267,265 results match your criteria Avian Research[Journal]


Changes in peripheral muscle oxygenation measured with near-infrared spectroscopy in preterm neonates within the first 24 hours after birth.

Physiol Meas 2020 Jun 4. Epub 2020 Jun 4.

Department of Paediatrics Division of Neonatology, Karl Franzens Universitaet Graz, 8036 Graz, Graz, AUSTRIA.

Background: Near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) combined with venous occlusions enables peripheral-muscle oxygenation and perfusion monitoring. Aim of the present exploratory observational study was to evaluate peripheral-muscle oxygenation and perfusion during the first 24 hours after birth in stable preterm neonates.

Methods: Secondary outcome parameters of prospective observational studies were analysed. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1088/1361-6579/ab998bDOI Listing

Rapid degradation of dimethomorph in polluted water and soil by Bacillus cereus WL08 immobilized on bamboo charcoal-sodium alginate.

J Hazard Mater 2020 May 16;398:122806. Epub 2020 May 16.

State Key Laboratory for Biology of Plant Diseases and Insect Pests, Institute of Plant Protection, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Beijing 100193, PR China. Electronic address:

The presence of hazardous dimethomorph residues in the environment poses a threat to birds, aquatic organisms and mammals. The novel pure strain Bacillus cereus WL08 responsible for detoxifying dimethomorph was isolated from dimethomorph-polluted soils. The immobilized system of WL08 was developed using bamboo charcoal (BC) and sodium alginate (SA). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jhazmat.2020.122806DOI Listing

Egg rejection and egg recognition mechanism of chestnut thrushes (Turdus rubrocanus).

Behav Processes 2020 Jun 1:104158. Epub 2020 Jun 1.

Ministry of Education Key Laboratory for Ecology of Tropical Islands, College of Life Sciences, Hainan Normal University, Haikou, 571158, China. Electronic address:

Recognizing and rejecting foreign eggs is one of the most effective anti-parasite strategies for hosts in avian brood parasitism. Studies have shown that most cuckoo (Cuculus spp.) hosts have evolved egg recognition abilities. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.beproc.2020.104158DOI Listing

Low rate of azole resistance in cases of avian aspergillosis in Germany.

Med Mycol 2020 Jun 4. Epub 2020 Jun 4.

Clinic for Birds and Reptiles, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Leipzig, Germany.

Aspergillosis is the most common fungal disease of the avian respiratory tract. Due to delayed diagnosis and treatment failure, the outcome of these infections is often poor. We investigate 159 cases of avian aspergillosis among captive birds in Germany to define clinical features as well as the frequency of in vitro triazole resistance. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/mmy/myaa045DOI Listing

Bisonic mechanical wing songs and complex kinematics in aerial displays of the Subtropical Doradito (Pseudocolopteryx acutipennis).

Integr Comp Biol 2020 Jun 4. Epub 2020 Jun 4.

Instituto de Bio y Geociencias del Noroeste Argentino (IBIGEO-CONICET), Laboratorio de Ecología, Comportamiento y Sonidos Naturales (ECOSON), Rosario de Lerma (4405), Salta, Argentina.

Loud mechanical sounds with a communication role are called sonations. Male Subtropical Doraditos (Pseudocolopteryx acutipennis) exhibit five conspicuously modified primaries suspected of sonating. Here we 1) describe feather modifications, 2) describe three different territorial/aggressive contexts for these sounds: One-perch aerial displays, Two-perch aerial displays and Chukrut pursuits, 3) investigate the kinematics of the most common display (One-perch aerial display) and the physical mechanisms of sonation using synchronized high-speed video and audio, and 4) assess the roles of modified wing feathers in all contexts by experimental manipulation in four individuals. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/icb/icaa062DOI Listing

Epigenetic Potential in Native and Introduced Populations of House Sparrows (Passer domesticus).

Integr Comp Biol 2020 Jun 4. Epub 2020 Jun 4.

University of South Florida, Global and Planetary Health, 3720 Spectrum Blvd, Suite 304, Tampa, FL.

Epigenetic potential, defined as the capacity for epigenetically-mediated phenotypic plasticity, may play an important role during range expansions. During range expansions, populations may encounter relatively novel challenges while experiencing lower genetic diversity. Phenotypic plasticity via epigenetic potential might be selectively advantageous at the time of initial introduction or during spread into new areas, enabling introduced organisms to cope rapidly with novel challenges. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/icb/icaa060DOI Listing

Organic acid blend supplementation increases butyrate and acetate production in  Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium challenged broilers.

PLoS One 2020 4;15(6):e0232831. Epub 2020 Jun 4.

Institute for Future Farming Systems, Central Queensland University, Rockhampton, Queensland, Australia.

