253,912 results match your criteria Avian Flu


Common Terminology and Acoustic Measures for Human Voice and Birdsong.

J Speech Lang Hear Res 2018 Dec 11:1-10. Epub 2018 Dec 11.

Department of Neuroscience, University of Arizona, Tucson.

Purpose: The zebra finch is used as a model to study the neural circuitry of auditory-guided human vocal production. The terminology of birdsong production and acoustic analysis, however, differs from human voice production, making it difficult for voice researchers of either species to navigate the literature from the other. The purpose of this research note is to identify common terminology and measures to better compare information across species. Read More

View Article
December 2018

Closure of live bird markets leads to the spread of H7N9 influenza in China.

PLoS One 2018 12;13(12):e0208884. Epub 2018 Dec 12.

Epidemiological Survey Division, China Animal Health and Epidemiology Center, Qingdao, Shandong, China.

Following the emergence of H7N9 influenza in March 2013, local animal and public health authorities in China have been closing live bird markets as a measure to try to control the H7N9 influenza epidemic. The role of live bird market (LBM) closure on the spread of N7N9 influenza following the closure of LBMs during March to May 2013 (the first wave) and October 2013 to March 2014 (the second wave) is described in this paper. Different provinces implemented closure actions at different times, and intensive media reports on H7N9 in different provinces started at different times. Read More

View Article
December 2018

Developing an efficient protocol for monitoring eagle fatalities at wind energy facilities.

PLoS One 2018 12;13(12):e0208700. Epub 2018 Dec 12.

Avangrid Renewables, LLC, Portland, Oregon, United States of America.

Researchers typically conduct fatality monitoring to determine a wind energy facility's direct impacts on wildlife. In the United States, wind energy impacts on eagles have received increased attention in recent years because eagle incidental take permits became available. Permit holders are required to conduct fatality monitoring to evaluate compliance with permitted eagle take. Read More

View Article
December 2018

Use of RFID technology to characterize feeder visitations and contact network of hummingbirds in urban habitats.

PLoS One 2018 12;13(12):e0208057. Epub 2018 Dec 12.

Department of Medicine and Epidemiology, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of California Davis, Davis, California, United States of America.

Despite the popular use of hummingbird feeders, there are limited studies evaluating the effects of congregation, sharing food resources and increased contact when hummingbirds visit feeders in urban landscapes. To evaluate behavioral interactions occurring at feeders, we tagged 230 individuals of two species, Anna's and Allen's Hummingbirds, with passive integrated transponder tags and recorded their visits with RFID transceivers at feeders. For detecting the presence of tagged birds, we developed an RFID equipped feeding station using a commercially available antenna and RFID transceiver. Read More

View Article
December 2018

Geolocator deployment reduces return rate, alters selection, and impacts demography in a small songbird.

PLoS One 2018 12;13(12):e0207783. Epub 2018 Dec 12.

Department of Environmental Sciences, University of Toledo, Toledo, OH, United States of America.

In the past few years, miniature light-level geolocators have been developed for tracking wild bird species that were previously too small to track during their full annual cycle. Geolocators offer an exciting opportunity to study the full annual cycle for many species. However, the potential detrimental effects of carrying geolocators are still poorly understood, especially for small-bodied birds. Read More

View Article
December 2018

Prey of killer whales (Orcinus orca) in Iceland.

PLoS One 2018 12;13(12):e0207287. Epub 2018 Dec 12.

Marine and Freshwater Research Institute, Skúlagata, Reykjavík, Iceland.

Killer whales have a cosmopolitan distribution and as a species are generalists, feeding on a variety of prey. However, local populations tend to specialise on specific prey types. In Icelandic waters, killer whales are generally associated with herring and, thus, have been presumed to be herring specialists. Read More

View Article
December 2018

Molecular Prevalence and Genetic Characterization of Toxoplasma gondii in Wild Birds in Hunan Province, China.

Vector Borne Zoonotic Dis 2018 Dec 12. Epub 2018 Dec 12.

1 Hunan Provincial Key Laboratory of Protein Engineering in Animal Vaccines, College of Veterinary Medicine, Hunan Agricultural University , Changsha, People's Republic of China .

