6,599 results match your criteria Avian diseases[Journal]


Evaluation of Two Multiplex PCR-High-Resolution Melt Curve Analysis Methods for Differentiation of Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli Intraspecies.

Avian Dis 2018 Mar;62(1):86-93

A School of Animal and Veterinary Sciences, Charles Sturt University, Wagga Wagga, New South Wales, Australia 2678.

Campylobacter infection is a common cause of bacterial gastroenteritis in humans and remains a significant global public health issue. The capability of two multiplex PCR (mPCR)-high-resolution melt (HRM) curve analysis methods (i.e. Read More

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March 2018
3 Reads

Recombinant Fiber-2 Protein-Based Indirect ELISA for Antibody Detection of Fowl Adenovirus Serotype 4.

Avian Dis 2018 Mar;62(1):73-78

A Key Laboratory of Animal Epidemiology of the Ministry of Agriculture, College of Veterinary Medicine, China Agricultural University, Beijing, People's Republic of China 100193.

Clinical cases of hepatitis-hydropericardium syndrome (HHS) from fowl adenovirus serotype 4 (FAdV-4) have increased in China since 2013. Therefore, the development of a new serologic method for HHS detection is now urgent. Here, the FAdV-4 strain JSJ13 was used to construct a plasmid for prokaryotic expression of the JSJ13 fiber-2 protein. Read More

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March 2018
4 Reads

Study of an Outbreak of Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza H5N8 in Commercial Pekin Ducks ( Anas platyrhynchos domesticus) in California.

Avian Dis 2018 Mar;62(1):101-108

C California Animal Health & Food Safety Laboratory System, Tulare Branch, 18830 Road 112, Tulare, CA 93274.

A February 2015 outbreak of highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) H5N8 in a flock of commercial Pekin ducks ( Anas platyrhynchos domesticus) in California was investigated in detail. Approximately 17,349 five-wk-old ducks experienced an increased mortality from a normal of eight birds per day to 24, 18, 24, 33, and 61 birds per day, respectively, in the last 5 days prior to flock depopulation. Clinically, there was decreased water and feed consumption, and approximately 1. Read More

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March 2018
3 Reads

Tetratrichomonas and Trichomonas spp.-Associated Disease in Free-Ranging Common Eiders ( Somateria mollissima) from Wellfleet Bay, MA and Description of ITS1 Region Genotypes.

Avian Dis 2018 Mar;62(1):117-123

B Center for Wildlife Health, The University of Tennessee, 2431 Joe Johnson Drive, Knoxville, TN 37996.

During an outbreak of Wellfleet Bay virus (WFBV) in common eiders ( Somateria mollissima) from the Cape Cod region of Massachusetts, several birds were diagnosed with trichomonosis consisting of multiple trichomonad species. Six birds were examined, with trichomonads found in ceca in four birds and associated typhlitis in three of these four birds. PCR and DNA sequencing utilizing trichomonad-specific primers targeting the ITS1 region of the ribosomal DNA (rDNA) revealed the presence of Tetratrichomonas gallinarum in the gastrointestinal tracts of five birds and Trichomonas spp. Read More

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March 2018
2 Reads

Detection of Mycoplasma gallisepticum in House Finches ( Haemorhous mexicanus) from Arizona.

Avian Dis 2018 Mar;62(1):14-17

A Department of Biological Sciences, Auburn University, Auburn, AL 36849.

In 1994, an endemic poultry pathogen, Mycoplasma gallisepticum (MG), was identified as the causative agent of a novel disease in house finches ( Haemorhous mexicanus). After an initial outbreak in Maryland, MG spread rapidly throughout eastern North American populations of house finches. Subsequently, MG spread slowly through the northern interior of North America and then into the Pacific Northwest, finally reaching California in 2006. Read More

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March 2018
2 Reads

The Effect of Infectious Bursal Disease Virus-Induced Immunosuppression on Vaccination Against Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza Virus.

Avian Dis 2018 Mar;62(1):36-44

Southeast Poultry Research Laboratory, United States National Poultry Research Center, United States Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service, 934 College Station Rd., Athens, GA 30605.

Poor efficacy of avian influenza virus (AIV) vaccines in chickens has been documented in the field in spite of good results in experimental settings. Although the causes are multifactorial and complex, one contributing factor may be prior infection with immunosuppressive viruses. In an effort to evaluate the role of immunosuppressive agents on AIV pathogenesis and vaccine efficacy, the effect of prior infection with infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV), a ubiquitous immunosuppressive virus of chickens, was evaluated. Read More

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March 2018
3 Reads

Liposarcoma in a Backyard Silkie and Retrospective Summary of Neoplasms Diagnosed in Backyard Chickens Submitted to the California Animal Health and Food Safety Laboratory System, 2008-2017.