The burden of enteric pathogens in poultry is growing after the ban of antibiotic use in animal production. Organic acids gained attention as a possible alternative to antibiotics due to their antimicrobial activities, improved nutrient metabolism and performance. The current study was conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of organic acid blend on broilers cecal microbiota, histomorphometric measurements, and short-chain fatty acid production in Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium challenge model. Read More

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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0232831PLOS

Characterizing the microbiome of ectoparasitic louse flies feeding on migratory raptors.

PLoS One 2020 4;15(6):e0234050. Epub 2020 Jun 4.

Department of Biology, Millersville University, Millersville, Pennsylvania, United States of America.

Louse flies (Diptera: Hippoboscidae) are obligate ectoparasites that often cause behavioral, pathogenic, and evolutionary effects on their hosts. Interactions between ectoparasites and avian hosts, especially migrating taxa, may influence avian pathogen spread in tropical and temperate ecosystems and affect long-term survival, fitness and reproductive success. The purpose of this study was to characterize the vector-associated microbiome of ectoparasitic louse flies feeding on migrating raptors over the fall migration period. Read More

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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0234050PLOS

Strength of niche processes for species interactions is lower for generalists and exotic species.

J Anim Ecol 2020 Jun 4. Epub 2020 Jun 4.

Centre for Integrative Ecology, School of Biological Sciences, University of Canterbury, Christchurch, New Zealand.

Niche and neutral processes jointly influence species interactions. Predictions of interactions based on these processes assume that they operate similarly across all species. However, species characteristics could systematically create differences in the strength of niche or neutral processes for each interspecific interaction. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/1365-2656.13274DOI Listing

Legacy and contaminants of emerging concern (CECs) in tree swallows along an agricultural to industrial gradient: Maumee River, Ohio.

Environ Toxicol Chem 2020 Jun 4. Epub 2020 Jun 4.

Department of Environmental Science, and Center for Reservoir and Aquatic Systems Research (CRASR), Baylor University Waco, TX, 76798, USA.

Exposure to multiple classes of contaminants, both legacy and those of emerging concern (CECs), were assessed in tree swallow (Tachycineta bicolor) tissue and diet samples from six sites along the Maumee River, Ohio to understand both exposure and possible effects of exposure to those CECs for which there are little avian data. The six sites represented a gradient from intensive agriculture upstream to highly urbanized and industrial landscapes downstream; 1 - 2 remote Wisconsin lakes were assessed for comparative purposes. Cytochrome P450 induction, DNA damage, and thyroid function were also assessed relative to contaminant exposure. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/etc.4792DOI Listing

Nanoparticle technology improves in-vitro attachment of cattle (Bos taurus) trophectoderm cells.

Biotechnol Lett 2020 Jun 3. Epub 2020 Jun 3.

Department of Animal and Avian Sciences, University of Maryland, College Park, MD, 20742, USA.

The bovine cell line, cow trophectoderm-1 (CT-1), provides an excellent in-vitro cell culture model to study early embryonic development. Obtaining consistent attachment and outgrowth, however, is difficult because enzymatic disassociation into single cells is detrimental; therefore, CT-1 cells must be passaged in clumps, which do not attach readily to the surface of the dish. We tested whether magnetic nanoparticles, NanoShuttle™-PL, could be used to improve cell attachment and subsequent proliferation of the cattle trophectoderm cell line without altering cellular metabolism or immunofluorescent detection of the lineage marker Caudal Type Homeobox 2 (CDX2). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10529-020-02926-wDOI Listing

Isospora oliveirai n. sp. (Chromista: Miozoa: Eimeriidae) from the Greenish Schiffornis Schiffornis virescens (Lafresnaye, 1838) (Passeriformes: Tyranni: Tityridae) in South America.

Acta Parasitol 2020 Jun 3. Epub 2020 Jun 3.

Departamento de Biologia Animal, Instituto de Ciências Biológicas e da Saúde, Universidade Federal Rural do Rio de Janeiro, BR 465, Km 7, Seropédica, Rio de Janeiro, CEP 23890-000, Brazil.

Background: Coccidia are obligatory intracellular parasites with at least one intestinal phase in their life cycles, being Isospora Schneider, 1881 the main coccidian genus related to the order Passeriformes. However, there is no record of isosporans from the passerine family Tityridae, which is the family of the greenish schiffornis Schiffornis virescens (Lafresnaye, 1838).

Purpose: This study aimed to examine the faeces from a greenish schiffornis S. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11686-020-00237-8DOI Listing

Comparison of some meat quality and liver characteristics in Muscovy and mule ducks.

Arch Anim Breed 2020 5;63(1):137-144. Epub 2020 May 5.

