9,216 results match your criteria Avian Flu


Molecular characterization and pathogenesis of H9N2 avian influenza virus isolated from a racing pigeon.

Vet Microbiol 2020 Jul 2;246:108747. Epub 2020 Jun 2.

Key Laboratory of Preventive Veterinary Medicine, Department of Veterinary Medicine, Animal Science College, Hebei North University, Zhangjiakou, 075131, PR China.

H9N2 avian influenza viruses (AIVs) can cross species barriers and expand from birds tomammals and humans. It usually leads to economic loss for breeding farms and poses a serious threat to human health.This study investigated the molecular characteristics of H9N2 AIV isolated from a racing pigeon and its pathogenesis in BALB/c mice and pigeons. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.vetmic.2020.108747DOI Listing

Analyses of spike protein from first deposited sequences of SARS-CoV2 from West Bengal, India.

F1000Res 2020 18;9:371. Epub 2020 May 18.

CSIR-Indian Institute of Chemical Biology, Kolkata, West Bengal, 700032, India.

India has recently started sequencing SARS-CoV2 genome from clinical isolates. Currently only few sequences are available from three states in India. Kerala was the first state to deposit complete sequence from two isolates followed by one from Gujarat. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.12688/f1000research.23805.1DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7309413PMC

Seroprevalence of avian influenza in Baltic common eiders (Somateria mollissima) and pink-footed geese (Anser brachyrhynchus).

Environ Int 2020 Jun 22;142:105873. Epub 2020 Jun 22.

Aarhus University, Department of Bioscience, Arctic Research Centre (ARC), Frederiksborgvej 399, PO Box 358, DK-4000 Roskilde, Denmark; Henan Province Engineering Research Center for Biomass Value-added Products, School of Forestry, Henan Agricultural University, Zhengzhou 450002, China. Electronic address:

Blood plasma was collected during 2016-2018 from healthy incubating eiders (Somateria molissima, n = 183) in three Danish colonies, and healthy migrating pink-footed geese (Anser brachyrhynchus, n = 427) at their spring roost in Central Norway (Svalbard breeding population) and their novel flyway through the Finnish Baltic Sea (Russian breeding population). These species and flyways altogether represent terrestrial, brackish and marine ecosystems spanning from the Western to the Eastern and Northern part of the Baltic Sea. Plasma of these species was analysed for seroprevalence of specific avian influenza A (AI) antibodies to obtain information on circulating AI serotypes and exposure. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.envint.2020.105873DOI Listing

Livestock and Poultry Production in Nepal and Current Status of Vaccine Development.

Vaccines (Basel) 2020 Jun 19;8(2). Epub 2020 Jun 19.

W. Harry Feinstone Department of Molecular Microbiology and Immunology, Bloomberg School of Public Health, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD 21205, USA.

The livestock and poultry sectors are an integral part of Nepalese economy and lifestyle. Livestock and poultry populations have continuously been increasing in the last decade in Nepal and are likely to follow that trend as the interests in this field is growing. Infectious diseases such as Foot and Mouth Disease (FMD), Peste des Petits Ruminants (PPR), hemorrhagic septicemia (HS), black quarter (BQ), swine fever, avian influenza, and Newcastle disease (ND) constitute one of the major health challenges to the Nepalese livestock and poultry industry. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/vaccines8020322DOI Listing

[The impact of avian influenza on health care system].

Zentralbl Arbeitsmed Arbeitsschutz Ergon 2008 27;58(7):204-214. Epub 2014 Mar 27.

Institut für Arbeitsmedizin Charité - Universitätsmedizin Berlin, Zentrum für Human- und Gesundheitswissenschaften, Freie Universität & Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin, Thielallee 67-73, 14195 Berlin.

Avian influenza is a viral transmitted disease that mainly occurs in birds. First described in 1878 in Italy the disease can be found worldwide. The causing agent belongs to the family of orthomyxoviridae. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF03346219DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7149188PMC

Analysis of Glycosyl-Enzyme Intermediate Formation in the Catalytic Mechanism of Influenza Virus Neuraminidase Using Molecular Modeling.

Biochemistry (Mosc) 2020 Apr;85(4):490-498

Belozersky Institute of Physico-Chemical Biology, Lomonosov Moscow State University, Moscow, 119991, Russia.

