14,917 results match your criteria Avian Influenza


Identification of optimal sample collection devices and sampling locations for the detection environmental viral contamination in wire poultry cages.

Transbound Emerg Dis 2020 Jul 8. Epub 2020 Jul 8.

Southeast Poultry Research Laboratory, USDA-ARS, US National Poultry Research Center, Athens, GA, USA.

Environmental testing of poultry premises after an outbreak of an infectious disease like avian influenza (AI) or Newcastle disease, is essential to promptly verify virus-free status and subsequently return to normal operations. In an attempt to establish an optimized sampling protocol a laboratory study simulating an AI virus contaminated poultry house with wire layer cages was conducted. Three sample collection devices, pre-moistened cotton gauze, dry cotton gauze, and a foam swab, were evaluated with each of four sample locations within a cage and when sampling all four locations with one device. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/tbed.13721DOI Listing

COVID-19 and ethical preparedness?

Authors:
Christiane Druml

Wien Klin Wochenschr 2020 Jul 8. Epub 2020 Jul 8.

UNESCO Chair on Bioethics at the Medical University of Vienna, Ethics, Collections and History of Medicine, Medical University of Vienna, 1090, Vienna, Austria.

Mankind has to prepare for a pandemic with respect to medical and practical aspects, but also with respect to ethical issues. There are various ethical guidelines for managing infectious disease outbreaks, but they do not apply to the specific aspects of the COVID-19 pandemic, since they were formulated after the different kinds of outbreaks of avian influenza and Ebola. Today we are confronted with completely new issues endangering our fundamental human rights. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00508-020-01709-7DOI Listing

H9N2 influenza virus infections in human cells require a balance between NA sialidase activity and HA receptor affinity.

J Virol 2020 Jul 8. Epub 2020 Jul 8.

Department of Infectious Diseases, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Kyoto Prefectural University of Medicine, Kyoto, Japan

Some avian influenza (AI) viruses have a deletion of up to 20-30 amino acids in their NA stalk. This has been associated with changes in virus replication and host range. Currently prevalent H9N2 AI viruses only have a 2 or 3 amino acid deletion, which were detected in G1 and Y280 lineage viruses, respectively. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/JVI.01210-20DOI Listing

Patterns of Avian Influenza A (H5) and A (H9) virus infection in backyard, commercial broiler and layer chicken farms in Bangladesh.

Transbound Emerg Dis 2020 Jul 8. Epub 2020 Jul 8.

School of Veterinary Science, University of Queensland, Gatton, Qld, Australia.

In order to control Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza (HPAI) H5N1 and Low Pathogenic Avian Influenza (LPAI) H9N2 virus spread in endemically infected countries, a detailed understanding of infection patterns is required. We conducted cross-sectional studies in Bangladesh in 2016 and 2017, on 144 backyard, 106 broiler and 113 layer chicken farms. Although all sampled birds were negative for H5 virus by RT-PCR, H5 antibodies were detected in unvaccinated birds on all three farming systems. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/tbed.13657DOI Listing

Epidemiology and Genotypic Diversity of Eurasian Avian-Like H1N1 Swine Influenza Viruses in China.

Virol Sin 2020 Jul 7. Epub 2020 Jul 7.

National Institute for Viral Disease Control and Prevention, Collaboration Innovation Center for Diagnosis and Treatment of Infectious Diseases, Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention; Key Laboratory for Medical Virology, National Health and Family Planning Commission, Beijing 102206, China.

Eurasian avian-like H1N1 (EA H1N1) swine influenza virus (SIV) outside European countries was first detected in Hong Kong Special Administrative Region (Hong Kong, SAR) of China in 2001. Afterwards, EA H1N1 SIVs have become predominant in pig population in this country. However, the epidemiology and genotypic diversity of EA H1N1 SIVs in China are still unknown. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12250-020-00257-8DOI Listing

Enhanced Potency of a Broad H7N9-Neutralizing Antibody HNIgGA6 Through Structure-Based Design.

Front Microbiol 2020 19;11:1313. Epub 2020 Jun 19.

NHC Key Laboratory of Systems Biology of Pathogens, Institute of Pathogen Biology, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical College, Beijing, China.

