6,766 results match your criteria Avian diseases[Journal]


Occurrence and Molecular Typing of Giardia psittaci in Parakeets in Germany-A Case Study.

Avian Dis 2020 Jun;64(2):228-233

Clinic for Small Mammals, Reptiles, and Birds, University of Veterinary Medicine Hannover, Foundation, Bünteweg 9, 30559 Hannover, Germany.

A grey-hooded parakeet () and two budgerigars () from different owners presented with decreased activity, vomitus, and diarrhea. A microscopic examination of feces showed trophozoites of the protozoan flagellate . A commercial immunochromatographic dipstick test for sp. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1637/0005-2086-64.2.228DOI Listing

Identification of Clade E in Brazil.

Avian Dis 2020 Jun;64(2):223-227

Laboratório de Virologia e Imunologia, Faculdade de Veterinária, Universidade Federal de Pelotas, Pelotas, Rio Grande do Sul, 96010-900, Brazil.

Avian poxvirus (APV) is an enveloped double-stranded DNA virus that affects many domestic and wild birds worldwide. APVs are classified into three clades (A to C), represented by fowlpox (FP) virus (clade A), canarypox virus (clade B), and psittacinepox virus (clade C), although two additional clades (D and E) have been proposed. In this study, a tumorlike skin lesion found in a domestic fowl was submitted for molecular diagnosis of by PCR and sequencing. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1637/0005-2086-64.2.223DOI Listing

Chlamydiosis in a Gouldian Finch ().

Avian Dis 2020 Jun;64(2):216-222

Turlock Branch, University of California, Davis, California Animal Health & Food Safety Laboratory System, Turlock, CA 95380,

Avian chlamydiosis is an infection caused by obligate intracellular and Gram-negative bacteria belonging to the family and has been reported in more than 450 avian species distributed in 30 orders. In particular, a high prevalence of infection has been demonstrated in wild passerine populations, including both asymptomatic and clinically ill individuals, suggesting a role of these avian species as important carriers. In May 2018, avian chlamydiosis was diagnosed in a 1-year-old male Gouldian finch () at the Turlock Branch of the California Animal Health and Food Safety Laboratory System. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1637/0005-2086-64.2.216DOI Listing

Surveillance for spp. in Game Birds and Cage-Free, Floor-Raised Poultry in Pennsylvania.

Avian Dis 2020 Jun;64(2):210-215

Department of Veterinary and Biomedical Sciences, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802,

Histomoniasis is a significant disease of gallinaceous birds caused by . Transmission of this parasite is dependent on use of the cecal nematode . To define the host range of this nematode, cecal contents from 399 game birds and poultry, representing eight species, were examined for spp. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1637/0005-2086-64.2.210DOI Listing

Pathologic Evaluation of Influenza A H5N8 Infection Outbreaks in Mule Ducks in Bulgaria.

Avian Dis 2020 Jun;64(2):203-209

Department of Internal Noninfectious Diseases, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Trakia University, 6000 Stara Zagora, Bulgaria.

This article outlines pathomorphologic findings of a study involving commercial mule ducks with confirmed influenza A H5N8 infections after a series of outbreaks in Bulgaria. Examinations were carried out after performing necropsy on dead birds from three different age groups (up to 15, 20 to 30, and 40+ days of age) fattened on different farms. Among birds of all ages, gross lesions were present as lesions affecting the heart. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1637/0005-2086-64.2.203DOI Listing

Serotypes and Hemagglutinin Gene Sequences of Avibacterium paragallinarum Isolated in Taiwan.

Avian Dis 2020 Jun;64(2):197-202

Graduate Institute of Microbiology and Public Health, National Chung Hsing University, Taichung, 40227 Taiwan,

Despite routine vaccine use, sporadic outbreaks of infectious coryza in poultry continue to occur in Taiwan. This study was designed to determine the serotypes and the complete nucleotide sequences of a hemagglutinin gene () of isolated in Taiwan between 1994 and 2017. Hemagglutination inhibition tests showed that these isolates belong to serogroups B and C. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1637/0005-2086-64.2.197DOI Listing

Genetic, Antigenic, and Pathogenic Characteristics of Infectious Bronchitis Virus GI-7/TW-II in China.

Avian Dis 2020 Jun;64(2):183-196

Division of Avian Infectious Diseases, State Key Laboratory of Veterinary Biotechnology, Harbin Veterinary Research Institute, the Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Harbin 150001, the People's Republic of China,

Nine infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) strains belonging to the GI-7 lineage were isolated between 2009 and 2017 in China. Phylogenetic analysis and comparisons of full-length sequences of the S1 gene suggested that the GI-7 lineage should be further classified as Taiwan (TW)-I and TW-II sublineages, which correspond to the previous TW-I and TW-II genotypes. The nine IBV strains were clustered in the TW-II sublineage. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1637/0005-2086-64.2.183DOI Listing

Comparative Molecular Characterization of Three Type 3 Strains 301B/1, HPRS24, and SB-1.