Using classical molecular dynamics, constant-pH molecular dynamics simulation, metadynamics, and combined quantum mechanical and molecular mechanical approach, we identified an alternative pathway of glycosyl-enzyme intermediate formation during oligosaccharide substrate conversion by the influenza H5N1 neuraminidase. The Asp151 residue located in the enzyme mobile loop plays a key role in catalysis within a wide pH range due to the formation of a network of interactions with water molecules. Considering that propagation of influenza virus takes place in the digestive tract of birds at low pH values and in the human respiratory tract at pH values close to neutral, the existence of alternative reaction pathways functioning at different medium pH can explain the dual tropism of the virus and circulation of H5N1 viral strains capable of transmission from birds to humans. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1134/S0006297920040094DOI Listing

Pathologic Evaluation of Influenza A H5N8 Infection Outbreaks in Mule Ducks in Bulgaria.

Avian Dis 2020 Jun;64(2):203-209

Department of Internal Noninfectious Diseases, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Trakia University, 6000 Stara Zagora, Bulgaria.

This article outlines pathomorphologic findings of a study involving commercial mule ducks with confirmed influenza A H5N8 infections after a series of outbreaks in Bulgaria. Examinations were carried out after performing necropsy on dead birds from three different age groups (up to 15, 20 to 30, and 40+ days of age) fattened on different farms. Among birds of all ages, gross lesions were present as lesions affecting the heart. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1637/0005-2086-64.2.203DOI Listing

High Prevalence of Avian Influenza Virus Among Wild Waterbirds and Land Birds of Mexico.

Avian Dis 2020 Jun;64(2):135-142

Universidad Autónoma de Nuevo León, UANL, Facultad de Ciencias Biológicas, 66455 San Nicolás de los Garza, Nuevo León, México,

Aquatic wild birds, especially waterfowl, have been long considered the main reservoirs of the avian influenza A virus; however, recent surveys have found an important prevalence of these viruses among land birds as well. Migration has been suggested as an important factor in the avian influenza virus dissemination. We aimed to estimate the prevalence of influenza A viruses in wild birds (waterbirds and land birds; resident and migratory) in eastern Mexico, where the three main North American migration flyways converge and where there was no previous information on this subject. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1637/0005-2086-64.2.135DOI Listing

Ecology of Influenza A Viruses in Wild Birds and Wetlands of Alaska.

Avian Dis 2020 Jun;64(2):109-122

U.S. Geological Survey, Alaska Science Center, Anchorage, AK 99508.

Alaska represents a globally important region for the ecology of avian-origin influenza A viruses (IAVs) given the expansive wetlands in this region, which serve as habitat for numerous hosts of IAVs that disperse among four continents during the annual cycle. Extensive sampling of wild birds for IAVs in Alaska since 1991 has greatly extended inference regarding intercontinental viral exchange between North America and East Asia and the importance of Beringian endemic species to IAV ecology within this region. Data on IAVs in aquatic birds inhabiting Alaska have also been useful for helping to establish global patterns of prevalence in wild birds and viral dispersal across the landscape. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1637/0005-2086-64.2.109DOI Listing

Molecular characterization and three-dimensional structures of avian H8, H11, H14, H15 and swine H4 influenza virus hemagglutinins.

Heliyon 2020 Jun 6;6(6):e04068. Epub 2020 Jun 6.

Influenza Division, National Center for Immunization and Respiratory Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA 30329, USA.

Of the eighteen hemagglutinin (HA) subtypes (H1-H18) that have been identified in bats and aquatic birds, many HA subtypes have been structurally characterized. However, several subtypes (H8, H11 and H12) still require characterization. To better understand all of these HA subtypes at the molecular level, HA structures from an A(H4N6) (A/swine/Missouri/A01727926/2015), an A(H8N4) (A/turkey/Ontario/6118/1968), an A(H11N9) (A/duck/Memphis/546/1974), an A(H14N5) A/mallard/Gurjev/263/1982, and an A(H15N9) (A/wedge-tailed shearwater/Western Australia/2576/1979 were determined by X-ray crystallography at 2. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.heliyon.2020.e04068DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7281811PMC

Biosecurity risk factors for highly pathogenic avian influenza (H5N8) virus infection in duck farms, France.

Transbound Emerg Dis 2020 Jun 11. Epub 2020 Jun 11.

IHAP, Université de Toulouse, INRAE, ENVT, Toulouse, France.

Highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) subtype H5N8 outbreaks occurred in poultry farms in France in 2016-2017, resulting in significant economic losses and disruption to the poultry industry. Current evidence on associations between actual on-farm biosecurity risk factors and H5N8 occurrence is limited. Therefore, a retrospective matched case-control study was undertaken to investigate the inter-relationships between on-farm biosecurity practices and H5N8 infection status to provide new insights regarding promising targets for intervention. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/tbed.13672DOI Listing

Diversity of avian influenza A(H5N6) viruses in wild birds in southern China.

J Gen Virol 2020 Jun 10. Epub 2020 Jun 10.

MRC Centre for Global Infectious Disease Analysis, Department of Infectious Disease Epidemiology, School of Public Health, Faculty of Medicine, Imperial College London, London, UK.

The predominance of H5N6 in ducks and continuous human cases have heightened its potential threat to public health in China. Therefore, the detection of emerging variants of H5N6 avian influenza viruses has become a priority for pandemic preparedness. Questions remain as to its origin and circulation within the wild bird reservoir and interactions at the wild-domestic interface. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1099/jgv.0.001449DOI Listing

Seasonal risk of low pathogenic avian influenza virus introductions into free-range layer farms in the Netherlands.

Transbound Emerg Dis 2020 Jun 7. Epub 2020 Jun 7.

Wageningen Bioveterinary Research (WBVR), Lelystad, the Netherlands.

Poultry can become infected with avian influenza viruses (AIV) via (in) direct contact with infected wild birds. Free-range chicken farms in the Netherlands were shown to have a higher risk for introduction of low pathogenic avian influenza (LPAI) virus than indoor chicken farms. Therefore, during outbreaks of highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI), free-range layers are confined indoors as a risk mitigation measure. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/tbed.13649DOI Listing

Prevalence and Diversity of Avian Influenza Virus Hemagglutinin Sero-Subtypes in Poultry and Wild Birds in Bangladesh.

Vet Sci 2020 Jun 1;7(2). Epub 2020 Jun 1.

Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Chattogram Veterinary and Animal Sciences University, Chattogram 4225, Bangladesh.

Highly pathogenic avian influenza H5 viruses have pandemic potential, cause significant economic losses and are of veterinary and public health concerns. This study aimed to investigate the distribution and diversity of hemagglutinin (HA) subtypes of avian influenza virus (AIV) in poultry and wild birds in Bangladesh. We conducted an avian influenza sero-surveillance in wild and domestic birds in wetlands of Chattogram and Sylhet in the winter seasons 2012-2014. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/vetsci7020073DOI Listing

Regional Transmission and Reassortment of 2.3.4.4b Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza (HPAI) Viruses in Bulgarian Poultry 2017/18.

Viruses 2020 Jun 1;12(6). Epub 2020 Jun 1.

Department of Pathobiology and Population Sciences, Royal Veterinary College, Hatfield, Hertfordshire AL9 7TA, UK.

Between 2017 and 2018, several farms across Bulgaria reported outbreaks of H5 highly-pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) viruses. In this study we used genomic and traditional epidemiological analyses to trace the origin and subsequent spread of these outbreaks within Bulgaria. Both methods indicate two separate incursions, one restricted to the northeastern region of Dobrich, and another largely restricted to Central and Eastern Bulgaria including places such as Plovdiv, Sliven and Stara Zagora, as well as one virus from the Western region of Vidin. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/v12060605DOI Listing

Detection of Low Pathogenic Avian Influenza Virus Subtype H10N7 in Poultry and Environmental Water Samples During a Clinical Outbreak in Commercial Free-Range Layers, Netherlands 2017.

Front Vet Sci 2020 5;7:237. Epub 2020 May 5.

Wageningen Bioveterinary Research, Department of Virology, Lelystad, Netherlands.

Wild birds are the natural reservoir of the avian influenza virus (AIV) and may transmit AIV to poultry via direct contact or indirectly through the environment. In the Netherlands, a clinically suspected free-range layer flock was reported to the veterinary authorities by the farmer. Increased mortality, a decreased feed intake, and a drop in egg production were observed. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fvets.2020.00237DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7232570PMC

Pattern Recognition Receptor Signaling and Innate Responses to Influenza A Viruses in the Mallard Duck, Compared to Humans and Chickens.

Front Cell Infect Microbiol 2020 12;10:209. Epub 2020 May 12.

