253,961 results match your criteria Avian diseases[Journal]


Impact of strain and duration of thermal stress on carcass yield, metabolic hormones, immunological indices and the expression of HSP90 and Myogenin genes in broilers.

Res Vet Sci 2018 Nov 30;122:193-199. Epub 2018 Nov 30.

Department of Animal Wealth Development, Zagazig University, Sharkia, Egypt. Electronic address:

The aim was to elucidate the effects of strain and the duration of thermal stress (36 °C) on the carcass yield, metabolic hormones, immunological parameters and the relative expression of liver heat shock protein 90 (HSP90) and Myogenin genes. Two hundred and seventy day-old chicks (135 of each breed; Ross 308 and Cobb 500) were used in this trial. The birds were divided into 3 equal groups (CON: thermoneutral condition; S and S groups were subjected to 4 and 6 h of daily thermal stress, respectively. Read More

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November 2018

A two-thresholds policy to interrupt transmission of West Nile Virus to birds.

J Theor Biol 2018 Dec 11. Epub 2018 Dec 11.

Department of Mathematics & Statistics, York University, Toronto, ON, M3J 1P3, Canada.

This paper proposes a model of West Nile Virus (WNV) including threshold control policies concerning the culling of mosquitoes and birds under different conditions. Two thresholds are introduced to estimate whether and which control strategy should be implemented. For each mosquito threshold level [Formula: see text] the dynamical behaviour of the proposed non-smooth system is investigated as the bird threshold level [Formula: see text] varies, focusing on the existence of sliding domains, the existence of pseudo-equilibria, real or virtual of the endemic equilibria, global stability of these steady states, and the most interesting case of the occurrence of a novel globally asymptotically stable pseudo-attractor. Read More

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December 2018
1 Read

Iron-associated protein interaction networks reveal the key functional modules related to survival and virulence of Pasteurella multocida.

Microb Pathog 2018 Dec 11. Epub 2018 Dec 11.

Department of Zoology, Faculty of Science, Kasetsart University, Bangkok, 10900, Thailand; Omics Center for Agriculture, Bioresources, Food, and Health, Faculty of Science, Kasetsart University (OmiKU), Bangkok, 10900, Thailand. Electronic address:

Pasteurella multocida causes respiratory infectious diseases in a multitude of birds and mammals. A number of virulence-associated genes were reported across different strains of P. multocida, including those involved in the iron transport and metabolism. Read More

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December 2018

West Nile virus epizootic in Germany, 2018.

Antiviral Res 2018 Dec 11. Epub 2018 Dec 11.

Friedrich-Loeffler-Institut, Federal Research Institute for Animal Health, Institute of Novel and Emerging Infectious Diseases, Greifswald-Insel Riems, Germany; German Centre for Infection Research (DZIF), Partner Site Hamburg-Luebeck-Borstel, Greifswald-Insel Riems, Germany. Electronic address:

The summer of 2018 in Germany was the second hottest and driest on record. These generally extremely favorable climatic conditions most likely triggered the further expansion and the efficient propagation of the zoonotic arthropod-borne West Nile virus in many Southern/Southeastern and even Central European countries. WNV infections were detected for the first time in resident wild and aviary birds, such as common blackbirds, northern goshawks and great grey owls in Eastern and Southeastern Germany. Read More

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December 2018

Drug Susceptibility of Non-tuberculous Strains of Isolated from Birds from Poland.

Pol J Microbiol 2018 ;67(4):487-492

Department of Pathology and Veterinary Diagnostics, Warsaw University of Life Sciences , Warsaw , Poland.

Mycobacterioses are a constant problem in backyard poultry, as well as pet birds. To date, no evidence of direct transmission of atypical bacilli between humans has been demonstrated, but it cannot be ruled out that sick animals can be a source of infection for people in their environment. The aim of the study was to identify mycobacteria isolated from birds with diagnosed mycobacteriosis and to determine the susceptibility of mycobacterial isolates from these animals to antituberculous drugs most commonly used in the treatment of mycobacterial infections in humans. Read More

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January 2018

Outbreak of myelocytomatosis caused by mutational avian leukosis virus subgroup J in China, 2018.

Transbound Emerg Dis 2018 Dec 12. Epub 2018 Dec 12.

College of Veterinary Medicine, Shandong Agricultural University, Tai'an, 271018, China.