Avian Dis 2020 Jun;64(2):174-182

U.S. National Poultry Research Center, Agricultural Research Service, U.S. Department of Agriculture, Athens, GA 30605.

Marek's disease (MD) is a highly contagious lymphoproliferative disease of chickens caused by type 2. type 3 (GaHV-3) strain 301B/1 was previously shown to be an effective MD vaccine with synergistic efficacy when used as a bivalent vaccine with turkey herpesvirus. Since the nucleotide sequences of only two GaHV-3 strains have been determined, we sought to sequence the 301B/1 genome using Illumina MiSeq technology. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1637/0005-2086-64.2.174DOI Listing

Pathodynamics of Circulating Strains of Duck Enteritis Virus: A Step Forward to Understand Its Pathogenesis.

Avian Dis 2020 Jun;64(2):166-173

Department of Biosciences and Bioengineering, Indian Institute of Technology Guwahati, Guwahati, India 781039,

Duck enteritis virus (DEV) causes an acute and contagious infection in duck. The present study was carried out to evaluate the pathogenicity and pathodynamics of DEV isolates from different natural outbreaks in the Assam Province of India. A total of six wild-type isolates of DEV were revived in ducklings to determine its biologic characterization. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1637/0005-2086-64.2.166DOI Listing

Infectious Coryza: Persistence, Genotyping, and Vaccine Testing.

Avian Dis 2020 Jun;64(2):157-165

Foster Farms, Delhi, CA 95315.

The reemergence of infectious coryza (IC) caused by (AP) as an acute and occasionally chronic respiratory disease in domestic poultry has caused severe losses in several U.S. states. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1637/0005-2086-64.2.157DOI Listing

Diagnostic Accuracy of Ultrasonography to Detect False Layers in a Commercial Laying Flock Infected by an Infectious Bronchitis Virus Delmarva Genotype Causing Cystic Oviducts.

Avian Dis 2020 Jun;64(2):149-156

Department of Clinical Sciences, Faculté de médecine vétérinaire, Université de Montréal, St-Hyacinthe, Québec, Canada, J2S 2M2,

Infection of the oviduct by an infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) in laying hens has been associated with the false layer syndrome. Because the diagnostic procedure for the detection of cystic oviducts by postmortem examinations in IBV-positive replacement pullet flocks could involve the unnecessary sacrifice of numerous healthy pullets without reproductive tract anomalies, the development of a noninvasive and nonlethal diagnostic procedure would be desirable. The first objective of the study was to evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of a transcutaneous ultrasonography method to predict the presence of cystic oviducts compared to postmortem examinations in a commercial pullet flock positive for an IBV genotype Delmarva (DMV) variant. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1637/0005-2086-64.2.149DOI Listing

Effects of an H7 Highly Pathogenic and Related Low Pathogenic Avian Influenza Virus on Chicken Egg Production, Viability, and Virus Contamination of Egg Contents and Surfaces.

Avian Dis 2020 Jun;64(2):143-148

Exotic and Emerging Avian Viral Diseases Unit, Southeast Poultry Research Laboratory, United States National Poultry Research Center, United States Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service, Athens, GA 30605.

Both highly pathogenic (HP) and low pathogenic (LP) avian influenza virus (AIV) can cause decreases or even cessation of egg production in chickens and turkeys. Production of abnormal eggs (deformed, thin-shelled, soft-shelled) can also be caused by AIV infection. Additionally, egg surfaces and contents may also be contaminated with virus. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1637/0005-2086-64.2.143DOI Listing

High Prevalence of Avian Influenza Virus Among Wild Waterbirds and Land Birds of Mexico.

Avian Dis 2020 Jun;64(2):135-142

Universidad Autónoma de Nuevo León, UANL, Facultad de Ciencias Biológicas, 66455 San Nicolás de los Garza, Nuevo León, México,

Aquatic wild birds, especially waterfowl, have been long considered the main reservoirs of the avian influenza A virus; however, recent surveys have found an important prevalence of these viruses among land birds as well. Migration has been suggested as an important factor in the avian influenza virus dissemination. We aimed to estimate the prevalence of influenza A viruses in wild birds (waterbirds and land birds; resident and migratory) in eastern Mexico, where the three main North American migration flyways converge and where there was no previous information on this subject. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1637/0005-2086-64.2.135DOI Listing

Isolation and Characterization of Novel Ribotypes Infecting Domestic and Wild Birds in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia.

