9,692 results match your criteria Avian Flu


Thermal Image Scanning for the Early Detection of Fever Induced by Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza Virus Infection in Chickens and Ducks and Its Application in Farms.

Front Vet Sci 2021 25;8:616755. Epub 2021 May 25.

Department of Anatomy, College of Veterinary Medicine, Konkuk University, Seoul, South Korea.

Highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) is considered as one of the most devastating poultry diseases. It is imperative to immediately report any known outbreaks to the World Organization for Animal Health. Early detection of infected birds is of paramount importance to control virus spread, thus minimizing the associated economic loss. Read More

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H5N1 Avian Flu Infection in Hubbard Broiler Chicken Can Be Prevented or Cured by Methylated Soy Protein During 42 Days Rearing.

Probiotics Antimicrob Proteins 2021 Jun 10. Epub 2021 Jun 10.

Department of Avian and Rabbit Medicine, Zagazig University, Zagazig, 44511, Egypt.

Methylated soy protein (MSP) which is positively charged with enhanced hydrophobicity may have antiviral action. This study is verifying if MSP can act inhibit H5N1 inside an animal model. Five groups of Hubbard chicks were challenged at the 25th day of the experiment with AIV virus (H5N1; 0. Read More

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Low-pathogenicity influenza viruses replicate differently in laughing gulls and mallards.

Influenza Other Respir Viruses 2021 Jun 10. Epub 2021 Jun 10.

Southeast Poultry Research laboratory, United States National Poultry Research Center, Agricultural Research Service, U.S. Department of Agriculture, Athens, GA, USA.

Wild aquatic birds are natural reservoirs of low-pathogenicity avian influenza viruses (LPAIVs). Laughing gulls inoculated with four gull-origin LPAIVs (H7N3, H6N4, H3N8, and H2N3) had a predominate respiratory infection. By contrast, mallards inoculated with two mallard-origin LPAIVs (H5N6 and H4N8) became infected and had similar virus titers in oropharyngeal (OP) and cloacal (CL) swabs. Read More

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Bird Flu Outbreak Amidst COVID-19 Pandemic in South Africa: Efforts and Challenges at Hand.

J Med Virol 2021 Jun 3. Epub 2021 Jun 3.

Oli Health Magazine Organization, Research and Education, Kigali, Rwanda.

During the months of April and May 2021, South Africa has witnessed several outbreaks of the highly infective Avian Influenza (H5N1) in different poultry farms. This comes as a shock to a country that is already battling with the deadly COVID-19 pandemic. The emergence of the virus has spurred import buns and massive culls in the poultry business. Read More

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Antigenic evolution of contemporary clade 2.3.4.4 HPAI H5 influenza A viruses and impact on vaccine use for mitigation and control.

Vaccine 2021 May 29. Epub 2021 May 29.

Animal and Plant Health Agency-Weybridge, OIE/FAO International Reference Laboratory for Avian Influenza, Swine Influenza and Newcastle Disease Virus, Department of Virology, Woodham Lane, Addlestone, Surrey KT15 3NB, United Kingdom.

Since 2003, highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) viruses of the H5 subtype have been maintained in poultry, periodically spilling back into wild migratory birds and spread to other geographic regions, with re-introduction to domestic birds causing severe impacts for poultry health, production and food sustainability. Successive waves of infection have also resulted in substantial genetic evolution and reassortment, enabling the emergence of multiple clades and subtypes within the H5 2.3. Read More

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Genetic Characterization and Pathogenesis of Avian Influenza Virus H7N3 Isolated from Spot-Billed Ducks in South Korea, Early 2019.

Viruses 2021 05 7;13(5). Epub 2021 May 7.

Zoonosis Research Center, Department of Infection Biology, School of Medicine, Wonkwang University, Iksan 570-749, Korea.

Low-pathogenicity avian influenza viruses (LPAIV) introduced by migratory birds circulate in wild birds and can be transmitted to poultry. These viruses can mutate to become highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses causing severe disease and death in poultry. In March 2019, an H7N3 avian influenza virus-A/Spot-billed duck/South Korea/WKU2019-1/2019 (H7N3)-was isolated from spot-billed ducks in South Korea. Read More

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Avian Influenza in Wild Birds and Poultry: Dissemination Pathways, Monitoring Methods, and Virus Ecology.

