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    6568 results match your criteria Avian diseases[Journal]

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    Clinical and Pathologic Characterization of an Outbreak of Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza H7N8 in Commercial Turkeys in Southern Indiana.
    Avian Dis 2017 Sep;61(3):414-417
    D Farbest Farms Inc., 225 W 41st Street, Suite B, Jasper, IN 47546.
    Highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) is a systemic lethal disease of poultry caused by several subtypes of influenza A virus and classified on the basis of serologic reactions to hemagglutinin and neuraminidase surface glycoproteins. In January 2016, a novel subtype of HPAI-H7N8-was diagnosed in a commercial turkey (Meleagris gallopavo) flock in southern Indiana. Clinical signs and history included increased mortality, dyspnea, head tremors, recumbency, and somnolent or unaware birds. Read More

    Isolation and Molecular Characterization of Novel Infectious Bronchitis Virus Variants from Vaccinated Broiler Flocks in Egypt.
    Avian Dis 2017 Sep;61(3):307-310
    C Department of Veterinary Pathology and Microbiology, Faculty of Applied Biological Science, Gifu University, 1-1 Yanagido, Gifu 501-1193, Japan.
    The present study aimed to determine the molecular characteristics of circulating infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) strains in vaccinated broiler flocks in the Giza and Fayoum governorates. Thirty-four isolates were collected, and egg propagation revealed their ability to induce typical IBV lesions after three to five successive passages. Three selected isolates were identified as IBV using a real-time reverse transcriptase-PCR assay targeted the nucleocapsid (N) gene and further characterized by partial spike (S) gene sequence analysis. Read More

    Pilot Study of Antimicrobial Resistance in Northern Bobwhites (Colinus virginianus).
    Avian Dis 2017 Sep;61(3):391-396
    B Department of Veterinary Pathobiology and Veterinary Medical Diagnostic Laboratory, College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Missouri, Columbia, MO 65211.
    Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) is an important issue for both wildlife conservation and public health. The purpose of this study was to screen for AMR in fecal bacteria isolated from northern bobwhite (Colinus virginianus), a species that is an ecologically and economically important natural resource in the southern United States. The antimicrobial susceptibility profiles of 45 Escherichia coli isolates, 20 Enterococcus faecalis isolates, and 10 Enterococcus faecium isolates were determined using the Sensititer(TM) microbroth dilution minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) plate, AVIAN1F. Read More

    Prevalence of Trichomonas, Salmonella, and Listeria in Wild Birds from Southeast Texas.
    Avian Dis 2017 Sep;61(3):347-352
    A Department of Biology, Lamar University, Beaumont, TX 77710.
    Infectious diseases can be a major threat to wildlife populations, especially in human-modified habitats, but infection rates in populations of wild animals are often poorly studied. Trichomonas, Salmonella, and Listeria are all pathogens known to infect birds, but their infection rates in wild bird populations are not well documented. This study documents infection rates of the three pathogens in wild bird populations inhabiting a suburban to rural gradient in Southeast Texas. Read More

    Causes of Normal Mortality in Commercial Egg-Laying Chickens.
    Avian Dis 2017 Sep;61(3):289-295
    A Diagnostic Center for Population and Animal Health and Department of Pathobiology and Diagnostic Investigation College of Veterinary Medicine, Michigan State University, 4125 Beaumont Road Lansing, MI 48910.
    In a large population of animals, it is normal to have some die each day from causes not related to disease, which is often referred to as natural causes. In poultry production, this phenomenon is commonly referred to as daily mortality. In egg-producing chickens, many of the natural causes of death are associated with making an egg. Read More

    Detection of a Newly Described Bacteriocin, Perfrin, Among Clostridium perfringens Isolates from Healthy and Diseased Ostriches and Broiler Chickens in Iran.
    Avian Dis 2017 Sep;61(3):387-390
    A Department of Clinical Sciences, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Mashhad, Iran 9177948974.
    Necrotic enteritis due to Clostridium perfringens strains harboring the netB gene is a well-known disorder in poultry. The aim of this study was to investigate the association of a novel bacteriocin, perfrin, with netB among isolates from healthy and diseased ostriches and broiler chickens. Forty-six C. Read More

