253,723 results match your criteria Avian Influenza


Structural characterization, teratogenicity and in vitro avian antimicrobial activity of posterior salivary gland (PSG) toxin from cuttlefish, Sepia prashadi.

Int J Biol Macromol 2018 Dec 3. Epub 2018 Dec 3.

Native Medicine and Marine Pharmacology Laboratory, Faculty of Allied Health Sciences, Chettinad Academy of Research and Education, Kelambakkam, Chennai 603 103, Tamil Nadu, India. Electronic address:

A low molecular weight posterior salivary gland (PSG) toxin was isolated and purified from the cuttlefish Sepia prashadi by Reverse Phase High Performance Liquid Chromatography (RP-HPLC). The protein and neutral sugar content of the PSG toxin was determined to be 1.033 mg/g and 282 μg/g. Read More

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December 2018

Determination of the minimum protective dose of a glycoprotein-G-deficient infectious laryngotracheitis virus vaccine delivered via eye-drop to week-old chickens.

PLoS One 2018 6;13(12):e0207611. Epub 2018 Dec 6.

Asia-Pacific Centre for Animal Health, Melbourne Veterinary School, Faculty of Veterinary and Agricultural Sciences, The University of Melbourne, Parkville, Victoria, Australia.

Infectious laryngotracheitis (ILT) is an upper respiratory tract disease of chickens that is caused by infectious laryngotracheitis virus (ILTV), an alphaherpesvirus. This disease causes significant economic loses in poultry industries worldwide. Despite widespread use of commercial live attenuated vaccines, many poultry industries continue to experience outbreaks of disease caused by ILTV. Read More

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December 2018
1 Read

Function and energy consumption constrain neuronal biophysics in a canonical computation: Coincidence detection.

PLoS Comput Biol 2018 Dec 6;14(12):e1006612. Epub 2018 Dec 6.

Institute for Theoretical Biology, Department of Biology, Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin, Berlin, Germany.

Neural morphology and membrane properties vary greatly between cell types in the nervous system. The computations and local circuit connectivity that neurons support are thought to be the key factors constraining the cells' biophysical properties. Nevertheless, additional constraints can be expected to further shape neuronal design. Read More

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December 2018
2 Reads

Public Health Response to an Avian Influenza A(H7N8) Virus Outbreak in Commercial Turkey Flocks - Indiana, 2016.

MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep 2018 Dec 7;67(48):1339-1341. Epub 2018 Dec 7.

In January 2016, highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) A(H7N8) virus and low pathogenicity avian influenza (LPAI) A(H7N8) virus were detected in commercial turkey flocks in Dubois County, Indiana. The Indiana State Department of Health (ISDH) and the Dubois County Health Department (DCHD) coordinated the public health response to this outbreak, which was the first detection of HPAI A(H7N8) in any species (1). This response was the first to fully implement unpublished public health monitoring procedures for HPAI responders that were developed by the U. Read More

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December 2018
1 Read

Control of neural crest multipotency by Wnt signaling and the Lin28/ axis.

Elife 2018 Dec 6;7. Epub 2018 Dec 6.

Department of Molecular Biology and Genetics,, Cornell University, Ithaca, United States.

A crucial step in cell differentiation is the silencing of developmental programs underlying multipotency. While much is known about how lineage-specific genes are activated to generate distinct cell types, the mechanisms driving suppression of stemness are far less understood. To address this, we examined the regulation of the transcriptional network that maintains progenitor identity in avian neural crest cells. Read More

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December 2018
1 Read

Emergence and adaptation of H3N2 canine influenza virus from avian influenza virus: An overlooked role of dogs in interspecies transmission.

Transbound Emerg Dis 2018 Dec 6. Epub 2018 Dec 6.

MOE Joint International Research Laboratory of Animal Health and Food Safety, Engineering Laboratory of Animal Immunity of Jiangsu Province, College of Veterinary Medicine, Nanjing Agricultural University, Nanjing, China.

H3N2 CIV originated from avian species and emerged in dogs in Asia around 2005 where it became enzootic before reaching the USA in 2015. To investigate the key aspects of the evolution of H3N2 CIV regarding its emergence and adaptation in the canine host, we conducted an extensive analysis of all publicly available H3N2 CIV sequences spanning a 10-year period. We believe that H3N2 AIVs transferred to canines around 2002-2004. Read More

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December 2018

The dilemma of pest suppression in the conservation of endangered species.

