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    6585 results match your criteria Avian diseases[Journal]

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    Increased Incidence of Enterococcal Infection in Nonviable Broiler Chicken Embryos in Western Canadian Hatcheries as Detected by Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption/Ionization-Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometry.
    Avian Dis 2017 Dec;61(4):472-480
    A Department of Veterinary Pathology, Western College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, Canada SK S7N 5B4.
    The emergence of enterococcal infections in neonatal broiler chickens in the poultry industry has become common in many countries, including Canada. The objective of this study was to examine the bacterial infections in nonviable broiler chicken embryos in three western Canadian poultry hatcheries using matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS). The pattern of embryo mortality that occurred during incubation and the breakout analysis results were similar in all three hatcheries. Read More

    Comparative Analysis of Pasteurella multocida Isolates from Acute and Chronic Fowl Cholera Cases in Hungary During the Period 2005 Through 2010.
    Avian Dis 2017 Dec;61(4):457-465
    A Institute for Veterinary Medical Research, Centre for Agricultural Research, Hungarian Academy of Sciences, H-1581 Budapest, P.O. Box 18, Hungary.
    Fowl cholera (FC) is a highly contagious and economically important disease of poultry worldwide. This study was performed on 218 Pasteurella multocida isolates collected from separated breeding farms or backyards with acute and chronic FC cases in multiple localities across Hungary during the period 2005-2010. All isolates were characterized by a broad range of biochemical, serological, and molecular methods, as well as their antibiotic susceptibility to aminoglycosides (A), macrolides (M), penicillins (P), quinolones (Q), cephalosporins, sulphonamides (S), and tetracyclines (T) was determined. Read More

    Molecular Characterization of QX-Like and Variant Infectious Bronchitis Virus Strains in Malaysia Based on Partial Genomic Sequences Comprising the S-3a/3b-E-M-Intergenic Region-5a/5b-N Gene Order.
    Avian Dis 2017 Dec;61(4):442-452
    A Institute of Bioscience, Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400 UPM Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia.
    Infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) is one of the major poultry pathogens of global importance. However, the prevalence of IBV strains in Malaysia is poorly characterized. The partial genomic sequences (6. Read More

    Fibrillar Collagen Organization Associated with Broiler Wooden Breast Fibrotic Myopathy.
    Avian Dis 2017 Dec;61(4):481-490
    Department of Animal Sciences, Ohio Agricultural Research and Development Center, The Ohio State University, Wooster, OH 44691.
    Wooden breast (WB) is a fibrotic myopathy affecting the pectoralis major (p. major) muscle in fast-growing commercial broiler lines. Birds with WB are phenotypically detected by the palpation of a hard p. Read More

    Isolation of Avipoxvirus from Tongue of Canaries ( Serinus canaria) Show Severe Localized Proliferative Glossitis.
    Avian Dis 2017 Dec;61(4):531-535
    A Istituto Zooprofilattico Sperimentale di Padova, Viale dell'Università 10, Legnaro, PD, 35020, Italy.
    Poxvirus was the causative agent of two unusual outbreaks of proliferative glossitis in canary ( Serinus canaria forma domestica) breeders in the Northern Italy. A total of 45, 7-9-mo-old canaries were submitted in fair postmortem conditions to the Istituto Zooprofilattico Sperimentale delle Venezie at the beginning of November 2005 for diagnostic investigation. Birds belonged to two unrelated and geographically distant aviaries in northern Italy, herein identified as Aviary A and Aviary B. Read More

    The Role of Necroptosis, Apoptosis, and Inflammation in Fowl Cholera-Associated Liver Injury in a Chicken Model.
    Avian Dis 2017 Dec;61(4):491-502
    A Department of Veterinary Medicine, Huazhong Agricultural University, Wuhan 430070, Hubei, China.
    Fowl cholera resulting from infection with Pasteurella multocida causes huge economic losses in the poultry industry. Necrotic hepatitis is reported to be a significant lesion associated with fowl cholera in chickens. Clarifying the underlying molecular mechanism of hepatic injury caused by P. Read More