H7N9 influenza virus was first isolated in 2013 and has caused five epidemic waves among humans to date. Treatment opinions are currently limited. Previously, we characterized a human neutralizing antibody, HNIgGA6, by isolating rearranged heavy- and light-chain genes from convalescent patients. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fmicb.2020.01313DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7316883PMC

Collective interactions augment influenza A virus replication in a host-dependent manner.

Nat Microbiol 2020 Jul 6. Epub 2020 Jul 6.

Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Emory University School of Medicine, Atlanta, GA, USA.

Infection with a single influenza A virus (IAV) is only rarely sufficient to initiate productive infection. Instead, multiple viral genomes are often required in a given cell. Here, we show that the reliance of IAV on multiple infection can form an important species barrier. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41564-020-0749-2DOI Listing

Pulmonary endothelium-derived PD-L1 induced by the H9N2 avian influenza virus inhibits the immune response of T cells.

Virol J 2020 Jul 6;17(1):92. Epub 2020 Jul 6.

National Referece Lab for Poultry Diseases, Animal Sciences Institute, National Agricultural Research Center, Islamabad, 45500, Pakistan.

Background: The PD-1/PD-L1 pathway is an inhibitory signaling pathway that maintains the balance between the immune response and immunotolerance, and its overactivation in cancer and viral infections inhibits T cell function. The target cells of various viruses, microvascular endothelial cells (MECs) have been shown to be key regulatory points in immune regulation and virion diffusion in vivo during infection with multiple influenza virus subtypes. Furthermore, avian influenza virus (AIV) infection can induce immunosuppression by causing imbalances in immune responses and immune organ damage. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12985-020-01341-xDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7336647PMC

Replication of a Dog-Origin H6N1 Influenza Virus in Cell Culture and Mice.

Viruses 2020 Jun 30;12(7). Epub 2020 Jun 30.

School of Veterinary Medicine, National Taiwan University, Taipei 10617, Taiwan.

The world's first natural avian-origin H6N1 influenza A virus infection case in dogs was confirmed in Taiwan in 2014. The H6N1 virus in chickens has been endemic in Taiwan since 1972. Whether the dog H6N1 virus has interspecies transmission potential is the key issue we aim to understand. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/v12070704DOI Listing

Avian influenza overview November 2018 - February 2019.

EFSA J 2019 Mar 28;17(3):e05664. Epub 2019 Mar 28.

No human infections due to highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) A(H5N8) or A(H5N6) viruses - detected in wild birds and poultry outbreaks in Europe - have been reported so far and the risk of zoonotic transmission to the general public in Europe is considered very low. Between 16 November 2018 and 15 February 2019, two HPAI A(H5N8) outbreaks in poultry establishments in Bulgaria, two HPAI A(H5N6) outbreaks in wild birds in Denmark and one low pathogenic avian influenza (LPAI) A(H5N3) in captive birds in the Netherlands were reported in the European Union (EU). Genetic characterisation of the HPAI A(H5N6) viruses reveals that they cluster with the A(H5N6) viruses that have been circulating in Europe since December 2017. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.2903/j.efsa.2019.5664DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7009136PMC

SIGMA Animal Disease Data Model: A comprehensive approach for the collection of standardised data on animal diseases.

EFSA J 2019 Jan 21;17(1):e05556. Epub 2019 Jan 21.

The European Commission is routinely asking EFSA for scientific and technical support in the epidemiological analysis of animal disease outbreaks (i.e. African swine fever, lumpy skin disease and avian influenza) and to report or assess surveillance data (i. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.2903/j.efsa.2019.5556DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7009180PMC
January 2019

Avian influenza overview May - August 2018.

EFSA J 2018 Sep 27;16(9):e05430. Epub 2018 Sep 27.

Between 16 May and 15 August 2018, three highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) A(H5N8) outbreaks in poultry establishments and three HPAI A(H5N6) outbreaks in wild birds were reported in Europe. Three low pathogenic avian influenza (LPAI) outbreaks were reported in three Member States. Few HPAI and LPAI bird cases have been detected in this period of the year, in accordance with the seasonal expected pattern of LPAI and HPAI. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.2903/j.efsa.2018.5430DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7009402PMC
September 2018

Avian influenza overview February - May 2018.

EFSA J 2018 Jun 29;16(6):e05358. Epub 2018 Jun 29.