Conserv Biol 2018 Dec 5. Epub 2018 Dec 5.

U.S. Geological Survey, Patuxent Wildlife Research Center, 12100 Beech Forest Rd., Laurel, MD, 20708, USA.

In the conservation of endangered species, active suppression of a population of one native species to benefit another native species poses challenges. Examples include predator control and nest parasite reduction. Less obvious is the control of blood-feeding arthropods. Read More

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December 2018
1 Read

The comparative analysis of phenotypic and whole transcriptome gene expression data of ascites susceptible versus ascites resistant chickens.

Mol Biol Rep 2018 Dec 5. Epub 2018 Dec 5.

Agricultural Biotechnology Research Institute of Iran (ABRII), Agricultural Research, Education and Extension Organization (AREEO), Karaj, Iran.

Ascites syndrome (AS) is a metabolic disorder that mainly occurs at later ages of meat-type chickens. Despite many research, there is no consensus about the origin of this syndrome. Our main purpose were to investigate the syndrome using both phenotypic and RNA-Seq data to elucidate the most causative factors predisposing the birds to AS. Read More

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December 2018

Dataset on the numbers and proportion of mortality attributable to hunting, trapping, and powerlines in wild and captive-bred migratory Asian houbara .

Data Brief 2018 Dec 3;21:1848-1852. Epub 2018 Nov 3.

School of Environmental Sciences, University of East Anglia, Norwich NR4 7TJ, UK.

The data shown in this article are the number and proportion of deaths attributable to hunting/trapping, powerline collisions and natural causes in migratory Asian houbara originating from a breeding population in Uzbekistan. For wild adult and juvenile Asian houbara wintering in Central Asia during the period 2011-2018, 53.9% and 52. Read More

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December 2018

Phosphoprotein Contributes to the Thermostability of Newcastle Disease Virus.

Biomed Res Int 2018 4;2018:8917476. Epub 2018 Nov 4.

College of Veterinary Medicine, Northeast Agricultural University, No. 600 Changjiang Street, Xiangfang District, Harbin 150030, Heilongjiang Province, China.

Newcastle disease (ND), caused by Newcastle disease virus (NDV), is highly contagious and represents a major threat to the poultry industry. The thermostable vaccines are not insensitive to heat and ease of storage and transportation, but the mechanism of NDV thermostability remains unknown. The phosphoprotein (P), fusion protein (F), hemagglutinin-neuraminidase protein (HN), and large polymerase protein (L) are associated with NDV virulence. Read More

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November 2018
1 Read

Complex gene expansion of the gene subfamily.

Ecol Evol 2018 Nov 12;8(22):11022-11030. Epub 2018 Oct 12.

Key Laboratory of Ecology of Rare and Endangered Species and Environmental Protection (Guangxi Normal University) Ministry of Education Guilin China.

Cytochrome P450 (CYP) superfamily genes encode enzymes that play a role in metabolizing endogenous compounds and in detoxifying exogenous chemicals. The CYP2D subfamily is a member of the CYP2 family, and its gene expansion in herbivores is presumably linked with the need to detoxify abundant plant toxins in the diet, which indicates that gene expansion is associated with dietary preferences. To test this hypothesis, the dietary information and gene number for 73 vertebrates from different taxonomic groups including 22 mammals, 49 birds, 1 reptile, and 1 amphibian were collected, and correlation analysis and ANOVA were conducted. Read More

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November 2018

Managing birds of conservation concern on sandy shores: How much room for future conservation actions is there?

Ecol Evol 2018 Nov 17;8(22):10976-10988. Epub 2018 Oct 17.

The ANIMAL Research Centre: Health + Ecology + Conservation University of the Sunshine Coast Maroochydore Queensland Australia.

Resource limitations often prevent the active management required to maintain habitat quality in protected areas. Because restrictions in access or allowable public activities are the sole conservation measure in these locations, an important question to consider is whether species of conservation concern truly benefit from parcels that are shielded from human disturbance. Here, we assess the conservation benefit of protecting birds from human recreation on over 204 km of sandy beaches by (a) estimating the total area of beach-nesting bird habitat that has been created by conservation protections; (b) quantifying the change in nesting habitat extent should further conservation protections be implemented; and (c) providing data to inform future protected area expansion. Read More

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November 2018

A mechanistic assessment of the relationship between gut morphology and endozoochorous seed dispersal by waterfowl.

Ecol Evol 2018 Nov 30;8(22):10857-10867. Epub 2018 Oct 30.