Avian Dis 2018 Mar;62(1):124-129

California Animal Health & Food Safety Laboratory System, University of California, Davis, Turlock Branch, 1550 North Soderquist Road, Turlock, CA 95381.

Liposarcomas are a malignant neoplasm of adipocytes, and are rarely diagnosed in avian species. This case report describes the evidence supporting a diagnosis of metastatic liposarcoma in a backyard silkie chicken. On September 28, 2017, a dead 3-yr-old backyard silkie chicken, with a history of unknown skin lesions involving the entire body and severe weight loss, was submitted to California Animal Health and Food Safety Laboratory System-Turlock branch for necropsy. Read More

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March 2018
2 Reads

Isolation and Characterization of Campylobacter hepaticus from Layer Chickens with Spotty Liver Disease in the United States.

Avian Dis 2018 Mar;62(1):79-85

A Versova Laboratory, 2325 North Loop Drive, Building 6, Ames, IA 50010.

Spotty liver disease (SLD) is characterized by multifocal liver lesions, mortality, and drop in egg production. The disease is emerging in Europe and Australia, particularly in free-range and floor-raised layer flocks. Campylobacter hepaticus has been recently identified as the causative agent of SLD. Read More

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March 2018
7 Reads

The Effect of the Wooden Breast Myopathy on Sarcomere Structure and Organization.

Avian Dis 2018 Mar;62(1):28-35

Department of Animal Sciences, Ohio Agricultural Research and Development Center, The Ohio State University, Wooster, OH 44691.

The wooden breast (WB) has been classically identified by the phenotypic presence of a wood-like pectoralis major (p. major) muscle. The WB-affected p. Read More

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March 2018
2 Reads

Biosecurity Assessment and Seroprevalence of Respiratory Diseases in Backyard Poultry Flocks Located Close to and Far from Commercial Premises.

Avian Dis 2018 Mar;62(1):1-5

A Department of Population Health and Reproduction, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of California, 1089 Veterinary Medicine Drive VM3B, Davis, CA 95616.

Raising backyard chickens is an ever-growing hobby in the United States. These flocks can be a substrate for respiratory disease amplification and transmission to commercial facilities. Five hundred fifty-four chickens from 41 backyard flocks were sampled in this study. Read More

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March 2018
3 Reads

Propagation of an Avirulent Turkey Hemorrhagic Enteritis Virus Isolate in Chickens.

Avian Dis 2018 Mar;62(1):6-13

A Animal Science, School of Environmental and Rural Science, University of New England, Armidale, New South Wales 2351, Australia.

A series of studies were undertaken to optimize the propagation of hemorrhagic enteritis virus (HEV) in specific-pathogen-free (SPF) chickens. A total of 562 SPF chickens were orally inoculated with an Australian avirulent HEV isolate of turkey origin at 9, 14, 21, or 28 days of age with 5, 6, 7, or 8 log  genomic copies (GC), while 102 chickens served as uninfected controls. No clinical signs were observed in infected chickens. Read More

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March 2018
2 Reads

Genetic and Pathologic Characterization of a Novel Recombinant TC07-2-Type Avian Infectious Bronchitis Virus.

Avian Dis 2018 Mar;62(1):109-113

Avian Disease Research Division, Animal and Plant Quarantine Agency, Gimcheon, Republic of Korea 39660.

Avian infectious bronchitis viruses (IBVs) with the TC07-2 genotype have spread rapidly in East Asia since they were first reported in China in 2007. In 2015, an IBV with the TC07-2 genotype (designated KrD1515) was isolated from layer chickens with severe respiratory symptoms in Korea. In the present study, the full-length open reading frames of the spike (S) and nucleocapsid (N) genes of the virus were sequenced and analyzed. Read More

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March 2018
3 Reads

Comparative Evaluation of the Pathogenicity of Mycoplasma gallinaceum in Chickens.

Avian Dis 2018 Mar;62(1):50-56

A Poultry Section, Department of Production Animal Studies, Faculty of Veterinary Science, University of Pretoria, Onderstepoort, South Africa 0110.