    Vegetative Valvular Endocarditis and Hepatitis Associated with Helcococcus ovis in a 7-year-old White Leghorn Rooster.
    Avian Dis 2017 Dec;61(4):526-530
    A University of California, Davis, California Animal Health & Food Safety Laboratory System.
    Helcococcus ovis is a slow-growing, pyridoxal-dependent, Gram-positive coccus belonging to the Peptostreptococcaceae family. Bacteria belonging to the genus Helcococcus are considered normal inhabitants of keratinized epithelium in humans; however, several reports support their role as pathogens in humans and several animal species. This case report describes the identification of H. Read More

    Intrapulmonary Delivery of CpG-ODN Microdroplets Provides Protection Against Escherichia coli Septicemia in Neonatal Broiler Chickens.
    Avian Dis 2017 Dec;61(4):503-511
    A Department of Veterinary Pathology, Western College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, SK, S7N 5B4, Canada.
    Synthetic oligodeoxynucleotides (ODN) containing unmethylated cytosine phosphodiester guanine (CpG) motifs (CpG-ODN) are effective immunostimulatory agents against a variety of viral, bacterial, and protozoan diseases in different animals including poultry. We have recently demonstrated that in ovo injection of CpG-ODN confers protection in neonatal chickens against bacterial septicemias. The objective of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of needle-free intrapulmonary (IPL) delivery of CpG-ODN microdroplets against Escherichia coli infection in neonatal chicks. Read More

    Chronologic Analysis of Gross and Histologic Lesions Induced by Field Strains of FAdV-1, FAdV-8b, and FAdV-11 in Six-Week-Old Chickens.
    Avian Dis 2017 Dec;61(4):512-519
    A Asia-Pacific Centre for Animal Health, Faculty of Veterinary and Agricultural Sciences, The University of Melbourne, 250 Princes Highway, Werribee, VIC 3030, Australia.
    Inclusion body hepatitis (IBH) is a disease affecting broiler chicken flocks worldwide. Several serotypes of fowl adenovirus (FAdV) have been implicated in disease outbreaks, with and without immunosuppression as a predisposing factor. IBH usually occurs in flocks up to 30 days of age; it is seldom seen in older birds. Read More

    Efficacy of Massachusetts and 793B Vaccines Against Infectious Bronchitis Moroccan-Italy 02 Virus in Specific-Pathogen-Free Chickens and Commercial Broilers.
    Avian Dis 2017 Dec;61(4):466-471
    A Unité de Pathologie Aviaire, Département de Pathologie et Santé Publique Vétérinaire, Institut Agronomique et Vétérinaire Hassan II, BP 6202, Rabat- Instituts, Rabat, Morocco 10000.
    The ability of commercial vaccines H120 and 4/91 to protect against Moroccan-Italy 02 infectious bronchitis virus (Mor-It02) was investigated in specific-pathogen-free (SPF) chickens and commercial broiler chickens. Commercial broiler chicks (Experiment 1) were vaccinated at the hatchery with H120 vaccine at Day 1, and challenged at Day 21 with 1050% egg-infective dose (EID) of Mor-It02. All chicks were observed daily for clinical signs attributable to Mor-It02 infection during the 10 days postchallenge (pc). Read More

    Response of House Finches Recovered from Mycoplasma gallisepticum to Reinfection with a Heterologous Strain.
    Avian Dis 2017 Dec;61(4):437-441
    D Department of Biological Sciences, Virginia Tech, Blacksburg, VA 24061.
    After recovery, house finches ( Haemorhous mexicanus) reinfected with the same Mycoplasma gallisepticum strain remain partially resistant to reinfection for at least 14 mo in that they recover from reinfection much more rapidly than do Mycoplasma gallisepticum-naïve birds. To test the response of birds to reinfection with a heterologous strain we performed two experiments. In a first experiment we exposed birds to one of three strains that differed in virulence. Read More

