8,576 results match your criteria Avian Flu


Wild birds do not harbor higher diversity of influenza virus internal genes than poultry.

Virology 2019 Feb 7;530:59-64. Epub 2019 Feb 7.

Jiangsu Key Laboratory for Microbes and Functional Genomics, College of Life Sciences, Nanjing Normal University, Nanjing, Jiangsu 210023, China. Electronic address:

Avian influenza A virus (AIV) has threatened global economy and public health. Wild birds have long been thought to serve as the natural reservoir of influenza virus, and thus it is expected that wild birds harbor higher viral diversity than poultry. Yet, this hypothesis has not been formally tested. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.virol.2019.02.003DOI Listing
February 2019

Difference in pathogenicity of 2 strains of avian leukosis virus subgroup J in broiler chicken.

Poult Sci 2019 Feb 15. Epub 2019 Feb 15.

Shandong Provincial Key Laboratory of Animal Biotechnology and Disease Control and Prevention, Shandong Agricultural University, 61 Daizong Street, Taian City, Shandong Province 271018, China.

Avian leukosis virus subgroup J has been found to infect many types of chickens with various genetic backgrounds. The ALV-J strain NX0101, which was isolated from broiler breeders in 2001, mainly induces the formation of myeloid cell tumors. However, strain HN10PY01, which was recently isolated from laying hens, mainly induces the formation of myeloid cell tumors and hemangioma. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3382/ps/pez065DOI Listing
February 2019

Emerging Influenza D Virus Threat: What We Know so Far!

J Clin Med 2019 Feb 5;8(2). Epub 2019 Feb 5.

Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Chicago Medical School, Rosalind Franklin University of Medicine and Science, North Chicago, IL 60064, USA.

Influenza viruses, since time immemorial, have been the major respiratory pathogen known to infect a wide variety of animals, birds and reptiles with established lineages. They belong to the family and cause acute respiratory illness often during local outbreaks or seasonal epidemics and occasionally during pandemics. Recent studies have identified a new genus within the family. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/jcm8020192DOI Listing
February 2019

An avian influenza virus A(H7N9) reassortant that recently emerged in the United States with low pathogenic phenotype does not efficiently infect swine.

Influenza Other Respir Viruses 2019 Feb 13. Epub 2019 Feb 13.

Virus and Prion Research Unit, Agricultural Research Service, National Animal Disease Center, U.S. Department of Agriculture, Ames, Iowa.

In 2017, outbreaks of low and highly pathogenic avian H7N9 viruses were reported in four States in the United States. In total, over 270 000 birds died or were culled, causing significant economic loss. The potential for avian-to-swine transmission of the U. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/irv.12631DOI Listing
February 2019

Characterization of Mouse Monoclonal Antibodies Against the HA of A(H7N9) Influenza Virus.

Viruses 2019 Feb 11;11(2). Epub 2019 Feb 11.

Division of Virology, Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Institute of Medical Science, University of Tokyo, Minato-ku, Tokyo 108-8639, Japan.

Many cases of human infection with the H7N9 virus have been detected in China since 2013. H7N9 viruses are maintained in chickens and are transmitted to humans at live bird markets. During circulation in birds, H7N9 viruses have accumulated amino acid substitutions in their hemagglutinin (HA), which resulted in an antigenically change in the recent H7N9 viruses. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/v11020149DOI Listing
February 2019

[Genetic characteristic of hemagglutinin of avian influenza A (H7N9) virus in Guizhou Province in 2017].

Zhonghua Yu Fang Yi Xue Za Zhi 2019 Feb;53(2):229-232

Clinical Laboratory of Institute for Communicable Disease Control and Prevention, Guizhou Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Guiyang 550004, China.

The number of H7N9 bird flu cases was high and the situation was grim in guizhou province in 2017. To understand the molecular characteristics of the hemagglutinin gene (HA) and the risk of human infection with avian influenza virus A(H7N9) in Guizhou Province, 2017. Homology, genetic evolution and pivotal sites related to receptor binding regions, pathogenicity and potential glycosylation of 14 avian influenza viruses A(H7N9) were analyzed by a series of bioinformation softwares. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3760/cma.j.issn.0253-9624.2019.02.020DOI Listing
February 2019
1 Read

Estimating Risk to Responders Exposed to Avian Influenza A H5 and H7 Viruses in Poultry, United States, 2014-2017.

Emerg Infect Dis 2019 May 17;25(5). Epub 2019 May 17.

In the United States, outbreaks of avian influenza H5 and H7 virus infections in poultry have raised concern about the risk for infections in humans. We reviewed the data collected during 2014-2017 and found no human infections among 4,555 exposed responders who were wearing protection. Read More

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http://wwwnc.cdc.gov/eid/article/25/5/18-1253_article.htm
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2505.181253DOI Listing
May 2019
5 Reads

Shedding of clade 2.3.4.4 H5N8 and H5N2 highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses in peridomestic wild birds in the U.S.

