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    6545 results match your criteria Avian diseases[Journal]

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    Development of a Dry Medium for Isolation of Histomonas meleagridis in the Field.
    Avian Dis 2017 Jun;61(2):242-244
    Department of Poultry Science, The University of Georgia, Athens, GA 30602.
    Blackhead disease is caused by Histomonas meleagridis, an anaerobic protozoan parasite, and results in mortality rates of up to 100% in turkeys and 30% in chickens. Outbreaks of blackhead disease are unpredictable, and the harvesting of H. meleagridis strains from the field would be a great resource for researchers to study its epidemiology. Read More

    Fowl Adenoviruses D and E Cause Inclusion Body Hepatitis Outbreaks in Broiler and Broiler Breeder Pullet Flocks.
    Avian Dis 2017 Jun;61(2):205-210
    D Department of Clinical Science, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Islamic Azad University, Science and Research Branch, Tehran, Iran, Mail Box: 14515775.
    Twenty-four fowl adenoviruses (FAdVs) were isolated from broiler and broiler breeder pullet flocks in Iran during 2013-2016 and were identified and characterized. All FAdVs were from inclusion body hepatitis (IBH) cases, showing an enlarged and pale yellow liver with multiple petechial hemorrhages. Phylogenetic analyses of partial hexon gene sequences are an adequate and quick method for differentiation and genotyping. Read More

    Longitudinal Study of Avian Influenza and Newcastle Disease in Village Poultry, Mali, 2009-2011.
    Avian Dis 2017 Jun;61(2):165-177
    E VEEPH Group, Royal Veterinary College, North Mymms, Hertfordshire, AL9 7TA, United Kingdom.
    Newcastle disease (ND) is endemic in West Africa, which has also experienced outbreaks of highly pathogenic avian influenza (AI) H5N1 since 2006. We aimed to estimate the prevalence and incidence of AI and ND in village poultry in Mali and to identify associated risk factors. A longitudinal serologic study was conducted between November 2009 and February 2011 using ELISA commercial kits to detect antibodies. Read More

    Repeated Challenge with Virulent Newcastle Disease Virus Does Not Decrease the Efficacy of Vaccines.
    Avian Dis 2017 Jun;61(2):245-249
    A Exotic and Emerging Avian Viral Diseases Research Unit, Southeast Poultry Research Laboratory, U.S. National Poultry Research Center, Agricultural Research Service, U.S. Department of Agriculture, 934 College Station Road, Athens, GA.
    Globally, poultry producers report that birds well-vaccinated for Newcastle disease (ND) often present clinical disease and mortality after infection with virulent strains of Newcastle disease (vNDV), which is contrary to what is observed in experimental settings. One hypothesis for this discrepancy is that the birds in the field may be exposed to multiple successive challenges with vNDV, rather than one challenge dose, and that the repeated infection may overwhelm the immune system and neutralizing antibodies available to prevent clinical disease. In this study, we evaluated this hypothesis under highly controlled conditions. Read More

    Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza H5N1 Clade 2.3.2.1c Virus in Lebanon, 2016.
    Avian Dis 2017 Jun;61(2):271-273
    B Istituto Zooprofilattico Sperimentale delle Venezie, Viale dell'Università, 10, 35020, Legnaro, Padova, Italy.
    We report the phylogenetic analysis of the first outbreak of H5N1 highly pathogenic avian influenza virus detected in Lebanon from poultry in April 2016. Our whole-genome sequencing analysis revealed that the Lebanese H5N1 virus belongs to genetic clade 2.3. Read More

    H7N7 Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza in Poultry Farms in Italy in 2016.
    Avian Dis 2017 Jun;61(2):261-266
    A Istituto Zooprofilattico Sperimentale delle Venezie, 35020, Legnaro, Padua, Italy.
    After the H7N7 highly pathogenic (HP) avian influenza (AI) outbreak in 2013, and a single case of H5N8 HPAI in 2014, in April 2016, a H7N7 HPAI virus was detected in northeastern Italy. The case occurred in an organic free-range laying hen farm located in proximity with one of the highest densely populated poultry areas (DPPAs) in Italy. Control measures provided by the Council of the European Union in directive 2005/94/CE were promptly applied, and enhanced surveillance activities were implemented in the DPPAs. Read More