Avian leukosis virus subgroup J (ALV-J) was isolated in meat-type breeder chickens for the first time in 1988 in the United Kingdom. Due to the application of an eradication program, there were fewer reports related to myelocytomatosis or ALV-J in China after 2013. However, there was another breakout almost simultaneously in six provinces of China in February 2018. Read More

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December 2018
1 Read

Scavenger birds exploiting rubbish dumps: Pathogens at the gates.

Transbound Emerg Dis 2018 Dec 13. Epub 2018 Dec 13.

Grupo de Investigaciones en Biología de la Conservación, Laboratorio Ecotono, INIBIOMA (Universidad Nacional Del Comahue - CONICET), Quintral 1250 (R8400FRF), San Carlos de Bariloche, Argentina.

Different bacteria are present in rubbish dumps used as food resources by various bird species. Birds may be good indicators of the presence of zoonotic diseases in these sites since they can be infected with zoonotic pathogens by foraging on organic waste, and can also act as carriers. We studied if foraging in rubbish dumps increases the occurrence of Salmonella spp. Read More

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December 2018

Cellular organization and boundary formation in craniofacial development.

Genesis 2018 Dec 13:e23271. Epub 2018 Dec 13.

Department of Cell and Tissue Biology, Program in Craniofacial Biology, and Institute of Human Genetics, University of California at San Francisco, San Francisco, CA, USA.

Craniofacial morphogenesis is a highly dynamic process that requires changes in the behaviors and physical properties of cells in order to achieve the proper organization of different craniofacial structures. Boundary formation is a critical process in cellular organization, patterning, and ultimately tissue separation. There are several recurring cellular mechanisms through which boundary formation and cellular organization occur including, transcriptional patterning, cell segregation, cell adhesion and migratory guidance. Read More

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December 2018

Developing a list of invasive alien species likely to threaten biodiversity and ecosystems in the European Union.

Glob Chang Biol 2018 Dec 12. Epub 2018 Dec 12.

Environment Agency Austria, Vienna, Austria.

The European Union (EU) has recently published its first list of invasive alien species (IAS) of EU concern to which current legislation must apply. The list comprises species known to pose great threats to biodiversity and needs to be maintained and updated. Horizon scanning is seen as critical to identify the most threatening potential IAS that do not yet occur in Europe to be subsequently risk assessed for future listing. Read More

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December 2018

Anti-predator behavior by a nesting hummingbird in response to a caterpillar with eyespots.

Ecology 2018 Dec 12. Epub 2018 Dec 12.

Campanario Biological Station, Osa Peninsula, Costa Rica.

Caterpillars and adults of a variety of butterflies and moths have eye-like spots (Janzen et al. 2010) that deter potential predators (Stevens et al. 2007, Blut et al. Read More

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December 2018
1 Read

Declining population trends of European mountain birds.

Glob Chang Biol 2018 Dec 11. Epub 2018 Dec 11.

Dachverband Deutscher Avifaunisten (DDA) e.V., Geschäftsstelle, Münster, Germany.

Mountain areas often hold special species communities, and they are high on the list of conservation concern. Global warming and changes in human land use, such as grazing pressure and afforestation, have been suggested to be major threats for biodiversity in the mountain areas, affecting species abundance and causing distribution shifts towards mountaintops. Population shifts towards poles and mountaintops have been documented in several areas, indicating that climate change is one of the key drivers of species' distribution changes. Read More

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December 2018

Skeletons of the Eye: An Evolutionary and Developmental Perspective.

Anat Rec (Hoboken) 2018 Dec 8. Epub 2018 Dec 8.

Mount Saint Vincent University, Halifax, Nova Scotia, Canada.

The ocular skeleton, composed of the scleral cartilage and scleral ossicles, is present in many vertebrates. The morphology of the scleral cartilage and ossicles varies within different extant reptiles (including birds) and also varies dramatically from the morphology in extant teleosts. This incredible range of diverse morphologies is the result of millions of years of evolution. Read More

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December 2018
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Diversified Sources for Human Infections by Salmonella enterica serovar Newport.

Transbound Emerg Dis 2018 Dec 11. Epub 2018 Dec 11.

CATG Microbiology & Food Safety Laboratory, Institute of Preventive Veterinary Medicine, Zhejiang University College of Animal Sciences, Zhejiang, 310058, Hangzhou, China.