Department of Small Animal Science, Faculty of Agrobiology and Food Resources, Slovak University of Agriculture, Nitra, 94976, Slovakia.

The aim of the study was to compare Muscovy ducks and mule ducks for proximate analysis, colour attributes, sensory properties of the meat, and concentration of some minerals in the meat and liver, with consideration of the effect of sex on the analysed traits. The study used 46 Muscovy and 44 mule ducks. At the end of the rearing period, 40 birds (10 males and 10 females of each genotype) were selected for slaughter. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.5194/aab-63-137-2020DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7254918PMC

Induction of Robust Immune Responses by CpG-ODN-Loaded Hollow Polymeric Nanoparticles for Antiviral and Vaccine Applications in Chickens.

Int J Nanomedicine 2020 11;15:3303-3318. Epub 2020 May 11.

Department of Veterinary Medicine, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan.

Background: Poultry vaccine has limited choices of adjuvants and is facing severe threat of infectious diseases due to ineffective of widely used commercial vaccines. Thus, development of novel adjuvant that offers safe and effective immunity is of urgent need.

Materials And Methods: The present research engineers a novel chicken adjuvant with potent immune-potentiating capability by incorporating avian toll-like receptor 21 (TLR21) agonist CpG ODN 2007 with a poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA)-based hollow nanoparticle platform (CpG-NP), which subsequently assessed ex vivo and in vivo. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/IJN.S241492DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7227821PMC

Preparation of ELISA and Lateral Flow Kits for rapid Diagnosis of Mycoplasma gallisepticum in Poultry.

Sci Rep 2020 Jun 3;10(1):9056. Epub 2020 Jun 3.

Department of Microbiology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Cairo University, Giza, Egypt.

Avian mycoplasmas were mainly the cause of poultry industry economic losses; reduced meat and egg production and increases the antibiotic treatment cost. Mycoplasma gallisepticum (MG) infection is designated as infectious sinusitis of turkeys and chronic respiratory disease of chickens (gasping, depression, semi closed eyes, infraorbital sinuses edema and decrease in egg production). This study aimed to prepare, evaluate and Compare in-house ELISA kits and lateral flow assay (LFA) from a local strain of MG with commercial ELISA kits and PCR consequently. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-020-65848-7DOI Listing

MXene Nanosheets May Induce Toxic Effect on the Early Stage of Embryogenesis.

J Biomed Nanotechnol 2020 Mar;16(3):364-372

MXene (Ti₃C₂T), as a novel 2D material, has produced a great interest due to its promising properties in biomedical applications, nevertheless, there is a lack of studies dedicated to investigate the possible toxic effect of MXene in embryos. Herein, we aim to scrutinize the potential toxicity of MXene nanosheets on the early stage of the embryo as well as angiogenesis. Avian embryos at 3 and 5 days of incubation were used as an experimental model in this investigation. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1166/jbn.2020.2894DOI Listing

Exploiting bacterial outer membrane vesicles as a cross-protective vaccine candidate against avian pathogenic Escherichia coli (APEC).

Microb Cell Fact 2020 Jun 3;19(1):119. Epub 2020 Jun 3.

College of Animal Science and Technology, Northwest A&F University, Yangling, 712100, Shaanxi, China.

Background: The well-known fact that avian pathogenic Escherichia coli (APEC) is harder to prevent due to its numerous serogroups has promoted the development of biological immunostimulatory materials as new vaccine candidates in poultry farms. Bacterial outer membrane vesicles (OMVs), known as spherical nanovesicles enriched with various immunostimulants, are naturally secreted by Gram-negative bacteria, and have gained much attention for developing effective vaccine candidates. Recent report has demonstrated that OMVs of APEC O78 can induce protective immunity in chickens. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12934-020-01372-7DOI Listing

RNA-seq reveals downregulated osteochondral genes potentially related to tibia bacterial chondronecrosis with osteomyelitis in broilers.

BMC Genet 2020 Jun 3;21(1):58. Epub 2020 Jun 3.

Embrapa Suínos e Aves, Rodovia BR-153, Km 110, Distrito de Tamanduá, Caixa Postal: 321, Concórdia, Santa Catarina, 89715-899, Brazil.

Background: Bacterial chondronecrosis with osteomyelitis (BCO) develops in the growth plate (GP) of the proximal femur and tibia and is initiated by damage to the less mineralized chondrocytes followed by colonization of opportunistic bacteria. This condition affects approximately 1% of all birds housed, being considered one of the major causes of lameness in fast growing broilers. Although several studies have been previously performed aiming to understand its pathogenesis, the molecular mechanisms involved with BCO remains to be elucidated. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12863-020-00862-2DOI Listing

Prevalence and Diversity of Avian Influenza Virus Hemagglutinin Sero-Subtypes in Poultry and Wild Birds in Bangladesh.