Mycoplasma gallinaceum is not among the most pathogenic mycoplasmas affecting poultry, but its continuous re-isolation from flocks in South Africa displaying typical signs of mycoplasmosis prompted us to revisit its role in respiratory disease. Specific-pathogen-free white leghorn chickens were co-challenged with either M. gallinaceum (MGC) and QX-like infectious bronchitis virus (IBV), or the more virulent Mycoplasm gallisepticum (MG) and IBV. Read More

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March 2018
2 Reads

Retrospective Study of Histomoniasis (Blackhead) in California Turkey Flocks, 2000-2014.

Avian Dis 2018 Mar;62(1):94-100

C California Animal Health and Food Safety Laboratory System, Tulare branch, University of California, Davis, 18830 Road 112 Tulare, CA 93274.

The flagellate parasite Histomonas meleagridis causes a severe disease in turkeys. Since nitarsone, the last antiflagellate feed additive, was withdrawn from the market, H. meleagridis has gained increasing clinical and economic importance, and frequently entire turkey flocks are lost to the disease. Read More

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March 2018
2 Reads

Blood Glucose Concentrations in Nicarbazin-Fed Broiler Chickens.

Avian Dis 2018 Mar;62(1):114-116

B Department of Poultry Science, University of Georgia, Athens, GA 30602.

Four floor pen studies were carried out to evaluate the effects of nicarbazin (NIC) administration on blood glucose concentrations and the onset of hypoglycemia in broiler chickens. All tests involved continuous NIC feeding at 0, 100, or 125 ppm to 28 days of age. In each study, birds were reared at both standard environmental temperatures and at 3 C below this level. Read More

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March 2018
2 Reads

Pancreatitis Is an Important Feature of Broilers Suffering from Inclusion Body Hepatitis Leading to Dysmetabolic Conditions with Consequences for Zootechnical Performance.

Avian Dis 2018 Mar;62(1):57-64

A Clinic for Poultry and Fish Medicine, Department for Farm Animals and Veterinary Public Health, University of Veterinary Medicine Vienna, Veterinaerplatz 1, 1210, Vienna, Austria.

The aim of the present study was to further unravel the pathophysiologic mechanisms of inclusion body hepatitis (IBH). In a first trial, the susceptibility of specific-pathogen-free (SPF) broilers to fowl aviadenovirus (FAdV) infections was investigated. Regardless of viral dose, route of infection, and susceptibility to disease on day 1, the 3-week-old SPF broilers showed resistance to IBH, with no mortality being recorded throughout the experiment. Read More

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March 2018
2 Reads

Wildlife Presence and Interactions with Chickens on Australian Commercial Chicken Farms Assessed by Camera Traps.

Avian Dis 2018 Mar;62(1):65-72

A School of Veterinary Science, University of Sydney, Camden, New South Wales, 2570, Australia.

The types of wildlife and the frequency of their visits to commercial chicken farms in Australia were assessed using infrared and motion-sensing camera traps. Cameras were set up on 14 free-range layer farms, three cage layer farms, two barn layer farms, five non-free-range meat chicken farms, and six free-range meat chicken farms in the Sydney basin region and South East Queensland. Wildlife visits were found on every farm type and were most frequent on cage layer farms (73%), followed by free-range layer farms (15%). Read More

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March 2018
3 Reads

Isolation and Characteristics of the Arkansas-Type Infectious Bronchitis Virus in China.

Avian Dis 2018 Mar;62(1):18-27

Division of Avian Infectious Diseases, State Key Laboratory of Veterinary Biotechnology, Harbin Veterinary Research Institute, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Harbin 150001, People's Republic of China.

Two infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) strains, designated as γCoV/ck/China/I0712/11 (I0712/11) and γCoV/ck/China/I0108/17 (I0108/17), were isolated from diseased chicken flocks in different provinces in China and genotyped as Arkansas (Ark)-type viruses with three other Chinese Ark field strains, the Jilin vaccine strain, and the American Ark- and Ark DPI-like viruses. Complete genomic sequence analysis and pairwise comparison of nucleotide sequences encoding the S1 subunit of the spike protein and other structural and accessory proteins revealed that Chinese Ark field isolates were genetically closely related to the Jilin vaccine and American ArkDPI11 strains, although extensive nucleotide changes were found across the genomes of Chinese Ark field isolates. This suggests that Chinese Ark-type isolates are derived from the Jilin vaccine, and have diverged and evolved independently by point mutations since introduction into China. Read More

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March 2018
2 Reads

Evaluation of Cytology for Diagnosing Avian Pox in Wild Turkeys ( Meleagris gallopavo).