Toxoplasma gondii is a ubiquitous apicomplexan parasite of warm-blooded animals and humans. However, limited information is available about T. gondii infection in wild birds. Read More

View Article
December 2018

Pathogenicity of two novel human-origin H7N9 highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses in chickens and ducks.

Arch Virol 2018 Dec 11. Epub 2018 Dec 11.

Division of Transboundary Animal Disease, National Institute of Animal Health, National Agriculture and Food Research Organization (NARO), 3-1-5 Kannondai, Tsukuba, Ibaraki, 305-0856, Japan.

Human infection by low-pathogenic avian influenza viruses of the H7N9 subtype was first reported in March 2013 in China. Subsequently, these viruses caused five outbreaks through September 2017. In the fifth outbreak, H7N9 virus possessing a multiple basic amino acid insertion in the cleavage site of hemagglutinin emerged and caused 4% of all human infections in that period. Read More

View Article
December 2018

Survey on broiler -slaughter mortality in a commercial abattoir of central Italy.

Ital J Food Saf 2018 Sep 6;7(3):5878. Epub 2018 Nov 6.

School of Biosciences and Veterinary Medicine, University of Camerino, Matelica.

The -slaughter mortality was investigated on broilers, in the Mediterranean climate condition, considering the most significant risk factors as the journey length, waiting time, season and the space allowance in cages. At first, the -slaughter mortality was studied considering the totality of birds and then by examining in detail three broiler categories: large, medium and small size. The average dead on arrival (DOA) recorded on the totality of birds throughout the year was 0. Read More

View Article
September 2018

Molecular detection and characterisation of avian paramyxovirus type 1 in backyard chickens and pigeons in Alzintan city of Libya.

Open Vet J 2018 28;8(4):401-405. Epub 2018 Oct 28.

Istituto Zooprofilattico Sperimentale delle Venezie, Viale dell'Universita, 10, Legnaro, Padova 35020, Italy.

Avian paramyxovirus-1 (APMV-1) is the causative agent of Newcastle Disease which affects many species of birds leading to high mortality and heavy economic losses among poultry industry worldwide. Newcastle disease is endemic in Libya with frequent outbreaks occurring in commercial and backyard poultry. APMV-1 was isolated and characterised during the outbreak in 2013. Read More

View Article
October 2018

Migration phenology determines niche use of East Asian buntings (Emberizidae) during stopover.

Curr Zool 2018 Dec 6;64(6):681-692. Epub 2018 Feb 6.

Institute of Avian Research "Vogelwarte Helgoland", An der Vogelwarte 21, Wilhelmshaven, Germany.

Stopover niche utilization of birds during migration has not gained much attention so far, since the majority of the studies focuses on breeding or wintering areas. However, stopover sites are crucial for migratory birds. They are often used by a multitude of species, which could lead to increased competition. Read More

View Article
December 2018

Not All Green Space Is Created Equal: Biodiversity Predicts Psychological Restorative Benefits From Urban Green Space.

Front Psychol 2018 27;9:2320. Epub 2018 Nov 27.

School of Biology, Faculty of Biological Sciences, University of Leeds, Leeds, United Kingdom.

Contemporary epidemiological methods testing the associations between green space and psychological well-being treat all vegetation cover as equal. However, there is very good reason to expect that variations in ecological "quality" (number of species, integrity of ecological processes) may influence the link between access to green space and benefits to human health and well-being. We test the relationship between green space quality and restorative benefit in an inner city urban population in Bradford, United Kingdom. Read More

View Article
November 2018

Transcriptional Signatures in Liver Reveal Metabolic Adaptations to Seasons in Migratory Blackheaded Buntings.

Front Physiol 2018 27;9:1568. Epub 2018 Nov 27.

IndoUS Center for Biological Timing, Department of Zoology, University of Delhi, New Delhi, India.

The molecular underpinnings of metabolic adaptation to seasons are poorly understood in long- distance migrants. We measured changes in physiology and performed sequencing of RNA extracted from liver samples collected at 4-h intervals over a period of 24 h from a long-distance avian migrant, the blackheaded bunting (), during two states: photostimulated vernal migratory (M) state and photorefractory non-migratory (nM) state. The M state was differentiated from the nM state based on body fattening and weight gain, as well as on , that is, nocturnal migratory restlessness in caged birds. Read More

View Article
November 2018

Spectral Properties of Brain Activity Under Two Anesthetics and Their Potential for Inducing Natural Sleep in Birds.