Department of Biological Sciences, University of Alberta, Edmonton, AB, Canada.

Mallard ducks are a natural host and reservoir of avian Influenza A viruses. While most influenza strains can replicate in mallards, the virus typically does not cause substantial disease in this host. Mallards are often resistant to disease caused by highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses, while the same strains can cause severe infection in humans, chickens, and even other species of ducks, resulting in systemic spread of the virus and even death. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fcimb.2020.00209DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7236763PMC

Impact of different rearing systems on growth, carcass traits, oxidative stress biomarkers, and humoral immunity of broilers exposed to heat stress.

Poult Sci 2020 Jun 10;99(6):3070-3078. Epub 2020 Apr 10.

Biological Application Department, Nuclear Research Center, Atomic Energy Authority, Abu-Zaabal 13759, Egypt.

The effects of different rearing systems (RS) including cage rearing systems (CRS), litter rearing systems (LRS), and perforated plastic slate rearing systems (PSRS) on the productive performance, carcass traits, blood hematological and biochemical parameters, and humoral immunity in broiler chickens exposed to heat stress were investigated. A total of 270 1-day-old Avian 48 chicks were randomly assigned to 3 groups equally, each was divided into 9 replicates (each of 10 birds) housed in studied RS. Results revealed that CRS had higher (P < 0. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.psj.2020.03.011DOI Listing

Effect of essential oils on the immune response to some viral vaccines in broiler chickens, with special reference to Newcastle disease virus.

Poult Sci 2020 Jun 8;99(6):2944-2954. Epub 2020 Apr 8.

Department of Poultry and Fish diseases, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Alexandria University, Edfina, Elbehira 22758, Egypt.

This trial assessed the efficacy of a commercial essential oil (EO) product on the immune response to vaccination against Newcastle disease (ND) and subsequent challenge with virulent ND virus genotype VII (vNDv genotype VII) by using the following experimental groups of broiler chickens (Each group had 21 birds with 3 replicates in each, n = 7): NC (negative control), PC (positive control), VC (vaccinated), and VTC (vaccinated and treated with EOs). Moreover, in a trial to study the effect of EOs on vNDv genotype VII in vivo as a preventive or therapeutic measure, 2 additional ND-vaccinated groups were used (PRV: medicated 1 D before vNDv challenge for 5 D; and TTT: medicated 2 D after vNDv challenge for 5 D). In addition, the immune-modulatory effect of EOs on the avian influenza (AI), infectious bronchitis (IB), and infectious bursal disease (IBD) vaccines was assessed through the serological response. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.psj.2020.03.008DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7141634PMC

Cleaning and disinfection of crates and trucks used for duck transport: field observations during the H5N8 avian influenza outbreaks in France in 2017.

Poult Sci 2020 Jun 10;99(6):2931-2936. Epub 2020 May 10.

ANSES - Laboratoire de Ploufragan-Plouzané-Niort, Ploufragan, France.

Transport of infected birds is thought to play a key role in the spread of avian influenza (AI) on poultry farms during epizootic outbreaks. Ensuring efficient cleaning and disinfection (C&D) of equipment used for transport is needed to prevent the spread of AI. This study aimed to evaluate the efficacy against the AI virus of C&D protocols applied on trucks and crates used for the transport of ducks during the H5N8 AI outbreaks in France in 2017. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.psj.2019.10.015DOI Listing

Genetic characterization of the first detected human case of low pathogenic avian influenza A/H9N2 in sub-Saharan Africa, Senegal.

Emerg Microbes Infect 2020 Dec;9(1):1092-1095

Département de Virologie, Institut Pasteur de Dakar, Dakar, Sénégal.

The H9N2 influenza virus has become one of the dominant subtypes of influenza virus circulating in poultry, wild birds, and can occasionally cross the mammalian species barrier. Here, we report the first human A/H9N2 in Sub-Saharan Africa. The patient was a child of 16 months' old living in the South-West of Senegal. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/22221751.2020.1763858DOI Listing
December 2020

Isolation of two novel reassortant H3N6 avian influenza viruses from long-distance migratory birds in Jiangxi Province, China.

Microbiologyopen 2020 May 28:e1060. Epub 2020 May 28.

Ministry of Education Key Laboratory for Earth System Modelling, Department of Earth System Science, Tsinghua University, Beijing, China.