Vet Sci 2020 Jun 1;7(2). Epub 2020 Jun 1.

Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Chattogram Veterinary and Animal Sciences University, Chattogram 4225, Bangladesh.

Highly pathogenic avian influenza H5 viruses have pandemic potential, cause significant economic losses and are of veterinary and public health concerns. This study aimed to investigate the distribution and diversity of hemagglutinin (HA) subtypes of avian influenza virus (AIV) in poultry and wild birds in Bangladesh. We conducted an avian influenza sero-surveillance in wild and domestic birds in wetlands of Chattogram and Sylhet in the winter seasons 2012-2014. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/vetsci7020073DOI Listing

Regional Transmission and Reassortment of 2.3.4.4b Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza (HPAI) Viruses in Bulgarian Poultry 2017/18.

Viruses 2020 Jun 1;12(6). Epub 2020 Jun 1.

Department of Pathobiology and Population Sciences, Royal Veterinary College, Hatfield, Hertfordshire AL9 7TA, UK.

Between 2017 and 2018, several farms across Bulgaria reported outbreaks of H5 highly-pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) viruses. In this study we used genomic and traditional epidemiological analyses to trace the origin and subsequent spread of these outbreaks within Bulgaria. Both methods indicate two separate incursions, one restricted to the northeastern region of Dobrich, and another largely restricted to Central and Eastern Bulgaria including places such as Plovdiv, Sliven and Stara Zagora, as well as one virus from the Western region of Vidin. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/v12060605DOI Listing

Factors responsible for forest and water bird distributions in rivers and lakes along an urban gradient in Beijing.

Sci Total Environ 2020 May 12;735:139308. Epub 2020 May 12.

State Key Laboratory of Urban and Regional Ecology, Research Center for Eco-environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100085, China; University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049,China. Electronic address:

Urban rivers and lakes, in combination with nearby green spaces, provide important habitat for urban birds, but few urban studies have focused on forest and water birds simultaneously along an urban intensity gradient. In this study, we randomly chose 39 rivers and lakes along an urban gradient of Beijing to examine bird community parameters in relation to aquatic and terrestrial habitat conditions, aquatic life data, and water quality data. We selected models with the AICc (corrected Akaike information criterion) method, bivariate linear or generalized linear regressions, and structural equation modeling to determine distribution patterns of avian communities along an urban gradient and bird-environment relationships. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2020.139308DOI Listing

An overview of avian influenza in the context of the Australian commercial poultry industry.

One Health 2020 Dec 11;10:100139. Epub 2020 May 11.

The University of Sydney, c15/335 Werombi Rd, Camden, NSW 2570, Australia.

From 1976 Australia has experienced seven highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) outbreaks in poultry farms and there have been a total of 16 confirmed low pathogenic avian influenza (LPAI) cases in poultry in Australia at the time of writing. This paper describes all past LPAI and HPAI detections in Australian poultry and reviews avian influenza risk in the Australian commercial chicken industry. The factors that influence this risk are also discussed; notably the nomadic nature of Australian waterfowl, the increasing demand of free range poultry egg and meat production in Australia, and biosecurity practices implemented across farms including farm separations. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.onehlt.2020.100139DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7256052PMC
December 2020

Lasting the distance: The survival of alien birds shipped to New Zealand in the 19th century.

Ecol Evol 2020 May 7;10(9):3944-3953. Epub 2020 Mar 7.

Department of Invasion Ecology Czech Academy of Sciences Institute of Botany Průhonice Czech Republic.

Invasive alien species are a major threat to biodiversity and human activities, providing a strong incentive to understand the processes by which alien invasion occurs. While it is important to understand the determinants of success at each of several invasion stages-transport, introduction, establishment, and spread-few studies have explored the first of these stages. Here, we quantify and analyze variation in the success of individual animals in surviving the transport stage, based on shipping records of European passerines destined for New Zealand. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ece3.6143DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7244811PMC

Competition with insectivorous ants as a contributor to low songbird diversity at low elevations in the eastern Himalaya.

Ecol Evol 2020 May 30;10(10):4280-4290. Epub 2020 Mar 30.

Committee on Evolutionary Biology University of Chicago Chicago IL USA.

Competitive interactions between distantly related clades could cause complementary diversity patterns of these clades over large spatial scales. One such example might be ants and birds in the eastern Himalaya; ants are very common at low elevations but almost absent at mid-elevations where the abundance of other arthropods and insectivorous bird diversity peaks. Here, we ask if ants at low elevations could compete with birds for arthropod prey. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ece3.6196DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7246197PMC

Effects of graded dose dietary supplementation of leaf meal and leaf meal on growth performance, apparent ileal digestibility, and gut morphology in broilers.