    Molecular Detection of Avian Influenza Virus from Sediment Samples in Waterfowl Habitats on the Delmarva Peninsula, United States.
    Avian Dis 2017 Dec;61(4):520-525
    E Maryland Department of Natural Resources, Cooperative Oxford Laboratory, 904 South Morris Street, Oxford, MD 21654.
    Avian influenza viruses (AIV) affect many species of birds including waterfowl and may persist in sediment in aquatic habitats. Sediment samples were collected from two areas representative of prime migration and overwintering waterfowl habitat in Dorchester County, Maryland in the fall and winter of 2013-2014. Samples were screened for the presence of AIV via reverse transcriptase-quantitative PCR targeting the matrix gene. Read More

    Impact of Controlling Bacteria in Feed on Broiler Performance During a Clostridial Challenge.
    Avian Dis 2017 Dec;61(4):453-456
    A Anitox Corp, 1055 Progress Circle, Lawrenceville, GA 30043.
    Three studies were conducted using Clostridium perfringens as an intestinal challenge to produce necrotic enteritis (NE). The studies consisted of two battery screening studies and one production study in floor pens. The purpose of the trials was to determine if reducing the level of microorganisms in feed consumed by broilers reduced the impact of a nonfeed-based Clostridial challenge. Read More

    Interactions Between Parasites and the Bacterial Microbiota of Chickens.
    Avian Dis 2017 Dec;61(4):428-436
    A Department of Pathobiology and Department of Poultry Science, Auburn University, Auburn, AL 36849.
    Except for the important role coccidia have as predisposing factors of necrotic enteritis, the role parasites play in the dynamics of a healthy microbiota of chickens is not well explored. This review describes the interactions of relevant intestinal parasites of chickens with bacteria. Infection with Eimeria spp. Read More

    Persistent Goose Hemorrhagic Polyomavirus Infection on a Belgian Goose Farm.
    Avian Dis 2017 Dec;61(4):536-538
    A Department of Pathology, Bacteriology and Avian Diseases, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Ghent University, Salisburylaan 133, B9820 Merelbeke, Belgium.
    Goose hemorrhagic polyomavirus (GHPV) is the causative agent of hemorrhagic nephritis enteritis of geese (HNEG), one of the major diseases of domestic geese in Europe. This case report describes a persistent outbreak of a GHPV infection on a Belgian goose farm. Clinical symptoms, necropsy lesions, and histopathologic lesions observed were compatible with previous reports of HNEG outbreaks. Read More

    Clinical and Pathologic Characterization of an Outbreak of Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza H7N8 in Commercial Turkeys in Southern Indiana.
    Avian Dis 2017 Sep;61(3):414-417
    D Farbest Farms Inc., 225 W 41st Street, Suite B, Jasper, IN 47546.
    Highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) is a systemic lethal disease of poultry caused by several subtypes of influenza A virus and classified on the basis of serologic reactions to hemagglutinin and neuraminidase surface glycoproteins. In January 2016, a novel subtype of HPAI-H7N8-was diagnosed in a commercial turkey (Meleagris gallopavo) flock in southern Indiana. Clinical signs and history included increased mortality, dyspnea, head tremors, recumbency, and somnolent or unaware birds. Read More

    Isolation and Molecular Characterization of Novel Infectious Bronchitis Virus Variants from Vaccinated Broiler Flocks in Egypt.
    Avian Dis 2017 Sep;61(3):307-310
    C Department of Veterinary Pathology and Microbiology, Faculty of Applied Biological Science, Gifu University, 1-1 Yanagido, Gifu 501-1193, Japan.
    The present study aimed to determine the molecular characteristics of circulating infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) strains in vaccinated broiler flocks in the Giza and Fayoum governorates. Thirty-four isolates were collected, and egg propagation revealed their ability to induce typical IBV lesions after three to five successive passages. Three selected isolates were identified as IBV using a real-time reverse transcriptase-PCR assay targeted the nucleocapsid (N) gene and further characterized by partial spike (S) gene sequence analysis. Read More