Between 16 February and 15 May 2018, three highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) A(H5N6) and 11 HPAI A(H5N8) outbreaks in poultry holdings, one HPAI A(H5N6) and one HPAI A(H5N8) outbreak in captive birds, and 55 HPAI A(H5N6) wild bird events were reported in Europe. There is no evidence to date that HPAI A(H5N6) viruses circulating in Europe are associated with clades infecting humans. Fewer HPAI wild bird cases have been detected than during the same period of previous year. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.2903/j.efsa.2018.5358DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7009712PMC

Avian influenza overview November 2017 - February 2018.

EFSA J 2018 Mar 28;16(3):e05240. Epub 2018 Mar 28.

Between 16 November 2017 and 15 February 2018, one highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) A(H5N6) and five HPAI A(H5N8) outbreaks in poultry holdings, two HPAI A(H5N6) outbreaks in captive birds and 22 HPAI A(H5N6) wild bird events were reported within Europe. There is a lower incursion of HPAI A(H5N6) in poultry compared to HPAI A(H5N8). There is no evidence to date that HPAI A(H5N6) viruses circulating in Europe are associated with clades infecting humans. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.2903/j.efsa.2018.5240DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7009675PMC

Avian influenza overview August - November 2018.

EFSA J 2018 Dec 20;16(12):e05573. Epub 2018 Dec 20.

Between 16 August and 15 November 2018, 14 highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) A(H5N8) outbreaks in poultry establishments in Bulgaria and seven HPAI A(H5N6) outbreaks, one in captive birds in Germany and six in wild birds in Denmark and the Netherlands were reported in the European Union (EU). No human infection due to HPAI A(H5N8) and A(H5N6) viruses have been reported in Europe so far. Seroconversion of people exposed during outbreaks in Russia has been reported in one study. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.2903/j.efsa.2018.5573DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7009621PMC
December 2018

Reporting Avian Influenza surveillance.

EFSA J 2018 Nov 29;16(11):e05493. Epub 2018 Nov 29.

Avian influenza viruses infect domestic poultry and wild birds as well as humans. In poultry, depending on whether these viruses are of high pathogenicity (HPAI) or low pathogenicity (LPAI), the infection can cause different clinical signs, with HPAI causing high mortality in poultry flocks. In order to ensure early detection of avian influenza viruses, surveillance in poultry and wild birds is considered essential. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.2903/j.efsa.2018.5493DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7009584PMC
November 2018

Assessment of low pathogenic avian influenza virus transmission via raw poultry meat and raw table eggs.

EFSA J 2018 Oct 15;16(10):e05431. Epub 2018 Oct 15.

A rapid qualitative assessment has been done by performing a theoretical analysis on the transmission of low pathogenic avian influenza (LPAI) via fresh meat from poultry reared or kept in captivity for the production of meat (raw poultry meat) or raw table eggs. A predetermined transmission pathway followed a number of steps from a commercial or non-commercial poultry establishment within the EU exposed to LPAI virus (LPAIV) to the onward virus transmission to animals and humans. The combined probability of exposure and subsequent LPAIV infection via raw poultry meat containing LPAIV is negligible for commercial poultry and humans exposed via consumption whereas it is very unlikely for non-commercial poultry, wild birds and humans exposed via handling and manipulation. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.2903/j.efsa.2018.5431DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7009628PMC
October 2018

Assessment of listing and categorisation of animal diseases within the framework of the Animal Health Law (Regulation (EU) No 2016/429): low pathogenic avian influenza.

EFSA J 2017 Jul 21;15(7):e04891. Epub 2017 Jul 21.

Low pathogenic avian influenza (LPAI) has been assessed according to the criteria of the Animal Health Law (AHL), in particular criteria of Article 7 on disease profile and impacts, Article 5 on the eligibility of LPAI to be listed, Article 9 for the categorisation of LPAI according to disease prevention and control rules as in Annex IV and Article 8 on the list of animal species related to LPAI. The assessment has been performed following a methodology composed of information collection and compilation, expert judgement on each criterion at individual and, if no consensus was reached before, also at collective levels. The output is composed of the categorical answer, and for the questions where no consensus was reached, the different supporting views are reported. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.2903/j.efsa.2017.4891DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7009921PMC

Avian influenza overview September - November 2017.

EFSA J 2017 Dec 22;15(12):e05141. Epub 2017 Dec 22.

