vitamin D supplementation on the levels of anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH), metabolic profiles, and gene expression of insulin and lipid metabolism in infertile women with PCOS who were candidate for in vitro fertilization (IVF). Read More
Medicine (Baltimore) 2018 Sep;97(39):e12547
Department of Hepatology, The First Hospital of Jilin University, Jilin University, Changchun, Jilin, China.
Rationale: Pernicious anemia (PA) is an autoimmune gastritis that results from the destruction of gastric parietal cells and the associated lack of an intrinsic factor to bind ingested vitamin B12. While an association between PA and various liver diseases has been rarely reported, reports of associated diseases include primary biliary cholangitis, autoimmune hepatitis, and Interferon-treated hepatitis C. We present 2 cases of PA associated with cryptogenic cirrhosis (CC), which has not been previously reported in the literature. Read More
J Coll Physicians Surg Pak 2018 Oct;28(10):779-782
Department of Internal Medicine, Abant Izzet Baysal (AIB) University Hospital, Bolu, Turkey.
Objective: To study haemogram derived inflammatory indices, mean platelet volume (MPV), red cell distribution width (RDW), and neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio (NLR) in vitamin D deficient patients and to compare to those subjects with normal vitamin D levels.
Study Design: Descriptive study.
Place And Duration Of Study: Abant Izzet Baysal University Hospital, Bolu, Turkey, from March to May 2017. Read More
BMC Ophthalmol 2018 Sep 14;18(Suppl 1):220. Epub 2018 Sep 14.
Royal Victoria Hospital, Belfast, Northern Ireland.
Background: Retinal vascular occlusions are uncommon in young people and require more in-depth investigation into the cause. Studies have revealed that a high level of circulating homocysteine poses a risk for retinal vaso-occlusive events across a wide age range. This case report reflects on how the interplay of genetic mutation and vitamin deficiency can cause a pathological level of homocysteine with resultant branch retinal artery occlusion in a young patient. Read More
Indian J Ophthalmol 2018 10;66(10):1440
Department of Vitreo Retina, Aravind Eye Hospital, Madurai, Tamil Nadu, India.
Indian J Ophthalmol 2018 Oct;66(10):1435-1440
Department of Ophthalmology, Christian Medical College, Vellore, Tamil Nadu, India.
Purpose: Hyperhomocysteinemia has been postulated as a potential risk factor for the development and progression of diabetic retinopathy. The aim of this study was to determine the association of hyperhomocysteinemia with proliferative diabetic retinopathy (PDR).
Methods: This was a hospital-based, case-control study, conducted at a tertiary care ophthalmic center in South India. Read More
Maturitas 2018 Oct 29;116:83-88. Epub 2018 Jul 29.
IMIM (Hospital del Mar Research Institute), Centro de Investigación Biomédica en Red de Fragilidad y Envejecimiento Saludable (CIBERFES), Barcelona, Spain; Internal Medicine Department, Hospital del Mar, Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain.
Objectives: To evaluate the vitamin D status of postmenopausal women with early estrogen-receptor-positive breast cancer and to compare it with that of healthy postmenopausal women from the same Mediterranean region.
Study Design And Outcome Measures: Data from 691 breast cancer (BC) patients in the B-ABLE cohort were analyzed after recent cancer intervention (recent-BC) or after a minimum of two years since this intervention (long-term-BC). Patients were also stratified by previous chemotherapy exposure (ChT+ and ChT-). Read More
Biol Res 2018 Sep 19;51(1):35. Epub 2018 Sep 19.
Department of Neurology, Zhongshan Hospital, Fudan University, Shanghai, 200032, China.
Background: The previous studies have demonstrated the reduction of thiamine diphosphate is specific to Alzheimer's disease (AD) and causal factor of brain glucose hypometabolism, which is considered as a neurodegenerative index of AD and closely correlates with the degree of cognitive impairment. The reduction of thiamine diphosphate may contribute to the dysfunction of synapses and neural circuits, finally leading to cognitive decline.
Results: To demonstrate this hypothesis, we established abnormalities in the glucose metabolism utilizing thiamine deficiency in vitro and in vivo, and we found dramatically reduced dendrite spine density. Read More
Scand J Gastroenterol 2018 Aug;53(8):917-922
a Center for Morbid Obesity and Bariatric Surgery, Department of Endocrinology, Morbid Obesity and Preventive Medicine , Oslo University Hospital , Oslo , Norway.