Ecology and Biodiversity Group, Institute of Environmental Biology Utrecht University Utrecht The Netherlands.

Many plants and invertebrates rely on internal transport by animals for long-distance dispersal. Their dispersal capacity is greatly influenced by interactions with the animal's digestive tract. Omnivorous birds adjust their digestive tract morphology to seasonally variable diets. Read More

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November 2018
1 Read

Plasticity in nesting adaptations of a tidal marsh endemic bird.

Ecol Evol 2018 Nov 18;8(22):10780-10793. Epub 2018 Oct 18.

Department of Natural Resources and the Environment University of New Hampshire Durham New Hampshire.

If individuals can perceive and manage risks, they may alter their behaviors based on prior experience. This expectation may apply to nest site selection of breeding birds, for which adaptive behavioral responses may enhance fitness. Birds that nest in tidal marshes have adapted to the challenges posed primarily by periodic, monthly tidal flooding and secondarily by predation. Read More

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November 2018

Migratory connectivity in the Loggerhead Shrike ().

Ecol Evol 2018 Nov 24;8(22):10662-10672. Epub 2018 Oct 24.

Department of Biology Queen's University Kingston Ontario.

Aim: We combine genetic and stable isotope data to quantify migration patterns in Loggerhead Shrike (), a species of conservation concern in North America, to assess how connectivity differs and impacts population evolution, ecology, and conservation.

Location: We sampled shrikes across the majority of their nonbreeding range, from the Atlantic Coast to the western United States east of the Rocky Mountains and throughout Mexico.

Methods: Our study used a Bayesian framework using δH from a breeding season origin feather and nuclear genetic microsatellite markers to distinguish between co-occurring migratory and nonmigratory individuals on the wintering grounds and, for migrants, to assign individuals to a breeding ground origin and genetic group. Read More

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November 2018

The Conference of the Birds: An Old Artistic Concept Making Sense in Modern Sciences.

Basic Clin Neurosci 2018 Jul-Aug;9(4):297-305. Epub 2018 Jul 1.

Department of Anatomy, School of Medicine, Iran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

In this article, we will discuss scientific aspects of an old Persian story, Simorgh, in the book of . The story is fulfilled with artistic and philosophical metaphors that make sense in two hot topics of the contemporary modern sciences i.e. Read More

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Age-Related Changes on CD40 Promotor Methylation and Immune Gene Expressions in Thymus of Chicken.

Front Immunol 2018 21;9:2731. Epub 2018 Nov 21.

College of Animal Science and Technology, Northwest A&F University, Xi'an, China.

One hundred and twenty one-day-old breeder cocks, included 15 cages of 8 birds each, were fed to learn the aging's effect on chicken's thymus immunity. At 2 (2-W) and 40 (40-W) weeks of age, one chicken each cage was randomly chosen and slaughtered to get the thymus sample. The results showed that thymus weight and morphology of 40-W group were far different from that of 2-W group, and exhibited a property of degeneration. Read More

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November 2018

Metformin ameliorated methotrexate-induced hepatorenal toxicity in rats in addition to its antitumor activity: two birds with one stone.

J Inflamm Res 2018 8;11:421-429. Epub 2018 Nov 8.

Department of Tropical, Faculty of Medicine, Tanta University, Tanta, Egypt,

Methotrexate (MTX) is a drug used in treatment of various malignancies. Unfortunately, it leads to life-threatening complications including hepatorenal toxicity. Previous studies revealed the protective effects of metformin (MET) on hepatorenal toxicity in other models in addition to its anticancer effects. Read More

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November 2018
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Medullary bone in an Early Cretaceous enantiornithine bird and discussion regarding its identification in fossils.

Nat Commun 2018 Dec 5;9(1):5169. Epub 2018 Dec 5.

Key Laboratory of Vertebrate Evolution and Human Origins of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Institute of Vertebrate Paleontology and Paleoanthropology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 100044, Beijing, China.

Medullary bone is an ephemeral type of bone tissue, today found only in sexually mature female birds, that provides a calcium reservoir for eggshell formation. The presence of medullary bone-like tissues in extant birds, pterosaurs, and dinosaurs distantly related to birds shows that caution must be exercised before concluding that fossils bear medullary bone. Here we describe a new specimen of pengornithid enantiornithine from the Lower Cretaceous Jiufotang Formation. Read More

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December 2018
5 Reads

Inhibition of DNA-sensing pathway by Marek's disease virus VP23 protein through suppression of interferon regulatory factor 7 activation.