    Cutaneous Leiomyosarcoma with Multiple Visceral Metastases in a Domestic Pigeon.
    Avian Dis 2017 Jun;61(2):274-278
    A Department of Poultry Diseases, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Warmia and Mazury, Oczapowskiego 63, 10-719 Olsztyn, Poland.
    A clinical examination of a 4-yr-old fantail pigeon revealed a large skin tumor in the area of the left wing. The tumor had solid consistency and a single cavity filled with fluid. During necropsy, multiple tumors of varied size and diameter were found in the liver, spleen, pancreas, and kidneys. Read More

    Acute Lameness in a Roller Pigeon ( Columba livia ) with Multicentric Lymphosarcoma.
    Avian Dis 2017 Jun;61(2):267-270
    B Department of Veterinary Biosciences and Diagnostic Imaging, College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Georgia, Athens, GA 30602.
    A 3-yr-old adult female roller pigeon ( Columba livia ) used as part of a breeding pair for an ongoing research study presented with acute left limb lameness. Palpation of the left leg and region revealed a large lump near the coxofemoral joint. The bird was able to ambulate in the cage, but would not brood her hatchling. Read More

    Characterization and Epidemiology of Pigeon Paramyxovirus Type-1 Viruses (PPMV-1) Isolated in Macedonia.
    Avian Dis 2017 Jun;61(2):146-152
    C Poultry Center, Croatian Veterinary Institute, Heinzelova 55, HR-10000 Zagreb, Croatia.
    We have characterized in this study 10 PPMV-1 isolated from domestic pigeons and one PPMV-1 isolated from a feral pigeon in the period 2007-2012, using both classical methods (HI test and ICPI test) and molecular methods (RT-qPCR, RT-PCR, and nucleotide sequencing). Using phylogenetic analysis of partial fusion gene sequences, these viruses clustered with recent European PPMV-1 isolates (EU/re) within the genotype VIb/1. All isolates possessed virulent cleavage site motifs with variable morbidity and mortality in pigeons. Read More

    Epidemiologic Investigation of Highly Pathogenic H5N2 Avian Influenza Among Upper Midwest U.S. Turkey Farms, 2015.
    Avian Dis 2017 Jun;61(2):198-204
    A Center for Animal Health and Food Safety, University of Minnesota, 1354 Eckles Avenue, St. Paul, MN 55108.
    In 2015, an outbreak of H5N2 highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) occurred in the United States, severely impacting the turkey industry in the upper midwestern United States. Industry, government, and academic partners worked together to conduct a case-control investigation of the outbreak on turkey farms in the Upper Midwest. Case farms were confirmed to have HPAI-infected flocks, and control farms were farms with noninfected turkey flocks at a similar stage of production. Read More

    Industry-Wide Surveillance of Marek's Disease Virus on Commercial Poultry Farms.
    Avian Dis 2017 Jun;61(2):153-164
    A Center for Infectious Disease Dynamics, Departments of Biology and Entomology, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802.
    Marek's disease virus is a herpesvirus of chickens that costs the worldwide poultry industry more than US$1 billion annually. Two generations of Marek's disease vaccines have shown reduced efficacy over the last half century due to evolution of the virus. Understanding where the virus is present may give insight into whether continued reductions in efficacy are likely. Read More

    Establishment of an In Vitro Intestinal Epithelial Cell Culture Model of Avian Origin.
    Avian Dis 2017 Jun;61(2):229-236
    A Clinic for Poultry, University of Veterinary Medicine Hannover, Foundation, Buenteweg 17, 30559 Hanover, Germany.
    The role of intestinal epithelial cells (IECs) in the physiology of the gastrointestinal tract (GIT) of chickens and pathogenesis of various diseases in chickens is still poorly understood. IECs line the GIT and represent the border between the unsterile environment and the sterile internal tissues. Bacterial, viral, fungal, or parasitic pathogens are able to invade or pass IECs under certain circumstances and cause various diseases. Read More