Salmonella enterica Newport (S. Newport), with phylogenetic diversity feature, contributes to significant public health concerns. Our previous study suggested that S. Read More

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December 2018

Chemical compositional standards for non-lead hunting ammunition and fishing weights.

Authors:
Vernon G Thomas

Ambio 2018 Dec 13. Epub 2018 Dec 13.

Department of Integrative Biology, College of Biological Science, University of Guelph, Guelph, ON, N1G 2W1, Canada.

The chemical composition of non-lead, non-toxic, gunshot used for hunting waterfowl is regulated only in Canada and the USA. No nation regulates the composition of non-lead fishing weights, rifle bullets, and gunshot used for upland game hunting. Compositional criteria for these non-lead products are proposed here, based on established experimental toxicity protocols. Read More

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December 2018

A genotype VII Newcastle disease virus-like particles confer full protection with reduced virus load and decreased virus shedding.

Vaccine 2018 Dec 10. Epub 2018 Dec 10.

Laboratory of Infectious Diseases, College of Veterinary Medicine, Key Laboratory of Zoonosis Research, Ministry of Education, Jilin University, Changchun 130062, China. Electronic address:

Newcastle disease (ND) is one of the most severe avian infectious disease inflicting a great loss on poultry industry worldwide. The control of ND relies on proper vaccination strategies. The vaccine strains of Newcastle disease virus (NDV) mainly belong to genotype I, II or III, which cannot fully prohibit virus shedding against the prevalent genotype VII virulent strain attack. Read More

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December 2018

Corrigendum to "Prophage phiv142-3 enhances the colonization and resistance to environmental stresses of avian pathogenic Escherichia coli" [Vet. Microbiol. 218 (2018) 70-77].

Vet Microbiol 2018 Dec 10. Epub 2018 Dec 10.

MOE Joint International Research Laboratory of Animal Health and Food Safety, Key Laboratory of Animal Bacteriology, Ministry of Agriculture, College of Veterinary Medicine, Nanjing Agricultural University, China. Electronic address:

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December 2018

Transcriptome profile in bursa of Fabricius reveals potential mode for stress-influenced immune function in chicken stress model.

BMC Genomics 2018 Dec 13;19(1):918. Epub 2018 Dec 13.

College of Animal Science and Veterinary Medicine, Henan Agricultural University, Zhengzhou, 450002, China.

Background: The molecular mechanisms underlying stress-influenced immune function of chicken (Gallus Gallus) are not clear. The stress models can be established effectively by feeding chickens corticosterone (CORT) hormone. The bursa of Fabricius is a unique central immune organ of birds. Read More

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December 2018
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Flightless birds are not neuroanatomical analogs of non-avian dinosaurs.

BMC Evol Biol 2018 Dec 13;18(1):190. Epub 2018 Dec 13.

Division of Paleontology, American Museum of Natural History, New York, NY, 10024, USA.

Background: In comparative neurobiology, major transitions in behavior are thought to be associated with proportional size changes in brain regions. Bird-line theropod dinosaurs underwent a drastic locomotory shift from terrestrial to volant forms, accompanied by a suite of well-documented postcranial adaptations. To elucidate the potential impact of this locomotor shift on neuroanatomy, we first tested for a correlation between loss of flight in extant birds and whether the brain morphology of these birds resembles that of their flightless, non-avian dinosaurian ancestors. Read More

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December 2018

Recent Advances in AIV Biosensors Composed of Nanobio Hybrid Material.

Micromachines (Basel) 2018 Dec 9;9(12). Epub 2018 Dec 9.

School of Integrative Engineering, Chung-Ang University, Seoul 06974, Korea.

Since the beginning of the 2000s, globalization has accelerated because of the development of transportation systems that allow for human and material exchanges throughout the world. However, this globalization has brought with it the rise of various pathogenic viral agents, such as Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV), severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV), Zika virus, and Dengue virus. In particular, avian influenza virus (AIV) is highly infectious and causes economic, health, ethnical, and social problems to human beings, which has necessitated the development of an ultrasensitive and selective rapid-detection system of AIV. Read More

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December 2018

Facile Fabrication of Amorphous Photonic Structures with Non-Iridescent and Highly-Stable Structural Color on Textile Substrates.

Materials (Basel) 2018 Dec 8;11(12). Epub 2018 Dec 8.

Engineering Research Center for Eco-Dyeing and Finishing of Textiles, Ministry of Education, Zhejiang Sci-Tech University, Hangzhou 310018, China.