    Pilot Study of Antimicrobial Resistance in Northern Bobwhites (Colinus virginianus).
    Avian Dis 2017 Sep;61(3):391-396
    B Department of Veterinary Pathobiology and Veterinary Medical Diagnostic Laboratory, College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Missouri, Columbia, MO 65211.
    Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) is an important issue for both wildlife conservation and public health. The purpose of this study was to screen for AMR in fecal bacteria isolated from northern bobwhite (Colinus virginianus), a species that is an ecologically and economically important natural resource in the southern United States. The antimicrobial susceptibility profiles of 45 Escherichia coli isolates, 20 Enterococcus faecalis isolates, and 10 Enterococcus faecium isolates were determined using the Sensititermicrobroth dilution minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) plate, AVIAN1F. Read More

    Prevalence of Trichomonas, Salmonella, and Listeria in Wild Birds from Southeast Texas.
    Avian Dis 2017 Sep;61(3):347-352
    A Department of Biology, Lamar University, Beaumont, TX 77710.
    Infectious diseases can be a major threat to wildlife populations, especially in human-modified habitats, but infection rates in populations of wild animals are often poorly studied. Trichomonas, Salmonella, and Listeria are all pathogens known to infect birds, but their infection rates in wild bird populations are not well documented. This study documents infection rates of the three pathogens in wild bird populations inhabiting a suburban to rural gradient in Southeast Texas. Read More

    Causes of Normal Mortality in Commercial Egg-Laying Chickens.
    Avian Dis 2017 Sep;61(3):289-295
    A Diagnostic Center for Population and Animal Health and Department of Pathobiology and Diagnostic Investigation College of Veterinary Medicine, Michigan State University, 4125 Beaumont Road Lansing, MI 48910.
    In a large population of animals, it is normal to have some die each day from causes not related to disease, which is often referred to as natural causes. In poultry production, this phenomenon is commonly referred to as daily mortality. In egg-producing chickens, many of the natural causes of death are associated with making an egg. Read More

    Detection of a Newly Described Bacteriocin, Perfrin, Among Clostridium perfringens Isolates from Healthy and Diseased Ostriches and Broiler Chickens in Iran.
    Avian Dis 2017 Sep;61(3):387-390
    A Department of Clinical Sciences, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Mashhad, Iran 9177948974.
    Necrotic enteritis due to Clostridium perfringens strains harboring the netB gene is a well-known disorder in poultry. The aim of this study was to investigate the association of a novel bacteriocin, perfrin, with netB among isolates from healthy and diseased ostriches and broiler chickens. Forty-six C. Read More

    Immunity Elicited by a Turkey Herpesvirus-Vectored Newcastle Disease Vaccine in Turkey Against Challenge With a Recent Genotype IV Newcastle Disease Virus Field Strain.
    Avian Dis 2017 Sep;61(3):378-386
    C Ceva Santé Animale, Ceva-Phylaxia, Szállás utca 5., 1107-Budapest, Hungary.
    Newcastle disease (ND) is still a major poultry disease worldwide. Vaccination remains the principal method of controlling ND in endemic countries. Various vaccination strategies, including the use of recently developed recombinant vaccines, have been used to control it. Read More

    First Identification and Molecular Characterization of Avian metapneumovirus Subtype B from Chickens in Greece.
    Avian Dis 2017 Sep;61(3):409-413
    A Department of Animal Medicine, Production and Health (MAPS), University of Padua, Viale dell'Università 16, 35020 Legnaro (PD), Italy.
    Avian metapneumovirus (aMPV) is considered a major pathogen for turkeys but its impact on chicken production is still partially neglected, even though it is fully acknowledged as a primary pathogen in chickens as well. The lack of structured diagnostic surveys does not allow a pervasive understanding of aMPV epidemiology. Being that aMPV is almost an everyday challenge for farmers and veterinarians, a more accurate report of its presence should be detailed, posing the basis for a deep and global epidemiologic analysis. Read More