Front Neurosci 2018 27;12:881. Epub 2018 Nov 27.

School of Life Sciences, La Trobe University, Melbourne, VIC, Australia.

Both mammals and birds exhibit two sleep states, slow wave sleep (SWS) and rapid eye movement (REM) sleep. Studying certain aspects of sleep-related electrophysiology in freely behaving animals can present numerous methodological constraints, particularly when even fine body movements interfere with electrophysiological signals. Interestingly, under light general anesthesia, mammals and birds also exhibit slow waves similar to those observed during natural SWS. Read More

View Article
November 2018

Epidemiological and molecular analysis of avian influenza A(H7N9) virus in Shanghai, China, 2013-2017.

Infect Drug Resist 2018 22;11:2411-2424. Epub 2018 Nov 22.

Department of Animal Science, Shanghai Key Laboratory of Veterinary Biotechnology, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240, China,

Background: Human infections with a novel avian influenza A virus (H7N9) were reported in Shanghai municipality, China, at the beginning of 2013. High-pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) H7N9 virus emerged in late February 2017 along with existing low-pathogenic avian influenza (LPAI) H7N9 virus, and this has the potential to develop into a pandemic that could be harmful to humans.

Methods: To elucidate the epidemiological characteristics of H7N9-infected cases from 2013 to 2017 in Shanghai, data on the 59 laboratory-confirmed human cases and 26 bird and environmental contamination cases were collected from the WHO website and Food and Agriculture Organization Emergency Prevention System for Animal Health (FAO EMPRES-AH). Read More

View Article
November 2018

Isolation of from crows living in urban parks of Tehran, Iran: an investigation with zoonotic aspect.

J Parasit Dis 2018 Dec 22;42(4):494-499. Epub 2018 Aug 22.

Parasitology and Entomology Department, Faculty of Medical Sciences, Tarbiat Modares University, Jalal Al Ahmad St, P.O. Box: 14115-4838, Tehran, Iran.

Microsporidia are eukaryotic, intracellular obligate parasites that widely involve many organisms including insects, fish, birds, and mammals. One of the genera of Microsporidia is , which contains several opportunistic pathogens. Since spp. Read More

View Article
December 2018

Diagnosis and control of chicken coccidiosis: a recent update.

J Parasit Dis 2018 Dec 29;42(4):483-493. Epub 2018 Oct 29.

Discipline of Genetics, School of Life Sciences, College of Agriculture, Engineering and Science, University of KwaZulu-Natal, Westville, P/Bag X54001, Durban, 4000 South Africa.

Coccidiosis is a deadly disease that hampers chicken's productivity and welfare. Thus, the disease is a major menace to the global poultry industry. Coccidiosis which is caused by the apicomplexan parasite of the genus has seven known species which affect the different parts of the intestinal tract of chickens. Read More

View Article
December 2018

Glycoblotting of Egg White Reveals Diverse N-glycan Expression in Quail Species.

J Agric Food Chem 2018 Dec 11. Epub 2018 Dec 11.

The glycan part of glycoproteins is known to be involved in the structure and modulatory functions of glycoproteins, serving as ligands for cell to cell interactions, and as specific ligands for cell to microbe interactions. It is believed that intraspecies and interspecies variations in glycosylation exist. However, only a few information about glycan diversity is available. Read More

View Article
December 2018

Exploring subindividual variability: role of ontogeny, abiotic environment, and seed-dispersing birds.

Plant Biol (Stuttg) 2018 Dec 10. Epub 2018 Dec 10.

Departamento de Bioloxía Celular e Ecoloxía, Universidade de Santiago de Compostela, Spain.

Within-individual trait variation -otherwise known as subindividual variation- is an important component of phenotypic variation, with a genetic and epigenetic basis. We explore its adaptive value and the effects of ontogeny and the environment on subindividual variability. We conducted a field study to analyze the effects of tree age, soil pH, soil water content, and soil nutrients on subindividual variability in fruit size of Hawthorn (Crataegus monogyna) in three sites in Northwestern Spain. Read More

View Article
December 2018

The evolutionary relationship between beak shape, mechanical advantage, and feeding ecology in modern birds.