J Virol 2018 Dec 5. Epub 2018 Dec 5.

Avian Immunosuppressive Diseases Division, State Key Laboratory of Veterinary Biotechnology, Harbin Veterinary Research Institute, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Harbin, People's Republic of China

The type I interferon (IFN) response is the first line of host innate immune defense against viral infection; however, viruses have developed multiple strategies to antagonize host IFN responses for efficient infection and replication. Here, we report that Marek's disease virus (MDV), an oncogenic herpesvirus, encodes VP23 protein as a novel immune modulator to block IFN-β activation induced by cyclic GMP-AMP synthase (cGAS) and stimulator of interferon genes (STING) in chicken fibroblasts and macrophages. VP23 overexpression markedly reduces viral DNA-triggered IFN-β production and promotes viral replication, while knockdown of VP23 during MDV infection enhances the IFN-β response and suppresses viral replication. Read More

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December 2018

Actuarial senescence in a dimorphic bird: different rates of ageing in morphs with discrete reproductive strategies.

Proc Biol Sci 2018 Dec 5;285(1892). Epub 2018 Dec 5.

Department of Biology, Indiana State University, Terre Haute, IN 47809, USA.

It is often hypothesized that intra-sexual competition accelerates actuarial senescence, or the increase in mortality rates with age. However, an alternative hypothesis is that parental investment is more important to determining senescence rates. We used a unique model system, the white-throated sparrow (), to study variation in actuarial senescence. Read More

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December 2018

Diversity of Salmonella serotypes from humans, food, domestic animals and wildlife in New South Wales, Australia.

BMC Infect Dis 2018 Dec 5;18(1):623. Epub 2018 Dec 5.

School of Veterinary Science, Faculty of Science, University of Sydney, Camperdown, New South Wales, Australia.

Background: Salmonella is an important human pathogen in Australia and annual case rates continue to increase. In addition to foodborne exposures, cases have been associated with animal and contaminated environment contact. However, routine surveillance in Australia has tended to focus on humans and food, with no reported attempts to collate and compare Salmonella data from a wider range of potential sources of exposure. Read More

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December 2018

Induction of IBV strain-specific neutralising antibodies and broad spectrum protection in layer pullets primed with IBV Massachusetts (Mass) and 793B vaccines prior to injection of inactivated vaccine containing Mass antigen.

Avian Pathol 2018 Dec 6:1-27. Epub 2018 Dec 6.

c 138 Hartford Road, Huntingdon, Cambridgeshire , PE29 1XQ , UK .

In an initial study in SPF chickens, a heterologous virus neutralising (VN) antibody response to IBV variants Q1, Variant 2 (Var 2), D388/QX (D388), D274 and Arkansas (DPI) was observed using a vaccination programme incorporating two different live-attenuated IBV vaccines, followed by boosting with an inactivated vaccine containing IBV Massachusetts (Mass) antigen. Therefore, a more detailed study was undertaken in SPF layer-type chickens previously primed with IBV Mass and 793B live-attenuated vaccines. The efficacy of single or repeated vaccination with a multivalent inactivated vaccine containing IBV antigen was determined against challenge with 5 virulent IBVs: Mass (M41), 793B (4/91), D388, Q1 and Var 2. Read More

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December 2018

Suspension culture of Marek's disease virus and evaluation of its immunological effects.

Avian Pathol 2018 Dec 6:1-35. Epub 2018 Dec 6.

a College of Veterinary Medicine , South China Agricultural University , Guangzhou 510642 , China.

Marek's disease virus (MDV) is a cell-associated α-herpesvirus of chickens. It is difficult to perform its complete suspension culture. Therefore, MDV vaccines are currently produced using adherent primary chicken embryo fibroblasts and on a large scale is labor intensive and costly. Read More

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December 2018

Origins of the 1918 Pandemic: Revisiting the Swine "Mixing Vessel" Hypothesis.

Am J Epidemiol 2018 Dec;187(12):2498-2502

Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, University of Arizona, Tucson, Arizona.

How influenza A viruses host-jump from animal reservoir species to humans, which can initiate global pandemics, is a central question in pathogen evolution. The zoonotic and spatial origins of the influenza virus associated with the "Spanish flu" pandemic of 1918 have been debated for decades. Outbreaks of respiratory disease in US swine occurred concurrently with disease in humans, raising the possibility that the 1918 virus originated in pigs. Read More

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December 2018

Effect of early neonatal development and delayed feeding post-hatch on jejunal and ileal calcium and phosphorus transporter genes expression in broiler chickens.