    Recombinant Avian Paramyxovirus Serotypes 2, 6, and 10 as Vaccine Vectors for Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza in Chickens with Antibodies Against Newcastle Disease Virus.
    Avian Dis 2017 Sep;61(3):296-306
    A Division of Transboundary Animal Disease, National Institute of Animal Health, National Agriculture and Food Research Organization, 3-1-5 Kannondai, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0854, Japan.
    Recombinant Newcastle disease virus (rNDV) expressing the hemagglutinin of highly pathogenic avian influenza virus (HPAIV HA) induces protective immunity against HPAIV in chickens. However, the efficacy of rNDV vectors is hampered when chickens are pre-immune to NDV, and most commercial chickens are routinely vaccinated against NDV. We recently showed that avian paramyxovirus serotypes 2, 6, and 10 (APMV-2, APMV-6, and APMV-10), which belong to the same genus as NDV, have low cross-reactivity with anti-NDV antisera. Read More

    Systemic Histomoniasis in a Leucistic Indian Peafowl (Pavo cristatus) from Southern Brazil.
    Avian Dis 2017 Sep;61(3):325-329
    A Laboratory of Animal Pathology, Department of Veterinary Preventive Medicine, Universidade Estadual de Londrina, Paraná, Brazil.
    The pathological and molecular findings associated with Histomonas meleagridis are described in a leucistic Indian peafowl (Pavo cristatus) from Southern Brazil. The most significant gross findings were multifocal necrotizing hepatitis and diphtheric typhlitis. Histopathologic evaluation of the liver, ceca, kidney, spleen, and small intestine revealed systemic histomoniasis (SH) associated with intralesional and intravascular accumulations of histomonad organisms consistent with H. Read More

    Presence of Avibacterium paragallinarum and Histopathologic Lesions Corresponds with Clinical Signs in a Co-infection Model with Gallibacterium anatis.
    Avian Dis 2017 Sep;61(3):335-340
    Clinic for Poultry and Fish Medicine, Department for Farm Animals and Veterinary Public Health, University of Veterinary Medicine, Veterinaerplatz 1, 1210, Vienna, Austria.
    Recently we demonstrated that co-infection with Avibacterium paragallinarum and Gallibacterium anatis leads to increased severity of clinical signs of infectious coryza in birds. The present study examined the interaction of these two pathogens in chickens by evaluation of histologic lesions in sinus infraorbitalis and nasal turbinates, applying a defined scoring scheme ranging from 0 to 3. Furthermore, for the first time, an in situ hybridization (ISH) technique was applied to detect A. Read More

    In Vitro Effect of Apigenin and Danshen in Tibial Dyschondroplasia Through Inhibition of Heat-Shock Protein 90 and Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Expressions in Avian Growth Plate Cells.
    Avian Dis 2017 Sep;61(3):372-377
    A College of Veterinary Medicine, Huazhong Agricultural University, Wuhan 430070, People's Republic of China.
    Tibial dyschondroplasia (TD) is one of the common skeletal abnormalities in fast-growing birds, and it is characterized by nonvascularized, unmineralized, and nonviable cartilage in the tibial growth plate that fails to form bone. The aim of this study was to check the in vitro effect of apigenin and danshen on heat-shock protein 90 (Hsp90) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) expressions in avian growth plate cells treated with sublethal concentration of thiram. Initially, chondrocytes from chicken growth plates were isolated on culturx ed medium with and without various concentration of thiram to determine the sublethal dose. Read More