    Immunity Elicited by a Turkey Herpesvirus-Vectored Newcastle Disease Vaccine in Turkey Against Challenge With a Recent Genotype IV Newcastle Disease Virus Field Strain.
    Avian Dis 2017 Sep;61(3):378-386
    C Ceva Santé Animale, Ceva-Phylaxia, Szállás utca 5., 1107-Budapest, Hungary.
    Newcastle disease (ND) is still a major poultry disease worldwide. Vaccination remains the principal method of controlling ND in endemic countries. Various vaccination strategies, including the use of recently developed recombinant vaccines, have been used to control it. Read More

    First Identification and Molecular Characterization of Avian metapneumovirus Subtype B from Chickens in Greece.
    Avian Dis 2017 Sep;61(3):409-413
    A Department of Animal Medicine, Production and Health (MAPS), University of Padua, Viale dell'Università 16, 35020 Legnaro (PD), Italy.
    Avian metapneumovirus (aMPV) is considered a major pathogen for turkeys but its impact on chicken production is still partially neglected, even though it is fully acknowledged as a primary pathogen in chickens as well. The lack of structured diagnostic surveys does not allow a pervasive understanding of aMPV epidemiology. Being that aMPV is almost an everyday challenge for farmers and veterinarians, a more accurate report of its presence should be detailed, posing the basis for a deep and global epidemiologic analysis. Read More

    Recombinant Avian Paramyxovirus Serotypes 2, 6, and 10 as Vaccine Vectors for Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza in Chickens with Antibodies Against Newcastle Disease Virus.
    Avian Dis 2017 Sep;61(3):296-306
    A Division of Transboundary Animal Disease, National Institute of Animal Health, National Agriculture and Food Research Organization, 3-1-5 Kannondai, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0854, Japan.
    Recombinant Newcastle disease virus (rNDV) expressing the hemagglutinin of highly pathogenic avian influenza virus (HPAIV HA) induces protective immunity against HPAIV in chickens. However, the efficacy of rNDV vectors is hampered when chickens are pre-immune to NDV, and most commercial chickens are routinely vaccinated against NDV. We recently showed that avian paramyxovirus serotypes 2, 6, and 10 (APMV-2, APMV-6, and APMV-10), which belong to the same genus as NDV, have low cross-reactivity with anti-NDV antisera. Read More

    Systemic Histomoniasis in a Leucistic Indian Peafowl (Pavo cristatus) from Southern Brazil.
    Avian Dis 2017 Sep;61(3):325-329
    A Laboratory of Animal Pathology, Department of Veterinary Preventive Medicine, Universidade Estadual de Londrina, Paraná, Brazil.
    The pathological and molecular findings associated with Histomonas meleagridis are described in a leucistic Indian peafowl (Pavo cristatus) from Southern Brazil. The most significant gross findings were multifocal necrotizing hepatitis and diphtheric typhlitis. Histopathologic evaluation of the liver, ceca, kidney, spleen, and small intestine revealed systemic histomoniasis (SH) associated with intralesional and intravascular accumulations of histomonad organisms consistent with H. Read More

    Presence of Avibacterium paragallinarum and Histopathologic Lesions Corresponds with Clinical Signs in a Co-infection Model with Gallibacterium anatis.
    Avian Dis 2017 Sep;61(3):335-340
    Clinic for Poultry and Fish Medicine, Department for Farm Animals and Veterinary Public Health, University of Veterinary Medicine, Veterinaerplatz 1, 1210, Vienna, Austria.
    Recently we demonstrated that co-infection with Avibacterium paragallinarum and Gallibacterium anatis leads to increased severity of clinical signs of infectious coryza in birds. The present study examined the interaction of these two pathogens in chickens by evaluation of histologic lesions in sinus infraorbitalis and nasal turbinates, applying a defined scoring scheme ranging from 0 to 3. Furthermore, for the first time, an in situ hybridization (ISH) technique was applied to detect A. Read More