Saudi J Biol Sci 2020 Jun 18;27(6):1503-1513. Epub 2020 Apr 18.

Department of Preclinical Sciences, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400 UPM, Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia.

Due to antimicrobial resistance and the public health hazard of antibiotic growth promoters, there is a grave need to find potential alternatives for sustainable poultry production. (PB) and (PO) are herbs, which have been reported for antimicrobial, antioxidant, and anti-inflammatory properties. The present study aimed to estimate the influence of different dose supplementation of leaf meal (PBLM) and leaf meal (POLM) on growth performance, ileal digestibility and gut morphology of broilers chickens. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.sjbs.2020.04.017DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7254159PMC

Modulation of angiogenesis by topical application of leptin and high and low molecular heparin using the Japanese quail chorioallantoic membrane model.

Saudi J Biol Sci 2020 Jun 20;27(6):1488-1493. Epub 2020 Apr 20.

Institute of Animal Biochemistry and Genetics, CBs SAS, Bratislava, Slovakia.

Pathological angiogenesis characterized by uncontrollable vessel growth is an accompanying feature of many diseases. The avian embryo chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) is an excellent model for angiogenesis research. In our study we used a less common Japanese quail CAM model for the testing of angiogenic potential of leptin, high-molecular (heparin sodium) andlow-molecular (nadroparin calcium) heparins. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.sjbs.2020.04.013DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7254038PMC

Foraging behaviour and diet in two sympatric shrike species during autumn migration across the Arabian Peninsula.

Saudi J Biol Sci 2020 Jun 19;27(6):1462-1466. Epub 2020 Apr 19.

Ministry of Environment and Climate Affairs of Oman, PO. Box 323, Muscat, Oman.

In situations of restricted food supply, the trophic niches of closely-related species of animals should be separate. For sit-and-wait hunters, such as shrikes, this is associated with competition for food and hunting sites. In the present study, the foraging behaviour of two shrike species - Red-tailed Shrike and Red-backed Shrike was studied in a desert habitat in Oman. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.sjbs.2020.04.019DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7254029PMC

Mycobacterium marinum Infection Spreading in a "Birds in Flocks" Pattern: All Caseating Granuloma is Not Tuberculosis.

Acta Derm Venereol 2020 Jun 3. Epub 2020 Jun 3.

Department of Dermatology, Kosin University College of Medicine, 262 Gamcheon-ro, Seo-gu, Busan, 602-702, Korea.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.2340/00015555-3538DOI Listing

CD137 costimulation enhances the antiviral activity of Vγ9Vδ2-T cells against influenza virus.

Signal Transduct Target Ther 2020 Jun 3;5(1):74. Epub 2020 Jun 3.

Department of Paediatrics and Adolescent Medicine, Li Ka Shing Faculty of Medicine, The University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong, China.

Influenza epidemics and pandemics are constant threats to global public health. Although strategies including vaccines and antiviral drugs have achieved great advances in controlling influenza virus infection, the efficacy of these strategies is limited by the highly frequent mutations in the viral genome and the emergence of drug-resistant strains. Our previous study indicated that boosting the immunity of human Vγ9Vδ2-T cells with the phosphoantigen pamidronate could be a therapeutic strategy to treat seasonal and avian influenza virus infections. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41392-020-0174-2DOI Listing

Increasing muscle speed drives changes in the neuromuscular transform of motor commands during postnatal development in songbirds.

J Neurosci 2020 Jun 2. Epub 2020 Jun 2.

University of Southern Denmark, Department of Biology, Campusvej 55, 5230 Odense M, Denmark.

Progressive changes in vocal behavior over the course of vocal imitation leaning are often attributed exclusively to developing neural circuits, but the effects of postnatal body changes remain unknown. In songbirds, the syrinx transforms song system motor commands into sound, and exhibits changes during song learning. Here we test the hypothesis that the transformation from motor commands to force trajectories by syringeal muscles functionally changes over vocal development in zebra finches. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1523/JNEUROSCI.0111-20.2020DOI Listing

Diversity of endogenous avian leukosis virus subgroup E (ALVE) insertions in indigenous chickens.

Genet Sel Evol 2020 Jun 1;52(1):29. Epub 2020 Jun 1.

The Roslin Institute and Royal (Dick) School of Veterinary Studies, The University of Edinburgh, Easter Bush, Midlothian, EH25 9RG, UK.