Amorphous photonic structures with non-iridescent and highly-stable structural color were fabricated via a simple one-step spray-coating technique. With this strategy, the obtained films on textile substrates presented short-ordered and amorphous photonic structures (APSs) similar to the amorphous nanostructures of avian feathers. The structural color presented the same hue when viewed at different angles and could be well controlled by varying the diameters of the SiO₂ nanospheres. Read More

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December 2018

DNA Damage Tolerance Mechanisms Revealed from the Analysis of Immunoglobulin V Gene Diversification in Avian DT40 Cells.

Genes (Basel) 2018 Dec 7;9(12). Epub 2018 Dec 7.

Department of Chemistry, Graduate School of Science and Engineering, Tokyo Metropolitan University, Minamiosawa 1-1, Hachioji-shi, Tokyo 192-0397, Japan.

DNA replication is an essential biochemical reaction in dividing cells that frequently stalls at damaged sites. Homologous/homeologous recombination (HR)-mediated template switch and translesion DNA synthesis (TLS)-mediated bypass processes release arrested DNA replication forks. These mechanisms are pivotal for replication fork maintenance and play critical roles in DNA damage tolerance (DDT) and gap-filling. Read More

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December 2018

Eimeria challenge adversely affected long bone attributes linked to increased resorption in 14-day-old broiler chickens.

Poult Sci 2018 Dec 13. Epub 2018 Dec 13.

Department of Animal Biosciences, University of Guelph, Guelph, ON N1G 2W1, Canada.

There is limited information on the effects of enteric pathogen on bone quality in rapidly growing broiler chicks. We examined tibia and femur attributes (length, diameter, relative weight of ash content [AC] to the BW, ash concentration [AP]) and serum bone-turnover markers including receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa-B ligand (RANKL) for resorption, alkaline phosphatase (ALP) for mineralization, and selected serum metabolites in 14-day-old broilers challenged with Eimeria. A total of 160 (80 males and 80 females) 1-day-old Ross × Ross 708 chicks were used. Read More

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December 2018

Joint treatment with azidothymidine and antiserum for eradication of avian leukosis virus subgroup a contamination in vaccine virus seeds.

Poult Sci 2018 Dec 13. Epub 2018 Dec 13.

College of Animal Science and Veterinary Medicine, Shandong Agricultural University, Tai'an, Shandong, China.

Contamination of avian attenuated vaccines by avian leukosis virus (ALV) is considered to be a specific horizontal transmission of ALV. Eradication of ALV contamination in vaccine virus seeds is thus a precondition of qualified vaccine production. In this study, we used the nucleoside reverse transcriptase (RT) inhibitor azidothymidine (AZT) together with monofactor antiserum against avian leukosis virus subgroup A (ALV-A) to remove ALV-A from vaccine virus seeds. Read More

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December 2018
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Effect of dietary amino acid density on broiler breeder reproductive performance.

Poult Sci 2018 Dec 13. Epub 2018 Dec 13.

Aviagen Inc., Huntsville, AL 35806, USA.

The effects of 3 dietary amino acid (AA) profiles during lay on reproductive performance of broiler breeders were investigated. A flock of 2,376 Ross 708 female broiler breeders were randomly divided into 3 treatments with 12 replicates of 66 females per replicate, and fed 2 breeder feed phases (breeder 1: 25 to 36 wk; breeder 2: 37 to 60 wk) which were formulated to 3 different AA densities (Aviagen advice = control; 10% increased AA in Aviagen advice = high-AA; and estimated AA needs for maintenance, growth, and egg mass = estimated-AA). No differences in total or hatching egg production due to dietary treatments were observed. Read More

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December 2018

Development of a loop-mediated isothermal amplification assay for the detection of chicken anemia virus.

Poult Sci 2018 Dec 13. Epub 2018 Dec 13.

Division of Avian Infectious Diseases, State Key Laboratory of Veterinary Biotechnology, Harbin Veterinary Research Institute, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Harbin, 150069, China.

Chicken anemia virus (CAV) infection has been reported in various poultry industries worldwide. Since CAV infection is becoming increasingly prevalent, especially in local chickens of China, rapid CAV detection has become essential. The conventional diagnostic methods are time consuming and need special expertise. Read More

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December 2018

Monitoring Cs concentrations in bird species occupying different ecological niches; game birds and raptors in Fukushima Prefecture.

J Environ Radioact 2018 Dec 10;197:67-73. Epub 2018 Dec 10.