Avian Dis 2018 Mar;62(1):45-49

E Pennsylvania Game Commission, 2001 Elmerton Avenue, Harrisburg, PA 17110.

Avian pox virus is a common cause of proliferative skin disease in wild turkeys ( Meleagris gallopavo); however, other etiologies may produce grossly indistinguishable lesions. Common methods for diagnosing avian pox include histopathology, virus isolation, and PCR. While these methods are sufficient in most cases, each has their limitations. Read More

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March 2018
2 Reads

Post mortem survival of Gallibacterium anatis in a laying hen experimental infection model.

Avian Dis 2018 Apr 3. Epub 2018 Apr 3.

C University of Copenhagen Department of Veterinary and Animal Sciences.

To assess the survival of G. anatis in dead laying hens, 21-week old laying hens were injected intraperitoneally with 0.5 ml brain hearth infusion broth containing 108 CFU of G. Read More

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April 2018
2 Reads

Increased Incidence of Enterococcal Infection in Nonviable Broiler Chicken Embryos in Western Canadian Hatcheries as Detected by Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption/Ionization-Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometry.

Avian Dis 2017 Dec;61(4):472-480

A Department of Veterinary Pathology, Western College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, Canada SK S7N 5B4.

The emergence of enterococcal infections in neonatal broiler chickens in the poultry industry has become common in many countries, including Canada. The objective of this study was to examine the bacterial infections in nonviable broiler chicken embryos in three western Canadian poultry hatcheries using matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS). The pattern of embryo mortality that occurred during incubation and the breakout analysis results were similar in all three hatcheries. Read More

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December 2017
6 Reads

Comparative Analysis of Pasteurella multocida Isolates from Acute and Chronic Fowl Cholera Cases in Hungary During the Period 2005 Through 2010.

Avian Dis 2017 Dec;61(4):457-465

A Institute for Veterinary Medical Research, Centre for Agricultural Research, Hungarian Academy of Sciences, H-1581 Budapest, P.O. Box 18, Hungary.

Fowl cholera (FC) is a highly contagious and economically important disease of poultry worldwide. This study was performed on 218 Pasteurella multocida isolates collected from separated breeding farms or backyards with acute and chronic FC cases in multiple localities across Hungary during the period 2005-2010. All isolates were characterized by a broad range of biochemical, serological, and molecular methods, as well as their antibiotic susceptibility to aminoglycosides (A), macrolides (M), penicillins (P), quinolones (Q), cephalosporins, sulphonamides (S), and tetracyclines (T) was determined. Read More

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December 2017
4 Reads

Molecular Characterization of QX-Like and Variant Infectious Bronchitis Virus Strains in Malaysia Based on Partial Genomic Sequences Comprising the S-3a/3b-E-M-Intergenic Region-5a/5b-N Gene Order.

Avian Dis 2017 Dec;61(4):442-452

A Institute of Bioscience, Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400 UPM Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia.

Infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) is one of the major poultry pathogens of global importance. However, the prevalence of IBV strains in Malaysia is poorly characterized. The partial genomic sequences (6. Read More

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December 2017
5 Reads

Fibrillar Collagen Organization Associated with Broiler Wooden Breast Fibrotic Myopathy.

Avian Dis 2017 Dec;61(4):481-490

Department of Animal Sciences, Ohio Agricultural Research and Development Center, The Ohio State University, Wooster, OH 44691.

Wooden breast (WB) is a fibrotic myopathy affecting the pectoralis major (p. major) muscle in fast-growing commercial broiler lines. Birds with WB are phenotypically detected by the palpation of a hard p. Read More

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December 2017
3 Reads

Isolation of Avipoxvirus from Tongue of Canaries ( Serinus canaria) Show Severe Localized Proliferative Glossitis.

Avian Dis 2017 Dec;61(4):531-535

A Istituto Zooprofilattico Sperimentale di Padova, Viale dell'Università 10, Legnaro, PD, 35020, Italy.

Poxvirus was the causative agent of two unusual outbreaks of proliferative glossitis in canary ( Serinus canaria forma domestica) breeders in the Northern Italy. A total of 45, 7-9-mo-old canaries were submitted in fair postmortem conditions to the Istituto Zooprofilattico Sperimentale delle Venezie at the beginning of November 2005 for diagnostic investigation. Birds belonged to two unrelated and geographically distant aviaries in northern Italy, herein identified as Aviary A and Aviary B. Read More

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December 2017
4 Reads

2017 AAAP Awards.

Authors:

Avian Dis 2017 Dec;61(4):421-427

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December 2017
2 Reads

The Role of Necroptosis, Apoptosis, and Inflammation in Fowl Cholera-Associated Liver Injury in a Chicken Model.