    Kidney Cell-Adapted Infectious Bronchitis ArkDPI Vaccine is Stable and Protective.
    Avian Dis 2017 Jun;61(2):221-228
    A Department of Pathobiology, Auburn University College of Veterinary Medicine, Auburn, AL 36849.
    We previously demonstrated that adaptation of an embryo-attenuated infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) Arkansas (Ark) Delmarva Poultry Industry (DPI)-derived vaccine to chicken embryo kidney (CEK) cells (CEKp7) shifted the virus population towards homogeneity in spike (S) and nonstructural protein genes. Moreover, the typical Ark vaccine subpopulations emerging in chickens vaccinated with commercial Ark vaccines were not detected in chickens vaccinated with CEKp7, indicating that kidney-cell adaptation drastically increased the stability of the vaccine virus population in chickens. In the current study both conventional and next-generation sequencing results show that the changes achieved during CEK adaptation remained after five back passages in embryonated chicken egg (ECE). Read More

    First Report of Avian Metapneumovirus Subtype B Field Strain in a Romanian Broiler Flock During an Outbreak of Respiratory Disease.
    Avian Dis 2017 Jun;61(2):250-254
    A Department of Animal Medicine, Production and Health (MAPS), University of Padua, Viale dell'Università 16, 35020 Legnaro (PD), Italy.
    Avian metapneumovirus (aMPV) represents one of the most prevalent diseases of turkey, especially in combination with other pathogens, and its frequency is also increasing among chickens. Despite this evidence, epidemiologic data are poor and scattered, severely preventing control of the disease even in highly developed areas such as Europe. In the present study, the detection and characterization of an aMPV subtype B strain circulating in a vaccinated but symptomatic Romanian broiler flock is reported for the first time. Read More

    Esophagitis and Pharyngitis Associated with Avian Infectious Laryngotracheitis in Backyard Chickens: Two Cases.
    Avian Dis 2017 Jun;61(2):255-260
    A Centre de recherche en infectiologie porcine et avicole (CRIPA), Faculté de médecine vétérinaire, Université de Montréal, 3200 Sicotte, Saint-Hyacinthe, Québec, Canada J2S 2M2.
    Infectious laryngotracheitis (ILT) is a contagious viral respiratory disease of great economic importance for the global poultry industry caused by Gallid herpesvirus 1 (GaHV-1). Lesions of the upper digestive tract caused by this virus have not been reported before. Two small flocks of backyard chickens experienced an outbreak of ILT, one in 2006 and the other in 2014. Read More

    Characterization of Clostridium perfringens Strains Isolated from Healthy and Necrotic Enteritis-Afflicted Broiler Chickens.
    Avian Dis 2017 Jun;61(2):178-185
    A Animal Biosciences and Biotechnology Laboratory, Beltsville Agricultural Research Center, Agricultural Research Service-U.S. Department of Agriculture, 10300 Baltimore Avenue, Beltsville, MD 20705.
    Necrotic enteritis (NE) is an important enteric disease in poultry, and Clostridium perfringens (CP) type A strains are the primary etiology. NE is responsible for annual losses of US $6 billion to the poultry industry in the United States. An increase in the incidence of NE has been also associated with withdrawal of antibiotic growth promoters from poultry feed. Read More

    Eimeria Oocyst Concentrations and Species Composition in Litter from Commercial Broiler Farms During Anticoccidial Drug or Live Eimeria Oocyst Vaccine Control Programs.
    Avian Dis 2017 Jun;61(2):214-220
    B Mountaire Farms, Inc., Millsboro, DE 19966.
    The purpose of this study was to determine if Eimeria oocyst concentrations and species composition in commercial broiler house litter changed during different cycles of anticoccidial drug (ACD) or live Eimeria oocyst vaccine (VAC) control programs and if there was a correlation between Eimeria oocyst levels and broiler performance. Litter samples were collected from a total of 15 different broiler farms encompassing a total of 45 individual houses during at least one complete grow-out cycle over a 21-mo period. Of these 15 broiler farms, three were followed for the entire 21-mo period spanning three ACD and four VAC cycles. Read More