Between 1 September and 15 November 2017, 48 A(H5N8) highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) outbreaks in poultry holdings and 9 H5 HPAI wild bird events were reported within Europe. A second epidemic HPAI A(H5N8) wave started in Italy on the third week of July and is still ongoing on 15 November 2017. The Italian epidemiological investigations indicated that sharing of vehicles, sharing of personnel and close proximity to infected holdings are the more likely sources of secondary spread in a densely populated poultry area. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.2903/j.efsa.2017.5141DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7010192PMC
December 2017

Avian influenza overview October 2016-August 2017.

EFSA J 2017 Oct 16;15(10):e05018. Epub 2017 Oct 16.

The A(H5N8) highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) epidemic occurred in 29 European countries in 2016/2017 and has been the largest ever recorded in the EU in terms of number of poultry outbreaks, geographical extent and number of dead wild birds. Multiple primary incursions temporally related with all major poultry sectors affected but secondary spread was most commonly associated with domestic waterfowl species. A massive effort of all the affected EU Member States (MSs) allowed a descriptive epidemiological overview of the cases in poultry, captive birds and wild birds, providing also information on measures applied at the individual MS level. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.2903/j.efsa.2017.5018DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7009863PMC
October 2017

Avian influenza.

EFSA J 2017 Oct 16;15(10):e04991. Epub 2017 Oct 16.

Previous introductions of highly pathogenic avian influenza virus (HPAIV) to the EU were most likely via migratory wild birds. A mathematical model has been developed which indicated that virus amplification and spread may take place when wild bird populations of sufficient size within EU become infected. Low pathogenic avian influenza virus (LPAIV) may reach similar maximum prevalence levels in wild bird populations to HPAIV but the risk of LPAIV infection of a poultry holding was estimated to be lower than that of HPAIV. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.2903/j.efsa.2017.4991DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7009867PMC
October 2017

Urgent request on avian influenza.

EFSA J 2017 Jan 30;15(1):e04687. Epub 2017 Jan 30.

Highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) H5N8 is currently causing an epizootic in Europe, infecting many poultry holdings as well as captive and wild bird species in more than 10 countries. Given the clear clinical manifestation, passive surveillance is considered the most effective means of detecting infected wild and domestic birds. Testing samples from new species and non-previously reported areas is key to determine the geographic spread of HPAIV H5N8 2016 in wild birds. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.2903/j.efsa.2016.4687DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7009852PMC
January 2017

Trade-off between local transmission and long-range dispersal drives infectious disease outbreak size in spatially structured populations.

PLoS Comput Biol 2020 Jul 6;16(7):e1008009. Epub 2020 Jul 6.

Centre for Infectious Disease Control, National Institute for Public Health and the Environment, The Netherlands.

Transmission of infectious diseases between immobile hosts (e.g., plants, farms) is strongly dependent on the spatial distribution of hosts and the distance-dependent probability of transmission. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pcbi.1008009DOI Listing

Avian influenza overview February- August 2019.

EFSA J 2019 Sep 27;17(9):e05843. Epub 2019 Sep 27.

Between 16 February and 15 August 2019, five HPAI A(H5N8) outbreaks at poultry establishments in Bulgaria, two low pathogenic avian influenza (LPAI) A(H5N1) outbreaks in poultry in Denmark and one in captive birds in Germany, one LPAI A(H7N3) outbreak in poultry in Italy and one LPAI A(H7N7) outbreak in poultry in Denmark were reported in Europe. Genetic characterisation reveals that viruses from Denmark cluster with viruses previously identified in wild birds and poultry in Europe; while the Italian isolate clusters with LPAI viruses circulating in wild birds in Central Asia. No avian influenza outbreaks in wild birds were notified in Europe in the relevant period for this report. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.2903/j.efsa.2019.5843DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7009306PMC
September 2019

Avian influenza overview August - November2019.

EFSA J 2019 Dec 20;17(12):e05988. Epub 2019 Dec 20.

Between 16 August and 15 November 2019, one low pathogenic avian influenza (LPAI) A(H5) outbreak in poultry in France was reported in Europe. Genetic characterisation reveals that the virusclusterswith Eurasian LPAI viruses. No highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) outbreaks in birds were notified in Europe in the relevant period for this report. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.2903/j.efsa.2019.5988DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7008850PMC
December 2019

Annual Report on surveillance for avian influenza in poultry and wild birds in Member States of the European Union in 2018.