Evolution 2018 Dec 8. Epub 2018 Dec 8.

School of Earth Sciences, University of Bristol, Life Sciences Building, Bristol, UK.

Extensive research on avian adaptive radiations has led to a presumption that beak morphology predicts feeding ecology in birds. However, this ecomorphological relationship has only been quantified in a handful of avian lineages, where associations are of variable strength, and never at a broad macroevolutionary scale. Here, we used shape analysis and phylogenetic comparative methods to quantify the relationships between beak shape, mechanical advantage, and two measures of feeding ecology (feeding behaviour and semi-quantitative dietary preferences) in a broad sample of modern birds, comprising most living orders. Read More

View Article
December 2018

Unexpected bird-feather mite associations revealed by DNA metabarcoding uncovers a dynamic ecoevolutionary scenario.

Mol Ecol 2018 Dec 10. Epub 2018 Dec 10.

Department of Evolutionary Ecology, Estación Biológica de Doñana (EBD-CSIC), Avda. Americo Vespucio 26, Sevilla, 41092, Spain.

The high relevance of host-switching for the diversification of highly host-specific symbionts (i.e., those commonly inhabiting a single host species) demands a better understanding of host-switching dynamics at an ecological scale. Read More

View Article
December 2018

The diversity of population responses to environmental change.

Ecol Lett 2018 Dec 9. Epub 2018 Dec 9.

Université Lyon 1, CNRS, UMR 5558, Laboratoire de Biométrie et Biologie Evolutive, F-69622, Villeurbanne, France.

The current extinction and climate change crises pressure us to predict population dynamics with ever-greater accuracy. Although predictions rest on the well-advanced theory of age-structured populations, two key issues remain poorly explored. Specifically, how the age-dependency in demographic rates and the year-to-year interactions between survival and fecundity affect stochastic population growth rates. Read More

View Article
December 2018

A new one-step multiplex PCR assay for simultaneous detection and identification of avian haemosporidian parasites.

Parasitol Res 2018 Dec 7. Epub 2018 Dec 7.

Molecular Ecology and Evolution Laboratory, Department of Biology, Lund University, SE-223 62, Lund, Sweden.

Accurate detection and identification are essential components for epidemiological, ecological, and evolutionary surveys of avian haemosporidian parasites. Microscopy has been used for more than 100 years to detect and identify these parasites; however, this technique requires considerable training and high-level expertise. Several PCR methods with highly sensitive and specific detection capabilities have now been developed in addition to microscopic examination. Read More

View Article
December 2018

Preparing to migrate: expression of androgen signaling molecules and insulin-like growth factor-1 in skeletal muscles of Gambel's white-crowned sparrows.

J Comp Physiol A Neuroethol Sens Neural Behav Physiol 2018 Dec 8. Epub 2018 Dec 8.

Department of Neurobiology Physiology Behavior, University of California, Davis, USA.

Migratory birds, including Gambel's white-crowned sparrows (Zonotrichia leucophrys gambelii), exhibit profound modifications of skeletal muscles prior to migration, notably hypertrophy of the pectoralis muscle required for powered flight. Muscle growth may be influenced by anabolic effects of androgens; however, prior to spring departure, circulating androgens are low in sparrows. A seasonal increase in local androgen signaling may occur within muscle to promote remodeling. Read More

View Article
December 2018

The role of roughage provision on the absorption and disposition of the mycotoxin deoxynivalenol and its acetylated derivatives in calves: from field observations to toxicokinetics.

Arch Toxicol 2018 Dec 10. Epub 2018 Dec 10.

Department of Pharmacology, Toxicology and Biochemistry, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Ghent University, Merelbeke, Belgium.

A clinical case in Belgium demonstrated that feeding a feed concentrate containing considerable levels of deoxynivalenol (DON, 1.13 mg/kg feed) induced severe liver failure in 2- to 3-month-old beef calves. Symptoms disappeared by replacing the highly contaminated corn and by stimulating ruminal development via roughage administration. Read More

View Article
December 2018

Digestibility of amino acid in full-fat canola seeds, canola meal, and canola expellers fed to broiler chickens and pigs.

J Anim Sci 2018 Dec 10. Epub 2018 Dec 10.