    Relationship Between Broiler Body Weights, Eimeria maxima Gross Lesion Scores, and Microscores in Three Anticoccidial Sensitivity Tests.
    Avian Dis 2017 Jun;61(2):237-241
    A Poultry Science Department, The University of Georgia, Athens, GA 30602.
    Anticoccidial sensitivity tests (ASTs) serve to determine the efficacy of anticoccidial drugs against Eimeria field isolates in a controlled laboratory setting. The most commonly measured parameters are body weight gain, feed conversion ratio, gross intestinal lesion scores, and mortality. Due to the difficulty in reliably scoring gross lesion scores of Eimeria maxima , microscopic analysis of intestinal scrapings (microscores) can be used in the field to indicate the presence of this particular Eimeria. Read More

    Hematology and Serum Biochemistry Reference Intervals for Six-Week-Old, Farm-Reared Chinese Ring-Necked Pheasants ( Phasianus colchicus ) from Minnesota.
    Avian Dis 2017 Jun;61(2):211-213
    C Department of Animal Science, Iowa State University, Ames, IA 50011.
    Chinese ring-necked pheasants ( Phasianus colchicus ) are commonly farmed in intensive operations for purposes such as meat production, hunting preserves, or research. Under these conditions, pheasants frequently suffer medical ailments such as bacterial, viral, and parasitic infections or nutritional or metabolic disorders. Relatively little scientific information exists regarding clinical pathology reference intervals (RIs) for farm-reared pheasants. Read More

    A Study on Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli through Commercial Broiler Production Chains in Thailand: Antimicrobial Resistance, the Characterization of DNA Gyrase Subunit A Mutation, and Genetic Diversity by Flagellin A Gene Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism.
    Avian Dis 2017 Jun;61(2):186-197
    A Avian Health Research Unit, Department of Veterinary Medicine, Faculty of Veterinary Science, Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok 10330, Thailand.
    Contaminated poultry meat is regarded as the main source of human campylobacteriosis. During September 2014 and February 2015, breeder flocks, hatcheries, and broiler farms from two chicken production chains were investigated chronologically. Five commercial breeder flocks (Breeder Flocks 1-5), two hatcheries (Hatcheries A and B), and five broiler flocks (Broiler Flocks 1-5) were sampled in this study. Read More

    Investigation of Different Infection Routes of Parrot Bornavirus in Cockatiels.
    Avian Dis 2017 Mar;61(1):90-95
    A Clinic for Birds, Reptiles, Amphibians and Fish, Justus Liebig University Giessen, Frankfurter Str. 91, 35392 Giessen, Germany.
    The aim of this study was to determine the natural infection route of parrot bornavirus (PaBV), the causative agent of proventricular dilatation disease (PDD) in psittacines. For this purpose, nine cockatiels ( Nymphicus hollandicus ) were inoculated orally, and nine cockatiels were inoculated intranasally, with a PaBV-4 isolate. To compare the results of the trials, the same isolate and the same experimental design were used as in a previous study where infection was successful by intravenous as well as intracerebral inoculation. Read More

    Small Poultry Flocks in Alberta: Demographics and Practices.
    Avian Dis 2017 Mar;61(1):46-54
    Animal Policy and Epidemiology Section, Animal Health Branch, Animal Health and Assurance Division, Alberta Agriculture and Forestry, O.S. Longman Building, 6909 116th Street, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada, T6H 4P2.
    The distribution, composition, and management characteristics of small "backyard" poultry flocks may have important implications in the spread of both avian diseases and zoonoses of public health concern. Although the prevalence of small poultry flocks has increased in Alberta, Canada, in recent years, there is minimal demographic information available for these populations. To gain initial epidemiologic insight into this growing population and potential areas of risk, a survey was conducted to characterize the sector. Read More

    Different Duck Species Infected Intramuscularly with Duck-Origin Genotype IX APMV-1 Show Discrepant Mortality and Indicate Another Fatal Genotype APMV-1 to Ducks.
    Avian Dis 2017 Mar;61(1):33-39
    A Institute of Animal Husbandry and Veterinary Medicine, Fujian Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Fuzhou 350013, P. R. China.
    Isolations of genotype IX (gIX) avian paramyxovirus type 1 (APMV-1) from various bird species have been more common recently, with isolates showing variable pathogenicity in different species of poultry. Here we sequenced the genome of a Muscovy duck origin gIX virus strain XBT14 and characterized the virulence and pathogenicity of this isolate in chickens and ducks. The genome sequence of strain XBT14 is 15,192 nt in length, containing multiple basic amino acids at the fusion protein cleavage site. Read More