Background: Avian leukosis virus subgroup E (ALVE) insertions are endogenous retroviruses (ERV) that are restricted to the domestic chicken and its wild progenitor. In commercial chickens, ALVE are known to have a detrimental effect on productivity and provide a source for recombination with exogenous retroviruses. The wider diversity of ALVE in non-commercial chickens and the role of these elements in ERV-derived immunity (EDI) are yet to be investigated. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12711-020-00548-4DOI Listing

Upper tidal flats are disproportionately important for the conservation of migratory shorebirds.

Proc Biol Sci 2020 Jun 3;287(1928):20200278. Epub 2020 Jun 3.

Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 08544, USA.

Migratory animals play vital ecological roles in ecosystems worldwide, yet many species are threatened by human activities. Understanding the detailed patterns of habitat use throughout the migration cycle is critical to developing effective conservation strategies for these species. Migratory shorebirds undertake some of the longest known migrations, but they are also declining precipitously worldwide. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1098/rspb.2020.0278DOI Listing

Isolation and characterization of a duck-origin goose astrovirus in China.

Emerg Microbes Infect 2020 Dec;9(1):1046-1054

College of Animal Science and Technology, Shandong Agricultural University, Tai'an, People's Republic of China.

In 2019, a new type of infectious disease characterized with haemorrhage and swellings of kidneys, occurred on commercial duck farms in Shandong province, China. Our systematic investigation led to the isolation of an astrovirus, designated AstV-SDTA strain and was isolated from a diseased duckling using LMH cells. Similar clinical symptoms were reproduced by experimental infection using the AstV-SDTA strain. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/22221751.2020.1765704DOI Listing
December 2020

Predictability of food supply modulates nocturnal hypothermia in a small passerine.

Biol Lett 2020 Jun 3;16(6):20200133. Epub 2020 Jun 3.

Evolutionary Ecology, Lund University, SE-223 62, Sweden.

The combination of short days and long cold winter nights, in temperate regions, presents a major challenge for small diurnal birds. Small birds regularly employ heterothermy and enter rest-phase hypothermia during winter nights to conserve energy. However, we know little about how environmental conditions, such as food availability, shape these strategies. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1098/rsbl.2020.0133DOI Listing

Composting Reduces the Vitality of H9N2 in Poultry Manure and EMCV in Pig Manure Allowing for an Environmentally Friendly Use of These Animal Wastes: A Preliminary Study.

Microorganisms 2020 May 31;8(6). Epub 2020 May 31.

Department of Animal Biosystems Science, Chungnam National University, Daejeon 34134, Korea.

In our study, we monitored the inactivation of two important viruses that are critical in animal husbandry throughout the world. To evaluate the influence of the composting process on inactivation of avian influenza virus (H9N2) in poultry manure compost (PMC) and Encephalomyocarditis virus (EMCV) in pig (swine) manure compost (SMC), the H9N2 and EMCV were injected in dialysis cassettes and buried in two different manure compost piles of poultry and pig manure, respectively. The highest temperature achieved in the PMC and SMC piles during the test period were 75 °C and 73. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/microorganisms8060829DOI Listing

Current Approaches and Applications in Avian Genome Editing.

Int J Mol Sci 2020 May 30;21(11). Epub 2020 May 30.

Department of Animal Sciences, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43210, USA.

Advances in genome-editing technologies and sequencing of animal genomes enable researchers to generate genome-edited (GE) livestock as valuable animal models that benefit biological researches and biomedical and agricultural industries. As birds are an important species in biology and agriculture, their genome editing has gained significant interest and is mainly performed by using a primordial germ cell (PGC)-mediated method because pronuclear injection is not practical in the avian species. In this method, PGCs can be isolated, cultured, genetically edited in vitro, and injected into a recipient embryo to produce GE offspring. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijms21113937DOI Listing

Statistical Explorations and Univariate Timeseries Analysis on COVID-19 Datasets to Understand the Trend of Disease Spreading and Death.

Sensors (Basel) 2020 May 29;20(11). Epub 2020 May 29.

Department of Health and Nursing Science, Centre for e-Health, University of Agder, 4604 Kristiansand, Norway.

"Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2)", the novel coronavirus, is responsible for the ongoing worldwide pandemic. "World Health Organization (WHO)" assigned an "International Classification of Diseases (ICD)" code-"COVID-19"-as the name of the new disease. Coronaviruses are generally transferred by people and many diverse species of animals, including birds and mammals such as cattle, camels, cats, and bats. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/s20113089DOI Listing

Evolutionary Analysis of Infectious Bronchitis Virus Reveals Marked Genetic Diversity and Recombination Events.

Genes (Basel) 2020 May 29;11(6). Epub 2020 May 29.

Division of Biomedical and Life Sciences, Faculty of Health and Medicine, Lancaster University, Lancaster LA1 4YG, UK.