Fukushima Prefectural Centre for Environmental Creation, 10-2 Fukasaku, Miharu, Fukushima, 963-7700, Japan.

This study was conducted to assess radiocesium accumulation in birds after the accident at Tokyo Electric Power Company's Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station in 2011, with a particular focus on Cs, which has a long physical half-life. Results of Cs monitoring in four game bird species including two pheasant species and two duck species (copper pheasant, green pheasant, spot-billed duck and mallard) were assessed in Fukushima Prefecture. We also obtained samples from rescued raptors that died during treatment or rehabilitation at the Wildlife Symbiosis Centre in Fukushima Prefecture because of severe injury. Read More

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December 2018

Methylmercury and total mercury content in soft tissues of two bird species wintering in the Baltic Sea near Gdansk, Poland.

Chemosphere 2018 Nov 26;219:140-147. Epub 2018 Nov 26.

Gdańsk University of Technology, Faculty of Chemistry, Department of Analytical Chemistry, 11/12 G. Narutowicza Street, 80-233 Gdańsk, Poland.

Of the various forms of Hg occurring in nature, (mono) methylmercury (MeHg) is an especially toxic form and practically all forms of Hg can be converted into MeHg as a result of natural processes. Total mercury (THg) and MeHg were determined in tissues of two piscivorous birds: razorbill Alca torda and black-throated loon Gavia arctica to provide baseline data on current mercury concentrations for liver, kidneys and pectoral muscle mercury concentrations of birds which winter on the south Baltic Sea coast. Intra and inter-specific comparisons were carried out. Read More

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November 2018

The intestinal virome of malabsorption syndrome-affected and unaffected broilers through shotgun metagenomics.

Virus Res 2018 Dec 10. Epub 2018 Dec 10.

Laboratório de Virologia, Departamento de Microbiologia, Imunologia e Parasitologia, Instituto de Ciências Básicas da Saúde (ICBS), Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul (UFRGS), Porto Alegre, RS, Brazil.

Malabsorption syndrome (MAS) is an economically important disease of young, commercially reared broilers, characterized by growth retardation, defective feather development and diarrheic faeces. Several viruses have been tentatively associated to such syndrome. Here, in order to examine potential associations between enteric viruses and MAS, the faecal viromes of 70 stool samples collected from diseased (n = 35) and healthy (n = 35) chickens from seven flocks were characterized and compared. Read More

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December 2018

Reclassification of Bisgaard taxon 37 and taxon 44 as Psittacicella melopsittaci gen. nov., sp. nov., Psittacicella hinzii sp. nov. and Psittacicella gerlachiana sp. nov. within Psittacicellaceae fam. nov. of the order Pasteurellales.

Int J Syst Evol Microbiol 2018 Dec 13. Epub 2018 Dec 13.

4​Department of Veterinary Animal Sciences, University of Copenhagen, Stigbøjlen 4, 1870 Frederiksberg C, Denmark.

Bacteria isolated from lesions as well as apparently normal tissues of psittacine birds have previously been reported as taxon 37 and taxon 44 of Bisgaard. 16S rRNA gene sequence comparisons revealed a distant relationship to members of Pasteurellaceae at the species, genus and family levels. The polar lipid profile consisted of the major components phosphatidylethanolamine and phosphatidylglycerol. Read More

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December 2018

Genetic diversity of 21 experimental chicken lines with diverse origins and genetic backgrounds.

Exp Anim 2018 Dec 13. Epub 2018 Dec 13.

Avian Bioscience Research Center, Graduate School of Bioagricultural Sciences, Nagoya University.

The genetic characteristics and diversity of 21 experimental chicken lines registered with the National BioResource Project of Japan were examined using mitochondrial D-loop sequences and 54 microsatellite DNA markers. A total of 12 haplotypes were detected in the 500-bp mitochondrial DNA sequences of the hypervariable segment I for 349 individuals of 21 lines. The 12 haplotypes belonged to three (A, D, and E) haplogroups, out of the seven (A-H) common haplogroups in domestic chickens and red junglefowls. Read More

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December 2018

Experience-Dependent Intrinsic Plasticity During Auditory Learning.

J Neurosci 2018 Dec 12. Epub 2018 Dec 12.