    In Vitro Effect of Apigenin and Danshen in Tibial Dyschondroplasia Through Inhibition of Heat-Shock Protein 90 and Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Expressions in Avian Growth Plate Cells.
    Avian Dis 2017 Sep;61(3):372-377
    A College of Veterinary Medicine, Huazhong Agricultural University, Wuhan 430070, People's Republic of China.
    Tibial dyschondroplasia (TD) is one of the common skeletal abnormalities in fast-growing birds, and it is characterized by nonvascularized, unmineralized, and nonviable cartilage in the tibial growth plate that fails to form bone. The aim of this study was to check the in vitro effect of apigenin and danshen on heat-shock protein 90 (Hsp90) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) expressions in avian growth plate cells treated with sublethal concentration of thiram. Initially, chondrocytes from chicken growth plates were isolated on culturx ed medium with and without various concentration of thiram to determine the sublethal dose. Read More

    Infectious Bronchitis Virus S2 of 4/91 Expressed from Recombinant Virus Does Not Protect Against Ark-Type Challenge.
    Avian Dis 2017 Sep;61(3):397-401
    A Department of Pathobiology, College of Veterinary Medicine, Auburn University, 264 Greene Hall, Auburn, AL 36849.
    We previously demonstrated that chickens primed with a recombinant Newcastle disease virus LaSota (rLS) expressing the S2 gene of infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) and boosted with an attenuated IBV Massachusetts (Mass)-type vaccine were protected against IBV Arkansas (Ark)-type virulent challenge. A possible basis for the reported ability of IBV 4/91 (serotype 793/B) vaccine to protect against divergent IBV strains (e.g. Read More

    Critical Review: Future Control of Blackhead Disease (Histomoniasis) in Poultry.
    Avian Dis 2017 Sep;61(3):281-288
    B Texas A&M University, Poultry Science Department, College Station, Texas, 77843.
    Blackhead disease (histomoniasis) currently has no efficacious drug approved for use in poultry in the United States. Both chickens and turkeys can get the disease, but mortality is most often associated with turkeys. The lack of any approved therapies for blackhead is of concern, especially in the case of valuable turkey breeder candidate flocks. Read More

    A Retrospective Study of Salmonella Enteritidis Isolated from Commercial Layer Flocks.
    Avian Dis 2017 Sep;61(3):330-334
    A Department of Veterinary and Biomedical Sciences, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802.
    Consumption of shell eggs has been associated with Salmonella Enteritidis (SE) infections in humans in the United States. Because of this, the Pennsylvania Egg Quality Assurance Program (PEQAP) was developed and implemented in 1994. The PEQAP involves periodic flock testing and management practices to minimize SE contamination of shell eggs. Read More

    Phylogenetic Analyses of Fowl Adenoviruses (FAdV) Isolated in China and Pathogenicity of a FAdV-8 Isolate.
    Avian Dis 2017 Sep;61(3):353-357
    A Key Laboratory of Animal Epidemiology of the Ministry of Agriculture, College of Veterinary Medicine, China Agricultural University, Beijing 100193, People's Republic of China.
    Fowl adenoviruses (FAdVs) have a worldwide distribution and are associated with a variety of diseases, causing considerable economic losses to the poultry industry. We characterized 10 FAdVs isolated from China in 2015-2016 and assessed the pathogenicity of a FAdV-8 strain in specific-pathogen-free (SPF) chickens. Phylogenetic analysis of a hexon gene revealed that only 1 of the 10 isolates belonged to FAdV-8, whereas others belonged to FAdV-4, indicating that Chinese FAdVs were mainly FAdV-4 in recent years. Read More

    Economic Impacts of White Chick Syndrome in Ontario, Canada.
    Avian Dis 2017 Sep;61(3):402-408
    B Animal Health Laboratory, University of Guelph, Guelph, Ontario, Canada N1H 6R8.
    A cluster of 12 cases of White Chick Syndrome (WCS) in broiler breeder flocks producing affected progeny occurred from June to November 2015 in two broiler chicken hatcheries owned by a single company in Ontario, Canada. Cases were identified by the presence of typical chicks in the hatchery characterized by pale to white down, enlarged abdomens, and occasionally brown wiry fluff on the dorsum of the neck that were generally weak. Affected broiler breeder flocks experienced egg production drops of 0% to 15% and hatchability drops of 1. Read More