Pathogens 2021 May 20;10(5). Epub 2021 May 20.

Life Sciences Research Center, Moscow Institute of Physics and Technology, 141700 Dolgoprudniy, Russia.

Avian influenza is one of the largest known threats to domestic poultry. Influenza outbreaks on poultry farms typically lead to the complete slaughter of the entire domestic bird population, causing severe economic losses worldwide. Moreover, there are highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) strains that are able to infect the swine or human population in addition to their primary avian host and, as such, have the potential of being a global zoonotic and pandemic threat. Read More

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Novel Clade 2.3.4.4b Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza A H5N8 and H5N5 Viruses in Denmark, 2020.

Viruses 2021 05 11;13(5). Epub 2021 May 11.

Virus and Microbiological Special Diagnostics, Statens Serum Institut, 2300 Copenhagen S, Denmark.

Since late 2020, outbreaks of H5 highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) viruses belonging to clade 2.3.4. Read More

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Genetic characterization of an H5N6 avian influenza virus with multiple origins from a chicken in southern China, October 2019.

BMC Vet Res 2021 May 28;17(1):200. Epub 2021 May 28.

College of Animal Science and Technology, Jiangxi Agricultural University, Nanchang, 330045, Jiangxi, China.

Background: Highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses (HPAIVs) of H5 subtype pose a great threat to the poultry industry and human health. In recent years, H5N6 subtype has rapidly replaced H5N1 as the most predominate HPAIV subtype circulating in domestic poultry in China. In this study, we describe the genetic and phylogenetic characteristics of a prevalent H5N6 strain in Guangdong, China. Read More

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Biodetection of a specific odor signature in mallard feces associated with infection by low pathogenic avian influenza A virus.

PLoS One 2021 26;16(5):e0251841. Epub 2021 May 26.

Monell Chemical Senses Center, Philadelphia, PA, United States of America.

Outbreaks of avian influenza virus (AIV) infection included the spread of highly pathogenic AIV in commercial poultry and backyard flocks in the spring of 2015. This resulted in estimated losses of more than $8.5 million from federal government expenditures, $1. Read More

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Health monitoring in birds using bio-loggers and whole blood transcriptomics.

Sci Rep 2021 May 24;11(1):10815. Epub 2021 May 24.

Department of Migration, Max Planck Institute of Animal Behavior, 78315, Radolfzell, Germany.

Monitoring and early detection of emerging infectious diseases in wild animals is of crucial global importance, yet reliable ways to measure immune status and responses are lacking for animals in the wild. Here we assess the usefulness of bio-loggers for detecting disease outbreaks in free-living birds and confirm detailed responses using leukocyte composition and large-scale transcriptomics. We simulated natural infections by viral and bacterial pathogens in captive mallards (Anas platyrhynchos), an important natural vector for avian influenza virus. Read More

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Prioritizing zoonotic diseases utilizing the One Health approach: Jordan's experience.

One Health 2021 Dec 1;13:100262. Epub 2021 May 1.

World Health Organization Regional Office for the Eastern Mediterranean, Cairo, Egypt.

Background: Zoonotic diseases constitute a threat to humans and animals. The Middle East Region is a hotspot for such a threat; given its geographic location under migratory birds' flight paths, mass gatherings, political conflicts, and refugee crises. Thus, prioritizing zoonotic diseases of national significance is critical for preventing and controlling such threats and optimizing limited resources. Read More

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December 2021

Emerging H5N8 avian influenza viruses.

Science 2021 05;372(6544):784-786

National Institute for Viral Disease Control and Prevention, Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Beijing 102206, China.

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Incursion of Novel Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza A(H5N8) Virus, the Netherlands, October 2020.