    Infectious Bronchitis Virus S2 of 4/91 Expressed from Recombinant Virus Does Not Protect Against Ark-Type Challenge.
    Avian Dis 2017 Sep;61(3):397-401
    A Department of Pathobiology, College of Veterinary Medicine, Auburn University, 264 Greene Hall, Auburn, AL 36849.
    We previously demonstrated that chickens primed with a recombinant Newcastle disease virus LaSota (rLS) expressing the S2 gene of infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) and boosted with an attenuated IBV Massachusetts (Mass)-type vaccine were protected against IBV Arkansas (Ark)-type virulent challenge. A possible basis for the reported ability of IBV 4/91 (serotype 793/B) vaccine to protect against divergent IBV strains (e.g. Read More

    Critical Review: Future Control of Blackhead Disease (Histomoniasis) in Poultry.
    Avian Dis 2017 Sep;61(3):281-288
    B Texas A&M University, Poultry Science Department, College Station, Texas, 77843.
    Blackhead disease (histomoniasis) currently has no efficacious drug approved for use in poultry in the United States. Both chickens and turkeys can get the disease, but mortality is most often associated with turkeys. The lack of any approved therapies for blackhead is of concern, especially in the case of valuable turkey breeder candidate flocks. Read More

    A Retrospective Study of Salmonella Enteritidis Isolated from Commercial Layer Flocks.
    Avian Dis 2017 Sep;61(3):330-334
    A Department of Veterinary and Biomedical Sciences, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802.
    Consumption of shell eggs has been associated with Salmonella Enteritidis (SE) infections in humans in the United States. Because of this, the Pennsylvania Egg Quality Assurance Program (PEQAP) was developed and implemented in 1994. The PEQAP involves periodic flock testing and management practices to minimize SE contamination of shell eggs. Read More

    Phylogenetic Analyses of Fowl Adenoviruses (FAdV) Isolated in China and Pathogenicity of a FAdV-8 Isolate.
    Avian Dis 2017 Sep;61(3):353-357
    A Key Laboratory of Animal Epidemiology of the Ministry of Agriculture, College of Veterinary Medicine, China Agricultural University, Beijing 100193, People's Republic of China.
    Fowl adenoviruses (FAdVs) have a worldwide distribution and are associated with a variety of diseases, causing considerable economic losses to the poultry industry. We characterized 10 FAdVs isolated from China in 2015-2016 and assessed the pathogenicity of a FAdV-8 strain in specific-pathogen-free (SPF) chickens. Phylogenetic analysis of a hexon gene revealed that only 1 of the 10 isolates belonged to FAdV-8, whereas others belonged to FAdV-4, indicating that Chinese FAdVs were mainly FAdV-4 in recent years. Read More

    Economic Impacts of White Chick Syndrome in Ontario, Canada.
    Avian Dis 2017 Sep;61(3):402-408
    B Animal Health Laboratory, University of Guelph, Guelph, Ontario, Canada N1H 6R8.
    A cluster of 12 cases of White Chick Syndrome (WCS) in broiler breeder flocks producing affected progeny occurred from June to November 2015 in two broiler chicken hatcheries owned by a single company in Ontario, Canada. Cases were identified by the presence of typical chicks in the hatchery characterized by pale to white down, enlarged abdomens, and occasionally brown wiry fluff on the dorsum of the neck that were generally weak. Affected broiler breeder flocks experienced egg production drops of 0% to 15% and hatchability drops of 1. Read More

    Understanding Immune Resistance to Infectious Bronchitis Using Major Histocompatibility Complex Chicken Lines.
    Avian Dis 2017 Sep;61(3):358-365
    A Department of Population Health and Reproduction, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of California, Davis, 1089 Veterinary Medicine Drive VM3B, Davis, CA 95616.
    Genetic resistance or susceptibility to infectious diseases has been largely associated with the avian major histocompatibility complex (MHC) genes. Our goal was to determine resistance and susceptibility of MHC B haplotype in congenic and inbred chicken lines in order to establish a resistant-susceptible model. Eight congenic lines (253/B18, 254/B15, 330/B21, 312/B24, 331/B2, 335/B19, 336/B21, and 342/BO), two inbred lines (003/B17 and 077/B19), and three commercial lines (white leghorn, brown layers, and broilers) were used in two experiments. Read More