    Understanding Immune Resistance to Infectious Bronchitis Using Major Histocompatibility Complex Chicken Lines.
    Avian Dis 2017 Sep;61(3):358-365
    A Department of Population Health and Reproduction, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of California, Davis, 1089 Veterinary Medicine Drive VM3B, Davis, CA 95616.
    Genetic resistance or susceptibility to infectious diseases has been largely associated with the avian major histocompatibility complex (MHC) genes. Our goal was to determine resistance and susceptibility of MHC B haplotype in congenic and inbred chicken lines in order to establish a resistant-susceptible model. Eight congenic lines (253/B18, 254/B15, 330/B21, 312/B24, 331/B2, 335/B19, 336/B21, and 342/BO), two inbred lines (003/B17 and 077/B19), and three commercial lines (white leghorn, brown layers, and broilers) were used in two experiments. Read More

    Frequency and Duration of Fecal Shedding of Salmonella Serovars Heidelberg and Typhimurium by Experimentally Infected Laying Hens Housed in Enriched Colony Cages at Different Stocking Densities.
    Avian Dis 2017 Sep;61(3):366-371
    C Department of Animal Sciences, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN 47907.
    Eggs contaminated with Salmonella Enteritidis are leading sources of human salmonellosis, but Salmonella Heidelberg and Salmonella Typhimurium are also egg-associated pathogens. The management practices and housing facilities characterizing different systems for housing commercial egg flocks can influence Salmonella persistence and transmission. Animal welfare aspects of poultry housing have been widely debated, but their food safety ramifications are not thoroughly understood. Read More

    Genetic Characterization of Fowl Adenovirus Strains Isolated from Poultry in China.
    Avian Dis 2017 Sep;61(3):341-346
    B The Key Lab of Animal Disease and Public Health, Henan University of Science and Technology, Luoyang, 471023, China.
    Fowl adenoviruses (FAdVs) infect chickens worldwide, resulting in global economic losses in the poultry industry. We examined the strains present in chickens in regions of China where infections are particularly prevalent. Fifteen FAdV strains were successfully isolated in the field. Read More

    Signs Indicating Imminent Death in Escherichia coli-Infected Broilers.
    Avian Dis 2017 Sep;61(3):316-324
    Department of Farm Animal Health, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Utrecht University, 7 Yalelaan, 3584 CL Utrecht, the Netherlands.
    Broilers were observed during 9 days for clinical signs after intratracheal inoculation at 8 days of age with 10(7) E. coli 506. It was determined if these signs were predictive for imminent death. Read More

    Persistence of Trichomonas gallinae in Birdseed.
    Avian Dis 2017 Sep;61(3):311-315
    A Canadian Wildlife Health Cooperative, Atlantic Region, Atlantic Veterinary College, University of Prince Edward Island, 550 University Avenue, Charlottetown, Prince Edward Island, Canada C1A 4P3.
    Trichomonas gallinae has emerged worldwide as a cause of mortality in songbirds (passerines). The congregation of numerous birds, including the reservoir hosts, pigeons and doves (columbids), at backyard feeding and watering sources has been suggested as a potential driver for the outbreaks. Evidence supporting a role for water in transmission has been established, but the role of birdseed in the transmission of trichomoniasis remained to be investigated. Read More

    Development of a Dry Medium for Isolation of Histomonas meleagridis in the Field.
    Avian Dis 2017 Jun;61(2):242-244
    Department of Poultry Science, The University of Georgia, Athens, GA 30602.
    Blackhead disease is caused by Histomonas meleagridis, an anaerobic protozoan parasite, and results in mortality rates of up to 100% in turkeys and 30% in chickens. Outbreaks of blackhead disease are unpredictable, and the harvesting of H. meleagridis strains from the field would be a great resource for researchers to study its epidemiology. Read More

    Fowl Adenoviruses D and E Cause Inclusion Body Hepatitis Outbreaks in Broiler and Broiler Breeder Pullet Flocks.
    Avian Dis 2017 Jun;61(2):205-210
    D Department of Clinical Science, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Islamic Azad University, Science and Research Branch, Tehran, Iran, Mail Box: 14515775.
    Twenty-four fowl adenoviruses (FAdVs) were isolated from broiler and broiler breeder pullet flocks in Iran during 2013-2016 and were identified and characterized. All FAdVs were from inclusion body hepatitis (IBH) cases, showing an enlarged and pale yellow liver with multiple petechial hemorrhages. Phylogenetic analyses of partial hexon gene sequences are an adequate and quick method for differentiation and genotyping. Read More