Objectives: Patients are at risk of anemia post Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB). We sought to determine the prevalence of anemia and related nutritional deficiencies 5 years after RYGB and to evaluate adherence to nutritional supplements with iron, vitamin B12, and folate.
Material And Methods: Patients operated with RYGB 2004-2006 were eligible for evaluation. Read More
J Clin Pathol 2018 Nov 18;71(11):949-956. Epub 2018 Sep 18.
Nutristasis Unit, Viapath, St. Thomas' Hospital, London, UK
Folate (vitamin B) plays a crucial role in fundamental cellular processes, including nucleic acid biosynthesis, methyl group biogenesis and amino acid metabolism. The detection and correction of folate deficiency prevents megaloblastic anaemia and reduces the risk of neural tube defects. Coexisting deficiencies of folate and vitamin B are associated with cognitive decline, depression and neuropathy. Read More
Medicine (Baltimore) 2018 Sep;97(37):e12282
Department of Pathology, Renmin Hospital of Wuhan University, Wuhan, Hubei Province, People's Republic of China.
The associations of the risk of lung cancer with the vitamin D intake and serum level are controversial. We performed a comprehensive dose-response meta-analysis to evaluate the precise relationships between the above mentioned parameters.We performed a web search of the PubMed, Medline, and Embase databases to identify potential studies that evaluated the relationships between vitamin D intake or serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25([OH]D) levels and the risk of lung cancer on December 5, 2017. Read More
Medicine (Baltimore) 2018 Sep;97(36):e12286
Biomarkers Research Program.
The study aimed to assess the differences and associations of serum 25 (OH)D levels in Saudi adults with and without asthma. A total of 1070 Saudi adults aged 22 to 28 years (359 with known asthma and 711 matched nonasthmatic controls) were selected randomly from the Riyadh Cohort, Saudi Arabia. Serum 25(OH)D serum levels were measured. Read More
Pan Afr Med J 2017 4;28(Suppl 1). Epub 2017 Nov 4.
Jomo Kenyatta University of Agriculture and Technology, Nairobi, Kenya.
Introduction: in 2012, the Government of Kenya amended the Food, Drug and Chemical Substances Act to make the fortification of maize and wheat flour with folic acid mandatory. We assessed folate deficiency, awareness and use of folic acid fortified flour among pregnant women receiving antenatal care (ANC) at a clinic at Pumwani Maternity Hospital, Kenya, 2015.
Methods: we conducted a cross-sectional survey at Pumwani Maternity Hospital between October and November 2014. Read More
J Cancer Res Ther 2018 Jul-Sep;14(5):1164-1165
Department of Tropical Medicine, Hainan Medical University, Hainan, China.
Nutrients 2018 Sep 5;10(9). Epub 2018 Sep 5.
Nutrition Branch, Division of Nutrition, Physical Activity, and Obesity, Centers for Disease Control & Prevention, Atlanta, GA 30341, USA.
Globally, vitamin A deficiency (VAD) affects nearly 200 million children with negative health consequences. VAD can be measured by a retinol-binding protein (RBP) and serum retinol concentrations. Their concentrations are not always present in a 1:1 molar ratio and are affected by inflammation. Read More
Nutrients 2018 Sep 5;10(9). Epub 2018 Sep 5.
Department of Agricultural, Food and Nutritional Science, University of Alberta, Edmonton, AB T6G 2E1, Canada.
Mucositis and muscle wasting are two common toxicity effects of cancer treatment in head and neck cancer (HNC). There is limited data evaluating cancer treatment toxicities in relation to vitamin status. This study aimed to assess changes in vitamin status during HNC treatment in relation to body composition, inflammation and mucositis. Read More
Pathology 2018 Oct 31;50(6):654-658. Epub 2018 Aug 31.
Department of Surgery, Liverpool Hospital, Sydney, NSW, Australia; Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgery, University of New South Wales, Sydney, NSW, Australia.
Vitamin C is an essential micronutrient in the human diet. While large population studies measuring vitamin C have been performed in other countries, there are few studies of deficiency in the Australian population. This study aimed to quantify vitamin C deficiency, identify scorbutic symptoms and examine dietary associations in a cohort of preoperative general surgical patients. Read More
Transplant Proc 2018 Sep 13;50(7):2100-2104. Epub 2018 Mar 13.