Poult Sci 2018 Dec 3. Epub 2018 Dec 3.

United States Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service, Animal Biosciences and Biotechnology Laboratory, Beltsville, MD 20705, USA.

Calcium (Ca) and phosphorus (P) are essential minerals involved in many biological processes including bone development and mineralization. Plasma concentration of both minerals is tightly regulated, and Ca and P homeostasis is maintained via intestinal absorption, bone storage and exchange, and renal reabsorption. In the current broiler production systems, chicks are deprived of food and water for up to 72 h due to uneven hatching, hatchery procedures, and transportation time to farms. Read More

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December 2018

Tissue tropisms opt for transmissible reassortants during avian and swine influenza A virus co-infection in swine.

PLoS Pathog 2018 Dec 3;14(12):e1007417. Epub 2018 Dec 3.

Department of Basic Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, Mississippi State University, Starkville, Mississippi State, Mississippi, United States of America.

Genetic reassortment between influenza A viruses (IAVs) facilitate emergence of pandemic strains, and swine are proposed as a "mixing vessel" for generating reassortants of avian and mammalian IAVs that could be of risk to mammals, including humans. However, how a transmissible reassortant emerges in swine are not well understood. Genomic analyses of 571 isolates recovered from nasal wash samples and respiratory tract tissues of a group of co-housed pigs (influenza-seronegative, avian H1N1 IAV-infected, and swine H3N2 IAV-infected pigs) identified 30 distinct genotypes of reassortants. Read More

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December 2018

Spotlight on Avian Pathology: Fowlpox virus.

Avian Pathol 2018 Dec 3:1-10. Epub 2018 Dec 3.

a Section of Virology, Faculty of Medicine , Imperial College London , St. Mary's Campus, Norfolk Place, London W2 1PG , UK.

Fowlpox virus is the type species of an extensive and poorly-defined group of viruses isolated from more than 200 species of birds, together comprising the avipoxvirus genus of the poxvirus family. Long known as a significant poultry pathogen, vaccines developed in the early and middle years of the 20 century led to its effective eradication as a problem to commercial production in temperate climes in developed western countries (such that vaccination there is now far less common). Transmitted mechanically by biting insects, it remains problematic, causing significant losses to all forms of production (from back-yard, through extensive to intensive commercial flocks), in tropical climes where control of biting insects is difficult. Read More

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December 2018
2 Reads
1.639 Impact Factor

Your infections are what you eat: how host ecology shapes the helminth parasite communities of lizards.

J Anim Ecol 2018 Dec 3. Epub 2018 Dec 3.

Department of Chemistry and Biology, Ryerson University, Toronto, Canada.

1.Understanding how parasite communities are assembled, and the factors that influence their richness, can improve our knowledge of parasite-host interactions and help to predict the spread of infectious diseases. Previous comparative analyses have found significant influences of host ecology and life history, but focused on a few select host taxa. Read More

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December 2018

Phenology and Productivity in a Montane Bird Assemblage: Trends and Responses to Elevation and Climate Variation.

Glob Chang Biol 2018 Dec 1. Epub 2018 Dec 1.

The Institute for Bird Populations, Point Reyes Station, CA, P.O. Box 1346, 94956-1346.

Climate variation has been linked to historical and predicted future distributions and dynamics of wildlife populations. However, demographic mechanisms underlying these changes remain poorly understood. Here we assessed variation and trends in climate (annual snowfall and spring temperature anomalies) and avian demographic variables from mist-netting data (breeding phenology and productivity) at six sites along an elevation gradient spanning the montane zone of Yosemite National Park between 1993 and 2017. Read More

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December 2018

Pigeon odor varies with experimental exposure to trace metal pollution.

Ecotoxicology 2018 Nov 30. Epub 2018 Nov 30.

Sorbonne Université, UPEC, Paris 7, CNRS, INRA, IRD, Institut d'Ecologie et des Sciences de l'Environnement de Paris, 75005, Paris, France.

Trace metals are chemical pollutants that have well-known noxious effects on wildlife and that are current major environmental issues in urban habitats. Previous studies have demonstrated their negative (e.g. Read More

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November 2018
1 Read

Different responses of taxonomic and functional bird diversity to forest fragmentation across an elevational gradient.