    Longitudinal Study of Avian Influenza and Newcastle Disease in Village Poultry, Mali, 2009-2011.
    Avian Dis 2017 Jun;61(2):165-177
    E VEEPH Group, Royal Veterinary College, North Mymms, Hertfordshire, AL9 7TA, United Kingdom.
    Newcastle disease (ND) is endemic in West Africa, which has also experienced outbreaks of highly pathogenic avian influenza (AI) H5N1 since 2006. We aimed to estimate the prevalence and incidence of AI and ND in village poultry in Mali and to identify associated risk factors. A longitudinal serologic study was conducted between November 2009 and February 2011 using ELISA commercial kits to detect antibodies. Read More

    Repeated Challenge with Virulent Newcastle Disease Virus Does Not Decrease the Efficacy of Vaccines.
    Avian Dis 2017 Jun;61(2):245-249
    A Exotic and Emerging Avian Viral Diseases Research Unit, Southeast Poultry Research Laboratory, U.S. National Poultry Research Center, Agricultural Research Service, U.S. Department of Agriculture, 934 College Station Road, Athens, GA.
    Globally, poultry producers report that birds well-vaccinated for Newcastle disease (ND) often present clinical disease and mortality after infection with virulent strains of Newcastle disease (vNDV), which is contrary to what is observed in experimental settings. One hypothesis for this discrepancy is that the birds in the field may be exposed to multiple successive challenges with vNDV, rather than one challenge dose, and that the repeated infection may overwhelm the immune system and neutralizing antibodies available to prevent clinical disease. In this study, we evaluated this hypothesis under highly controlled conditions. Read More

    Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza H5N1 Clade Virus in Lebanon, 2016.
    Avian Dis 2017 Jun;61(2):271-273
    B Istituto Zooprofilattico Sperimentale delle Venezie, Viale dell'Università, 10, 35020, Legnaro, Padova, Italy.
    We report the phylogenetic analysis of the first outbreak of H5N1 highly pathogenic avian influenza virus detected in Lebanon from poultry in April 2016. Our whole-genome sequencing analysis revealed that the Lebanese H5N1 virus belongs to genetic clade 2.3. Read More

    H7N7 Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza in Poultry Farms in Italy in 2016.
    Avian Dis 2017 Jun;61(2):261-266
    A Istituto Zooprofilattico Sperimentale delle Venezie, 35020, Legnaro, Padua, Italy.
    After the H7N7 highly pathogenic (HP) avian influenza (AI) outbreak in 2013, and a single case of H5N8 HPAI in 2014, in April 2016, a H7N7 HPAI virus was detected in northeastern Italy. The case occurred in an organic free-range laying hen farm located in proximity with one of the highest densely populated poultry areas (DPPAs) in Italy. Control measures provided by the Council of the European Union in directive 2005/94/CE were promptly applied, and enhanced surveillance activities were implemented in the DPPAs. Read More

    Cutaneous Leiomyosarcoma with Multiple Visceral Metastases in a Domestic Pigeon.
    Avian Dis 2017 Jun;61(2):274-278
    A Department of Poultry Diseases, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Warmia and Mazury, Oczapowskiego 63, 10-719 Olsztyn, Poland.
    A clinical examination of a 4-yr-old fantail pigeon revealed a large skin tumor in the area of the left wing. The tumor had solid consistency and a single cavity filled with fluid. During necropsy, multiple tumors of varied size and diameter were found in the liver, spleen, pancreas, and kidneys. Read More

    Acute Lameness in a Roller Pigeon ( Columba livia ) with Multicentric Lymphosarcoma.
    Avian Dis 2017 Jun;61(2):267-270
    B Department of Veterinary Biosciences and Diagnostic Imaging, College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Georgia, Athens, GA 30602.
    A 3-yr-old adult female roller pigeon ( Columba livia ) used as part of a breeding pair for an ongoing research study presented with acute left limb lameness. Palpation of the left leg and region revealed a large lump near the coxofemoral joint. The bird was able to ambulate in the cage, but would not brood her hatchling. Read More