Transbound Emerg Dis 2019 Feb 10. Epub 2019 Feb 10.

United States Department of Agriculture, National Wildlife Research Center, Fort Collins, CO, USA.

European starlings (Sturnus vulgaris), house sparrows (Passer domesticus) and rock pigeons (Columba livia) are all wild birds commonly found in large numbers in and around human dwellings and domestic livestock operations. This study evaluated the susceptibility of these species to three strains of highly pathogenic avian influenza virus (HP AIV) clade 2.3. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/tbed.13147DOI Listing
February 2019

Absence of adaptive evolution is the main barrier against influenza emergence in horses in Asia despite frequent virus interspecies transmission from wild birds.

PLoS Pathog 2019 Feb 7;15(2):e1007531. Epub 2019 Feb 7.

MRC-University of Glasgow Centre for Virus Research, Glasgow, United Kingdom.

Virus ecology and evolution play a central role in disease emergence. However, their relative roles will vary depending on the viruses and ecosystems involved. We combined field studies, phylogenetics and experimental infections to document with unprecedented detail the stages that precede initial outbreaks during viral emergence in nature. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.ppat.1007531DOI Listing
February 2019
1 Read

Inactivated H5 Antigens of H5N8 Protect Chickens from Lethal Infections by the Highly Pathogenic H5N8 and H5N6 Avian Influenza Viruses.

J Vet Res 2018 Dec 31;62(4):413-420. Epub 2018 Dec 31.

Laboratory of Influenza Research, Umuahia Abia State, Republic of Korea.

Introduction: Highly pathogenic Asian H5-subtype avian influenza viruses have been found in poultry and wild birds worldwide since they were first detected in southern China in 1996. Extensive control efforts have not eradicated them. Vaccination prevents such viruses infecting poultry and reduces the number lost to compulsory slaughter. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.2478/jvetres-2018-0078DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6364154PMC
December 2018
1 Read

Surveillance for avian influenza viruses in wild birds at live bird markets, Egypt, 2014-2016.

Influenza Other Respir Viruses 2019 Feb 3. Epub 2019 Feb 3.

Environmental Research Division, Water Pollution Research Department, Center of Scientific Excellence for Influenza Viruses, National Research Centre (NRC), Giza, Egypt.

Aim: Egypt is the habitat for a large number of bird species and serves as a vital stopover for millions of migratory birds during their annual migration between the Palearctic and Afrotropical ecozones. Surveillance for avian influenza viruses (AIVs) is critical to assessing risks for potential spreading of these viruses among domestic poultry. Surveillance for AIV among hunted and captured wild birds in Egypt was conducted in order to understand the characteristics of circulating viruses. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/irv.12634DOI Listing
February 2019
1 Read
2.201 Impact Factor

The development of a multiplex serological assay for avian influenza based on Luminex technology.

Methods 2019 Jan 30. Epub 2019 Jan 30.

Wageningen Bioveterinary Research, Houtribweg 39, 8221 RA Lelystad, the Netherlands. Electronic address:

Avian influenza (AI) is an infectious disease in birds with enormous impact on the poultry sector. AI viruses are divided into different subtypes based on the antigenicity of their surface proteins haemagglutinin (HA) and neuraminidases (NA). In birds, 16 HA subtypes and 9 NA subtypes are detected in different combinations. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ymeth.2019.01.012DOI Listing
January 2019
1 Read

Spatial modeling for low pathogenicity avian influenza virus at the interface of wild birds and backyard poultry.

Transbound Emerg Dis 2019 Jan 30. Epub 2019 Jan 30.

Department of Veterinary Population Medicine, College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Minnesota, St. Paul, MN, USA.

Low pathogenicity avian influenza virus (LPAIV) is endemic in wild birds and poultry in Argentina, and active surveillance has been in place to prevent any eventual virus mutation into a highly pathogenic avian influenza virus (HPAIV), which is exotic in this country. Risk mapping can contribute effectively to disease surveillance and control systems, but it has proven a very challenging task in the absence of disease data. We used a combination of expert opinion elicitation, multicriteria decision analysis (MCDA), and ecological niche modeling (ENM) to identify the most suitable areas for the occurrence of LPAIV at the interface between backyard domestic poultry and wild birds in Argentina. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/tbed.13136DOI Listing
January 2019
1 Read

A Comprehensive Review on the Interaction Between the Host GTPase Rab11 and Influenza A Virus.

Front Cell Dev Biol 2018 9;6:176. Epub 2019 Jan 9.

Cell Biology of Viral Infection Lab, Instituto Gulbenkian de Ciência, Oeiras, Portugal.