Emerg Infect Dis 2021 ;27(6):1750-1753

Highly pathogenic avian influenza A(H5N8) virus was detected in mute swans in the Netherlands during October 2020. The virus shares a common ancestor with clade 2.3. Read More

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January 2021

First report of field cases of Y280-like LPAI H9N2 strains in South Korean poultry farms: Pathological findings and genetic characterization.

Avian Pathol 2021 May 20:1-33. Epub 2021 May 20.

Southeast Poultry Research Laboratory, USDA-ARS, US National Poultry Research Center, Athens, GA, United States.

H9N2 Low-pathogenic avian influenza (LPAI) viruses have long been circulating in the world poultry industry, resulting in substantial economic losses. In addition to animal health consequences, viruses from specific lineages such as G1 and Y280 are also known to have the potential of causing a pandemic within the human population. In South Korea, after introducing inactivated H9N2 vaccines in 2007, there were no field outbreaks of H9N2 LPAI since 2009. Read More

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H7N9 influenza virus-like particle based on BEVS protects chickens from lethal challenge with highly pathogenic H7N9 avian influenza virus.

Vet Microbiol 2021 Jul 8;258:109106. Epub 2021 May 8.

Animal Infectious Disease Laboratory, School of Veterinary Medicine, Yangzhou University, Yangzhou, Jiangsu, China; Jiangsu Co-innovation Center for Prevention and Control of Important Animal Infectious Diseases and Zoonosis, Yangzhou University, Yangzhou, Jiangsu, China; Key Laboratory of Prevention and Control of Biological Hazard Factors (Animal Origin) for Agri-food Safety and Quality, Ministry of Agriculture of China (26116120), Yangzhou University, Yangzhou, China.

H7N9 avian influenza virus poses a dual threat to both poultry industry and public health. Therefore, it is highly urgent to develop an effective vaccine to reduce its pandemic potential. Virus-like particles (VLP) represent an effective approach for pandemic vaccine development. Read More

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Do contrasting patterns of migration movements and disease outbreaks between congeneric waterfowl species reflect differing immunity?

Geospat Health 2021 05 11;16(1). Epub 2021 May 11.

Wildlife Ecology and Conservation Group, Wageningen University, Wageningen.

Long-distance migrations influence the dynamics of hostpathogen interactions and understanding the role of migratory waterfowl in the spread of the highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses (HPAIV) is important. While wild geese have been associated with outbreak events, disease ecology of closely related species has not been studied to the same extent. The swan goose (Anser cygnoides) and the bar-headed goose (Anser indicus) are congeneric species with distinctly different HPAIV infection records; the former with few and the latter with numerous records. Read More

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The Impact of Experiences and Perceptions of Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza (HPAI) on Water-Related Biosecurity Behaviour in Rural Vietnam.

Risk Anal 2021 May 16. Epub 2021 May 16.

Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Calgary, Calgary, Alberta, Canada.

Background: In Southeast Asia from 2004 to 2006, highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) resulted in culling 45 million birds and jeopardizing sustainable agricultural production. HPAI is highly virulent; small-scale farms present a high-risk environment for disease transmission between animals and humans. We investigated how attitudes toward HPAI influence water-related biosecurity mitigation behaviors on small-scale farms in Vietnam using the conceptual framework Social Cognitive Theory. Read More

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CAFOs, novel influenza, and the need for One Health approaches.

One Health 2021 Dec 8;13:100246. Epub 2021 Apr 8.

The University of Arizona, Mel and Enid Zuckerman College of Public Health, Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, USA.

Concentrated animal feeding operations (CAFOs) present highly efficient means of meeting food demands. CAFOs create unique conditions that can affect the health and environment of animals and humans within and outside operations, leading to potential epidemiological concerns that scale with operational size. One such arena meriting further investigation is their possible contribution to novel influenzas. Read More

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December 2021

Sensitive antibody fluorescence immunosorbent assay (SAFIA) for rapid on-site detection on avian influenza virus H9N2 antibody.

Anal Chim Acta 2021 Jun 16;1164:338524. Epub 2021 Apr 16.

Joint International Research Laboratory of Animal Health and Food Safety of Ministry of Education & Single Molecule Nanometry Laboratory (Sinmolab), Nanjing Agricultural University, Nanjing, Jiangsu, 210095, China.