    Characterization and Epidemiology of Pigeon Paramyxovirus Type-1 Viruses (PPMV-1) Isolated in Macedonia.
    Avian Dis 2017 Jun;61(2):146-152
    C Poultry Center, Croatian Veterinary Institute, Heinzelova 55, HR-10000 Zagreb, Croatia.
    We have characterized in this study 10 PPMV-1 isolated from domestic pigeons and one PPMV-1 isolated from a feral pigeon in the period 2007-2012, using both classical methods (HI test and ICPI test) and molecular methods (RT-qPCR, RT-PCR, and nucleotide sequencing). Using phylogenetic analysis of partial fusion gene sequences, these viruses clustered with recent European PPMV-1 isolates (EU/re) within the genotype VIb/1. All isolates possessed virulent cleavage site motifs with variable morbidity and mortality in pigeons. Read More

    Epidemiologic Investigation of Highly Pathogenic H5N2 Avian Influenza Among Upper Midwest U.S. Turkey Farms, 2015.
    Avian Dis 2017 Jun;61(2):198-204
    A Center for Animal Health and Food Safety, University of Minnesota, 1354 Eckles Avenue, St. Paul, MN 55108.
    In 2015, an outbreak of H5N2 highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) occurred in the United States, severely impacting the turkey industry in the upper midwestern United States. Industry, government, and academic partners worked together to conduct a case-control investigation of the outbreak on turkey farms in the Upper Midwest. Case farms were confirmed to have HPAI-infected flocks, and control farms were farms with noninfected turkey flocks at a similar stage of production. Read More

    Industry-Wide Surveillance of Marek's Disease Virus on Commercial Poultry Farms.
    Avian Dis 2017 Jun;61(2):153-164
    A Center for Infectious Disease Dynamics, Departments of Biology and Entomology, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802.
    Marek's disease virus is a herpesvirus of chickens that costs the worldwide poultry industry more than US$1 billion annually. Two generations of Marek's disease vaccines have shown reduced efficacy over the last half century due to evolution of the virus. Understanding where the virus is present may give insight into whether continued reductions in efficacy are likely. Read More

    Establishment of an In Vitro Intestinal Epithelial Cell Culture Model of Avian Origin.
    Avian Dis 2017 Jun;61(2):229-236
    A Clinic for Poultry, University of Veterinary Medicine Hannover, Foundation, Buenteweg 17, 30559 Hanover, Germany.
    The role of intestinal epithelial cells (IECs) in the physiology of the gastrointestinal tract (GIT) of chickens and pathogenesis of various diseases in chickens is still poorly understood. IECs line the GIT and represent the border between the unsterile environment and the sterile internal tissues. Bacterial, viral, fungal, or parasitic pathogens are able to invade or pass IECs under certain circumstances and cause various diseases. Read More

    Kidney Cell-Adapted Infectious Bronchitis ArkDPI Vaccine is Stable and Protective.
    Avian Dis 2017 Jun;61(2):221-228
    A Department of Pathobiology, Auburn University College of Veterinary Medicine, Auburn, AL 36849.
    We previously demonstrated that adaptation of an embryo-attenuated infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) Arkansas (Ark) Delmarva Poultry Industry (DPI)-derived vaccine to chicken embryo kidney (CEK) cells (CEKp7) shifted the virus population towards homogeneity in spike (S) and nonstructural protein genes. Moreover, the typical Ark vaccine subpopulations emerging in chickens vaccinated with commercial Ark vaccines were not detected in chickens vaccinated with CEKp7, indicating that kidney-cell adaptation drastically increased the stability of the vaccine virus population in chickens. In the current study both conventional and next-generation sequencing results show that the changes achieved during CEK adaptation remained after five back passages in embryonated chicken egg (ECE). Read More

    First Report of Avian Metapneumovirus Subtype B Field Strain in a Romanian Broiler Flock During an Outbreak of Respiratory Disease.
    Avian Dis 2017 Jun;61(2):250-254
    A Department of Animal Medicine, Production and Health (MAPS), University of Padua, Viale dell'Università 16, 35020 Legnaro (PD), Italy.
    Avian metapneumovirus (aMPV) represents one of the most prevalent diseases of turkey, especially in combination with other pathogens, and its frequency is also increasing among chickens. Despite this evidence, epidemiologic data are poor and scattered, severely preventing control of the disease even in highly developed areas such as Europe. In the present study, the detection and characterization of an aMPV subtype B strain circulating in a vaccinated but symptomatic Romanian broiler flock is reported for the first time. Read More