Oecologia 2018 Nov 30. Epub 2018 Nov 30.

Senckenberg Biodiversity and Climate Research Centre, Senckenberganlage 25, 60325, Frankfurt Am Main, Germany.

Many studies have investigated how habitat fragmentation affects the taxonomic and functional diversity of species assemblages. However, the joint effects of habitat fragmentation and environmental conditions on taxonomic and functional diversity, for instance across elevational gradients, have largely been neglected so far. In this study, we compare whether taxonomic and functional indicators show similar or distinct responses to forest fragmentation across an elevational gradient. Read More

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November 2018

Recent approaches for control of and respiratory complex in Middle East.

Saudi J Biol Sci 2018 Nov 3;25(7):1302-1307. Epub 2018 Apr 3.

Department of Botany and Microbiology, College of Science, King Saud University, P.O. Box 2455, Riyadh 11451, Saudi Arabia.

This study was conducted on 100 one-day-old broiler chicks to evaluate the effect of Poulvac vaccine in reduction of clinical signs and complications after concurrent infectious bronchitis virus (variant 02) and virulent O78 challenges. The birds were evaluated for clinical signs, mortality for 7 days post-infection, PM lesion score, average body weight and serological evaluation. Re-isolation and RT-PCR for the challenging infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) variant 02 were conducted thereafter. Read More

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November 2018
1 Read

Bird cestodes from Huinay (Comau Fjord), Chilean Patagonia: several species of the family Dilepididae (Platyhelminthes, Cyclophyllidea), with the erection of two new genera.

Zookeys 2018 19(797):1-18. Epub 2018 Nov 19.

Institute of Biodiversity and Ecosystem Research, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, 2 Gagarin Street, 1113 Sofia, Bulgaria Institute of Biodiversity and Ecosystem Research, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences Sofia Bulgaria.

Birds in the Huinay area, Los Lagos region, Chile, were studied for parasites. Here we report 2 new genera and species of the family Dilepididae (Cyclophyllidea) found in common local passerines: , was found in (Tyrannidae) and , was found in (Furnariidae). Other dilepidid parasites are reported for the first time from (Tyrannidae) and from 2 species of Rhinocryptidae. Read More

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November 2018

Contrasting phylogeographic pattern among Eudyptes penguins around the Southern Ocean.

Sci Rep 2018 Nov 30;8(1):17481. Epub 2018 Nov 30.

Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile, Facultad de Agronomía e Ingeniería Forestal, Departamento de Ecosistemas y Medio Ambiente, Vicuña Mackenna 4860, 7820436, RM, Santiago, Chile.

Since at least the middle-Miocene, the Antarctic Polar Front (APF) and the Subtropical Front (STF) appear to have been the main drivers of diversification of marine biota in the Southern Ocean. However, highly migratory marine birds and mammals challenge this paradigm and the importance of oceanographic barriers. Eudyptes penguins range from the Antarctic Peninsula to subantarctic islands and some of the southernmost subtropical islands. Read More

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November 2018

Bioaerosol Sampling for Respiratory Viruses in Singapore's Mass Rapid Transit Network.

Sci Rep 2018 Nov 30;8(1):17476. Epub 2018 Nov 30.

Emerging Infectious Diseases Programme, Duke-NUS Medical School, Singapore, Singapore.

As a leading global city with a high population density, Singapore is at risk for the introduction of novel biological threats. This risk has been recently reinforced by human epidemics in Singapore of SARS coronavirus, 2009 pandemic H1N1 influenza A virus, and enterovirus 71. Other major threats to Singapore include MERS-coronavirus and various avian and swine influenza viruses. Read More

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November 2018

Tooth Loss Precedes the Origin of Baleen in Whales.

Curr Biol 2018 Nov 21. Epub 2018 Nov 21.

Department of Atmospheric, Oceanic, and Earth Sciences, George Mason University, 4400 University Drive, Fairfax, VA 22030, USA.

Whales use baleen, a novel integumentary structure, to filter feed; filter feeding itself evolved at least five times in tetrapod history but demonstrably only once in mammals [1]. Living baleen whales (mysticetes) are born without teeth, but paleontological and embryological evidence demonstrate that they evolved from toothed ancestors that lacked baleen entirely [2]. The mechanisms driving the origin of filter feeding in tetrapods remain obscure. Read More

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November 2018

Persistent Organic Pollutants in two species of migratory birds from Rothera Point, Adelaide Island, Antarctica.