    Persistence of Highly Pathogenic and Low Pathogenic Avian Influenza Viruses in Footbaths and Poultry Manure.
    Avian Dis 2017 Mar;61(1):64-69
    A Department of Population Health and Reproduction, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of California, 1089 Veterinary Medicine Drive VM3B, Davis, CA 95616.
    A questionnaire was designed in order to gather information about bedding material and footbath preparation and maintenance in different productive units across the state of California.This information was used to plan two experiments. In the first experiment, we tested the effectiveness of footbaths in inactivating highly pathogenic (HP) and low pathogenic (LP) avian influenza viruses (AIVs) on rubber boots. Read More

    Prevalence of Taxa of Pasteurellaceae Among Populations of Healthy Captive Psittacine Birds.
    Avian Dis 2017 Mar;61(1):102-106
    C Department of Veterinary Disease Biology, University of Copenhagen, Stigbøjlen 4, DK-1870 Frederiksberg C, Denmark.
    Sixty-two strains of Pasteurellaceae-like bacteria were isolated from the tracheas of 87 clinically healthy psittacine birds in two Danish zoos. The isolates were identified by a combination of rpoB and 16S rRNA gene sequencing and by matrix-assisted laser desorption-ionization time of flight. Twenty-eight strains belonged to the genus Volucribacter or were related to this genus and to the unnamed taxon 34 of Bisgaard, and 28 strains were related to the unnamed taxon 44 of Bisgaard. Read More

    Low Pathogenic Avian Influenza and Coinfecting Pathogens: A Review of Experimental Infections in Avian Models.
    Avian Dis 2017 Mar;61(1):3-15
    IHAP, Université de Toulouse, INRA, ENVT, 23 Chemin des Capelles, 37076 Toulouse, France.
    Low pathogenic avian influenza virus (LPAIV) usually causes mild disease or asymptomatic infection in poultry. LPAIV has, however, become a great threat to poultry industry due to mixed infections with other pathogens. Coinfections do frequently occur in the field but are not easily detected, and their impact on pathobiology is not clearly defined due to their complicated nature, but it is well known that there is an impact. Read More

    Development of Multilocus Sequence Typing (MLST) for Mycoplasma synoviae.
    Avian Dis 2017 Mar;61(1):25-32
    A Department of Veterinary Preventive Medicine, College of Veterinary Medicine, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43210.
    Mycoplasma synoviae (MS) is a poultry pathogen that has had an increasing incidence and economic impact over the past few years. Strain identification is necessary for outbreak investigation, infection source identification, and facilitating prevention and control as well as eradication efforts. Currently, a segment of the variable lipoprotein hemagglutinin A (vlhA) gene (420 bp) is the only target that is used for MS strain identification. Read More

    Persistence of Chlamydia psittaci in Various Temperatures and Times.
    Avian Dis 2017 Mar;61(1):40-45
    E Avian Health Research Unit, Department of Veterinary Medicine, Faculty of Veterinary Science, Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok 10330, Thailand.
    Chlamydia psittaci, an obligate intracellular gram-negative bacteria, causes an important zoonotic disease in humans, namely, psittacosis. The objective of this study was to determine the persistent viability of C. psittaci at various temperature conditions. Read More

    Pathology and Tissue Distribution of an LPAI H5N8 of North American Lineage Isolated from an Outbreak in Commercial Japanese Quail (Coturnix c. japonica) in the Central Valley of California.
    Avian Dis 2017 Mar;61(1):70-76
    C California Animal Health and Food Safety Laboratory System, University of California, Davis, Tulare Branch, 18830 Road 112, Tulare, CA 93274.
    This report describes the pathology and tissue distribution of avian influenza (AI) antigens by immunohistochemistry (IHC) in the tissues of commercial layer quail from a natural outbreak of low pathogenic avian influenza (LPAI) H5N8. LPAI virus H5N8 of North American lineage was diagnosed in commercial Japanese quail hens ( Coturnix coturnix japonica) in California based on serology, reverse-transcriptase real-time polymerase chain reaction, virus isolation, and sequencing. The sudden increase in mortality in a flock of laying quail hens had prompted the submission of 15 live and 5 dead, 10- to 15-wk-old quail to the California Animal Health and Food Safety Laboratory System, Turlock branch in the beginning of April 2014. Read More