    Esophagitis and Pharyngitis Associated with Avian Infectious Laryngotracheitis in Backyard Chickens: Two Cases.
    Avian Dis 2017 Jun;61(2):255-260
    A Centre de recherche en infectiologie porcine et avicole (CRIPA), Faculté de médecine vétérinaire, Université de Montréal, 3200 Sicotte, Saint-Hyacinthe, Québec, Canada J2S 2M2.
    Infectious laryngotracheitis (ILT) is a contagious viral respiratory disease of great economic importance for the global poultry industry caused by Gallid herpesvirus 1 (GaHV-1). Lesions of the upper digestive tract caused by this virus have not been reported before. Two small flocks of backyard chickens experienced an outbreak of ILT, one in 2006 and the other in 2014. Read More

    Characterization of Clostridium perfringens Strains Isolated from Healthy and Necrotic Enteritis-Afflicted Broiler Chickens.
    Avian Dis 2017 Jun;61(2):178-185
    A Animal Biosciences and Biotechnology Laboratory, Beltsville Agricultural Research Center, Agricultural Research Service-U.S. Department of Agriculture, 10300 Baltimore Avenue, Beltsville, MD 20705.
    Necrotic enteritis (NE) is an important enteric disease in poultry, and Clostridium perfringens (CP) type A strains are the primary etiology. NE is responsible for annual losses of US $6 billion to the poultry industry in the United States. An increase in the incidence of NE has been also associated with withdrawal of antibiotic growth promoters from poultry feed. Read More

    Eimeria Oocyst Concentrations and Species Composition in Litter from Commercial Broiler Farms During Anticoccidial Drug or Live Eimeria Oocyst Vaccine Control Programs.
    Avian Dis 2017 Jun;61(2):214-220
    B Mountaire Farms, Inc., Millsboro, DE 19966.
    The purpose of this study was to determine if Eimeria oocyst concentrations and species composition in commercial broiler house litter changed during different cycles of anticoccidial drug (ACD) or live Eimeria oocyst vaccine (VAC) control programs and if there was a correlation between Eimeria oocyst levels and broiler performance. Litter samples were collected from a total of 15 different broiler farms encompassing a total of 45 individual houses during at least one complete grow-out cycle over a 21-mo period. Of these 15 broiler farms, three were followed for the entire 21-mo period spanning three ACD and four VAC cycles. Read More

    Relationship Between Broiler Body Weights, Eimeria maxima Gross Lesion Scores, and Microscores in Three Anticoccidial Sensitivity Tests.
    Avian Dis 2017 Jun;61(2):237-241
    A Poultry Science Department, The University of Georgia, Athens, GA 30602.
    Anticoccidial sensitivity tests (ASTs) serve to determine the efficacy of anticoccidial drugs against Eimeria field isolates in a controlled laboratory setting. The most commonly measured parameters are body weight gain, feed conversion ratio, gross intestinal lesion scores, and mortality. Due to the difficulty in reliably scoring gross lesion scores of Eimeria maxima , microscopic analysis of intestinal scrapings (microscores) can be used in the field to indicate the presence of this particular Eimeria. Read More

    Hematology and Serum Biochemistry Reference Intervals for Six-Week-Old, Farm-Reared Chinese Ring-Necked Pheasants ( Phasianus colchicus ) from Minnesota.
    Avian Dis 2017 Jun;61(2):211-213
    C Department of Animal Science, Iowa State University, Ames, IA 50011.
    Chinese ring-necked pheasants ( Phasianus colchicus ) are commonly farmed in intensive operations for purposes such as meat production, hunting preserves, or research. Under these conditions, pheasants frequently suffer medical ailments such as bacterial, viral, and parasitic infections or nutritional or metabolic disorders. Relatively little scientific information exists regarding clinical pathology reference intervals (RIs) for farm-reared pheasants. Read More