Avian Dis 2020 Jun;64(2):130-134

Department of Zoology, King Saud University, College of Science, Riyadh-11451, Saudi Arabia,

, a single-celled protozoan parasite, is a causative agent of the disease trichomonosis, which is distributed worldwide and has recently been highlighted as a pandemic threat to several wild bird species. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence and genotypic diversity of in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. For this purpose, 273 oral swab samples from different bird species (feral pigeon common mynah chicken turkey , and ducks ) were collected and tested for infection with InPouch™ TV culture kits. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1637/0005-2086-64.2.130DOI Listing

Influence of spp. Infection on Chicken Jejunal Microbiota and the Efficacy of Two Alternative Products Against the Infection.

Avian Dis 2020 Jun;64(2):123-129

Department of Poultry Sciences, Auburn University, Auburn, AL 36849,

spp. are important intestinal pathogens of chickens (). Anticoccidial feed additives, chemicals, and ionophores have traditionally been used to control infections in broiler production. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1637/0005-2086-64.2.123DOI Listing
June 2020
1.241 Impact Factor

Ecology of Influenza A Viruses in Wild Birds and Wetlands of Alaska.

Avian Dis 2020 Jun;64(2):109-122

U.S. Geological Survey, Alaska Science Center, Anchorage, AK 99508.

Alaska represents a globally important region for the ecology of avian-origin influenza A viruses (IAVs) given the expansive wetlands in this region, which serve as habitat for numerous hosts of IAVs that disperse among four continents during the annual cycle. Extensive sampling of wild birds for IAVs in Alaska since 1991 has greatly extended inference regarding intercontinental viral exchange between North America and East Asia and the importance of Beringian endemic species to IAV ecology within this region. Data on IAVs in aquatic birds inhabiting Alaska have also been useful for helping to establish global patterns of prevalence in wild birds and viral dispersal across the landscape. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1637/0005-2086-64.2.109DOI Listing

Using Environmental Sampling Techniques to Conduct Influenza A Virus Surveillance in Poultry and Waterfowl at Ohio Agricultural Exhibitions.

Avian Dis 2020 03;64(1):96-98

Department of Veterinary Preventive Medicine, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43210,

The outbreak of highly pathogenic H5Nx influenza A viruses (IAVs) in the United States during 2014-2015 caused devastating economic losses; therefore, several measures were established to control and eliminate highly pathogenic H5Nx from U.S. poultry flocks. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1637/0005-2086-64.1.96DOI Listing

Infectious Bronchitis Virus Immune Responses in the Harderian Gland upon Initial Vaccination.

Avian Dis 2020 03;64(1):92-95

Department of Pathobiology, Auburn University College of Veterinary Medicine, Auburn, AL, 36830,

In recent years, Arkansas Delmarva Poultry Industry (ArkDPI)-derived infectious bronchitis (IB) virus (IBV) vaccines have been used to characterize the immune responses of chickens subsequent to vaccination on day of hatch or beyond. Perhaps because ArkDPI vaccines display increased heterogeneity, the results on cell immune responses have shown ambiguity. In the current study, we investigated the effects of vaccination with a highly stable and homogeneous Massachusetts (Mass)-type vaccine on days 1 or 7 of age on Harderian gland (HG) responses. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1637/0005-2086-64.1.92DOI Listing

Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza H5N1 A/Chicken/France/150169a/2015 Presents Characteristics Consistent with Its Predicted Tropism for Avian Species.

Avian Dis 2020 03;64(1):85-91

Anses, Ploufragan-Plouzané-Niort Laboratory, Avian and Rabbit Virology Immunology and Parasitology Unit, National Reference Laboratory for Avian Influenza, BP53, 22440 Ploufragan, France.

Avian influenza A viruses are a major threat to animal and public health. Since 1997, several highly pathogenic H5N1 avian viruses have been directly transmitted from poultry to humans, caused numerous human deaths, and had considerable economic impact on poultry markets. During 2015-2016, a highly pathogenic avian influenza outbreak occurred in southwestern France. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1637/0005-2086-64.1.85DOI Listing

Nationwide Survey of Infectious Bronchitis Virus on Layer Farms in Japan During 2015.

Avian Dis 2020 03;64(1):80-84

The United Graduate School of Veterinary Sciences, Gifu University, 1-1 Yanagido, Gifu City, Gifu 501-1193, Japan.