Avian Dis 2017 Dec;61(4):491-502

A Department of Veterinary Medicine, Huazhong Agricultural University, Wuhan 430070, Hubei, China.

Fowl cholera resulting from infection with Pasteurella multocida causes huge economic losses in the poultry industry. Necrotic hepatitis is reported to be a significant lesion associated with fowl cholera in chickens. Clarifying the underlying molecular mechanism of hepatic injury caused by P. Read More

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December 2017
6 Reads

Vegetative Valvular Endocarditis and Hepatitis Associated with Helcococcus ovis in a 7-year-old White Leghorn Rooster.

Avian Dis 2017 Dec;61(4):526-530

A University of California, Davis, California Animal Health & Food Safety Laboratory System.

Helcococcus ovis is a slow-growing, pyridoxal-dependent, Gram-positive coccus belonging to the Peptostreptococcaceae family. Bacteria belonging to the genus Helcococcus are considered normal inhabitants of keratinized epithelium in humans; however, several reports support their role as pathogens in humans and several animal species. This case report describes the identification of H. Read More

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December 2017
5 Reads

Intrapulmonary Delivery of CpG-ODN Microdroplets Provides Protection Against Escherichia coli Septicemia in Neonatal Broiler Chickens.

Avian Dis 2017 Dec;61(4):503-511

A Department of Veterinary Pathology, Western College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, SK, S7N 5B4, Canada.

Synthetic oligodeoxynucleotides (ODN) containing unmethylated cytosine phosphodiester guanine (CpG) motifs (CpG-ODN) are effective immunostimulatory agents against a variety of viral, bacterial, and protozoan diseases in different animals including poultry. We have recently demonstrated that in ovo injection of CpG-ODN confers protection in neonatal chickens against bacterial septicemias. The objective of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of needle-free intrapulmonary (IPL) delivery of CpG-ODN microdroplets against Escherichia coli infection in neonatal chicks. Read More

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December 2017
3 Reads

Chronologic Analysis of Gross and Histologic Lesions Induced by Field Strains of FAdV-1, FAdV-8b, and FAdV-11 in Six-Week-Old Chickens.

Avian Dis 2017 Dec;61(4):512-519

A Asia-Pacific Centre for Animal Health, Faculty of Veterinary and Agricultural Sciences, The University of Melbourne, 250 Princes Highway, Werribee, VIC 3030, Australia.

Inclusion body hepatitis (IBH) is a disease affecting broiler chicken flocks worldwide. Several serotypes of fowl adenovirus (FAdV) have been implicated in disease outbreaks, with and without immunosuppression as a predisposing factor. IBH usually occurs in flocks up to 30 days of age; it is seldom seen in older birds. Read More

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December 2017
4 Reads

Efficacy of Massachusetts and 793B Vaccines Against Infectious Bronchitis Moroccan-Italy 02 Virus in Specific-Pathogen-Free Chickens and Commercial Broilers.

Avian Dis 2017 Dec;61(4):466-471

A Unité de Pathologie Aviaire, Département de Pathologie et Santé Publique Vétérinaire, Institut Agronomique et Vétérinaire Hassan II, BP 6202, Rabat- Instituts, Rabat, Morocco 10000.

The ability of commercial vaccines H120 and 4/91 to protect against Moroccan-Italy 02 infectious bronchitis virus (Mor-It02) was investigated in specific-pathogen-free (SPF) chickens and commercial broiler chickens. Commercial broiler chicks (Experiment 1) were vaccinated at the hatchery with H120 vaccine at Day 1, and challenged at Day 21 with 10 50% egg-infective dose (EID) of Mor-It02. All chicks were observed daily for clinical signs attributable to Mor-It02 infection during the 10 days postchallenge (pc). Read More

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December 2017
8 Reads

Response of House Finches Recovered from Mycoplasma gallisepticum to Reinfection with a Heterologous Strain.

Avian Dis 2017 Dec;61(4):437-441

D Department of Biological Sciences, Virginia Tech, Blacksburg, VA 24061.