2nd Department of Nephrology, Medical University of Bialystok, Bialystok, Poland.
Background: One of the main actions of vitamin D is bone mineralization regulation. Vitamin D is linked also to hypertension, diabetes, and cardiovascular disease. Vitamin D deficiency may result in osteomalacia, but its excess may result in bone calcium mobilization. Read More
Biomed Res Int 2018 5;2018:1489132. Epub 2018 Aug 5.
Prince Mutaib Chair for Biomarkers of Osteoporosis and Biomarkers Research Program, Biochemistry Department, College of Science, King Saud University, Riyadh 11451, Saudi Arabia.
Introduction: Nitric oxide (NOx) is an important biomolecule which interacts with other molecules including 25(OH)D to mediate various metabolic pathways. Interactions and associations of NOx with 25(OH)D have been well studied both and , yet associations in apparently healthy adolescents have never been studied.
Methods: A total of 740 (245 boys and 495 girls) apparently healthy Saudi adolescents aged 10-17 years were included in this cross-sectional study, to determine the associations of NOx with 25(OH)D and other biomarkers in Saudi adolescents. Read More
Redox Biol 2018 10 25;19:200-209. Epub 2018 Aug 25.
Université Paris Diderot, Sorbonne Paris Cité, Biologie Fonctionnelle et Adaptative (BFA), UMR 8251, F-75205 Paris, France. Electronic address:
Hyperhomocysteinemia due to cystathionine beta synthase (CBS) deficiency is associated with diverse cognitive dysfunction. Considering the role of the serine/threonine kinase DYRK1A, not only in developmental defects with life-long structural and functional consequences, but also in multiple neurodegenerative diseases, its protein expression and kinase activity has been analyzed in brain of heterozygous CBS deficient mice and found to be increased. We previously demonstrated that specific liver treatment with an adenovirus expressing Dyrk1A normalizes hepatic DYRK1A level and decreases hyperhomocysteinemia in mice with moderate to intermediate hyperhomocysteinemia. Read More
Medicine (Baltimore) 2018 Aug;97(35):e12179
Emergency Department, West China Second University Hospital, Sichuan University.
Background: Vitamin D deficiency (VDD) has been implicated in the pathogenesis of tuberculosis (TB), but most studies have not reported a significant association. We conducted a meta-analysis to explore the association between vitamin D status and TB in children.
Methods: Web of Science, Ovid Medline, and EMBASE were searched for studies in English that discussed vitamin D status and TB in children before January 22, 2018. Read More
Bratisl Lek Listy 2018;119(7):401-407
Introduction: Post-transplant diabetes mellitus (PTDM) occurs most frequently during the first year after transplantation. We focused on parameters of calcium-phosphate metabolism and proteinuria as possible new risk factors for PTDM after kidney transplantation.
Materials And Methods: We have prospectively identified risk factors for post-transplant diabetes mellitus with follow-up of 12 months in a set of 167 patients after kidney transplantation. Read More
Pediatr Int 2018 Aug;60(8):757-758
Department of Pediatric Hematology/Oncology, Okayama University Hospital, Okayama, Japan.
BMC Res Notes 2018 Aug 29;11(1):619. Epub 2018 Aug 29.
Division of Clinical Microbiology, Department of Laboratory Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, F68, 141 86, Stockholm, Sweden.
Objectives: Vitamin D binding protein (VDBP) is the main transporter of 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25-OHD) in the circulation. The aim of this study was to investigate if VDBP is affected by high dose vitamin D supplementation and if VDBP-levels correlate with free 25-OHD. Correlation between free 25-OHD measured with ELISA and total 25-OHD in the circulation was also analysed. Read More
J Ovarian Res 2018 Aug 29;11(1):71. Epub 2018 Aug 29.
Department of Gynecologic Oncology, Shandong Cancer Hospital Affiliated to Shandong University, Shandong Academy of Medical Sciences, Jinan, Shandong, China.
Vitamin D is a fat-soluble prohormone best known for its role in maintaining calcium homeostasis. Large numbers of epidemiological studies have shown that vitamin D plays an important role in cancer prevention by regulating cellular proliferation and metabolism. Studies of the cellular mechanism of vitamin D in ovarian cancer strongly suggest that it exhibits protective and antitumorigenic activities through genomic and nongenomic signal transduction pathways. Read More
J Int Med Res 2018 Oct 29;46(10):4246-4257. Epub 2018 Aug 29.