EFSA J 2019 Dec 19;17(12):e05945. Epub 2019 Dec 19.

Avian influenza (AI) is a viral infectious disease that affects all species of domestic and wild birds. The viruses causing this disease can be of high (HPAI) or low (LPAI) pathogenicity and represent a continuous threat to poultry in Europe. Council Directive 2005/94/EC requests EU Member States (MSs) to carry out surveillance in poultry and wild birds and notify the results to the responsible authority. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.2903/j.efsa.2019.5945DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7008901PMC
December 2019

Investigation of Avian Influenza Viruses (H9N2-H5nx) in Pigeons during Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza Outbreaks in Iran, in 2016.

Arch Razi Inst 2020 Jun 1;75(2):197-203. Epub 2020 Jun 1.

Department of Poultry Diseases Research, Razi Vaccine and Serum Research Institute, Agricultural Research, Education and Extension Organization (AREEO), Karaj, Iran.

Avian influenza (AI) virus (H9N2 and H5 subtypes) infections in birds cause major concerns around the world. The majority of the avian species, such as domestic, pet, and wild birds, are natural and experimental hosts of avian influenza viruses. There are global concerns about members of the Columbidae family, namely pigeons or doves, for their role as the potential interspecies bridge in influenza A viruses ecology. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.22092/ari.2019.123439.1250DOI Listing

Diversity of influenza A viruses retrieved from respiratory disease outbreaks and subclinically infected herds in Spain (2017-2019).

Transbound Emerg Dis 2020 Jul 3. Epub 2020 Jul 3.

Dept. Sanitat i Anatomia Animals, Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, Facultat de Veterinària, Travessera dels Turons s/n, campus UAB, 08193, Cerdanyola del Vallès, Spain.

The present study was aimed to assess the diversity of influenza A viruses (IAV) circulating in pig farms in the Iberian Peninsula. The study included two different situations: farms suffering respiratory disease outbreaks compatible with IAV (n= 211) and randomly selected farms without overt respiratory disease (n=19). Initially, presence of IAV and lineage determination were assessed by qRT-PCR using nasal swabs. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/tbed.13709DOI Listing

Pathogenicity of clade 2.3.2.1 H5N1 highly pathogenic avian influenza virus in American kestrel ().

Avian Pathol 2020 Jul 3:1-14. Epub 2020 Jul 3.

Birds of prey, including endangered species, have been infected with H5 highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses (HPAIVs) in several countries. In this present study, we assessed the pathogenicity of the clade 2.3. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/03079457.2020.1787337DOI Listing

Herpesvirus of turkey vectored avian influenza vaccine offers cross-protection against antigenically drifted H5Nx highly pathogenic avian influenza virus strains.

Avian Pathol 2020 Jul 2:1-25. Epub 2020 Jul 2.

Ceva-Phylaxia, Ceva Sante Animale, Budapest 1107, Hungary.

Among the different vaccines used to control highly pathogenic avian influenza a HVT vector-based live recombinant avian influenza vaccine, expressing the hemagglutinin gene of a H5N1 HPAI virus, has been used by the poultry industry since 2012. The objective of the study presented in this paper was to test the efficacy of the commercially available HVT-based recombinant H5 vaccine against antigenically drifted H5N1, H5N8 and H5N2 HPAI virus circulating in Egypt recently. Groups of SPF chicks vaccinated at day-old with the HVT-based recombinant H5 vaccine were challenged, along with non-vaccinated controls, with 10 EID each of H5N1, H5N2 and H5N8 HPAI virus at 28 days of age. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/03079457.2020.1790502DOI Listing

Supplemental dietary selenium enhances immune responses conferred by a vaccine against low pathogenicity avian influenza virus.

Vet Immunol Immunopathol 2020 Jun 25;227:110089. Epub 2020 Jun 25.

Department of Pathobiology, Ontario Veterinary College, University of Guelph, ON, Canada. Electronic address:

Selenium is a trace mineral that has antioxidant activities and can influence the immune system. However, antiviral effects of selenium have not been well studies in chickens. Chickens were therefore fed diets supplemented with two levels of two different sources of selenium (organic: selenium enriched yeast; SEY or inorganic: sodium selenite; SS). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.vetimm.2020.110089DOI Listing

The emerging role and significance of circular RNAs in viral infections and antiviral immune responses: possible implication as theranostic agents.