Program in Neuroscience, Florida State University, Tallahassee, Florida 32306-4301

Song learning in zebra finches () requires exposure to the song of a tutor, resulting in an auditory memory. This memory is the foundation for later sensorimotor learning, resulting in the production of a copy of the tutor's song. The cortical premotor nucleus HVC (proper name) is necessary for auditory and sensorimotor learning as well as the eventual production of adult song. Read More

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December 2018

Combined use of ELISA and Western blot with recombinant N protein is a powerful tool for the immunodiagnosis of avian infectious bronchitis.

Virol J 2018 Dec 12;15(1):189. Epub 2018 Dec 12.

Laboratório de Imunologia Aplicada, Centro de Desenvolvimento Tecnológico - Núcleo de Biotecnologia, Pelotas, RS, Brazil.

Background: The avian infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) remains a significant source of loss in the poultry industry and early diagnosis is required to prevent the disease from spreading. This study examined the combined use of an ELISA and Western blot (WB) to detect antibodies against the nucleocapsid protein (N) of IBV. The coding sequence for N was amplified by RT-PCR and expressed in Escherichia coli. Read More

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December 2018

Implementation of human biomonitoring in the Dehcho region of the Northwest Territories, Canada (2016-2017).

Arch Public Health 2018 3;76:73. Epub 2018 Dec 3.

1School of Public Health and Health Systems, Faculty of Applied Health Sciences, University of Waterloo, 200 University Ave W, Waterloo, ON Canada.

Background: Human biomonitoring represents an important tool for health risk assessment, supporting the characterization of contaminant exposure and nutrient status. In communities where country foods (locally harvested foods: land animals, fish, birds, plants) are integrated in the daily diet, as is the case in remote northern regions where food security is a challenge, such foods can potentially be a significant route of contaminant exposure. To assess this issue, a biomonitoring project was implemented among Dene/Métis communities of the Dehcho region of the Northwest Territories, Canada. Read More

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December 2018

Modulation of Fear and Arousal Behavior by Serotonin Transporter (5-HTT) Genotypes in Newly Hatched Chickens.

Front Behav Neurosci 2018 20;12:284. Epub 2018 Nov 20.

Institute of Animal Welfare and Animal Husbandry, Friedrich-Loeffler-Institut (FLI), Celle, Germany.

The serotonin transporter (5-HTT) plays a key role in regulating serotonergic transmission via removal of serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT) from synaptic clefts. Alterations in 5-HTT expression and 5-HT transmission have been shown to cause changes to adult behavior including fear. The objective of the present study was to investigate the 5-HTT role in fear in birds at the very early stages of post-hatching life. Read More

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November 2018

Experimental subaqueous burial of a bird carcass and compaction of plumage.

Palaontol Z 2018 11;92(4):727-732. Epub 2018 Jun 11.

1School of Earth Sciences, University of Bristol, Wills Memorial Building, Queens Rd, Bristol, BS8 1RJ UK.

'Exceptional fossils' of dinosaurs preserving feathers have radically changed the way we view their paleobiology and the evolution of birds. Understanding how such soft tissues preserve is imperative to accurately interpreting the morphology of fossil feathers. Experimental taphonomy has been integral to such investigations. Read More

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Common Terminology and Acoustic Measures for Human Voice and Birdsong.

J Speech Lang Hear Res 2018 Dec 11:1-10. Epub 2018 Dec 11.

Department of Neuroscience, University of Arizona, Tucson.

Purpose: The zebra finch is used as a model to study the neural circuitry of auditory-guided human vocal production. The terminology of birdsong production and acoustic analysis, however, differs from human voice production, making it difficult for voice researchers of either species to navigate the literature from the other. The purpose of this research note is to identify common terminology and measures to better compare information across species. Read More

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December 2018
1 Read

Closure of live bird markets leads to the spread of H7N9 influenza in China.

PLoS One 2018 12;13(12):e0208884. Epub 2018 Dec 12.

Epidemiological Survey Division, China Animal Health and Epidemiology Center, Qingdao, Shandong, China.

Following the emergence of H7N9 influenza in March 2013, local animal and public health authorities in China have been closing live bird markets as a measure to try to control the H7N9 influenza epidemic. The role of live bird market (LBM) closure on the spread of N7N9 influenza following the closure of LBMs during March to May 2013 (the first wave) and October 2013 to March 2014 (the second wave) is described in this paper. Different provinces implemented closure actions at different times, and intensive media reports on H7N9 in different provinces started at different times. Read More

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December 2018
2 Reads

Developing an efficient protocol for monitoring eagle fatalities at wind energy facilities.