Mar Pollut Bull 2018 Dec 11;137:113-118. Epub 2018 Oct 11.

Wageningen University, Div. Toxicology, PO Box 8000, NL 6700 EA Wageningen, the Netherlands.

Carcasses of South Polar Skuas (Catharacta maccormicki) and Kelp gulls (Larus dominicanus) were opportunistically collected around of Rothera Research station (67°35'8″S and 68°7'59″W) during the 2016/2017 austral summer. Samples of their tissues (muscle, liver and subcutaneous fat) were analysed for Persistent Organic Pollutants (POPs). Organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) showed the highest concentrations, notably for pp'-DDE and HCB. Read More

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December 2018

Immunolocalization of RFamide-related peptide 3 in a desert rodent Gerbillus tarabuli during seminiferous epithelium cycle.

Tissue Cell 2018 Dec 20;55:1-12. Epub 2018 Sep 20.

USTHB, University of Sciences and Technology of Houari Boumediene, Biological Sciences Faculty, Aride Area Research Laboratory, Algiers, Algeria.

Gerbillus tarabuli is a nocturnal seasonal breeder desert rodent with a main breeding season in spring and summer, and sexual quiescence in winter. This species is an interesting model for studying testis function in rodents. Therefore, the present study was performed firstly to investigate the stages of seminiferous epithelium cycle of Gerbillus tarabuli with a histological, morphometric and statistical study. Read More

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December 2018

Bipedal gait versatility in the Japanese macaque (Macaca fuscata).

J Hum Evol 2018 Dec 28;125:2-14. Epub 2018 Sep 28.

Science of Motion, Friedrich-Schiller-University, 07749 Jena, Germany.

It was previously believed that, among primates, only humans run bipedally. However, there is now growing evidence that at least some non-human primates can not only run bipedally but can also generate a running gait with an aerial phase. Japanese macaques trained for bipedal performances have been known to exhibit remarkable bipedal locomotion capabilities, but no aerial-phase running has previously been reported. Read More

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December 2018

Analysis of free and metabolized microcystins in samples following a bird mortality event.

Harmful Algae 2018 Dec 3;80:117-129. Epub 2018 Nov 3.

GreenWater Laboratories/CyanoLab, 205 Zeagler Drive, Palatka, FL, 32177, United States.

In the summer of 2012, over 750 dead and dying birds were observed at the Paul S. Sarbanes Ecosystem Restoration Project at Poplar Island, Maryland, USA (Chesapeake Bay). Clinical signs suggested avian botulism, but an ongoing dense Microcystis bloom was present in an impoundment on the island. Read More

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December 2018

Zygomycosis due to Mucor racemosus Associated with a Circovirus Infection in a Blue Tit (Cyanistes caeruleus).

J Comp Pathol 2018 Nov 1;165:67-71. Epub 2018 Nov 1.

Centre for Clinical Veterinary Medicine, Clinic for Birds, Small Mammals, Reptiles and Ornamental Fish, Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität München, Sonnenstrasse 18, Oberschleißheim, Germany.

In spring 2014, several wild passeriform garden birds were found severely ill or dead, all with severe periocular swellings. A blue tit (Cyanistes caeruleus) showing severe depression was humanely destroyed and sent for necropsy examination. In this bird, the lower eyelids were sagging, red and oedematous. Read More

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November 2018

Mud in the blood: Novel potent anticoagulant coagulotoxicity in the venoms of the Australian elapid snake genus Denisonia (mud adders) and relative antivenom efficacy.

Toxicol Lett 2018 Nov 28. Epub 2018 Nov 28.

FaunaVet Wildlife Consultancy, Glass House Mountains, QLD, 4518, Australia. Electronic address:

Due to their potent coagulotoxicity, Australian elapid venoms are unique relative to non-Australian members of the Elapidae snake family. The majority of Australian elapids possess potent procoagulant venom, while only a few species have been identified as possessing anticoagulant venoms. The majority of research to-date has concentrated on large species with range distributions overlapping major city centres, such as brown snakes (Pseudonaja spp. Read More

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November 2018

Welfare indicators for laying Japanese quails caged at different densities.

An Acad Bras Cienc 2018 Oct-Dec;90(4):3791-3797

Granja Kakimoto, Estrada Seção Cascata, Km 7, 17690-000 Bastos, SP, Brazil.