After accumulating data through a nationwide survey, we characterized the recent prevalences and geographic distributions of various genotypes of infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) on layer farms in Japan. Reverse transcription PCR analysis of fecal samples revealed the presence of the IBV nucleoprotein (N) gene on approximately 30% of the farms surveyed. N-gene detection rates were higher in the Chugoku and Kyushu regions than in the remaining surveyed regions. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1637/0005-2086-64.1.80DOI Listing

Establishment of Adequate Functional Cellular Immune Response in Chicks Is Age Dependent.

Avian Dis 2020 03;64(1):69-79

Institute of Immunology, Friedrich-Loeffler-Institut, Federal Research Institute for Animal Health, 17493 Greifswald-Insel Riems, Germany,

The development of immunocompetence in chicks after hatching is not fully understood. However, detailed knowledge of immunocompetence and maturation processes in day-old chicks (DOCs) and juvenile chickens () is necessary to implement enhanced immunization strategies. For viral diseases, this especially includes the development of cellular immunity focusing on T-cell-dependent responses. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1637/0005-2086-64.1.69DOI Listing

Infectious Bronchitis Virus Population Structure Defines Immune Response and Protection.

Avian Dis 2020 03;64(1):60-68

Department of Pathobiology, Auburn University College of Veterinary Medicine, Auburn, AL 36830,

A commercial Arkansas (Ark) Delmarva Poultry Industry (DPI)-type vaccine and a more homogeneous population of that vaccine obtained previously through adaptation to chicken embryo kidney (CEK) cells (CEK-ArkDPI) were used as a model to further understand the impact of population genetic structure on generation of immune responses and protection. In a first experiment, vaccinated chickens were challenged with an IBV Ark99-type virulent strain (AL/4614/98). Despite extensive sequence similarity between the vaccines, the more heterogeneous commercial ArkDPI was more efficient at reducing viral loads in challenged chickens, while respiratory signs and tracheal lesions were reduced similarly by either vaccine. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1637/0005-2086-64.1.60DOI Listing

Limited Protection Conferred by Recombinant Newcastle Disease Virus Expressing Infectious Bronchitis Spike Protein.

Avian Dis 2020 03;64(1):53-59

Department of Pathobiology, Auburn University College of Veterinary Medicine, Auburn, AL 36830,

Recombinant Newcastle disease virus (NDV) LaSota (LS) expressing secreted trimeric spike (S)-ectodomain (Se) of infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) (rLS/IBV.Se) was developed and evaluated for protection conferred against IBV challenge. The IBV S-ectodomain protein, which is S excluding the transmembrane anchor and short cytoplasmic domain of S2, expressed from recombinant LS corresponds to an Arkansas (Ark)-type IBV. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1637/0005-2086-64.1.53DOI Listing

The Expanded Role of Roof-Rats () in spp. Contamination of a Commercial Layer Farm in East Japan.

Avian Dis 2020 03;64(1):46-52

Department of Veterinary Clinical Science, Graduate School of Life and Environmental Sciences, Osaka Prefecture University, 1-58 Rinku-oraikita, Izumisano, Osaka 598-8531, Japan,

Rodents serve as amplifiers of infections in poultry flocks and can serve as a source of contamination in the environment even after thorough cleaning and disinfection. This study aims to determine the dynamics of occurrence in rodents and its relation to contamination in the layer farm environment, including air dusts and eggs. From 2008 to 2017, roof rats (), environmental swabs, air dusts, and eggs were collected from an intensive commercial layer farm in East Japan and were tested for spp. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1637/0005-2086-64.1.46DOI Listing

Cytokine Responses in Tracheas from Major Histocompatibility Complex Congenic Chicken Lines with Distinct Susceptibilities to Infectious Bronchitis Virus.

Avian Dis 2020 03;64(1):36-45

Department of Population Health and Reproduction, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of California, Davis, CA 95616,

The chicken major histocompatibility complex (MHC) B locus has been linked to resistance to infectious diseases. We have previously provided evidence that the MHC congenic chicken lines 331/B2 and 335/B19 differ in susceptibility to infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) strains M41 and ArkDPI in challenge experiments. Innate immune responses can be difficult to measure because they are nonspecific and can be triggered by environmental factors. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1637/0005-2086-64.1.36DOI Listing

Intestinal Tropism of an Infectious Bronchitis Virus Isolate Not Explained by Spike Protein Binding Specificity.