PLoS One 2018 12;13(12):e0208700. Epub 2018 Dec 12.

Avangrid Renewables, LLC, Portland, Oregon, United States of America.

Researchers typically conduct fatality monitoring to determine a wind energy facility's direct impacts on wildlife. In the United States, wind energy impacts on eagles have received increased attention in recent years because eagle incidental take permits became available. Permit holders are required to conduct fatality monitoring to evaluate compliance with permitted eagle take. Read More

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December 2018

Use of RFID technology to characterize feeder visitations and contact network of hummingbirds in urban habitats.

PLoS One 2018 12;13(12):e0208057. Epub 2018 Dec 12.

Department of Medicine and Epidemiology, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of California Davis, Davis, California, United States of America.

Despite the popular use of hummingbird feeders, there are limited studies evaluating the effects of congregation, sharing food resources and increased contact when hummingbirds visit feeders in urban landscapes. To evaluate behavioral interactions occurring at feeders, we tagged 230 individuals of two species, Anna's and Allen's Hummingbirds, with passive integrated transponder tags and recorded their visits with RFID transceivers at feeders. For detecting the presence of tagged birds, we developed an RFID equipped feeding station using a commercially available antenna and RFID transceiver. Read More

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December 2018

Geolocator deployment reduces return rate, alters selection, and impacts demography in a small songbird.

PLoS One 2018 12;13(12):e0207783. Epub 2018 Dec 12.

Department of Environmental Sciences, University of Toledo, Toledo, OH, United States of America.

In the past few years, miniature light-level geolocators have been developed for tracking wild bird species that were previously too small to track during their full annual cycle. Geolocators offer an exciting opportunity to study the full annual cycle for many species. However, the potential detrimental effects of carrying geolocators are still poorly understood, especially for small-bodied birds. Read More

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December 2018

Prey of killer whales (Orcinus orca) in Iceland.

PLoS One 2018 12;13(12):e0207287. Epub 2018 Dec 12.

Marine and Freshwater Research Institute, Skúlagata, Reykjavík, Iceland.

Killer whales have a cosmopolitan distribution and as a species are generalists, feeding on a variety of prey. However, local populations tend to specialise on specific prey types. In Icelandic waters, killer whales are generally associated with herring and, thus, have been presumed to be herring specialists. Read More

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December 2018

Molecular Prevalence and Genetic Characterization of Toxoplasma gondii in Wild Birds in Hunan Province, China.

Vector Borne Zoonotic Dis 2018 Dec 12. Epub 2018 Dec 12.

1 Hunan Provincial Key Laboratory of Protein Engineering in Animal Vaccines, College of Veterinary Medicine, Hunan Agricultural University , Changsha, People's Republic of China .

Toxoplasma gondii is a ubiquitous apicomplexan parasite of warm-blooded animals and humans. However, limited information is available about T. gondii infection in wild birds. Read More

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December 2018
2 Reads

Pathogenicity of two novel human-origin H7N9 highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses in chickens and ducks.

Arch Virol 2018 Dec 11. Epub 2018 Dec 11.

Division of Transboundary Animal Disease, National Institute of Animal Health, National Agriculture and Food Research Organization (NARO), 3-1-5 Kannondai, Tsukuba, Ibaraki, 305-0856, Japan.

Human infection by low-pathogenic avian influenza viruses of the H7N9 subtype was first reported in March 2013 in China. Subsequently, these viruses caused five outbreaks through September 2017. In the fifth outbreak, H7N9 virus possessing a multiple basic amino acid insertion in the cleavage site of hemagglutinin emerged and caused 4% of all human infections in that period. Read More

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December 2018
1 Read

Survey on broiler -slaughter mortality in a commercial abattoir of central Italy.

Ital J Food Saf 2018 Sep 6;7(3):5878. Epub 2018 Nov 6.

School of Biosciences and Veterinary Medicine, University of Camerino, Matelica.

The -slaughter mortality was investigated on broilers, in the Mediterranean climate condition, considering the most significant risk factors as the journey length, waiting time, season and the space allowance in cages. At first, the -slaughter mortality was studied considering the totality of birds and then by examining in detail three broiler categories: large, medium and small size. The average dead on arrival (DOA) recorded on the totality of birds throughout the year was 0. Read More

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September 2018
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Molecular detection and characterisation of avian paramyxovirus type 1 in backyard chickens and pigeons in Alzintan city of Libya.