After recovery, house finches ( Haemorhous mexicanus) reinfected with the same Mycoplasma gallisepticum strain remain partially resistant to reinfection for at least 14 mo in that they recover from reinfection much more rapidly than do Mycoplasma gallisepticum-naïve birds. To test the response of birds to reinfection with a heterologous strain we performed two experiments. In a first experiment we exposed birds to one of three strains that differed in virulence. Read More

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December 2017
4 Reads

Molecular Detection of Avian Influenza Virus from Sediment Samples in Waterfowl Habitats on the Delmarva Peninsula, United States.

Avian Dis 2017 Dec;61(4):520-525

E Maryland Department of Natural Resources, Cooperative Oxford Laboratory, 904 South Morris Street, Oxford, MD 21654.

Avian influenza viruses (AIV) affect many species of birds including waterfowl and may persist in sediment in aquatic habitats. Sediment samples were collected from two areas representative of prime migration and overwintering waterfowl habitat in Dorchester County, Maryland in the fall and winter of 2013-2014. Samples were screened for the presence of AIV via reverse transcriptase-quantitative PCR targeting the matrix gene. Read More

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December 2017
5 Reads

Impact of Controlling Bacteria in Feed on Broiler Performance During a Clostridial Challenge.

Avian Dis 2017 Dec;61(4):453-456

A Anitox Corp, 1055 Progress Circle, Lawrenceville, GA 30043.

Three studies were conducted using Clostridium perfringens as an intestinal challenge to produce necrotic enteritis (NE). The studies consisted of two battery screening studies and one production study in floor pens. The purpose of the trials was to determine if reducing the level of microorganisms in feed consumed by broilers reduced the impact of a nonfeed-based Clostridial challenge. Read More

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December 2017
2 Reads

Interactions Between Parasites and the Bacterial Microbiota of Chickens.

Authors:
Rüdiger Hauck

Avian Dis 2017 Dec;61(4):428-436

A Department of Pathobiology and Department of Poultry Science, Auburn University, Auburn, AL 36849.

Except for the important role coccidia have as predisposing factors of necrotic enteritis, the role parasites play in the dynamics of a healthy microbiota of chickens is not well explored. This review describes the interactions of relevant intestinal parasites of chickens with bacteria. Infection with Eimeria spp. Read More

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December 2017
3 Reads

Persistent Goose Hemorrhagic Polyomavirus Infection on a Belgian Goose Farm.

Avian Dis 2017 Dec;61(4):536-538

A Department of Pathology, Bacteriology and Avian Diseases, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Ghent University, Salisburylaan 133, B9820 Merelbeke, Belgium.

Goose hemorrhagic polyomavirus (GHPV) is the causative agent of hemorrhagic nephritis enteritis of geese (HNEG), one of the major diseases of domestic geese in Europe. This case report describes a persistent outbreak of a GHPV infection on a Belgian goose farm. Clinical symptoms, necropsy lesions, and histopathologic lesions observed were compatible with previous reports of HNEG outbreaks. Read More

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December 2017
2 Reads

Clinical and Pathologic Characterization of an Outbreak of Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza H7N8 in Commercial Turkeys in Southern Indiana.

Avian Dis 2017 Sep;61(3):414-417

D Farbest Farms Inc., 225 W 41st Street, Suite B, Jasper, IN 47546.

Highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) is a systemic lethal disease of poultry caused by several subtypes of influenza A virus and classified on the basis of serologic reactions to hemagglutinin and neuraminidase surface glycoproteins. In January 2016, a novel subtype of HPAI-H7N8-was diagnosed in a commercial turkey (Meleagris gallopavo) flock in southern Indiana. Clinical signs and history included increased mortality, dyspnea, head tremors, recumbency, and somnolent or unaware birds. Read More

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September 2017
6 Reads

Isolation and Molecular Characterization of Novel Infectious Bronchitis Virus Variants from Vaccinated Broiler Flocks in Egypt.

Avian Dis 2017 Sep;61(3):307-310

C Department of Veterinary Pathology and Microbiology, Faculty of Applied Biological Science, Gifu University, 1-1 Yanagido, Gifu 501-1193, Japan.

The present study aimed to determine the molecular characteristics of circulating infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) strains in vaccinated broiler flocks in the Giza and Fayoum governorates. Thirty-four isolates were collected, and egg propagation revealed their ability to induce typical IBV lesions after three to five successive passages. Three selected isolates were identified as IBV using a real-time reverse transcriptase-PCR assay targeted the nucleocapsid (N) gene and further characterized by partial spike (S) gene sequence analysis. Read More

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September 2017
11 Reads

Pilot Study of Antimicrobial Resistance in Northern Bobwhites (Colinus virginianus).