Avian influenza virus (AIV) is a serious zoonotic disease causing severe damages to both poultry industry and human health. To rapidly detect AIV on-site with high sensitivity and accuracy, we design sensitive antibody fluorescence immunosorbent assay (SAFIA) on AIV H9N2 antibody. In SAFIA, hemagglutinin (HA1) protein coated sample chamber specifically binds targets but remarkably reduces non-specific absorption; Protein L coated polystyrene microsphere captures target through secondary antibody to significantly amplify the fluorescence signal; and a portable fluorescence counter automatically measures the fluorescence spot density for AIV H9N2 antibody detection. Read More

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Exposure of wild boar to Influenza A viruses in Bavaria: Analysis of seroprevalences and antibody subtype specificity before and after the panzootic of highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses A (H5N8).

Zoonoses Public Health 2021 May 13. Epub 2021 May 13.

Bavarian Health and Food Safety Authority, Oberschleissheim, Germany.

Swine influenza A viruses (S-IAV) circulate in wild boar populations worldwide. Subtypes primarily reflect those actually present within the respective pig industry. Accordingly, infections with swine H1N1, H1N2 and H3N2 have been reported for several regions of Germany. Read More

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Distribution of avian influenza viruses according to environmental surveillance during 2014-2018, China.

Infect Dis Poverty 2021 May 6;10(1):60. Epub 2021 May 6.

National Institute for Viral Disease Control and Prevention, Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention; WHO Collaborating Center for Reference and Research On Influenza; Key Laboratory for Biosafety, National Health Commission, Beijing, China.

Background: Recurrent infections of animal hosts with avian influenza viruses (AIVs) have posted a persistent threat. It is very important to understand the avian influenza virus distribution and characteristics in environment associated with poultry and wild bird. The aim of this study was to analyze the geographic and seasonal distributions of AIVs in the 31 provinces, municipalities and autonomous region (PMA) of China, compare the AIVs prevalence in different collecting sites and sampling types, analyze the diversity of AIVs subtypes in environment. Read More

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Development of Reverse Transcription Loop-Mediated Isothermal Amplification Assay for Rapid and On-Site Detection of Avian Influenza Virus.

Front Cell Infect Microbiol 2021 19;11:652048. Epub 2021 Apr 19.

BioLabChip Group, Department of Biotechnology and Biomedicine, Technical University of Denmark, Kongens Lyngby, Denmark.

Avian influenza virus (AIV) outbreaks occur frequently worldwide, causing a potential public health risk and great economic losses to poultry industries. Considering the high mutation rate and frequent genetic reassortment between segments in the genome of AIVs, emerging new strains are a real threat that may infect and spread through the human population, causing a pandemic. Therefore, rapid AIV diagnostic tests are essential tools for surveillance and assessing virus spreading. Read More

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Optimizing the early detection of low pathogenic avian influenza H7N9 virus in live bird markets.

J R Soc Interface 2021 May 5;18(178):20210074. Epub 2021 May 5.

IHAP, Université de Toulouse, INRAE, ENVT, Toulouse, France.

In Southeast Asia, surveillance at live bird markets (LBMs) has been identified as crucial for detecting avian influenza viruses (AIV) and reducing the risk of human infections. However, the design of effective surveillance systems in LBMs remains complex given the rapid turn-over of poultry. We developed a deterministic transmission model to provide guidance for optimizing AIV surveillance efforts. Read More

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Antigenic and Genetic Characterization of Swine Influenza Viruses Identified in the European Region of Russia, 2014-2020.

Front Microbiol 2021 15;12:662028. Epub 2021 Apr 15.

WHO-Recognized National Influenza Centre (NIC), Smorodintsev Research Institute of Influenza, Ministry of Health, Saint Petersburg, Russia.