This year marks the 100th anniversary of one of the deadliest pandemic outbreaks, commonly referred as the Spanish Flu, that was caused by influenza A virus (IAV). Since then, IAV has been in governmental agendas worldwide, and a lot of effort has been put into understanding the pathogen's lifecycle, predict and mitigate the emergence of the strains that provoke yearly epidemics and pandemic events. Despite decades of research and seminal contributions there is still a lot to be investigated. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fcell.2018.00176DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6333742PMC
January 2019
1 Read

[Baloxavir marboxil: a potent cap-dependent endonuclease inhibitor of influenza viruses].

Authors:
J Reina N Reina

Rev Esp Quimioter 2019 Feb 23;32(1):1-5. Epub 2019 Jan 23.

Jordi Reina, Unidad de Virología, Servicio de Microbiología, Hospital Universitario Son Espases, Palma de Mallorca. Spain.

Baloxavir marboxil (5-hydroxy-4-pyridone-3-carboxyl acid) is a new antiviral drug with special efficacy on influenza viruses that acts by inhibiting the cap-dependent endonuclease required for its replication. It is the first representative of the so-called inhibitors of influenza-like PB2. It has shown efficacy against influenza viruses A and B and most strains of animal origin (avian flu). Read More

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February 2019
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Developing Farm-Level Post-vaccination Sero-Monitoring Systems for H5N1 Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza in an Endemically Infected Country.

Front Vet Sci 2018 8;5:324. Epub 2019 Jan 8.

Faculty of Veterinary Science, University of Melbourne, Melbourne, VIC, Australia.

Whilst the serological responses of poultry following vaccination against highly pathogenic avian influenza H5N1 has been extensively investigated under laboratory conditions, there have been fewer studies conducted in the field. This applies particularly to the endemically infected countries routinely practicing vaccination, where the combination of multiple circulating clades and/or the use of vaccines with different seed strains makes the design and interpretation of field studies especially problematic. To address this for the particular situation of layer hens in the small to medium commercial sector in Indonesia, we developed a sampling regime before and after the vaccination given to point-of-lay pullets, and assessed serological response with a panel of test antigens. Read More

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https://www.frontiersin.org/article/10.3389/fvets.2018.00324
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fvets.2018.00324DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6331391PMC
January 2019
3 Reads

Co-infections, genetic, and antigenic relatedness of avian influenza H5N8 and H5N1 viruses in domestic and wild birds in Egypt.

Poult Sci 2019 Jan 22. Epub 2019 Jan 22.

Poultry Diseases Department, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Beni-Suef University, Beni-Suef 62511, Egypt.

A total of 50 poultry farms of commercial broilers (N = 39) and commercial layers (N = 11) suffered from respiratory problems and mortality during the period from January 2016 to December 2017 were investigated. Also, samples were collected from quail (N = 4), Bluebird (Sialis, N = 1), and Greenfinch (Chloris chloris, N = 1) for analysis. Respiratory viral pathogens were screened by PCR and positive samples were subjected to virus isolation and genetic identification. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3382/ps/pez011DOI Listing
January 2019
1 Read
1.672 Impact Factor

Discarded egg yolk as an alternate source of poly(3-hydroxybutyrate--3-hydroxyhexanoate).

J Microbiol Biotechnol 2019 Jan 11. Epub 2019 Jan 11.

Department of Biological Engineering, College of Engineering, Konkuk University, Seoul, 05029, South Korea.

Many poultry eggs are discarded worldwide because of infection (i.e., avian flu) or presence of high levels of pesticides. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.4014/jmb.1811.11028DOI Listing
January 2019
2 Reads

Long-term avian influenza virus epidemiology in a small Spanish wetland ecosystem is driven by the breeding Anseriformes community.

Vet Res 2019 Jan 17;50(1). Epub 2019 Jan 17.

Animal Health Department, NEIKER-Instituto Vasco de Investigación y Desarrollo Agrario, Parque tecnológico de Bizkaia P-812, 48160, Derio, Bizkaia, Spain.

During 2007-2009 and 2012-2014, avian influenza virus (AIV) was studied in a wild avian community of a northern Spanish wetland using non-invasive sampling methods and host identification by COI barcoding. The aim of this longitudinal study was to evaluate AIV dynamics in a natural wetland ecosystem, taking into account both virological aspects and ecological traits of hosts. Global AIV prevalence decreased significantly during the second sampling period (0. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13567-019-0623-5DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6337815PMC
January 2019
2 Reads

H2 influenza viruses: designing vaccines against future H2 pandemics.

Biochem Soc Trans 2019 Jan 15. Epub 2019 Jan 15.

Center for Vaccines and Immunology, University of Georgia, Athens, GA 30602, U.S.A.