    Necroptosis of Splenic Macrophages Induced by Streptococcus gallolyticus subsp. pasteurianus.
    Avian Dis 2017 Mar;61(1):115-122
    College of Veterinary Medicine, Huazhong Agricultural University, Wuhan 430070, China.
    A previous study demonstrated that a highly virulent strain of Streptococcus gallolyticus subsp. pasteurianus, designated as the AL101002 strain, induced high mortality in ducklings with splenic lesions. In this study, 42 ducklings were subcutaneously inoculated with the AL101002 strain to study changes in splenic lesions over time. Read More

    Pathotyping and Phylogenetic Characterization of Newcastle Disease Viruses Isolated in Peru: Defining Two Novel Subgenotypes Within Genotype XII.
    Avian Dis 2017 Mar;61(1):16-24
    B Laboratory of Avian Pathology, Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos, School of Veterinary Medicine, San Borja, Lima, Peru.
    Infections of poultry with virulent strains of avian paramyxovirus 1 (APMV-1), also known as Newcastle disease viruses (NDVs), cause Newcastle disease (ND). This highly contagious disease affects poultry and many other species of birds worldwide. In countries where the disease is prevalent, constant monitoring and characterization of isolates causing outbreaks are necessary. Read More

    Aspergillosis, a Natural Infection in Poultry: Mycological and Molecular Characterization and Determination of Gliotoxin in Aspergillus fumigatus Isolates.
    Avian Dis 2017 Mar;61(1):77-82
    A Microbiology and Immunology Department, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine and Animal Science, National Autonomous University of Mexico, Avenida Universidad 3000, Ciudad Universitaria 04510, Mexico City, Mexico.
    Aspergillosis affects all types of birds; it causes the loss of specimens with high ecologic value and also leads to significant economic losses within the poultry industry. The main etiologic agent is Aspergillus fumigatus , a filamentary fungus with multiple virulence factors, such as gliotoxin (GT), which is an immunosuppressive epipolythiodioxopiperazine molecule. Necropsy was performed on 73 poultry from different provenances, all of which presented with a respiratory semiology compatible with aspergillosis. Read More

    Coinfection of Avibacterium paragallinarum and Gallibacterium anatis in Specific-Pathogen-Free Chickens Complicates Clinical Signs of Infectious Coryza, Which Can Be Prevented by Vaccination.
    Avian Dis 2017 Mar;61(1):55-63
    Clinic for Poultry and Fish Medicine, Department for Farm Animals and Veterinary Public Health, University of Veterinary Medicine, Veterinaerplatz 1, 1210, Vienna, Austria.
    Avibacterium paragallinarum and Gallibacterium anatis are recognized bacterial pathogens both infecting the respiratory tract of chickens. The present study investigated outcomes of their coinfection by elucidating clinical signs, pathologic lesions, and bacteriologic findings. Additionally, the efficacy of a commercially available vaccine to prevent diseases caused by A. Read More

    Minimum Infectious Dose Determination of the Arkansas Delmarva Poultry Industry Infectious Bronchitis Virus Vaccine Delivered by Hatchery Spray Cabinet.
    Avian Dis 2017 Mar;61(1):123-127
    A Poultry Diagnostic and Research Center, Department of Population Health, College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Georgia, 953 College Station Road, Athens, GA 30602.
    The Arkansas Delmarva Poultry Industry (ArkDPI) infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) vaccine is effective when administered by eye drop, where the vaccine virus is able to infect and replicate well in birds and is able to induce protection against homologous challenge. However, accumulating evidence indicates that the ArkDPI vaccine is ineffective when applied by hatchery spray cabinet using the same manufacturer-recommended dose per bird. For this study, we aimed to determine the minimum infectious dose for the spray-administered ArkDPI vaccine, which we designate as the dose that achieves the same level of infection and replication as the eye drop-administered ArkDPI vaccine. Read More