Avian Dis 2020 03;64(1):23-35

Department of Pathobiology, 264 Greene Hall, College of Veterinary Medicine, Auburn University, Auburn, AL 36849,

An infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) with an unusual enteric tropism (CalEnt) was isolated from a California broiler flock exhibiting runting-stunting syndrome. IBV was detected in the small intestine, but not in the respiratory tract or kidney. During virus isolation in embryos, it did not replicate in chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) but could be recovered from intestines. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1637/0005-2086-64.1.23DOI Listing

Fowl Adenovirus Serotype 4 Influences Arginine Metabolism to Benefit Replication.

Avian Dis 2020 03;64(1):16-22

College of Animal Science (College of Bee Science), Fujian Agriculture and Forestry University, Fuzhou, 350002, P.R. China,

Hydropericardium syndrome (HPS) is caused by fowl adenovirus serotype 4 (FAdV-4). HPS has caused outbreaks in Chinese populations of broiler chickens since 2015. However, little is known about the molecular mechanisms underlying HPS. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1637/0005-2086-64.1.16DOI Listing

Low Dose Infection of Hens in Lay with Serovar Enteritidis from Different Genomic Clades.

Avian Dis 2020 03;64(1):7-15

United States Department of Agriculture, United States National Poultry Research Center, Athens, GA 30605.

serovar Enteritidis is the leading cause of salmonellosis in people, and modeling of infections in chickens is used to identify intervention strategies. A review of 80 manuscripts encompassing 119 experiments indicated that the mean dose of infection was 10 CFU per bird. Experiments of less than 10 CFU were primarily conducted in immature birds. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1637/0005-2086-64.1.7DOI Listing
March 2020
1.241 Impact Factor

Molecular Phylogeny of an Avipoxvirus Isolated from Red-Flanked Blue Robin in China.

Avian Dis 2020 03;64(1):2-6

College of Animal Science and Technology, Jilin Agricultural University, No. 2888, Changchun, 130118, China,

We first report avipoxvirus (APV) infection and an isolate named APV/03/2016 from a red-flanked blue robin () captured at Songhua Lake Scenic Area in Jilin City (Jilin Province, China) on March 24, 2016. The partial sequence of the 4b core protein gene and DNA polymerase gene of APV/03/2016 suggests that the virus belongs to the subclade B1 cluster of clade B (canarypox virus). The BLAST results showed the highest similarity of the two genes with the Pacific shearwater-isolated strain SWPV-2 (KX857215), canarypox virus strain D98-11133 (GQ487567), canarypox virus strain ATCC VR-111 (AY318871), avipoxvirus Mississippi isolate P89 (KC018048), and avipoxvirus Wisconsin isolate P92 (KC018051). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1637/0005-2086-64.1.2DOI Listing

Letter to the Editor.

Authors:
Jane K A Cook

Avian Dis 2020 03;64(1)

FRCPath, Huntingdon, Cambridgeshire, U.K.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1637/0005-2086-64.1.1DOI Listing

Histopathologic Changes, Ultrastructure, and Molecular Characterization of an Adenovirus in a Sun Conure ().

Avian Dis 2019 09;63(3):531-538

Infectious Disease Laboratory, The University of Georgia, Athens, GA 30602.

In this case report, we describe the pathologic changes and the ultrastructural and molecular characteristics of an adenovirus in a sun conure () that presented with a history of sudden death. On histologic examination, there was multifocal hepatic and splenic necrosis. Within some hepatocytes and unidentified cells in the spleen, renal interstitial fibroblasts, and ovarian stroma were intranuclear amphophilic inclusion bodies. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1637/aviandiseases-D-19-00080DOI Listing
September 2019

Outbreak of Systemic Avian Pox in Canaries () Associated with the B1 Subgroup of Avian Pox Viruses.

Avian Dis 2019 09;63(3):525-530

Department of Avian Medicine and Poultry Husbandry, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine and Animal Production, National Autonomous University of Mexico, University City, Coyoacan 04510, Mexico City, Mexico,

This study reports an outbreak of avian pox in a quarantine of canaries imported from Europe, with a mortality of 30% and clinical signs of dyspnea and blepharoconjunctivitis. During necropsy, beak cyanosis, serous blepharitis, caseous sinusitis, oropharyngitis, tracheitis, pulmonary edema, pneumonia, fibrinous airsacculitis, and splenomegaly were observed. Microscopically, edema, epithelial hyperplasia, hydropic degeneration, and vacuolated eosinophilic intracytoplasmic inclusion bodies were found; similar lesions were observed in the thymus, spleen, and other organs. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1637/12038-011819-Case.1DOI Listing
September 2019

Use of Commercial Swine Live Attenuated Vaccine to Control an Outbreak in Commercial Cage-Free Layer Chickens.