RNA Biol 2020 Jul 2. Epub 2020 Jul 2.

Institute of Molecular Biology and Biotechnology (IMBB), The University of Lahore (UOL) , Lahore, Pakistan.

Circular RNAs (circRNAs) are ubiquitously expressed, covalently closed rings, produced by pre-mRNA splicing in a reversed order during post-transcriptional processing. Circularity endows 3'-5'-linked circRNAs with stability and resistance to exonucleolytic degradation which raises the question whether circRNAs may be relevant as potential therapeutic targets or agents. High stability in biological systems is the most remarkable property and a major criterion for why circRNAs could be exploited for a range of RNA-centered medical applications. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/15476286.2020.1790198DOI Listing

Different environmental gradients associated to the spatiotemporal and genetic pattern of the H5N8 highly pathogenic avian influenza outbreaks in poultry in Italy.

Transbound Emerg Dis 2020 Jul 2. Epub 2020 Jul 2.

Istituto Zooprofilattico Sperimentale delle Venezie, Legnaro (Padua), Italy.

Comprehensive understanding of the patterns and drivers of avian influenza outbreaks is pivotal to inform surveillance systems and heighten nations' ability to quickly detect and respond to the emergence of novel viruses. Starting in early 2017, the Italian poultry sector has been involved in the massive H5N8 highly pathogenic avian influenza epidemic that spread in the majority of the European countries in 2016/2017. Eighty-three outbreaks were recorded in north-eastern Italy, where a densely populated poultry area stretches along the Lombardy, Emilia-Romagna and Veneto regions. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/tbed.13661DOI Listing

Genetically and antigenically divergent influenza A(H9N2) viruses exhibit differential replication and transmission phenotypes in mammalian models.

J Virol 2020 Jul 1. Epub 2020 Jul 1.

Influenza Division, National Center for Immunization and Respiratory Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia, USA

Low pathogenicity avian influenza A(H9N2) viruses, enzootic in poultry populations in Asia, are associated with fewer confirmed human infections but higher rates of seropositivity compared to A(H5) or A(H7) subtype viruses. Co-circulation of A(H5) and A(H7) viruses leads to the generation of reassortant viruses bearing A(H9N2) internal genes with markers of mammalian adaptation, warranting continued surveillance in both avian and human populations. Here, we describe active surveillance efforts in live poultry markets in Vietnam in 2018 and compare representative viruses to G1 and Y280 lineage viruses that have infected humans. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/JVI.00451-20DOI Listing

Structure of avian influenza hemagglutinin in complex with a small molecule entry inhibitor.

Life Sci Alliance 2020 Aug 1;3(8). Epub 2020 Jul 1.

Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Genetics, University of Illinois at Chicago, Chicago, IL, USA

HA plays a critical role in influenza infection and, thus HA is a potential target for antivirals. Recently, our laboratories have described a novel fusion inhibitor, termed CBS1117, with EC ∼3 μM against group 1 HA. In this work, we characterize the binding properties of CBS1117 to avian H5 HA by x-ray crystallography, NMR, and mutagenesis. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.26508/lsa.202000724DOI Listing

Assessing the application of a pseudovirus system for emerging SARS-CoV-2 and re-emerging avian influenza virus H5 subtypes in vaccine development.

Biomed J 2020 Jun 6. Epub 2020 Jun 6.

National Institute of Infectious Diseases and Vaccinology, National Health Research Institutes, Tainan, Taiwan; Department of Medical Laboratory Science and Biotechnology, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan, Taiwan; Department of Pathology, National Cheng Kung University Hospital, Tainan, Taiwan; Center of Infectious Disease and Signaling Research, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan, Taiwan. Electronic address:

Background: Highly pathogenic emerging and re-emerging viruses continuously threaten lives worldwide. In order to provide prophylactic prevention from the emerging and re-emerging viruses, vaccine is suggested as the most efficient way to prevent individuals from the threat of viral infection. Nonetheless, the highly pathogenic viruses need to be handled in a high level of biosafety containment, which hinders vaccine development. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bj.2020.06.003DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7274974PMC

Molecular cloning, tissue distribution and function analysis of duck TLR7.

Anim Biotechnol 2020 Jul 1:1-8. Epub 2020 Jul 1.