Pigs have long been recognized as "mixing vessels" in which new viruses are formed by reassortment involving various influenza virus lineages (avian, animal, human). However, surveillance of swine influenza viruses only gained real significance after the 2009 pandemic. A fundamentally important point is the fact that there is still no regular surveillance of swine flu in Russia, and the role of swine viruses is underestimated since, as a rule, they do not cause serious disease in animals. Read More

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Evolutionary history of H5 highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses (clade 2.3.4.4c) circulating in Taiwan during 2015-2018.

Infect Genet Evol 2021 Aug 28;92:104885. Epub 2021 Apr 28.

Animal Health Research Institute, Council of Agriculture, New Taipei City, Taiwan. Electronic address:

The highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) virus A/goose/Guangdong/1/96 H5N1 (Gs/GD) lineage has been transmitted globally and has caused deaths in wild birds, poultry, and humans. Clade 2.3. Read More

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A novel epitope-blocking ELISA for specific and sensitive detection of antibodies against H5-subtype influenza virus hemagglutinin.

Virol J 2021 Apr 30;18(1):91. Epub 2021 Apr 30.

ŁUKASIEWICZ Research Network - Industrial Chemistry Institute, Rydygiera 8 Street, 01-793, Warsaw, Poland.

Background: H5-subtype highly pathogenic (HP) avian influenza viruses (AIVs) cause high mortality in domestic birds and sporadic infections in humans with a frequently fatal outcome, while H5N1 viruses have pandemic potential. Due to veterinary and public health significance, these HPAIVs, as well as low pathogenicity (LP) H5-subtype AIVs having a propensity to mutate into HP viruses, are under epidemiologic surveillance and must be reported to the World Organization for Animal Health (OIE). Our previous work provided a unique panel of 6 different monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) against H5 hemagglutinin (HA), which meets the demand for high-specificity tools for monitoring AIV infection and vaccination in poultry. Read More

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Effects of Spatial Characteristics on the Spread of the Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza (HPAI) in Korea.

Int J Environ Res Public Health 2021 04 13;18(8). Epub 2021 Apr 13.

Department of Food Industrial Management, Dongguk University, 30 Pildong-ro 1-gil, Jung-gu, Seoul 04620, Korea.

This paper examines the effects of regional characteristics on the spread of the highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) during Korea's 2016-2017 outbreak. A spatial econometric model is used to determine the effects of regional characteristics on HPAI dispersion using data from 162 counties in Korea. Results indicate the existence of spatial dependence, suggesting that the occurrence of HPAI in a county is significantly influenced by neighboring counties. Read More

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Hemagglutinin Stability and Its Impact on Influenza A Virus Infectivity, Pathogenicity, and Transmissibility in Avians, Mice, Swine, Seals, Ferrets, and Humans.

Viruses 2021 Apr 24;13(5). Epub 2021 Apr 24.

Department of Infectious Diseases, St. Jude Children's Research Hospital, 262 Danny Thomas Place, Memphis, TN 38105-3678, USA.

Genetically diverse influenza A viruses (IAVs) circulate in wild aquatic birds. From this reservoir, IAVs sporadically cause outbreaks, epidemics, and pandemics in wild and domestic avians, wild land and sea mammals, horses, canines, felines, swine, humans, and other species. One molecular trait shown to modulate IAV host range is the stability of the hemagglutinin (HA) surface glycoprotein. Read More

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Biological Properties and Genetic Characterization of Novel Low Pathogenic H7N3 Avian Influenza Viruses Isolated from Mallard Ducks in the Caspian Region, Dagestan, Russia.

Microorganisms 2021 Apr 17;9(4). Epub 2021 Apr 17.

Federal State Budget Scientific Institution, Federal Research Center of Fundamental and Translational Medicine, 630117 Novosibirsk, Russia.

Avian influenza viruses (AIVs) are maintained in wild bird reservoirs, particularly in mallard ducks and other waterfowl. Novel evolutionary lineages of AIV that arise through genetic drift or reassortment can spread with wild bird migrations to new regions, infect a wide variety of resident bird species, and spillover to domestic poultry. The vast continental reservoir of AIVs in Eurasia harbors a wide diversity of influenza subtypes, including both highly pathogenic (HP) and low pathogenic (LP) H7 AIV. Read More

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