    A Study on Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli through Commercial Broiler Production Chains in Thailand: Antimicrobial Resistance, the Characterization of DNA Gyrase Subunit A Mutation, and Genetic Diversity by Flagellin A Gene Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism.
    Avian Dis 2017 Jun;61(2):186-197
    A Avian Health Research Unit, Department of Veterinary Medicine, Faculty of Veterinary Science, Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok 10330, Thailand.
    Contaminated poultry meat is regarded as the main source of human campylobacteriosis. During September 2014 and February 2015, breeder flocks, hatcheries, and broiler farms from two chicken production chains were investigated chronologically. Five commercial breeder flocks (Breeder Flocks 1-5), two hatcheries (Hatcheries A and B), and five broiler flocks (Broiler Flocks 1-5) were sampled in this study. Read More

    Investigation of Different Infection Routes of Parrot Bornavirus in Cockatiels.
    Avian Dis 2017 Mar;61(1):90-95
    A Clinic for Birds, Reptiles, Amphibians and Fish, Justus Liebig University Giessen, Frankfurter Str. 91, 35392 Giessen, Germany.
    The aim of this study was to determine the natural infection route of parrot bornavirus (PaBV), the causative agent of proventricular dilatation disease (PDD) in psittacines. For this purpose, nine cockatiels ( Nymphicus hollandicus ) were inoculated orally, and nine cockatiels were inoculated intranasally, with a PaBV-4 isolate. To compare the results of the trials, the same isolate and the same experimental design were used as in a previous study where infection was successful by intravenous as well as intracerebral inoculation. Read More

    Small Poultry Flocks in Alberta: Demographics and Practices.
    Avian Dis 2017 Mar;61(1):46-54
    Animal Policy and Epidemiology Section, Animal Health Branch, Animal Health and Assurance Division, Alberta Agriculture and Forestry, O.S. Longman Building, 6909 116th Street, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada, T6H 4P2.
    The distribution, composition, and management characteristics of small "backyard" poultry flocks may have important implications in the spread of both avian diseases and zoonoses of public health concern. Although the prevalence of small poultry flocks has increased in Alberta, Canada, in recent years, there is minimal demographic information available for these populations. To gain initial epidemiologic insight into this growing population and potential areas of risk, a survey was conducted to characterize the sector. Read More

    Different Duck Species Infected Intramuscularly with Duck-Origin Genotype IX APMV-1 Show Discrepant Mortality and Indicate Another Fatal Genotype APMV-1 to Ducks.
    Avian Dis 2017 Mar;61(1):33-39
    A Institute of Animal Husbandry and Veterinary Medicine, Fujian Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Fuzhou 350013, P. R. China.
    Isolations of genotype IX (gIX) avian paramyxovirus type 1 (APMV-1) from various bird species have been more common recently, with isolates showing variable pathogenicity in different species of poultry. Here we sequenced the genome of a Muscovy duck origin gIX virus strain XBT14 and characterized the virulence and pathogenicity of this isolate in chickens and ducks. The genome sequence of strain XBT14 is 15,192 nt in length, containing multiple basic amino acids at the fusion protein cleavage site. Read More

    Persistence of Highly Pathogenic and Low Pathogenic Avian Influenza Viruses in Footbaths and Poultry Manure.
    Avian Dis 2017 Mar;61(1):64-69
    A Department of Population Health and Reproduction, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of California, 1089 Veterinary Medicine Drive VM3B, Davis, CA 95616.
    A questionnaire was designed in order to gather information about bedding material and footbath preparation and maintenance in different productive units across the state of California.This information was used to plan two experiments. In the first experiment, we tested the effectiveness of footbaths in inactivating highly pathogenic (HP) and low pathogenic (LP) avian influenza viruses (AIVs) on rubber boots. Read More

    Prevalence of Taxa of Pasteurellaceae Among Populations of Healthy Captive Psittacine Birds.
    Avian Dis 2017 Mar;61(1):102-106
    C Department of Veterinary Disease Biology, University of Copenhagen, Stigbøjlen 4, DK-1870 Frederiksberg C, Denmark.
    Sixty-two strains of Pasteurellaceae-like bacteria were isolated from the tracheas of 87 clinically healthy psittacine birds in two Danish zoos. The isolates were identified by a combination of rpoB and 16S rRNA gene sequencing and by matrix-assisted laser desorption-ionization time of flight. Twenty-eight strains belonged to the genus Volucribacter or were related to this genus and to the unnamed taxon 34 of Bisgaard, and 28 strains were related to the unnamed taxon 44 of Bisgaard. Read More

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