In the way to reduce costs in the poultry production, high densities of birds are adopted in the production systems. Such high densities can lead to an inappropriate environment, compromising the welfare and decreasing the animal performance. In this work we aimed to evaluate the effects of different densities on the productive yield, egg quality and immunological aspects of Japanese quails. Read More

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March 2018
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Genomic characterization of the Braque Français type Pyrénées dog and relationship with other breeds.

PLoS One 2018 5;13(12):e0208548. Epub 2018 Dec 5.

Dipartimento di Scienze Veterinarie, Università di Pisa, V.le delle Piagge 2, 56124 Pisa, Italy.

The evaluation of genetic variability is a useful research tool for the correct management of selection and conservation strategies in dog breeds. In addition to pedigree genealogies, genomic data allow a deeper knowledge of the variability and genetic structure of populations. To date, many dog breeds, such as small regional breeds, still remain uncharacterized. Read More

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December 2018
1 Read

Distinct genes and pathways associated with transcriptome differences in early cardiac development between fast- and slow-growing broilers.

PLoS One 2018 5;13(12):e0207715. Epub 2018 Dec 5.

Department of Animal Science, Iowa State University, Ames, IA, United States of America.

Modern fast-growing broilers are susceptible to cardiac dysfunctions because their relatively small hearts cannot adequately meet the increased need of pumping blood through a large body mass. To improve cardiac health in broilers through breeding, we need to identify the genes and pathways that contribute to imbalanced cardiac development and occurrence of heart dysfunction. Two broiler lines-Ross 708 and Illinois-were included in this study as models of modern fast-growing and heritage slow-growing broilers, respectively. Read More

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December 2018
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Gene expression profiling of the early pathogenesis of wooden breast disease in commercial broiler chickens using RNA-sequencing.

PLoS One 2018 5;13(12):e0207346. Epub 2018 Dec 5.

Department of Animal and Food Sciences, University of Delaware, Newark, Delaware, United States of America.

Wooden Breast Disease (WBD), a myopathy in commercial broiler chickens characterized by abnormally firm consistency of the pectoral muscle, impacts the poultry industry negatively due to severe reduction in meat quality traits. To unravel the molecular profile associated with the onset and early development of WBD in broiler chickens, we compared time-series gene expression profiles of Pectoralis (P.) major muscles between unaffected and affected birds from a high-breast-muscle-yield, purebred broiler line. Read More

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December 2018
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Short-Term Sleep Loss Alters Cytokine Gene Expression in Brain and Peripheral Tissues and Increases Plasma Corticosterone of Zebra Finch (Taeniopygia guttata).

Physiol Biochem Zool 2019 Jan/Feb;92(1):80-91

Lack of sleep incurs physiological costs that include increased inflammation and alterations in the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis. Specifically, sleep restriction or deprivation leads to increased pro-inflammatory cytokine expression and elevated glucocorticoids in rodent models, but whether birds exact similar costs is unknown. In this study, we examined whether zebra finch (Taeniopygia guttata), an avian model species, exhibits physiological costs of sleep loss by using a novel automated sleep fragmentation/deprivation method, wherein a horizontal wire sweeps across a test cage to disrupt sleep every 120 s. Read More

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December 2018
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feed processing and structural components affect starch digestion dynamics in broiler chickens.

Br Poult Sci 2018 Dec 5. Epub 2018 Dec 5.

a Department of Animal and Aquacultural Sciences , Norwegian University of Life Sciences , P.O. Box 5003, N-1432 Aas , Norway.

1. A 2x2 factorial design was used to test the hypothesis that impaired intestinal starch digestibility is attributable to rapid passage of digesta from the gizzard to the intestine, and that, compared to steam pelleting, increasing the availability of starch through extrusion cooking may alleviate the potential negative effect of rapid digesta flow on starch utilisation. 2. Read More

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December 2018
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Feeding dihydroquercetin to broiler chickens.

Br Poult Sci 2018 Dec 5. Epub 2018 Dec 5.

a The National Institute of Poultry Husbandry , Harper Adams University , Shropshire , UK.

1. A total of 80 male Ross 308 broilers were used in a study to investigate the effect of dietary dihydroquercetin (DHQ) on growth performance variables, gastrointestinal tract (GIT) and immune organ development, glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and haemoglobin in blood, hepatic vitamin E content, dietary N-corrected metabolisable energy (AMEn), and nutrient retention coefficients when fed to broiler chickens from 7 to 35 days of age. 2. Read More

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December 2018
2 Reads