In the last 5 years, frequent outbreaks of infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) are observed in both broiler and layer chicken flocks in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA) in spite of extensive usage of vaccines. The IBV is a widespread avian coronavirus affecting both vaccinated and unvaccinated chicken flocks and is attributed to significant economic losses, around the globe. In the present study, 58 ( = 58) samples were collected from four different commercial poultry flocks from 8 KSA districts during 2019. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/genes11060605DOI Listing

West Nile Virus Restriction in Mosquito and Human Cells: A Virus under Confinement.

Vaccines (Basel) 2020 May 29;8(2). Epub 2020 May 29.

Viral Trafficking, Restriction and Innate Signaling Team, Institut de Recherche en Infectiologie de Montpellier (IRIM), CNRS, 34090 Montpellier, France.

West Nile virus (WNV) is an emerging neurotropic flavivirus that naturally circulates between mosquitoes and birds. However, WNV has a broad host range and can be transmitted from mosquitoes to several mammalian species, including humans, through infected saliva during a blood meal. Although WNV infections are mostly asymptomatic, 20% to 30% of cases are symptomatic and can occasionally lead to severe symptoms, including fatal meningitis or encephalitis. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/vaccines8020256DOI Listing

Age-Dependent Lethality in Ducks Caused by Highly Pathogenic H5N6 Avian Influenza Virus.

Viruses 2020 May 29;12(6). Epub 2020 May 29.

Laboratory of Influenza Research and College of Veterinary Medicine, Chungnam National University, Daejeon 34134, Korea.

Ducks show notably higher resistance to highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses as compared to chickens. Here, we studied the age-dependent susceptibility in ducks to the infections caused by highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses. We intranasally infected ducks aged 1, 2, 4, and 8 weeks with highly pathogenic H5N6 avian influenza viruses isolated in South Korea in 2016. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/v12060591DOI Listing

Effect of Solid-State Fermented Wheat Bran Supplemented with Agrimony Extract on Growth Performance, Fatty Acid Profile, and Meat Quality of Broiler Chickens.

Animals (Basel) 2020 May 29;10(6). Epub 2020 May 29.

Department of Food Hygiene and Technology, University of Veterinary Medicine and Pharmacy in Košice, Komenského 73, 041 81 Košice, Slovakia.

The impact of the broiler diet modification on the following parameters was evaluated: meat quality, carcass traits, and bone and blood parameters. One hundred twenty one-day-old COBB 500 broiler chickens were assigned to three experimental groups (40 birds per group) with four replications (10 per pen) for 35 days of fattening. The control (C) was fed a basic feed mixture. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ani10060942DOI Listing

Development and evaluation of an indirect ELISA based on recombinant structural protein VP2 to detect antibodies against duck hepatitis A virus.

J Virol Methods 2020 May 30;282:113903. Epub 2020 May 30.

Institute of Preventive Veterinary Medicine, Sichuan Agricultural University, Wenjiang, Chengdu City, Sichuan 611130, PR China; Key Laboratory of Animal Disease and Human Health of Sichuan Province, Sichuan Agricultural University, Wenjiang, Chengdu City, Sichuan 611130, PR China; Avian Disease Research Center, College of Veterinary Medicine, Sichuan Agricultural University, Wenjiang, Chengdu City, Sichuan 611130, PR China.

An indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (I-ELISA) based on the VP2 protein of duck hepatitis A virus type 3 (DHAV-3) was established in this study. The optimal dilutions of antigen, serum and goat anti-duck IgG conjugate were 1:1600 (2.23 μg/mL), 1:160 and 1:2000, respectively. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jviromet.2020.113903DOI Listing

Identification and characterization of microRNAs (miRNAs) and their transposable element origins in the saltwater crocodile, Crocodylus porosus.

Anal Biochem 2020 May 30:113781. Epub 2020 May 30.

Department of Biology, Texas Tech University, Lubbock, TX, USA. Electronic address:

MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are 18-24 nucleotide regulatory RNAs. They are involved in the regulation of genetic and biological pathways through post transcriptional gene silencing and/or translational repression. Data suggests a slow evolutionary rate for the saltwater crocodile (Crocodylus porosus) over the past several million years when compared to birds, the closest extant relatives of crocodilians. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ab.2020.113781DOI Listing

The Effect of Optic Nerve Section on Form Deprivation Myopia in the Guinea Pig.

J Comp Neurol 2020 Jun 2. Epub 2020 Jun 2.

School of Optometry, University of California, Berkeley, USA.

Myopia is induced when a growing eye wears a diffuser that deprives it of detailed spatial vision (form deprivation, FD). In chickens with optic nerve section (ONS), FD myopia still occurs, suggesting that the signals underlying myopia reside within the eye. As avian eyes differ from mammals, we asked whether local mechanisms also underlie FD myopia in a mammalian model. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/cne.24961DOI Listing

Avian gut experiments: an alternative approach for teaching the properties of intestinal smooth muscles.