    Frequency and Duration of Fecal Shedding of Salmonella Serovars Heidelberg and Typhimurium by Experimentally Infected Laying Hens Housed in Enriched Colony Cages at Different Stocking Densities.
    Avian Dis 2017 Sep;61(3):366-371
    C Department of Animal Sciences, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN 47907.
    Eggs contaminated with Salmonella Enteritidis are leading sources of human salmonellosis, but Salmonella Heidelberg and Salmonella Typhimurium are also egg-associated pathogens. The management practices and housing facilities characterizing different systems for housing commercial egg flocks can influence Salmonella persistence and transmission. Animal welfare aspects of poultry housing have been widely debated, but their food safety ramifications are not thoroughly understood. Read More

    Genetic Characterization of Fowl Adenovirus Strains Isolated from Poultry in China.
    Avian Dis 2017 Sep;61(3):341-346
    B The Key Lab of Animal Disease and Public Health, Henan University of Science and Technology, Luoyang, 471023, China.
    Fowl adenoviruses (FAdVs) infect chickens worldwide, resulting in global economic losses in the poultry industry. We examined the strains present in chickens in regions of China where infections are particularly prevalent. Fifteen FAdV strains were successfully isolated in the field. Read More

    Signs Indicating Imminent Death in Escherichia coli-Infected Broilers.
    Avian Dis 2017 Sep;61(3):316-324
    Department of Farm Animal Health, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Utrecht University, 7 Yalelaan, 3584 CL Utrecht, the Netherlands.
    Broilers were observed during 9 days for clinical signs after intratracheal inoculation at 8 days of age with 10E. coli 506. It was determined if these signs were predictive for imminent death. Read More

    Persistence of Trichomonas gallinae in Birdseed.
    Avian Dis 2017 Sep;61(3):311-315
    A Canadian Wildlife Health Cooperative, Atlantic Region, Atlantic Veterinary College, University of Prince Edward Island, 550 University Avenue, Charlottetown, Prince Edward Island, Canada C1A 4P3.
    Trichomonas gallinae has emerged worldwide as a cause of mortality in songbirds (passerines). The congregation of numerous birds, including the reservoir hosts, pigeons and doves (columbids), at backyard feeding and watering sources has been suggested as a potential driver for the outbreaks. Evidence supporting a role for water in transmission has been established, but the role of birdseed in the transmission of trichomoniasis remained to be investigated. Read More

    Development of a Dry Medium for Isolation of Histomonas meleagridis in the Field.
    Avian Dis 2017 Jun;61(2):242-244
    Department of Poultry Science, The University of Georgia, Athens, GA 30602.
    Blackhead disease is caused by Histomonas meleagridis, an anaerobic protozoan parasite, and results in mortality rates of up to 100% in turkeys and 30% in chickens. Outbreaks of blackhead disease are unpredictable, and the harvesting of H. meleagridis strains from the field would be a great resource for researchers to study its epidemiology. Read More

    Fowl Adenoviruses D and E Cause Inclusion Body Hepatitis Outbreaks in Broiler and Broiler Breeder Pullet Flocks.
    Avian Dis 2017 Jun;61(2):205-210
    D Department of Clinical Science, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Islamic Azad University, Science and Research Branch, Tehran, Iran, Mail Box: 14515775.
    Twenty-four fowl adenoviruses (FAdVs) were isolated from broiler and broiler breeder pullet flocks in Iran during 2013-2016 and were identified and characterized. All FAdVs were from inclusion body hepatitis (IBH) cases, showing an enlarged and pale yellow liver with multiple petechial hemorrhages. Phylogenetic analyses of partial hexon gene sequences are an adequate and quick method for differentiation and genotyping. Read More