    Identification of Type A Influenza Viruses from Wild Birds on the Delmarva Peninsula, 2007-10.
    Avian Dis 2017 Mar;61(1):83-89
    A Department of Animal and Food Sciences, Avian Biosciences Center, University of Delaware, Newark, DE 19716.
    Wild waterfowl and shorebirds in the Delaware-Maryland-Virginia (Delmarva) Peninsula region within the Atlantic Flyway were sampled as part of the Early Detection of Highly Pathogenic H5N1 Avian Influenza (AI) in Wild Migratory Birds program. The U.S. Read More

    Molecular Characterization of Hemorrhagic Enteritis Viruses (HEV) Detected in HEV-Vaccinated Commercial Turkey Flocks in Germany.
    Avian Dis 2017 Mar;61(1):96-101
    A Clinic for Poultry, University of Veterinary Medicine Hannover, Bünteweg 17, 30559 Hannover, Germany.
    Despite the application of live hemorrhagic enteritis virus (HEV) vaccines, HEV field outbreaks are suspected to still occur in turkey flocks in Germany. Increasing secondary bacterial infections in HEV-vaccinated flocks suggest that vaccines may be losing efficacy or, possibly, that vaccine strains are causing disease. Thus, the goal of the current study was to investigate the diversity of HEV isolates from fattening turkey flocks between 2008 and 2012 by characterizing the open reading frame (ORF)1 gene at its 5' and 3' ends. Read More

    Evaluation and Identification of Marek's Disease Virus BAC Clones as Standardized Reagents for Research.
    Avian Dis 2017 Mar;61(1):107-114
    A United States Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service, U.S. National Poultry Research Center, Avian Disease and Oncology Laboratory, East Lansing, MI 48823.
    Marek's disease virus (MDV) is an alphaherpesvirus that causes Marek's disease (MD), a lymphoproliferative disease in chickens. Understanding of MDV gene function advanced significantly following the cloning of the MDV genome as either a series of overlapping cosmids or as a bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC), both of which could produce viable MDV. The objectives of this study were to compare multiple virulent MDV BAC clones using the Avian Disease and Oncology Laboratory's pathotyping assay, and to demonstrate the use of these clones as standardized reagents for a modified pathotyping assay by other laboratories. Read More

    Three Cases of Escherichia coli Meningitis in Chicks Imported to Japan.
    Avian Dis 2017 Mar;61(1):135-138
    D Exotic Disease Inspection Division, Laboratory Department, Animal Quarantine Service, Chubu Diagnostic Center, 1-2 Centrair, Tokoname, Aichi 479-0881, Japan.
    Three outbreaks of colibacillosis have occurred in chicks during the quarantine period after importation to Japan. All three were derived from three different countries without epidemiologic relevance. Some birds from each infected flock were examined pathologically and bacteriologically. Read More

    Low Pathogenic Avian Influenza Viruses in Wild Migratory Waterfowl in a Region of High Poultry Production, Delmarva, Maryland.
    Avian Dis 2017 Mar;61(1):128-134
    A United States Geological Survey, Patuxent Wildlife Research Center, Beltsville Lab, c/o BARC East Building 308, 10300 Baltimore Avenue, Beltsville, Maryland 20705.
    Migratory waterfowl are natural reservoirs for low pathogenic avian influenza viruses (AIVs) and may contribute to the long-distance dispersal of these pathogens as well as spillover into domestic bird populations. Surveillance for AIVs is critical to assessing risks for potential spread of these viruses among wild and domestic bird populations. The Delmarva Peninsula on the east coast of the United States is both a key convergence point for migratory Atlantic waterfowl populations and a region with high poultry production (>4,700 poultry meat facilities). Read More

    Recovery of Chicken Growth Plate by Heat-Shock Protein 90 Inhibitors Epigallocatechin-3-Gallate and Apigenin in Thiram-Induced Tibial Dyschondroplasia.
    Avian Dis 2016 Dec;60(4):773-778
    College of Veterinary Medicine, Huazhong Agricultural University, Wuhan 430070, People's Republic of China.
    Tibial dyschondroplasia (TD) is an important tibiotarsal bone disorder characterized by an avascular and nonmineralized growth plate; it is attributed to abnormal differentiation of chondrocytes and causes lameness. Heat-shock protein 90 (Hsp90) is a proangiogenic factor in animal tissues; however, its gene expression increases in cases of chicken TD. The objective of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) and apigenin in thiram-induced TD birds; these substances were used because of their Hsp90 inhibitory activities. Read More