Open Vet J 2018 28;8(4):401-405. Epub 2018 Oct 28.

Istituto Zooprofilattico Sperimentale delle Venezie, Viale dell'Universita, 10, Legnaro, Padova 35020, Italy.

Avian paramyxovirus-1 (APMV-1) is the causative agent of Newcastle Disease which affects many species of birds leading to high mortality and heavy economic losses among poultry industry worldwide. Newcastle disease is endemic in Libya with frequent outbreaks occurring in commercial and backyard poultry. APMV-1 was isolated and characterised during the outbreak in 2013. Read More

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October 2018
1 Read

Migration phenology determines niche use of East Asian buntings (Emberizidae) during stopover.

Curr Zool 2018 Dec 6;64(6):681-692. Epub 2018 Feb 6.

Institute of Avian Research "Vogelwarte Helgoland", An der Vogelwarte 21, Wilhelmshaven, Germany.

Stopover niche utilization of birds during migration has not gained much attention so far, since the majority of the studies focuses on breeding or wintering areas. However, stopover sites are crucial for migratory birds. They are often used by a multitude of species, which could lead to increased competition. Read More

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December 2018

Not All Green Space Is Created Equal: Biodiversity Predicts Psychological Restorative Benefits From Urban Green Space.

Front Psychol 2018 27;9:2320. Epub 2018 Nov 27.

School of Biology, Faculty of Biological Sciences, University of Leeds, Leeds, United Kingdom.

Contemporary epidemiological methods testing the associations between green space and psychological well-being treat all vegetation cover as equal. However, there is very good reason to expect that variations in ecological "quality" (number of species, integrity of ecological processes) may influence the link between access to green space and benefits to human health and well-being. We test the relationship between green space quality and restorative benefit in an inner city urban population in Bradford, United Kingdom. Read More

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November 2018
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Transcriptional Signatures in Liver Reveal Metabolic Adaptations to Seasons in Migratory Blackheaded Buntings.

Front Physiol 2018 27;9:1568. Epub 2018 Nov 27.

IndoUS Center for Biological Timing, Department of Zoology, University of Delhi, New Delhi, India.

The molecular underpinnings of metabolic adaptation to seasons are poorly understood in long- distance migrants. We measured changes in physiology and performed sequencing of RNA extracted from liver samples collected at 4-h intervals over a period of 24 h from a long-distance avian migrant, the blackheaded bunting (), during two states: photostimulated vernal migratory (M) state and photorefractory non-migratory (nM) state. The M state was differentiated from the nM state based on body fattening and weight gain, as well as on , that is, nocturnal migratory restlessness in caged birds. Read More

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November 2018
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Spectral Properties of Brain Activity Under Two Anesthetics and Their Potential for Inducing Natural Sleep in Birds.

Front Neurosci 2018 27;12:881. Epub 2018 Nov 27.

School of Life Sciences, La Trobe University, Melbourne, VIC, Australia.

Both mammals and birds exhibit two sleep states, slow wave sleep (SWS) and rapid eye movement (REM) sleep. Studying certain aspects of sleep-related electrophysiology in freely behaving animals can present numerous methodological constraints, particularly when even fine body movements interfere with electrophysiological signals. Interestingly, under light general anesthesia, mammals and birds also exhibit slow waves similar to those observed during natural SWS. Read More

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November 2018

Epidemiological and molecular analysis of avian influenza A(H7N9) virus in Shanghai, China, 2013-2017.

Infect Drug Resist 2018 22;11:2411-2424. Epub 2018 Nov 22.

Department of Animal Science, Shanghai Key Laboratory of Veterinary Biotechnology, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240, China,

Background: Human infections with a novel avian influenza A virus (H7N9) were reported in Shanghai municipality, China, at the beginning of 2013. High-pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) H7N9 virus emerged in late February 2017 along with existing low-pathogenic avian influenza (LPAI) H7N9 virus, and this has the potential to develop into a pandemic that could be harmful to humans.

Methods: To elucidate the epidemiological characteristics of H7N9-infected cases from 2013 to 2017 in Shanghai, data on the 59 laboratory-confirmed human cases and 26 bird and environmental contamination cases were collected from the WHO website and Food and Agriculture Organization Emergency Prevention System for Animal Health (FAO EMPRES-AH). Read More

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November 2018
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