    Longitudinal Study of Avian Influenza and Newcastle Disease in Village Poultry, Mali, 2009-2011.
    Avian Dis 2017 Jun;61(2):165-177
    E VEEPH Group, Royal Veterinary College, North Mymms, Hertfordshire, AL9 7TA, United Kingdom.
    Newcastle disease (ND) is endemic in West Africa, which has also experienced outbreaks of highly pathogenic avian influenza (AI) H5N1 since 2006. We aimed to estimate the prevalence and incidence of AI and ND in village poultry in Mali and to identify associated risk factors. A longitudinal serologic study was conducted between November 2009 and February 2011 using ELISA commercial kits to detect antibodies. Read More

    Repeated Challenge with Virulent Newcastle Disease Virus Does Not Decrease the Efficacy of Vaccines.
    Avian Dis 2017 Jun;61(2):245-249
    A Exotic and Emerging Avian Viral Diseases Research Unit, Southeast Poultry Research Laboratory, U.S. National Poultry Research Center, Agricultural Research Service, U.S. Department of Agriculture, 934 College Station Road, Athens, GA.
    Globally, poultry producers report that birds well-vaccinated for Newcastle disease (ND) often present clinical disease and mortality after infection with virulent strains of Newcastle disease (vNDV), which is contrary to what is observed in experimental settings. One hypothesis for this discrepancy is that the birds in the field may be exposed to multiple successive challenges with vNDV, rather than one challenge dose, and that the repeated infection may overwhelm the immune system and neutralizing antibodies available to prevent clinical disease. In this study, we evaluated this hypothesis under highly controlled conditions. Read More

    Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza H5N1 Clade 2.3.2.1c Virus in Lebanon, 2016.
    Avian Dis 2017 Jun;61(2):271-273
    B Istituto Zooprofilattico Sperimentale delle Venezie, Viale dell'Università, 10, 35020, Legnaro, Padova, Italy.
    We report the phylogenetic analysis of the first outbreak of H5N1 highly pathogenic avian influenza virus detected in Lebanon from poultry in April 2016. Our whole-genome sequencing analysis revealed that the Lebanese H5N1 virus belongs to genetic clade 2.3. Read More

    H7N7 Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza in Poultry Farms in Italy in 2016.
    Avian Dis 2017 Jun;61(2):261-266
    A Istituto Zooprofilattico Sperimentale delle Venezie, 35020, Legnaro, Padua, Italy.
    After the H7N7 highly pathogenic (HP) avian influenza (AI) outbreak in 2013, and a single case of H5N8 HPAI in 2014, in April 2016, a H7N7 HPAI virus was detected in northeastern Italy. The case occurred in an organic free-range laying hen farm located in proximity with one of the highest densely populated poultry areas (DPPAs) in Italy. Control measures provided by the Council of the European Union in directive 2005/94/CE were promptly applied, and enhanced surveillance activities were implemented in the DPPAs. Read More

    Cutaneous Leiomyosarcoma with Multiple Visceral Metastases in a Domestic Pigeon.
    Avian Dis 2017 Jun;61(2):274-278
    A Department of Poultry Diseases, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Warmia and Mazury, Oczapowskiego 63, 10-719 Olsztyn, Poland.
    A clinical examination of a 4-yr-old fantail pigeon revealed a large skin tumor in the area of the left wing. The tumor had solid consistency and a single cavity filled with fluid. During necropsy, multiple tumors of varied size and diameter were found in the liver, spleen, pancreas, and kidneys. Read More

    Acute Lameness in a Roller Pigeon ( Columba livia ) with Multicentric Lymphosarcoma.
    Avian Dis 2017 Jun;61(2):267-270
    B Department of Veterinary Biosciences and Diagnostic Imaging, College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Georgia, Athens, GA 30602.
    A 3-yr-old adult female roller pigeon ( Columba livia ) used as part of a breeding pair for an ongoing research study presented with acute left limb lameness. Palpation of the left leg and region revealed a large lump near the coxofemoral joint. The bird was able to ambulate in the cage, but would not brood her hatchling. Read More

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