Influenza-related pathologies affect millions of people each year and the impact of influenza on the global economy and in our everyday lives has been well documented. Influenza viruses not only infect humans but also are zoonotic pathogens that infect various avian and mammalian species, which serve as viral reservoirs. While there are several strains of influenza currently circulating in animal species, H2 influenza viruses have a unique history and are of particular concern. Read More

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http://biochemsoctrans.org/lookup/doi/10.1042/BST20180602
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1042/BST20180602DOI Listing
January 2019
11 Reads

Knowledge, attitudes and practices towards avian influenza among live poultry market workers in Chongqing, China.

Prev Vet Med 2019 Jan 7;162:151-159. Epub 2018 Dec 7.

Duke-NUS Medical School, National University of Singapore, Singapore, Singapore; Duke University Medical Centre, Durham, NC, USA; Duke Global Health Institute, Duke University, Durham, NC, USA. Electronic address:

Background: Live poultry market (LPM) workers are at high risk of infection with avian influenza virus due to frequent occupational exposure to poultry. This study aims to assess the knowledge, attitude and preventive practice regarding avian influenza among LPM workers in Chongqing, the largest municipality directly under the central government of China.

Methods: 216 LPM workers were recruited by two-stage cluster sampling and interviewed face-to-face using a structured questionnaire. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.prevetmed.2018.12.004DOI Listing
January 2019
4 Reads

Immune Responses to Avian Influenza Viruses.

J Immunol 2019 Jan;202(2):382-391

Department of Microbiology and Immunology, University of Melbourne at The Peter Doherty Institute for Infection and Immunity, Melbourne, Victoria 3000, Australia; and

Avian influenza A viruses (IAVs) naturally infect different avian species, and aquatic birds are their natural reservoir. Sporadically, avian IAVs can be transmitted to humans, and some, such as H5N1 and H7N9 viruses, cause severe disease in humans. Antigenically novel avian influenza viruses that infect and cause disease in humans pose a potential pandemic threat if they are able to spread efficiently from person to person. Read More

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http://www.jimmunol.org/lookup/doi/10.4049/jimmunol.1801070
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4049/jimmunol.1801070DOI Listing
January 2019
8 Reads

Immune responses of mice inoculated with recombinant Lactobacillus plantarum NC8 expressing the fusion gene HA2 and 3M2e of the influenza virus and protection against different subtypes of influenza virus.

Virus Res 2019 Jan 3;263:64-72. Epub 2019 Jan 3.

College of Animal Science and Technology, Jilin Provincial Engineering Research Center of Animal Probiotics, Key Laboratory of Animal Production and Product Quality Safety of Ministry of Education, Jilin Agricultural University, Changchun, China. Electronic address:

To evaluate the efficiency of preventing pathogenic avian influenza by vaccination with recombinant Lactobacillus plantarum (L. plantarum) that expresses conserved antigens, the mucosal and systemic immune responses in animals vaccinated with recombinant L. plantarum NC8-409-1 (NC8-pSIP409-pgsA'-HA2) and NC8-409-2 (NC8-pSIP409-pgsA'-3M2e-HA2) were evaluated. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.virusres.2019.01.001DOI Listing
January 2019
2 Reads
2.324 Impact Factor

Development and evaluation of a new real-time RT-PCR assay for detecting the latest H9N2 influenza viruses capable of causing human infection.

Microbiol Immunol 2019 Jan;63(1):21-31

Influenza Virus Research Center, National Institute of Infectious Diseases, 4-7-1 Gakuen, Musashimurayama, Tokyo 208-0011, Japan.

The H9N2 subtype of avian influenza A viruses (AIV) has spread among domestic poultry and wild birds worldwide. H9N2 AIV is sporadically transmitted to humans from avian species. A total of 42 laboratory-confirmed cases of non-fatal human infection with the Eurasian Y280 and G1 lineages have been reported in China, Hong Kong, Bangladesh and Egypt since 1997. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/1348-0421.12666DOI Listing
January 2019
1 Read

Generation of highly productive and mammalian nonpathogenic recombinant H9N2 avian influenza viruses by optimization of 3'end promoter and NS genome.

Vet Microbiol 2019 Jan 30;228:213-218. Epub 2018 Nov 30.

Department of Farm Animal Medicine, Republic of Korea; Research Institute for Veterinary Science, College of Veterinary Medicine, Seoul National University, 08826, Seoul, Republic of Korea; Farm Animal Clinical Training and Research Center (FACTRC), GBST, Seoul National University, 25354, Pyeongchangdae-ro, Kangwon-do, Republic of Korea. Electronic address:

We developed A/PR/8/34 (PR8) virus-based reverse genetics system in which six internal genes of PR8 and attenuated hemagglutinin and intact neuraminidase genes of field avian influenza viruses (AIVs) have been used for the generation of highly productive recombinant vaccine strains. The 6 + 2 recombinant vaccine strains can induce protective humoral immunity against intended field AIVs; however, the epitopes of B and T cells encoded by internal genes may be important for heterosubtypic protection. Therefore, it is advantageous to use homologous internal genes of field AIVs for recombinant vaccine strains. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.vetmic.2018.11.031DOI Listing
January 2019
13 Reads

A novel recombinant attenuated Newcastle disease virus expressing H9 subtype hemagglutinin protected chickens from challenge by genotype VII virulent Newcastle disease virus and H9N2 avian influenza virus.