Department of Animal Sciences, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN.

Canola products including full-fat canola seeds (FFCS), canola meal (CM), and canola expellers (CE) have been used in diets for both broiler chickens and pigs. However, their ability to utilize the amino acids (AA) in canola products might be different from each other. Therefore, this study was conducted to compare the apparent ileal digestibility (AID) and standardized ileal digestibility (SID) of crude protein (CP) and AA in broiler chickens and growing pigs fed FFCS, CM, and CE. Read More

View Article
December 2018

Colonization of internal organs by Salmonella Enteritidis in experimentally infected laying hens of four commercial genetic lines in conventional cages and enriched colony housing.

Poult Sci 2018 Dec 11. Epub 2018 Dec 11.

Department of Animal Sciences, Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indiana 47907, USA.

The prevalence of Salmonella Enteritidis in commercial egg-laying flocks is a prominent public health concern because contaminated eggs cause human illness. Deposition of this pathogen inside eggs results from bacterial colonization of reproductive tissues in infected hens. Environmental conditions can influence avian Salmonella infections, but the food safety consequences of different poultry housing systems remain uncertain. Read More

View Article
December 2018
1 Read

Oil source and peroxidation status interactively affect growth performance and oxidative status in broilers from 4 to 25 d of age.

Poult Sci 2018 Dec 7. Epub 2018 Dec 7.

USDA-ARS National Laboratory for Agriculture and the Environment, Ames, IA 50011.

The objectives of this experiment were to evaluate the effect of oil source and peroxidation status on broiler performance and oxidative stress. Broilers (initial BW 85.1 ± 7. Read More

View Article
December 2018

Frequent double ovipositions in two flocks of laying hens.

Poult Sci 2018 Dec 11. Epub 2018 Dec 11.

Department of Poultry Science, The University of Georgia, Athens, GA 30605, USA.

Laying hens have been selected over generations for maximal reproductive efficiency. As a result, the incidences of abnormal eggs and abnormal laying patterns are relatively low for these strains. While double ovulations, resulting in the production of double-yolked eggs, does occur on occasion in young birds just entering reproductive maturity, these double ovulations almost never result in 2 fully formed eggs, and are rare in hens that have reached peak reproductive productivity. Read More

View Article
December 2018
1 Read

Mapping of QTL for chicken body weight, carcass composition, and meat quality traits in a slow-growing line.

Poult Sci 2018 Dec 7. Epub 2018 Dec 7.

BOA, INRA, Université de Tours, 37380 Nouzilly, France.

Slow-growing chicken lines are valuable genetic resources for the development of well-perceived alternative free-range production. While there is no constraint on increasing growth rate, breeding programs have to evolve in order to include new traits improving the positioning of such lines in the growing market for parts and processed products. In this study, we used dense genotyping to fine map QTL for chicken growth, body composition, and meat quality traits in view of developing new tools for selection of a slow-growing line. Read More

View Article
December 2018

Effects of litter floor access and inclusion of experienced hens in aviary housing on floor eggs, litter condition, air quality, and hen welfare.

Poult Sci 2018 Dec 11. Epub 2018 Dec 11.

Department of Veterinary Diagnostic & Production Animal Medicine, Iowa State University, Ames 5011-1134, IA, USA.

With different cage-free (CF) housing styles and management schemes, retailers have developed their own CF criteria. One highly debated aspect is if hens may be kept inside the system for part of the day-during the first few hours after lights-on. Research is lacking regarding the impacts of such a practice on hen welfare, incidence of eggs laid on the litter floor, litter condition, and air quality. Read More

View Article
December 2018

Deciphering desirable immune responses from disease models with resistant and susceptible chickens.

Poult Sci 2018 Dec 11. Epub 2018 Dec 11.

Southern Plains Agricultural Research Center, USDA-ARS, College Station, TX 77845, USA.

Coccidiosis and necrotic enteritis (NE) are among the most significant diseases affecting the poultry industry. These diseases have become more prominent in the wake of policies to reduce the use of antibiotics in animal production. This has led to more research focused on better understanding the immune system and its responses to pathogen challenge, and thus developing informed strategies to exploit immune responses that can support enhanced disease resistance and growth performance. Read More

View Article
December 2018
1 Read

Preliminary observations of tool-processing behaviour in Hawaiian crows .