Avian Dis 2019 09;63(3):520-524

The Roslin Institute and The Royal (Dick) School of Veterinary Studies, University of Edinburgh, Midlothian, EH25 9RG Scotland, United Kingdom.

septicemia was diagnosed in three cage-free commercial layer flocks from Washington State that experienced an increase in mortality and slight drop in egg production. was isolated from multiple organs and from environmental samples. An agar gel diffusion test of several isolates confirmed the presence of serotype 1b, and multiplex real-time PCR of the surface protective antigen (Spa) gene confirmed presence of . Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1637/12004-112118-Case.1DOI Listing
September 2019

Wooden Breast in Commercial Broilers Associated with Mortality, Dorsal Recumbency, and Pulmonary Disease.

Avian Dis 2019 09;63(3):514-519

Department of Population Health and Pathobiology, College of Veterinary Medicine, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC 27607,

Occurrence of mortality, wooden breast, and pulmonary disease in broiler chickens during the last 16 days of production in a teaching flock of 4000 commercial broilers was determined. A new syndrome was identified, in which broilers fell over for an unknown reason and were unable to right themselves (dorsal recumbency). Birds affected by dorsal recumbency were alert and responsive and showed no clinical signs except for occasional mild to moderate dyspnea. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1637/11995-111218-Case.1DOI Listing
September 2019

An Assay of Disinfectants on the Viability of Eggs.

Avian Dis 2019 09;63(3):511-513

Prestage Department of Poultry Science, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC 27695-7608,

Nematodes are widespread and common in poultry. Disinfectants are used to reduce infection rates in poultry houses, but there is little documentation of their effectiveness. An assay was developed to test the efficacy of products to damage eggs, and nine disinfectants and chemicals commonly used in the poultry industry were tested. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1637/11952-081418-ResNote.1DOI Listing
September 2019

Lymphoproliferative Disease Virus in Wild Turkeys () from Manitoba and Quebec, Canada.

Avian Dis 2019 09;63(3):506-510

Southeastern Cooperative Wildlife Disease Study, University of Georgia, Athens, GA 30602.

This study describes the first recognized clinical case of lymphoproliferative disease virus (LPDV) in Canada and extends the range of LPDV in Canada through its detection in Manitoba and Quebec. We assessed the prevalence of LPDV in eastern wild turkeys () with the use of whole, clotted blood from live birds in Manitoba ( = 65) and tissue samples collected postmortem in Quebec ( = 4). We tested for LPDV proviral DNA through PCR amplification and sequencing of a portion of the (p31) gene. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1637/aviandiseases-D-19-00102DOI Listing
September 2019

Disarticulation-Associated Femoral Head Separation in Clinically Normal Broilers: Histologic Documentation of Underlying and Predisposing Cartilage Abnormalities.

Avian Dis 2019 09;63(3):495-505

Mississippi Poultry Research and Diagnostic Laboratory, CVM, MSU, Pearl, MS 39157.

Routine and quantitative histologic studies on femoral head separation (FHS) associated with coxofemoral joint disarticulation at necropsy were conducted on 125 femoral heads collected from 21- to 50-day-old clinically normal broilers. The study compared groups demonstrating grossly detached femoral heads (DFHs) with those having attached femoral heads (AFHs). Marked microscopic lesions compatible with osteochondrosis (OCD) consistently occurred along the separation surface in the DFH population. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1637/19-00090.1DOI Listing
September 2019

Characterization of an Outbreak of Infectious Coryza () in Commercial Chickens in Central California.

Avian Dis 2019 09;63(3):486-494

California Animal Health & Food Safety Laboratory System, Turlock Branch, University of California-Davis, Turlock, CA 95380,

In 2017, the Turlock branch of the California Animal Health & Food Safety laboratory system received a significant increase in infectious coryza (IC) necropsy cases, with a total of 54 submissions originating from commercial broilers ( = 40), commercial layers ( = 11), and backyard chickens ( = 3). Layer flocks positive for IC were distributed within the adjacent counties of Merced and Stanislaus, while broiler flocks were concentrated within Merced County. The backyard flocks were located in Alameda and Sacramento counties. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1637/19-00081.1DOI Listing
September 2019

Molecular Characterization and Comparative Pathogenicity of Goose Parvovirus Isolated from Jilin Province, Northeast China.