Vet Microbiol 2019 Jan 16;228:173-180. Epub 2018 Nov 16.

Department of Veterinary Preventive Medicine, College of Veterinary Medicine, Jilin University, Xi'an Road 5333, Changchun, Jilin 130062, China. Electronic address:

Newcastle disease virus (NDV) and H9 subtype avian influenza virus (AIV) are two avian pathogens across the globe. Inasmuch as most poultry flocks worldwide are vaccinated with a live low-virulence or attenuated NDV vaccine, we embarked on the development of vaccine prototypes that would have dual specificities and would allow a single immunization against both avian influenza (AI) and Newcastle disease (ND). Therefore, in the present work, a cloned full-length copy of the genome of the lentogenic NDV strain rmNA-1 was selected as a backbone vector to construct three chimeric NDVs that expressed (i) the ORF encoding the HA, (ii) the ectodomain of HA fused with the transmembrane domain and cytoplasmic tail regions derived from the NDV F protein and (iii) the ectodomain of HA fused with a short GS linker and the GCN4 sequences, and designated as rmNA-H9, rmNA-H9F, and rmNA-H9 (ECTO), respectively. Read More

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https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S03781135183063
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.vetmic.2018.11.006DOI Listing
January 2019
10 Reads

Duck innate immune responses to high and low pathogenicity H5 avian influenza viruses.

Vet Microbiol 2019 Jan 19;228:101-111. Epub 2018 Nov 19.

Department of Biological Sciences, CW405 Biological Sciences Building, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta, T6G 2E9, Canada; Li Ka Shing Institute of Virology, University of Alberta, Edmonton, T6G 2E1, Canada. Electronic address:

Ducks are the reservoir host of influenza A viruses, and are permissive for replication of most strains, yet can elicit robust innate immune responses to highly pathogenic strains. Tissue tropism and viral amino acid differences affect virulence, but we have limited knowledge about how viral differences influence the host innate immune response. Here we compare the innate immune response in Pekin ducks to a recombinant highly-pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) H5N1 virus and a naturally arising attenuated variant of this strain that differs at one amino acid in polymerase A (T515A), as well as ducks infected with two different H5 strains of low pathogenic avian influenza (LPAI). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.vetmic.2018.11.018DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6365012PMC
January 2019
1 Read

Dietary selenium supplementation enhances antiviral immunity in chickens challenged with low pathogenic avian influenza virus subtype H9N2.

Vet Immunol Immunopathol 2019 Jan 13;207:62-68. Epub 2018 Dec 13.

Department of Pathobiology, Ontario Veterinary College, University of Guelph, Guelph, Canada. Electronic address:

Selenium supplementation in poultry feeds has been known to have beneficial effects on the bird health and performance; however antiviral effects of selenium have remained largely unknown. In this study, we have evaluated the effects of supplementation of chicken diets with organic (Selenium Enriched Yeast; SEY) and inorganic selenium (Sodium Selenite; SS) on low pathogenicity avian influenza virus (H9N2) shedding in the cloacal and oropharyngeal swab samples as well as examined the expression of immune related genes. Chickens were fed two doses (High- 0. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.vetimm.2018.12.002DOI Listing
January 2019
3 Reads
1.535 Impact Factor

Efficacy of a Recombinant Turkey Herpesvirus AI (H5) Vaccine in Preventing Transmission of Heterologous Highly Pathogenic H5N8 Clade 2.3.4.4b Challenge Virus in Commercial Broilers and Layer Pullets.

J Immunol Res 2018 21;2018:3143189. Epub 2018 Nov 21.

Veterinary Diagnostic Directorate, National Food Chain Safety Office (NEBIH), Budapest 1149, Hungary.

Outbreaks caused by the highly pathogenic avian influenza virus (HPAIV) H5N8 subtype clade 2.3.4. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2018/3143189DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6280313PMC
February 2019
1 Read

Genetic characterization of an H13N2 low pathogenic avian influenza virus isolated from gulls in China.

Transbound Emerg Dis 2018 Dec 22. Epub 2018 Dec 22.

Military Veterinary Research Institute, Academy of Military Medical Sciences, Changchun, China.

Low pathogenic avian influenza viruses circulate in wild birds but are occasionally transmitted to other species, including poultry, mammals and humans. To date, infections with low pathogenic avian influenza viruses of HA subtype 6, HA subtype 7, HA subtype 9 and HA subtype 10 among humans have been reported. However, the epidemiology, genetics and ecology of low pathogenic avian influenza viruses have not been fully understood thus far. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/tbed.13108DOI Listing
December 2018
1 Read

Integration of genetic and epidemiological data to infer H5N8 HPAI virus transmission dynamics during the 2016-2017 epidemic in Italy.