Commun Integr Biol 2018 21;11(4):e1509637. Epub 2018 Oct 21.

Centre for Biological Diversity, School of Biology, University of St Andrews, St Andrews, UK.

Very few animal species habitually make and use foraging tools. We recently discovered that the Hawaiian crow is a highly skilled, natural tool user. Most captive adults in our experiment spontaneously used sticks to access out-of-reach food from a range of extraction tasks, exhibiting a surprising degree of dexterity. Read More

View Article
October 2018

Dissecting the Genomic Architecture of Resistance to Parasitism in the Chicken.

Front Genet 2018 26;9:528. Epub 2018 Nov 26.

The Roslin Institute and Royal (Dick) School of Veterinary Studies, The University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, United Kingdom.

Coccidiosis in poultry, caused by protozoan parasites of the genus , is an intestinal disease with substantial economic impact. With the use of anticoccidial drugs under public and political pressure, and the comparatively higher cost of live-attenuated vaccines, an attractive complementary strategy for control is to breed chickens with increased resistance to parasitism. Prior infection with leads to complete immunity against challenge with homologous strains, but only partial resistance to challenge with antigenically diverse heterologous strains. Read More

View Article
November 2018

Complete Genome Sequence of Avian Coronavirus Strain D274.

Microbiol Resour Announc 2018 Aug 30;7(8). Epub 2018 Aug 30.

Department of Preventive Veterinary Medicine and Animal Health, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil.

Avian coronavirus, the causative agent of avian infectious bronchitis, occurs as multiple genotypes and lineages, and full genomes are not available for the majority of them. This paper reports the (previously unknown) complete genome sequence of strain D274 of this virus (27,599 nucleotides), isolated from chickens in The Netherlands in 1979. Read More

View Article

Complete Genomic Sequences of Highly Pathogenic H5N1 Avian Influenza Viruses Obtained Directly from Human Autopsy Specimens.

Microbiol Resour Announc 2018 Dec 6;7(22). Epub 2018 Dec 6.

Department of Microbiology, Faculty of Medicine Siriraj Hospital, Mahidol University, Bangkok, Thailand.

The complete genomic sequences of H5N1 highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) viruses were directly obtained from lung, trachea, and colon tissues and an intestinal fecal sample of a patient by using the next-generation sequencing technique. This is the first report on complete H5N1 viral genomes from human autopsy specimens. Read More

View Article
December 2018

First Complete Genome Sequence of a Hare Calicivirus Strain Isolated from .

Microbiol Resour Announc 2018 Dec 6;7(22). Epub 2018 Dec 6.

Avian and Rabbit Virology Immunology Parasitology Unit, Ploufragan-Plouzané-Niort Laboratory, French Agency for Food, Environmental and Occupational Health & Safety (Anses), Ploufragan, France.

The first full-genome sequence of a hare calicivirus (HaCV), recently characterized as a novel member of the , is described. This presumed nonpathogenic lagovirus is 7,433 nucleotides long, shows the same genomic organization as that of other lagoviruses, and has the highest nucleotide identity (79%) with pathogenic European brown hare syndrome viruses. Read More

View Article
December 2018

Complete Genome Sequence of Avian Pathogenic Escherichia coli Strain APEC O2-211.

Microbiol Resour Announc 2018 Sep 27;7(12). Epub 2018 Sep 27.

Department of Population Health, College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Georgia, Athens, Georgia, USA.

Avian pathogenic Escherichia coli (APEC) is the causative agent of colibacillosis, a disease that affects poultry production worldwide and leads to multimillion-dollar losses annually. Here, we report the genome sequence of APEC O2-211, a sequence type 117 (ST117) strain isolated from a diseased chicken. Read More

View Article
September 2018

Genome Sequence of a Gyrovirus Associated with Ashy Storm-Petrel.

Microbiol Resour Announc 2018 Sep 20;7(11). Epub 2018 Sep 20.

The Biodesign Center for Fundamental and Applied Microbiomics, Center for Evolution and Medicine, School of Life Sciences, Arizona State University, Tempe, Arizona, USA.