Avian Dis 2017 Sep;61(3):391-396

B Department of Veterinary Pathobiology and Veterinary Medical Diagnostic Laboratory, College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Missouri, Columbia, MO 65211.

Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) is an important issue for both wildlife conservation and public health. The purpose of this study was to screen for AMR in fecal bacteria isolated from northern bobwhite (Colinus virginianus), a species that is an ecologically and economically important natural resource in the southern United States. The antimicrobial susceptibility profiles of 45 Escherichia coli isolates, 20 Enterococcus faecalis isolates, and 10 Enterococcus faecium isolates were determined using the Sensititer microbroth dilution minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) plate, AVIAN1F. Read More

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September 2017
8 Reads

Prevalence of Trichomonas, Salmonella, and Listeria in Wild Birds from Southeast Texas.

Avian Dis 2017 Sep;61(3):347-352

A Department of Biology, Lamar University, Beaumont, TX 77710.

Infectious diseases can be a major threat to wildlife populations, especially in human-modified habitats, but infection rates in populations of wild animals are often poorly studied. Trichomonas, Salmonella, and Listeria are all pathogens known to infect birds, but their infection rates in wild bird populations are not well documented. This study documents infection rates of the three pathogens in wild bird populations inhabiting a suburban to rural gradient in Southeast Texas. Read More

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September 2017
4 Reads

Causes of Normal Mortality in Commercial Egg-Laying Chickens.

Authors:
Richard M Fulton

Avian Dis 2017 Sep;61(3):289-295

A Diagnostic Center for Population and Animal Health and Department of Pathobiology and Diagnostic Investigation College of Veterinary Medicine, Michigan State University, 4125 Beaumont Road Lansing, MI 48910.

In a large population of animals, it is normal to have some die each day from causes not related to disease, which is often referred to as natural causes. In poultry production, this phenomenon is commonly referred to as daily mortality. In egg-producing chickens, many of the natural causes of death are associated with making an egg. Read More

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September 2017
13 Reads

Detection of a Newly Described Bacteriocin, Perfrin, Among Clostridium perfringens Isolates from Healthy and Diseased Ostriches and Broiler Chickens in Iran.

Avian Dis 2017 Sep;61(3):387-390

A Department of Clinical Sciences, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Mashhad, Iran 9177948974.

Necrotic enteritis due to Clostridium perfringens strains harboring the netB gene is a well-known disorder in poultry. The aim of this study was to investigate the association of a novel bacteriocin, perfrin, with netB among isolates from healthy and diseased ostriches and broiler chickens. Forty-six C. Read More

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September 2017
5 Reads

Immunity Elicited by a Turkey Herpesvirus-Vectored Newcastle Disease Vaccine in Turkey Against Challenge With a Recent Genotype IV Newcastle Disease Virus Field Strain.

Avian Dis 2017 Sep;61(3):378-386

C Ceva Santé Animale, Ceva-Phylaxia, Szállás utca 5., 1107-Budapest, Hungary.

Newcastle disease (ND) is still a major poultry disease worldwide. Vaccination remains the principal method of controlling ND in endemic countries. Various vaccination strategies, including the use of recently developed recombinant vaccines, have been used to control it. Read More

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September 2017
11 Reads

First Identification and Molecular Characterization of Avian metapneumovirus Subtype B from Chickens in Greece.

Avian Dis 2017 Sep;61(3):409-413

A Department of Animal Medicine, Production and Health (MAPS), University of Padua, Viale dell'Università 16, 35020 Legnaro (PD), Italy.

Avian metapneumovirus (aMPV) is considered a major pathogen for turkeys but its impact on chicken production is still partially neglected, even though it is fully acknowledged as a primary pathogen in chickens as well. The lack of structured diagnostic surveys does not allow a pervasive understanding of aMPV epidemiology. Being that aMPV is almost an everyday challenge for farmers and veterinarians, a more accurate report of its presence should be detailed, posing the basis for a deep and global epidemiologic analysis. Read More

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September 2017
7 Reads

Recombinant Avian Paramyxovirus Serotypes 2, 6, and 10 as Vaccine Vectors for Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza in Chickens with Antibodies Against Newcastle Disease Virus.

Avian Dis 2017 Sep;61(3):296-306

A Division of Transboundary Animal Disease, National Institute of Animal Health, National Agriculture and Food Research Organization, 3-1-5 Kannondai, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0854, Japan.