Sci Rep 2018 Dec 21;8(1):18037. Epub 2018 Dec 21.

Istituto Zooprofilattico Sperimentale delle Venezie, Legnaro, (Padua), Italy.

Between October 2016 and December 2017, several European Countries had been involved in a massive Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza (HPAI) epidemic sustained by H5N8 subtype virus. Starting on December 2016, also Italy was affected by H5N8 HPAI virus, with cases occurring in two epidemic waves: the first between December 2016 and May 2017, and the second in July-December 2017. Eighty-three outbreaks were recorded in poultry, 67 of which (80. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-018-36892-1DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6303474PMC
December 2018
1 Read

Influenza Cataclysm, 1918.

N Engl J Med 2018 Dec;379(24):2285-2287

From the Office of the Director (D.M.M.) and the Viral Pathogenesis and Evolution Section, Laboratory of Infectious Diseases (J.K.T.), National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, Bethesda, MD.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1056/NEJMp1814447DOI Listing
December 2018
1 Read

Efficacy of commercial vaccines against the prevalent strains of Newcastle disease and avian influenza (h9n2) infections in broilers in Pakistan.

J Biol Regul Homeost Agents 2018 Nov-Dec;32(6):1545-1549

Centre of Excellence in Molecular Biology, University of the Punjab, Lahore-Pakistan

TThe efficacy of the two commonly used commercial vaccines for Newcastle disease (ND) and low path avian influenza (LPAI) H9N2 were evaluated against field virus in broiler chicks. One hundred one-dayold commercial broiler chicks were divided into four groups (A to D) with an equal number of birds per group. Group A and B were vaccinated against H9N2 and NDV, respectively, at day 7 of age while group C served as positive infected control for H9N2 and group D for NDV. Read More

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December 2018
11 Reads

Computational identification of physicochemical signatures for host tropism of influenza A virus.

J Bioinform Comput Biol 2018 Dec 30;16(6):1840023. Epub 2018 Oct 30.

* School of Computer Science and Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, 50 Nanyang Avenue, Singapore 639798, Singapore.

Avian influenza viruses from migratory birds have managed to cross host species barriers and infected various hosts like human and swine. Epidemics and pandemics might occur when influenza viruses are adapted to humans, causing deaths and enormous economic loss. Receptor-binding specificity of the virus is one of the key factors for the transmission of influenza viruses across species. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1142/S0219720018400231DOI Listing
December 2018
2 Reads

The live poultry trade and the spread of highly pathogenic avian influenza: Regional differences between Europe, West Africa, and Southeast Asia.

PLoS One 2018 19;13(12):e0208197. Epub 2018 Dec 19.

School of Life Sciences, Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ, United States of America.

In the past two decades, avian influenzas have posed an increasing international threat to human and livestock health. In particular, highly pathogenic avian influenza H5N1 has spread across Asia, Africa, and Europe, leading to the deaths of millions of poultry and hundreds of people. The two main means of international spread are through migratory birds and the live poultry trade. Read More

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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0208197PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6300203PMC
December 2018

Co-infection of highly pathogenic avian influenza and duck hepatitis viruses in Egyptian backyard and commercial ducks.

Int J Vet Sci Med 2018 Dec 7;6(2):301-306. Epub 2018 Aug 7.

Department of Avian and Rabbit Medicine, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Zagazig University, Zagazig, Egypt.

Highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) H5N1 virus poses a major challenge to the poultry industry and human health in Egypt. Twenty one households and eight duck farms in Sharkia Province, Egypt were investigated for the presence of avian influenza virus (AIV) and/or duck hepatitis virus 1 (DHV-1). Mortality rates among the investigated farms and yards were, 18. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijvsm.2018.07.004DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6286398PMC
December 2018
1 Read

A Divergent Hepatitis D-Like Agent in Birds.

Viruses 2018 12 17;10(12). Epub 2018 Dec 17.

WHO Collaborating Centre for Reference and Research on Influenza, The Peter Doherty Institute for Infection and Immunity, Melbourne, VIC 3000, Australia.

Hepatitis delta virus (HDV) is currently only found in humans and is a satellite virus that depends on hepatitis B virus (HBV) envelope proteins for assembly, release, and entry. Using meta-transcriptomics, we identified the genome of a novel HDV-like agent in ducks. Sequence analysis revealed secondary structures that were shared with HDV, including self-complementarity and ribozyme features. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/v10120720DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6315422PMC
December 2018
1 Read

Closure of live bird markets leads to the spread of H7N9 influenza in China.

PLoS One 2018 12;13(12):e0208884. Epub 2018 Dec 12.