Ashy storm-petrels (order Procellariiformes) are seabirds that are found along the coast of California to Baja Mexico. A novel gyrovirus was identified from a cloacal swab of an ashy storm-petrel, which is the second gyrovirus to be identified in sea birds, the first being found in the related northern fulmar. Read More

View Article
September 2018

Complete Genome Sequence of Psittacine Adenovirus 1, Identified from Poicephalus senegalus in Italy.

Microbiol Resour Announc 2018 Sep 20;7(11). Epub 2018 Sep 20.

Division of Comparative Biomedical Sciences, Istituto Zooprofilattico Sperimentale delle Venezie, Legnaro (Padua), Italy.

Using a metagenomics approach, we were able to determine for the first time the full-genome sequence of a psittacine adenovirus 1 isolate that was recovered from the liver of a dead Senegal parrot (Poicephalus senegalus) in Italy. The results of the phylogenetic investigations revealed the existence of high genetic diversity among adenoviruses circulating in psittacine birds. Read More

View Article
September 2018

Potential Pandemic of H7N9 Avian Influenza A Virus in Human.

Front Cell Infect Microbiol 2018 23;8:414. Epub 2018 Nov 23.

College of Veterinary Medicine, South China Agricultural University, Guangzhou, China.

Since 2013, the H7N9 avian influenza A virus (AIV) has caused human infections and to the extent of now surpassing H5N1. This raises an alarm about the potential of H7N9 to become a pandemic problem. Our compilation of the amino acid changes required for AIVs to cross the species-barrier discovers 58 that have very high proportions in both the human- and avian-isolated H7N9 viruses. Read More

View Article
November 2018

cBmal1 but not cClock is associated with monochromatic green light-induced circadian rhythm of melatonin in chick pinealocytes.

Endocr Connect 2018 Dec 1. Epub 2018 Dec 1.

Y Chen, Laboratory of Anatomy of Domestic Animals, College of Animal Medicine, China Agricultural University, Beijing , China.

The avian pineal gland, an independent circadian oscillator, receives external photic cues and translates them for the rhythmical synthesis of melatonin. Our previous study found that monochromatic green light could increase the secretion of melatonin and expression of cClock and cBmal1 in chick pinealocytes. This study further investigated the role of cBmal1 and cClock in monochromatic green light-induced melatonin secretion in chick pinealocytes using siRNAs interference and overexpression techniques. Read More

View Article
December 2018

Avian Influenza A (H7N9) Model Based on Poultry Transport Network in China.

Comput Math Methods Med 2018 4;2018:7383170. Epub 2018 Nov 4.

Complex Systems Research Center, Shanxi University, Taiyuan, Shanxi 030006, China.

In order to analyze the spread of avian influenza A (H7N9), we construct an avian influenza transmission model from poultry (including poultry farm, backyard poultry farm, live-poultry wholesale market, and wet market) to human according to poultry transport network. We obtain the threshold value for the prevalence of avian influenza A (H7N9) and also give the existence and number of the boundary equilibria and endemic equilibria in different conditions. We can see that poultry transport network plays an important role in controlling avian influenza A (H7N9). Read More

View Article
November 2018

Ulvan Activates Chicken Heterophils and Monocytes Through Toll-Like Receptor 2 and Toll-Like Receptor 4.

Front Immunol 2018 23;9:2725. Epub 2018 Nov 23.

Amadeite SAS, Bréhan, France.

Responsiveness to invasive pathogens, clearance via the inflammatory response, and activation of appropriate acquired responses are all coordinated by innate host defenses. Toll-like receptor (TLR) ligands are potent immune-modulators with profound effects on the generation of adaptive immune responses. This property is being exploited in TLR-based vaccines and therapeutic agents in chickens. Read More

View Article
November 2018

Effect of the combined action of extract and probiotic substances on the immunity and productivity of broiler chickens.

Vet World 2018 Nov 13;11(10):1416-1422. Epub 2018 Oct 13.

Department for Feeding Agricultural Animals and Fodder Technology, Federal Research Centre of Biological Systems and Agro-technologies of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Orenburg - 460 000, Russia.

Aim: This study was designed to investigate the synergistic effect of the combined action of probiotic bacterial strains ( and ) and extract as biologically active substances in the feed on the immunity and productivity of .