Recombinant Newcastle disease virus (rNDV) expressing the hemagglutinin of highly pathogenic avian influenza virus (HPAIV HA) induces protective immunity against HPAIV in chickens. However, the efficacy of rNDV vectors is hampered when chickens are pre-immune to NDV, and most commercial chickens are routinely vaccinated against NDV. We recently showed that avian paramyxovirus serotypes 2, 6, and 10 (APMV-2, APMV-6, and APMV-10), which belong to the same genus as NDV, have low cross-reactivity with anti-NDV antisera. Read More

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September 2017
7 Reads

Systemic Histomoniasis in a Leucistic Indian Peafowl (Pavo cristatus) from Southern Brazil.

Avian Dis 2017 Sep;61(3):325-329

A Laboratory of Animal Pathology, Department of Veterinary Preventive Medicine, Universidade Estadual de Londrina, Paraná, Brazil.

The pathological and molecular findings associated with Histomonas meleagridis are described in a leucistic Indian peafowl (Pavo cristatus) from Southern Brazil. The most significant gross findings were multifocal necrotizing hepatitis and diphtheric typhlitis. Histopathologic evaluation of the liver, ceca, kidney, spleen, and small intestine revealed systemic histomoniasis (SH) associated with intralesional and intravascular accumulations of histomonad organisms consistent with H. Read More

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September 2017
8 Reads

Presence of Avibacterium paragallinarum and Histopathologic Lesions Corresponds with Clinical Signs in a Co-infection Model with Gallibacterium anatis.

Avian Dis 2017 Sep;61(3):335-340

Clinic for Poultry and Fish Medicine, Department for Farm Animals and Veterinary Public Health, University of Veterinary Medicine, Veterinaerplatz 1, 1210, Vienna, Austria.

Recently we demonstrated that co-infection with Avibacterium paragallinarum and Gallibacterium anatis leads to increased severity of clinical signs of infectious coryza in birds. The present study examined the interaction of these two pathogens in chickens by evaluation of histologic lesions in sinus infraorbitalis and nasal turbinates, applying a defined scoring scheme ranging from 0 to 3. Furthermore, for the first time, an in situ hybridization (ISH) technique was applied to detect A. Read More

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September 2017
10 Reads

In Vitro Effect of Apigenin and Danshen in Tibial Dyschondroplasia Through Inhibition of Heat-Shock Protein 90 and Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Expressions in Avian Growth Plate Cells.

Avian Dis 2017 Sep;61(3):372-377

A College of Veterinary Medicine, Huazhong Agricultural University, Wuhan 430070, People's Republic of China.

Tibial dyschondroplasia (TD) is one of the common skeletal abnormalities in fast-growing birds, and it is characterized by nonvascularized, unmineralized, and nonviable cartilage in the tibial growth plate that fails to form bone. The aim of this study was to check the in vitro effect of apigenin and danshen on heat-shock protein 90 (Hsp90) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) expressions in avian growth plate cells treated with sublethal concentration of thiram. Initially, chondrocytes from chicken growth plates were isolated on culturx ed medium with and without various concentration of thiram to determine the sublethal dose. Read More

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September 2017
13 Reads

Infectious Bronchitis Virus S2 of 4/91 Expressed from Recombinant Virus Does Not Protect Against Ark-Type Challenge.

Avian Dis 2017 Sep;61(3):397-401

A Department of Pathobiology, College of Veterinary Medicine, Auburn University, 264 Greene Hall, Auburn, AL 36849.

We previously demonstrated that chickens primed with a recombinant Newcastle disease virus LaSota (rLS) expressing the S2 gene of infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) and boosted with an attenuated IBV Massachusetts (Mass)-type vaccine were protected against IBV Arkansas (Ark)-type virulent challenge. A possible basis for the reported ability of IBV 4/91 (serotype 793/B) vaccine to protect against divergent IBV strains (e.g. Read More

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September 2017
19 Reads

Critical Review: Future Control of Blackhead Disease (Histomoniasis) in Poultry.

Avian Dis 2017 Sep;61(3):281-288

B Texas A&M University, Poultry Science Department, College Station, Texas, 77843.

Blackhead disease (histomoniasis) currently has no efficacious drug approved for use in poultry in the United States. Both chickens and turkeys can get the disease, but mortality is most often associated with turkeys. The lack of any approved therapies for blackhead is of concern, especially in the case of valuable turkey breeder candidate flocks. Read More

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September 2017
8 Reads