Avian Dis 2019 09;63(3):481-485

College of Animal Science and Technology, Jilin Agricultural University, Changchun, Jilin Province 130118, China,

Goose parvovirus (GPV) is a highly contagious disease caused by GPV in goslings and young Muscovy ducklings. In recent years, frequent GPV outbreaks have occurred in many regions of Jilin Province, China. In this study, to understand the immune-related characteristics of the currently prevailing GPV strains in some regions of Jilin Province, six GPV strains were isolated from six different regions of Jilin Province in 2016-2018. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1637/aviandiseases-D-19-00075DOI Listing
September 2019

Efficacy of Bivalent Inactivated Vaccine Containing Insect Cell-Expressed Avian Influenza H5 and Egg-Based Newcastle Disease Virus (NDV) Against Dual Infection with Highly Pathogenic H5N1 and Velogenic NDV in Chickens.

Avian Dis 2019 09;63(3):474-480

Boehringer-Ingelheim Veterinary Research Center, Hannover, 30559, Germany.

The genetic evolution of highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) in Egypt has developed a new clade H5N1 (2.2.1. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1637/12017-122618-Reg.1DOI Listing
September 2019

Occurrence and Relevance of spp. in Racing and Ornamental Pigeons in Poland.

Avian Dis 2019 09;63(3):468-473

Department of Poultry Diseases, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Warmia and Mazury, Oczapowskiego 13, 10-719 Olsztyn, Poland.

This report is one of the first studies describing the relationship between the occurrence of spp. as regards the type of breed and health status of pigeons. The aim of the study was to evaluate the prevalence of , , , , and in Polish populations of racing and ornamental pigeons in the context of their correlation with type of breed and health status. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1637/12018-122718-Reg.1DOI Listing
September 2019

Characterization of Virulent Strains from Necrotic Enteritis-Affected Broiler Chicken Farms.

Avian Dis 2019 09;63(3):461-467

Animal Biosciences and Biotechnology Laboratory, Beltsville Agricultural Research Center (BARC), Agricultural Research Service (ARS), U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA), Beltsville, MD 20705,

(CP) type A and newly created type G strains are the key etiological factors in the induction of necrotic enteritis (NE), an important enteric disease that is responsible for the annual loss of $6 billion in the worldwide poultry industry. Several CP toxin genes were found to be critical in NE pathogenesis in chickens, but limited information is available on the CP lethal toxin gene. In this study, 19 CP strains isolated from NE-affected chicken farms were characterized microbiologically and molecularly and evaluated for their pathogenicity in commercial broiler chickens. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1637/11973-092018-Reg.1DOI Listing
September 2019

Partial Molecular Characterization and Pathogenicity Study of an Avian Reovirus Causing Tenosynovitis in Commercial Broilers.

Avian Dis 2019 09;63(3):452-460

Department of Population Health and Reproduction, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of California, Davis, Davis, CA 95616,

This study describes the molecular characterization of avian reoviruses (ARVs) isolated during an outbreak in commercial chickens between 2015 and 2016. In addition, a pathogenicity study of a selected ARV strain isolated from a field case of viral tenosynovitis in commercial broiler chickens was performed. On the basis of phylogenetic analysis of a 1088-bp fragment of the ARV S1 gene, the investigated sequences were differentiated into five distinct genotypic clusters (GCs), namely GC1, GC2, GC3, GC4, and GC6. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1637/12013-121418-Reg.1DOI Listing
September 2019

Typhlohepatitis and Amyloidosis Associated with High Mortality in Chukar Partridges ().

Avian Dis 2019 09;63(3):446-451

California Animal Health and Food Safety Laboratory System, University of California, Davis Tulare Branch, Tulare, CA 93274.

Twelve chukar partridges () from a farm experiencing poor uniformity and increased mortality of up to 65% were submitted for diagnosis. Several birds had mild to moderate multifocal white foci or multifocal petechial hemorrhages throughout the liver. Livers and spleens of older birds were moderate to severely diffusely enlarged. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1637/avdi-AVDI-19-00002DOI Listing
September 2019

Antimicrobials Used for the Therapy of Necrotic Enteritis and Coccidiosis in Broiler Chickens and Turkeys in Canada, Farm Surveillance Results (2013-2017).

Avian Dis 2019 09;63(3):433-445

Center for Foodborne, Environmental, and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (CFEZID), Public Health Agency of Canada (PHAC), Suite #201, Guelph, Ontario N1H 7M7, Canada.