Materials And Methods: For the experiment, 120 7-day-old broiler chickens were selected (4 groups, n=30, 3 replicates with 10 birds in each group). The groups were as follows: The reference group - basic diet (BD); experimental Group I - BD + extract , 2. Read More

View Article
November 2018

Parent-embryo acoustic communication: a specialised heat vocalisation allowing embryonic eavesdropping.

Sci Rep 2018 Dec 7;8(1):17721. Epub 2018 Dec 7.

Centre for Integrative Ecology, School of Life & Environmental Sciences, Deakin University Geelong, Geelong, Australia.

Sound is arguably the external cue most accessible to embryos of many species, and as such may constitute an unrivalled source of early information. Recent evidence shows that prenatal sounds, similarly to maternal effects, may shape developmental trajectories. Establishing whether parental vocalisations are signals directed at embryos, or parental cues on which embryos eavesdrop, can elucidate whether parents or embryos control developmental outcomes. Read More

View Article
December 2018

Global dynamics of bipedal macaques during grounded and aerial running.

J Exp Biol 2018 Dec 10;221(Pt 24). Epub 2018 Dec 10.

Department of Mechanical Engineering, Keio University, 3-14-1 Hiyoshi, Kohoku-ku, Yokohama 223-8522, Japan.

Macaques trained to perform bipedally use grounded running, skipping and aerial running, but avoid walking. The preference for grounded running across a wide range of speeds is substantially different from the locomotion habits observed in humans, which may be the result of differences in leg compliance. In the present study, based on kinematic and dynamic observations of three individuals crossing an experimental track, we investigated global leg properties such as leg stiffness and viscous damping during grounded and aerial running. Read More

View Article
December 2018

Bioenergy cropland expansion may offset positive effects of climate change mitigation for global vertebrate diversity.

Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2018 Dec 10. Epub 2018 Dec 10.

Senckenberg Biodiversity and Climate Research Centre (BiK-F), 60325 Frankfurt, Germany.

Climate and land-use change interactively affect biodiversity. Large-scale expansions of bioenergy have been suggested as an important component for climate change mitigation. Here we use harmonized climate and land-use projections to investigate their potential combined impacts on global vertebrate diversity under a low- and a high-level emission scenario. Read More

View Article
December 2018

Changes in thyroid function of nestling tree swallows (Tachycineta bicolor) in relation to polycyclic aromatic compounds and other environmental stressors in the Athabasca Oil Sands Region.

Environ Res 2018 Nov 22;169:464-475. Epub 2018 Nov 22.

Department of Ecosystem and Public Health, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Calgary, 3280 Hospital Drive NW, Calgary, Alberta, Canada T2N 4Z6.

In the Canadian Athabasca Oil Sands Region (AOSR), nestling tree swallows (Tachycineta bicolor) raised near mining-related activities accumulated greater concentrations of polycyclic aromatic compounds (PACs) that contributed to their poorer condition, growth, and reproductive success. Here, we report changes in thyroid function of the same 14 day old (do) nestlings (N ≤ 68) at these mining-related sites (OS1, OS2) compared to reference nestlings (REF1), and in relation to multiple environmental stressors that influence avian thyroid function. Thyroid function was compromised for OS1 nestlings but generally comparable between OS2 and REF1 chicks. Read More

View Article
November 2018

Biological mechanisms for observational learning.

Curr Opin Neurobiol 2018 Dec 6;54:178-185. Epub 2018 Dec 6.

Skirball Institute for Biomolecular Medicine, Department of Neuroscience and Physiology, New York University School of Medicine, New York, NY, 10016 USA; Neuroscience Institute, Department of Neuroscience and Physiology, New York University School of Medicine, New York, NY, 10016 USA; Department of Otolaryngology, Department of Neuroscience and Physiology, New York University School of Medicine, New York, NY, 10016 USA; Department of Neuroscience and Physiology, New York University School of Medicine, New York, NY, 10016 USA. Electronic address:

Observational learning occurs when an animal capitalizes on the experience of another to change its own behavior in a given context. This form of learning is an efficient strategy for adapting to changes in environmental conditions, but little is known about the underlying neural mechanisms. There is an abundance of literature supporting observational learning in humans and other primates, and more recent studies have begun documenting observational learning in other species such as birds and rodents. Read More

View Article
December 2018