Adv Physiol Educ 2020 Sep;44(3):295-304

Department of Physiology, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, Rishikesh (Uttarakhand), India.

Experiments on isolated mammalian gut are essential components of the physiology curriculum worldwide. Over the years, these routine experiments have been largely replaced by simulation modules, to reduce the euthanization of animals for understanding established facts and mechanisms in gut physiology. However, a medical undergraduate needs hands-on training to handle a living tissue to have a better understanding of physiology. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1152/advan.00195.2019DOI Listing
September 2020

Optimization of a High-Throughput Cell-Based Screening Strategy to Identify Small-Molecule Inhibitors of IL-23 Signaling.

SLAS Discov 2020 Jun 2:2472555220923362. Epub 2020 Jun 2.

Lead Discovery & Profiling, Janssen Research & Development, Spring House, PA, USA.

Interleukin-23 (IL-23) is a key cytokine implicated in the pathogenesis of autoimmune disorders, including psoriasis and ulcerative colitis. Although targeted IL-23 antibody therapeutics are used clinically, there are no small-molecule therapeutics that selectively inhibit IL-23 signaling. To address this gap, we developed a high-throughput screening strategy employing an IL-23-responsive cell-based luciferase reporter gene assay as the primary screen, with cellular cytotoxicity and off-target counter screening assays to identify IL-23 pathway-specific inhibitors. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/2472555220923362DOI Listing

Oral immunization with an attenuated Gallinarum encoding the H9N2 hemagglutinin and M2 ectodomain induces protective immune responses against H9N2 infection in chickens.

Avian Pathol 2020 Jun 2:1-38. Epub 2020 Jun 2.

College of Veterinary Medicine, Jeonbuk National University, Iksan, 54596, Republic of Korea.

H9N2, a low pathogenic avian influenza (LPAI) virus, causes significant economic losses in the poultry industry worldwide. Herein, we describe the construction of an attenuated Gallinarum (SG) strain for expression and delivery of H9N2 hemagglutinin (HA) 1 (SG-HA1), HA2 (SG-HA2) and/or the conserved matrix protein 2 ectodomain (SG-M2e). We demonstrated that recombinant SG strains expressing HA1, HA2 and M2e antigens were immunogenic and safe in a chicken model. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/03079457.2020.1775782DOI Listing
June 2020
1.639 Impact Factor

Water and Food restriction decreases immunoreactivity of oestrogen receptor alpha and antioxidant activity in testes of sexually mature Coturnix coturnix japonica.

J Anim Physiol Anim Nutr (Berl) 2020 Jun 1. Epub 2020 Jun 1.

Avian Reproductive Physiology and Endocrinology Laboratory, Department of Zoology, School of Biological Sciences, Dr. Harisingh Gour Central University, Sagar, India.

Food and water are closely associated with reproductive willingness in vertebrates. These are important for animals and their non-availability act as stressors which decrease sex steroid secretion suppressing reproductive behaviour. Oestrogen plays a crucial role in reproduction via its receptors alpha (ERα) and beta (ERβ). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jpn.13394DOI Listing

Genetic and antigenic characterization of influenza A/H5N1 viruses isolated from patients in Indonesia, 2008-2015.

Virus Genes 2020 Jun 1. Epub 2020 Jun 1.

Department of Medical Microbiology, Amsterdam UMC, University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.

Since the initial detection in 2003, Indonesia has reported 200 human cases of highly pathogenic avian influenza H5N1 (HPAI H5N1), associated with an exceptionally high case fatality rate (84%) compared to other geographical regions affected by other genetic clades of the virus. However, there is limited information on the genetic diversity of HPAI H5N1 viruses, especially those isolated from humans in Indonesia. In this study, the genetic and antigenic characteristics of 35 HPAI H5N1 viruses isolated from humans were analyzed. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11262-020-01765-1DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7262163PMC

Specialized feathers produce sonations during flight in Columbina ground doves.

Integr Comp Biol 2020 Jun 1. Epub 2020 Jun 1.

Field Research Station at Fort Missoula, Division of Biological Sciences, University of Montana, Missoula, MT, USA.

The shape of remiges (primary and secondary feathers) is constrained and stereotyped by the demands of flight, but members of the subfamily of New World ground doves (Peristerinae) possess many atypical remex shapes with which they produce sonations of alarm. Within the genus Columbina specifically, the seventh primary feathers (P7) have elongated barbs that create a protrusion on the trailing vane which varies in size and shape between species. These feathers are hypothesized have been coopted to produce communicative sounds (i. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/icb/icaa051DOI Listing