Epidemiological Survey Division, China Animal Health and Epidemiology Center, Qingdao, Shandong, China.

Following the emergence of H7N9 influenza in March 2013, local animal and public health authorities in China have been closing live bird markets as a measure to try to control the H7N9 influenza epidemic. The role of live bird market (LBM) closure on the spread of N7N9 influenza following the closure of LBMs during March to May 2013 (the first wave) and October 2013 to March 2014 (the second wave) is described in this paper. Different provinces implemented closure actions at different times, and intensive media reports on H7N9 in different provinces started at different times. Read More

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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0208884PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6291110PMC
December 2018
10 Reads

Public Health Response to an Avian Influenza A(H7N8) Virus Outbreak in Commercial Turkey Flocks - Indiana, 2016.

MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep 2018 Dec 7;67(48):1339-1341. Epub 2018 Dec 7.

In January 2016, highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) A(H7N8) virus and low pathogenicity avian influenza (LPAI) A(H7N8) virus were detected in commercial turkey flocks in Dubois County, Indiana. The Indiana State Department of Health (ISDH) and the Dubois County Health Department (DCHD) coordinated the public health response to this outbreak, which was the first detection of HPAI A(H7N8) in any species (1). This response was the first to fully implement unpublished public health monitoring procedures for HPAI responders that were developed by the U. Read More

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http://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/volumes/67/wr/mm6748a2.htm?s_cid=mm6
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http://dx.doi.org/10.15585/mmwr.mm6748a2DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6329483PMC
December 2018
9 Reads

Origins of the 1918 Pandemic: Revisiting the Swine "Mixing Vessel" Hypothesis.

Am J Epidemiol 2018 Dec;187(12):2498-2502

Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, University of Arizona, Tucson, Arizona.

How influenza A viruses host-jump from animal reservoir species to humans, which can initiate global pandemics, is a central question in pathogen evolution. The zoonotic and spatial origins of the influenza virus associated with the "Spanish flu" pandemic of 1918 have been debated for decades. Outbreaks of respiratory disease in US swine occurred concurrently with disease in humans, raising the possibility that the 1918 virus originated in pigs. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/aje/kwy150DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6269246PMC
December 2018
2 Reads

Recent approaches for control of and respiratory complex in Middle East.

Saudi J Biol Sci 2018 Nov 3;25(7):1302-1307. Epub 2018 Apr 3.

Department of Botany and Microbiology, College of Science, King Saud University, P.O. Box 2455, Riyadh 11451, Saudi Arabia.

This study was conducted on 100 one-day-old broiler chicks to evaluate the effect of Poulvac vaccine in reduction of clinical signs and complications after concurrent infectious bronchitis virus (variant 02) and virulent O78 challenges. The birds were evaluated for clinical signs, mortality for 7 days post-infection, PM lesion score, average body weight and serological evaluation. Re-isolation and RT-PCR for the challenging infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) variant 02 were conducted thereafter. Read More

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https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S1319562X183008
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.sjbs.2018.04.004DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6252003PMC
November 2018
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Phylogenetic variations of highly pathogenic H5N6 avian influenza viruses isolated from wild birds in the Izumi plain, Japan, during the 2016-17 winter season.

Transbound Emerg Dis 2018 Nov 30. Epub 2018 Nov 30.

Kagoshima Crane Conservation Committee, Izumi, Kagoshima, Japan.

During the 2016-2017 winter season, we isolated 33 highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses (HPAIVs) of H5N6 subtype and three low pathogenic avian influenza viruses (LPAIVs) from debilitated or dead wild birds, duck faeces, and environmental water samples collected in the Izumi plain, an overwintering site for migratory birds in Japan. Genetic analyses of the H5N6 HPAIV isolates revealed previously unreported phylogenetic variations in the PB2, PB1, PA, and NS gene segments and allowed us to propose two novel genotypes for the contemporary H5N6 HPAIVs. In addition, analysis of the four gene segments identified close phylogenetic relationships between our three LPAIV isolates and the contemporary H5N6 HPAIV isolates. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/tbed.13087DOI Listing
November 2018
1 Read

Host and viral determinants of influenza A virus species specificity.

Nat Rev Microbiol 2019 Jan;17(2):67-81

Department of Medicine, Imperial College London, London, UK.

Influenza A viruses cause pandemics when they cross between species and an antigenically novel virus acquires the ability to infect and transmit between these new hosts. The timing of pandemics is currently unpredictable but depends on ecological and virological factors. The host range of an influenza A virus is determined by species-specific interactions between virus and host cell factors. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41579-018-0115-zDOI Listing
January 2019
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Evidence of a fixed internal gene constellation in influenza A viruses isolated from wild birds in Argentina (2006-2016).

Emerg Microbes Infect 2018 Nov 28;7(1):194. Epub 2018 Nov 28.