Since 2013, the Canadian Integrated Program for Antimicrobial Resistance Surveillance (CIPARS) has collected antimicrobial use (AMU) and antimicrobial resistance data from sentinel broiler chicken flocks (Br, five provinces) and sentinel turkey flocks (Tk, one province 2013-2015, three provinces 2016-2017). The objectives of this paper were to describe various preventive strategies aimed at controlling necrotic enteritis (NE) and coccidiosis in the broiler chicken and turkey flocks participating in CIPARS and FoodNet Canada Farm Surveillance Program between 2013 and 2017, to quantify and identify trends in antimicrobials used in feed, and to describe temporal changes in the diagnoses of bacterial and protozoal diseases in relation to antimicrobial use in feed. Comprehensive data were collected (by questionnaire) enabling AMU assessment by various count-based metrics (i. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1637/11971-091718-Reg.1DOI Listing
September 2019

Bayesian Phylogenetic Analysis of Avipoxviruses from North American Wild Birds Demonstrates New Insights into Host Specificity and Interspecies Transmission.

Avian Dis 2019 09;63(3):427-432

Southeastern Cooperative Wildlife Disease Study, University of Georgia, Athens, GA 30602.

Avian pox is commonly diagnosed in a variety of North American wild and domestic birds, yet little is known about the evolutionary relationships among the causative poxviruses. This study aimed to determine the phylogenetic relationships among isolates identified in different avian host species to better characterize the host range of specific viral strains and compare the genetic variability within and between viral clades. Skin lesions grossly and microscopically consistent with poxvirus infection from 82 birds collected in Canada, the United States, and the U. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1637/12023-010619-Reg.1DOI Listing
September 2019

Health of Commercial Egg Laying Chickens in Different Housing Systems.

Authors:
Richard M Fulton

Avian Dis 2019 09;63(3):420-426

Michigan State University Veterinary Diagnostic Laboratory and Department of Pathobiology and Diagnostic Investigation, College of Veterinary Medicine, Michigan State University, Lansing, MI 48910,

To determine which type of egg-laying hen housing was best for the chickens, the workers in those housing systems, the environment, and society based on food safety and affordability, a combined research project involving egg suppliers, food manufacturers, food service representatives, and food retailers, as well as research institutions and nongovernmental organizations, was performed. This study reports the hen health and welfare portion based upon veterinary health inspections and compared mortality rates, skeletal abnormalities, causes of death determined by necropsy, and titers to infectious bronchitis and Newcastle disease viruses. Birds were housed on a preexisting Midwest layer complex, which consisted of conventional cages (CC). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1637/11942-080618-Reg.1DOI Listing
September 2019

Detection and Molecular Characterization of Two Genotypes of Goose Parvoviruses Isolated from Growing Period Geese and Cherry Valley Ducks in China.

Avian Dis 2019 09;63(3):411-419

College of Animal Science, Southwest University, Chongqing 402460, People's Republic of China,

Goose parvovirus (GPV) is the etiologic pathogen of Derzsy's disease, causing great economic losses in the waterfowl industry. A novel GPV-related virus (NGPV), which caused short beak and dwarfism syndrome, has occurred in China since 2015. In this study, two GPV strains (RC45 and RC70) were isolated from diseased growing period geese (45 days old and 70 days old), and one NGPV strain GXN45 was isolated from a 45-day-old Cherry Valley duck in China. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1637/12015-121818-Reg.1DOI Listing
September 2019

Longitudinal Study on Causes of Mortality in Danish Broiler Breeders.

Avian Dis 2019 09;63(3):400-410

University of Copenhagen, Department of Veterinary and Animal Science, Faculty of Health and Medical Sciences, Stigbøjlen 4, DK-1870 Frederiksberg, Denmark.

Broiler production is highly dependent on good health in the parent flocks. The so-called normal mortality in these flocks remains to be addressed to further reduce mortality of the breeders and to improve the quality of broilers. The aim of the present study, therefore, was to investigate the etiology of this breeder mortality to map out possible critical periods during production in relation to possible risks of importance to the offspring. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1637/12006-113018-Reg.1DOI Listing
September 2019

Experimental Infection and Transmission of Newcastle Disease Vaccine Virus in Four Wild Passerines.

Avian Dis 2019 09;63(3):389-399

Exotic and Emerging Avian Viral Diseases Research Unit, Southeast Poultry Research Laboratory, United States National Poultry Research Center, Agricultural Research Service, United States Department of Agriculture, Athens, GA 30605.

Our prior work has shown that live poultry vaccines have been intermittently isolated from wild birds sampled during field surveillance studies for Newcastle disease virus (NDV). Thus, we experimentally investigated the susceptibility of four native agriculturally associated wild bird species to the NDV LaSota vaccine and evaluated the shedding dynamics, potential transmission from chickens, and humoral antibody responses. To test susceptibility, we inoculated wild-caught, immunologically NDV-naïve house finches (; = 16), brown-headed cowbirds (; = 9), northern cardinals (; = 6), and American goldfinches (; = 12) with 0. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1637/11980-092918-Reg.1DOI Listing
September 2019