Institute of Animal Husbandry and Veterinary Medicine, Zhejiang Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Hangzhou, Zhejiang, China.

Toll-like receptors (TLRs) play an important role in detecting pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs). Among the TLRs, TLR7 is involved in the recognition of antiviral compounds and single-stranded RNA. This study was designed to explore the structure and function of TLR7 in duck (), a natural host for avian influenza virus. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10495398.2020.1784186DOI Listing

Molecular characterization and pathogenesis of H9N2 avian influenza virus isolated from a racing pigeon.

Vet Microbiol 2020 Jul 2;246:108747. Epub 2020 Jun 2.

Key Laboratory of Preventive Veterinary Medicine, Department of Veterinary Medicine, Animal Science College, Hebei North University, Zhangjiakou, 075131, PR China.

H9N2 avian influenza viruses (AIVs) can cross species barriers and expand from birds tomammals and humans. It usually leads to economic loss for breeding farms and poses a serious threat to human health.This study investigated the molecular characteristics of H9N2 AIV isolated from a racing pigeon and its pathogenesis in BALB/c mice and pigeons. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.vetmic.2020.108747DOI Listing

Pathogenicity of different H5N6 highly pathogenic avian influenza virus strains and host immune responses in chickens.

Vet Microbiol 2020 Jul 2;246:108745. Epub 2020 Jun 2.

College of Veterinary Medicine, South China Agricultural University, Guangzhou, 510642, China; Guangdong Laboratory for Lingnan Modern Agriculture, Guangzhou, 510642, China. Electronic address:

The H5N6 highly pathogenic avian influenza virus (HPAIV) has been circulating in China since 2013. In this report, we describe our recent chicken experimental studies investigating the pathogenicity and transmission of four H5N6 HPAIV field strains of different origins (GS39, CK44, DK47 and CK74) and the host immune responses. Four-week-old specific-pathogen-free chickens were inoculated intranasally with one of the four H5N6 HPAIV strains (one strain per group). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.vetmic.2020.108745DOI Listing

Protective efficacy of a bivalent inactivated reassortant H1N1 influenza virus vaccine against European avian-like and classical swine influenza H1N1 viruses in mice.

Vet Microbiol 2020 Jul 19;246:108724. Epub 2020 May 19.

Shanghai Veterinary Research Institute, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Shanghai 200241, China; Jiangsu Co-innovation Center for Prevention and Control of Important Animal Infectious Diseases and Zoonoses, Yangzhou 225009, China.

The classical swine (CS) H1N1 swine influenza virus (SIVs) emerged in humans as a reassortant virus that caused the H1N1 influenza virus pandemic in 2009, and the European avian-like (EA) H1N1 SIVs has caused several human infections in European and Asian countries. Development of the influenza vaccines that could provide effective protective efficacy against SIVs remains a challenge. In this study, the bivalent reassortant inactivated vaccine comprised of SH1/PR8 and G11/PR8 arboring the hemagglutinin (HA) and neuraminidase (NA) genes from prevalent CS and EA H1N1 SIVs and six internal genes from the A/Puerto Rico/8/34(PR8) virus was developed. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.vetmic.2020.108724DOI Listing

Coronavirus Disease Pandemic (COVID-19): Challenges and a Global Perspective.

Pathogens 2020 06 28;9(7). Epub 2020 Jun 28.

Division of Veterinary Biotechnology, ICAR-Indian Veterinary Research Institute, Izatnagar, Bareilly, Uttar Pradesh 243122, India.

The technology-driven world of the 21 century is currently confronted with a major threat to humankind, represented by the coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic, caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome, coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2). As of now, COVID-19 has affected more than 6 million confirmed cases and took 0.39 million human lives. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/pathogens9070519DOI Listing

Establishing a Robust Manufacturing Platform for Recombinant Veterinary Vaccines: An Adenovirus-Vector Vaccine to Control Newcastle Disease Virus Infections of Poultry in Sub-Saharan Africa.

Vaccines (Basel) 2020 Jun 26;8(2). Epub 2020 Jun 26.

Viral Vectors and Vaccines Bioprocessing Group, Department of Bioengineering, McGill University, Montreal, QC H3A 0G4, Canada.