Poultry Diagnostic and Research Center, College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Georgia, 953 College Station Rd, Athens, GA, 30602, USA.

Wild aquatic birds are the major reservoir of influenza A virus. Cloacal swabs and feces samples (n = 6595) were collected from 62 bird species in Argentina from 2006 to 2016 and screened for influenza A virus. Full genome sequencing of 15 influenza isolates from 6 waterfowl species revealed subtypes combinations that were previously described in South America (H1N1, H4N2, H4N6 (n = 3), H5N3, H6N2 (n = 4), and H10N7 (n = 2)), and new ones not previously identified in the region (H4N8, H7N7 and H7N9). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41426-018-0190-2DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6258671PMC
November 2018

Molecular evolutionary and antigenic characteristics of newly isolated H9N2 avian influenza viruses in Guangdong province, China.

Arch Virol 2019 Feb 24;164(2):607-612. Epub 2018 Nov 24.

School of Life Science and Engineering, Foshan University, Foshan, 528000, Guangdong, People's Republic of China.

Four new H9N2 avian influenza viruses (AIVs) were isolated from domestic birds in Guangdong between December 2015 and April 2016. Nucleotide sequence comparisons indicated that most of the internal genes of these four strains were highly similar to those of human H7N9 viruses. Amino acid substitutions and deletions found in the HA and NA proteins indicated that all four of these new isolates may have an enhanced ability to infect humans and other mammals. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00705-018-4103-4DOI Listing
February 2019
2 Reads

Experimental infection of racing pigeons (Columba livia domestica) with highly pathogenic Clade 2.3.4.4 sub-group B H5N8 avian influenza virus.

Vet Microbiol 2018 Dec 2;227:127-132. Epub 2018 Nov 2.

Department of Companion Animal Clinical Studies, Faculty of Veterinary Science, University of Pretoria, Private Bag X04, Onderstepoort, 0110, South Africa.

Reported mass mortalities in wild pigeons and doves during the 2017/2018 Clade 2.3.4. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.vetmic.2018.10.028DOI Listing
December 2018
2 Reads

Genetic Compatibility of Reassortants between Avian H5N1 and H9N2 Influenza Viruses with Higher Pathogenicity in Mammals.

J Virol 2019 Feb 5;93(4). Epub 2019 Feb 5.

Department of Infectious Diseases, Kyoto Prefectural University of Medicine, Kyoto, Japan

The cocirculation of H5N1 and H9N2 avian influenza viruses in birds in Egypt provides reassortment opportunities between these two viruses. However, little is known about the emergence potential of reassortants derived from Egyptian H5N1 and H9N2 viruses and about the biological properties of such reassortants. To evaluate the potential public health risk of reassortants of these viruses, we used reverse genetics to generate the 63 possible reassortants derived from contemporary Egyptian H5N1 and H9N2 viruses, containing the H5N1 surface gene segments and combinations of the H5N1 and H9N2 internal gene segments, and analyzed their genetic compatibility, replication ability, and virulence in mice. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/JVI.01969-18DOI Listing
February 2019
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Interaction between avian influenza subtype H9N2 and Newcastle disease virus vaccine strain (LaSota) in chickens.

BMC Vet Res 2018 Nov 20;14(1):358. Epub 2018 Nov 20.

Department of Animal Production, College of Food and Agriculture Sciences, King Saud University, P.O. Box 2460, Riyadh, 11451, Saudi Arabia.

Background: H9N2 avian influenza virus is endemic in Egyptian poultry flocks. The role of the live viral vaccines such as LaSota in exaggeration of the clinical picture of H9N2 infection under field conditions is significantly important leading to severe economic losses due to higher mortality and lower growth performance. This experiment was designed to identify the possible interaction between experimental infection with H9N2 virus and NDV live vaccine (LaSota strain) in broiler chickens. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12917-018-1689-4DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6245631PMC
November 2018
8 Reads
1.780 Impact Factor

Resource-Effective Serosurveillance for the Detection of West Nile Virus in Switzerland Using Abattoir Samples of Free-Range Laying Hens.

Vector Borne Zoonotic Dis 2018 Nov 20. Epub 2018 Nov 20.

1 Vetsuisse Faculty, Institute of Veterinary Bacteriology, National Reference Centre for Poultry and Rabbit Diseases (NRGK), University of Zurich , Zurich, Switzerland .

West Nile virus (WNV) is an important zoonotic pathogen maintained in a natural transmission cycle between mosquitoes and birds as reservoir hosts. In dead-end hosts, such as humans, infection may result in fatal neurologic disease translating into disease and death-related suffering and increased health care costs. In humans, WNV may also be transmitted through blood transfusions and organ transplants. Read More

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https://www.liebertpub.com/doi/10.1089/vbz.2018.2319
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1089/vbz.2018.2319DOI Listing
November 2018
13 Reads