4 Department of Rheumatology, St Paul's Hospital, Thessaloniki, Greece.
Objective To investigate 25(OH)D levels and their relationship to survival in a cohort of acutely ill patients on admission to an intensive care unit. Methods This study enrolled acutely ill patients at admission to an intensive care unit and a group of sex- and age-matched healthy control subjects. The 25(OH)D levels were measured using an enzyme immunoassay. Read More
N Engl J Med 2018 Aug;379(9):869
Post Graduate Institute of Medical Education and Research, Chandigarh, India
Nutrients 2018 Aug 28;10(9). Epub 2018 Aug 28.
Department of Clinical Medicine Aarhus University, 8200 Aarhus, Denmark.
The deficiency of vitamin D is prevalent all over the world. Studies have shown that vitamin D may play an important role in the development of obesity. The current study was conducted to quantitatively evaluate the association between serum 25-(OH) vitamin D levels and the risk of obesity in both diabetic and non-diabetic subjects. Read More
Clin Nucl Med 2018 Oct;43(10):766-768
From the Department of Nuclear Medicine, Northwest Clinics, Alkmaar, the Netherlands.
A 27-year-old man, with a history of chronic renal failure due to obstructive uropathy, treated with hemodialysis and awaiting kidney transplantation, presented with tertiary hyperparathyroidism. Despite regulation of phosphate and calcium and treatment with cinacalcet, the serum parathyroid hormone levels remained elevated. The patient was referred for parathyroidectomy, and a F-fluorocholine PET/CT was acquired for preoperative planning. Read More
Nutrients 2018 Aug 27;10(9). Epub 2018 Aug 27.
Genomics of Bone Metabolism Laboratory, National Institute of Genomic Medicine (INMEGEN), Mexico City 14610, Mexico.
Genome-wide association studies in people with European ancestry suggest that polymorphisms in genes involved in vitamin D (VD) metabolism have an effect on serum concentrations of 25-hydroxyvitamin D. However, nothing is known about these polymorphisms in populations with Amerindian ancestry. Our aim was to evaluate the association between genetic variants on the vitamin D receptor (VDR) and the vitamin D binding protein (GC) genes, involved in the VD pathway, and VD deficiency in 689 unrelated Mexican postmenopausal women. Read More
In Vivo 2018 Sep-Oct;32(5):977-981
Department of Physiology, Medical School, National and Kapodistrian University of Athens, Athens, Greece
Cardiovascular disease is the prevalent cause of morbidity and mortality in the world, affecting many millions of individuals every year. Atherosclerosis, a chronic inflammatory condition that involves different cell types, several cytokines and adhesion molecules, is the underlying cause of cardiovascular disease. Vitamin D is known to control skeletal patho/physiology, regulating calcium and phosphorus and bone remodeling along with other calcium-regulating hormones. Read More
Rev Med Chil 2018 Jun;146(6):802-807
Departamento de Medicina Oriente Hospital del Salvador, Facultad de Medicina, Universidad de Chile, Santiago, Chile.
Intrathecal chemotherapy may be complicated with the development of myelopathies or toxic radiculopathies. This myeloradicular involvement, of toxic character, is unpredictable, since these patients have repeatedly received Intrathecal chemotherapy with the same drugs without apparent injury. The toxic effect should be mainly attributed to Cytarabine and not to methotrexate, since the central nervous system lacks Cytidine deaminase, the enzyme that degrades Cytarabine. Read More
Int J Mol Sci 2018 Aug 23;19(9). Epub 2018 Aug 23.
Department of Pediatrics, Washington University School of Medicine, 660 S. Euclid, St. Louis, MO 63110, USA.
The high cardiovascular mortality associated with chronic kidney disease (CKD) is caused in part by the CKD-mineral bone disorder (CKD-MBD) syndrome. The CKD-MBD consists of skeletal, vascular and cardiac pathology caused by metabolic derangements produced by kidney disease. The prevalence of osteopenia/osteoporosis resulting from the skeletal component of the CKD-MBD, renal osteodystrophy (ROD), in patients with CKD exceeds that of the general population and is a major public health concern. Read More