Developing vaccine technology platforms to respond to pandemic threats or zoonotic diseases is a worldwide high priority. The risk of infectious diseases transmitted from wildlife and domestic animals to humans makes veterinary vaccination and animal health monitoring highly relevant for the deployment of public health global policies in the context of "one world, one health" principles. Sub-Saharan Africa is frequently impacted by outbreaks of poultry diseases such as avian influenza and Newcastle Disease (ND). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/vaccines8020338DOI Listing

Induction of cross-group broadly reactive antibody response by natural H7N9 avian influenza virus infection and immunization with inactivated H7N9 vaccine in chickens.

Transbound Emerg Dis 2020 Jun 29. Epub 2020 Jun 29.

Joint International Research Laboratory of Agriculture and Agri-Product Safety, The Ministry of Education of China, Yangzhou University, Yangzhou, China.

Pre-existing immunity against the conserved hemagglutinin (HA) stalk underlies the elicitation of cross-group antibody induced by natural H7N9 virus infection and immunization in humans. However, whether broadly reactive antibodies can be induced by H7N9 infection and immunization in the absence of pre-existing stalk-specific immunity is unclear. In this study, antibody response induced by H7N9 virus infection and immunization with inactivated and viral-vectored H7N9 vaccines in naïve chickens was analyzed. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/tbed.13705DOI Listing

Prevalent Eurasian avian-like H1N1 swine influenza virus with 2009 pandemic viral genes facilitating human infection.

Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2020 Jun 29. Epub 2020 Jun 29.

Key Laboratory of Animal Epidemiology and Zoonosis, Ministry of Agriculture, College of Veterinary Medicine, China Agricultural University, 100193 Beijing, China;

Pigs are considered as important hosts or "mixing vessels" for the generation of pandemic influenza viruses. Systematic surveillance of influenza viruses in pigs is essential for early warning and preparedness for the next potential pandemic. Here, we report on an influenza virus surveillance of pigs from 2011 to 2018 in China, and identify a recently emerged genotype 4 (G4) reassortant Eurasian avian-like (EA) H1N1 virus, which bears 2009 pandemic (pdm/09) and triple-reassortant (TR)-derived internal genes and has been predominant in swine populations since 2016. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1921186117DOI Listing

Human TRA2A determines influenza A virus host adaptation by regulating viral mRNA splicing.

Sci Adv 2020 Jun 19;6(25):eaaz5764. Epub 2020 Jun 19.

State Key Laboratory of Agricultural Microbiology, College of Veterinary Medicine, Huazhong Agricultural University, Wuhan 430070, China.

Several avian influenza A viruses (IAVs) have adapted to mammalian species, including humans. To date, the mechanisms enabling these host shifts remain incompletely understood. Here, we show that a host factor, human TRA2A (huTRA2A), inhibits avian IAV replication, but benefits human IAV replication by altered regulation of viral messenger RNA (mRNA) splicing. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1126/sciadv.aaz5764DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7304988PMC

Duck PIAS2 Promotes H5N1 Avian Influenza Virus Replication Through Its SUMO E3 Ligase Activity.

Front Microbiol 2020 11;11:1246. Epub 2020 Jun 11.

College of Veterinary Medicine, South China Agricultural University, Guangzhou, China.

The protein inhibitor of the activated STAT2 (PIAS2) has been implicated in many cellular processes and can also regulate viral replication in mammals. However, the role of PIAS2 in the highly pathogenic avian influenza virus (HPAIV) H5N1 replication in ducks is still unclear. Through liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) assay, we identified that duck PIAS2 (duPIAS2) was one protein that interacted with the nucleoprotein (NP) from the H5N1 HPAIV strain of DK212. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fmicb.2020.01246DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7300270PMC

A comparison of amplification methods to detect Avian Influenza viruses in California wetlands targeted via remote sensing of waterfowl.

Transbound Emerg Dis 2020 Jun 27. Epub 2020 Jun 27.

Department of Microbiology and Molecular Genetics, University of California, Davis, CA, USA.

Migratory waterfowl, including geese and ducks, are indicated as the primary reservoir of avian influenza viruses (AIv) which can be subsequently spread to commercial poultry. The US Department of Agriculture's (USDA) surveillance efforts of waterfowl for AIv have been largely discontinued in the contiguous United States. Consequently, the use of technologies to identify areas of high waterfowl density and detect the presence of AIv in habitat such as wetlands has become imperative. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/tbed.13612DOI Listing