    Coccidiosis in the Chukar Partridge ( Alectoris chukar ): A Survey of Coccidiosis Outbreaks and a Test of Anticoccidial Drugs Against Eimeria kofoidi.
    Avian Dis 2016 Dec;60(4):752-757
    B Department of Poultry Science, University of Georgia, Athens GA 30602.
    Field isolates of coccidia from 20 natural outbreaks in the chukar partridge ( Alectoris chukar ) were received from gamebird farms in 10 U.S. states. Read More

    Use of Molecular Pathogenicity Indices to Identify Pathogenic Strains of Pasteurella multocida.
    Avian Dis 2016 Dec;60(4):792-798
    A Centro de Diagnóstico e Pesquisa em Patologia Aviária-CDPA, Faculdade de Medicina Veterinária, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul-UFRGS, Porto Alegre, 90460-001, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil.
    In addition to being the causative agent of fowl cholera (FC), Pasteurella multocida is also one of the most prevalent opportunistic pathogens associated with respiratory diseases in various hosts. However, understanding of the traits that distinguish the virulent isolates that cause FC is still limited. The objective of this study was to characterize P. Read More

    Characterization of Chicken Splenic-Derived Dendritic Cells Following Vaccine and Very Virulent Strains of Infectious Bursal Disease Virus Infection.
    Avian Dis 2016 Dec;60(4):739-751
    A Institute of Bioscience.
    Studies have shown that infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV) infects lymphoid cells, mainly B cells and macrophages. This study was aimed to examine the involvement of chicken splenic-derived dendritic cells (ch-sDCs) in specific-pathogen-free chickens following inoculation with IBDV vaccine strain (D78) and a very virulent (vv) strain (UPM0081). Following IBDV infection, enriched activated ch-sDCs were collected by using the negative selection method and were examined based on morphology and immunophenotyping to confirm the isolation method for dendritic cells (DCs). Read More

    Inactivation of Avian Influenza Virus in Nonpelleted Chicken Feed.
    Avian Dis 2016 Dec;60(4):846-849
    Department of Pathobiology, Auburn University College of Veterinary Medicine, 264 Greene Hall, Auburn, AL 36849.
    Corn stored outside could become contaminated with avian influenza virus (AIV) from wild bird droppings. AIV-contaminated ingredients could pass into the poultry flocks in nonpelleted chicken feed. The efficacy of two disinfectants at inactivating AIV in chicken feed was evaluated. Read More

    Regulatory Considerations for the Approval of Drugs Against Histomoniasis (Blackhead Disease) in Turkeys, Chickens, and Game Birds in the United States.
    Avian Dis 2016 Dec;60(4):725-730
    A Office of New Animal Drug Evaluation, Center for Veterinary Medicine, United States Food and Drug Administration, Rockville, MD 20855.
    Histomoniasis, commonly referred to as blackhead disease, is a serious threat to the turkey and game bird industries worldwide, and it is having an increasingly negative impact on the chicken industry as well. The Food and Drug Administration's (FDA) Center for Veterinary Medicine (CVM), charged with the approval and regulation of new animal drugs in the United States, understands the rising need for the availability of therapeutic options against histomoniasis. CVM has actively engaged in discussions with the poultry industry, academic institutions, and animal health companies regarding the current status of histomoniasis in the United States and varied success of past and current management, prophylactic, and therapeutic interventions that have been used against the disease. Read More

    Recombinant Hemagglutinin of Avian Influenza Virus H5 Expressed in the Chloroplast of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii and Evaluation of Its Immunogenicity in Chickens.
    Avian Dis 2016 Dec;60(4):784-791
    A Viren SA de CV, Presidente Benito Juárez 110B, José María Arteaga, Querétaro, Querétaro. 76135, México.
    Globally, avian influenza (AI) is a serious problem in poultry farming. Despite vaccination, the prevalence of AI in México highlights the need for new approaches to control AI and to reduce the economic losses associated with its occurrence in susceptible birds. Recombinant proteins from avian influenza virus (AIV) have been expressed in different organisms, such as plants. Read More

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