Two novel reassortant avian influenza A (H3N6) viruses were isolated from swan goose in Poyang Lake, Jiangxi Province, China, in 2014. Phylogenetic analyses indicated that these viruses are most likely derived from the Eurasian-originated H3Ny (N3, N6, N8) and H5N6 viruses circulating among wild and domestic birds. It is noteworthy that H9N2 viruses have contributed PB1 gene to these novel H3N6 viruses. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/mbo3.1060DOI Listing

Mammalian pathogenicity and transmissibility of low pathogenic avian influenza H7N1 and H7N3 viruses isolated from North America in 2018.

Emerg Microbes Infect 2020 Dec;9(1):1037-1045

Influenza Division, National Center for Immunization and Respiratory Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA, USA.

Low pathogenic avian influenza (LPAI) H7 subtype viruses are infrequently, but persistently, associated with outbreaks in poultry in North America. These LPAI outbreaks provide opportunities for the virus to develop enhanced virulence and transmissibility in mammals and have previously resulted in both occasional acquisition of a highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) phenotype in birds and sporadic cases of human infection. Two notable LPAI H7 subtype viruses caused outbreaks in 2018 in North America: LPAI H7N1 virus in chickens and turkeys, representing the first confirmed H7N1 infection in poultry farms in the United States, and LPAI H7N3 virus in turkeys, a virus subtype often associated with LPAI-to-HPAI phenotypes. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/22221751.2020.1764396DOI Listing
December 2020

Live poultry market closure and avian influenza A (H7N9) infection in cities of China, 2013-2017: an ecological study.

BMC Infect Dis 2020 May 24;20(1):369. Epub 2020 May 24.

School of Public Health, Key Laboratory of Tropical Diseases Control of Ministry of Education, One Health Center of Excellence for Research &Training, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou, China.

Background: Previous studies have proven that the closure of live poultry markets (LPMs) was an effective intervention to reduce human risk of avian influenza A (H7N9) infection, but evidence is limited on the impact of scale and duration of LPMs closure on the transmission of H7N9.

Method: Five cities (i.e. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12879-020-05091-7DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7245998PMC

Characterization of novel, pathogenic field strains of infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) in poultry in Trinidad and Tobago.

Transbound Emerg Dis 2020 May 21. Epub 2020 May 21.

Department of Basic Veterinary Sciences, School of Veterinary Medicine, The University of the West Indies (St. Augustine), Mount Hope, Republic of Trinidad and Tobago.

Avian coronaviruses, including infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) and turkey coronavirus (TCoV), are economically important viruses affecting poultry worldwide. IBV is responsible for causing severe losses to the commercial poultry sector globally. The objectives of this study were to identify the viruses that were causing outbreaks of severe respiratory disease in chickens in Trinidad and Tobago (T&T) and to characterize the strains. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/tbed.13637DOI Listing

Genetic and antigenic characterization of H5 and H7 avian influenza viruses isolated from migratory waterfowl in Mongolia from 2017 to 2019.

Virus Genes 2020 Aug 19;56(4):472-479. Epub 2020 May 19.

Laboratory of Microbiology, Department of Disease Control, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Hokkaido University, Sapporo, Hokkaido, 060-0818, Japan.

The circulation of highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses (HPAIVs) of various subtypes (e.g., H5N1, H5N6, H5N8, and H7N9) in poultry remains a global concern for animal and public health. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11262-020-01764-2DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7235438PMC
August 2020
1.837 Impact Factor

Association of wild bird densities around poultry farms with the risk of highly pathogenic avian influenza virus subtype H5N8 outbreaks in the Netherlands, 2016.

Transbound Emerg Dis 2020 May 18. Epub 2020 May 18.

Department of Farm Animal Health, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Utrecht University, Utrecht, The Netherlands.

Highly pathogenic (HP) avian influenza viruses (AIV) can spread globally through migratory birds and cause massive outbreaks in commercial poultry. AIV outbreaks have been associated with proximity to waterbodies, presence of waterfowl or wild bird cases near poultry farms. In this study, we compared densities of selected HPAI high-risk wild bird species around 7 locations (H farms) infected with HPAIV H5N8 in the Netherlands in 2016-2017 to densities around 21 non-infected reference farms. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/tbed.13595DOI Listing

Effect of Newcastle disease and infectious bronchitis live vaccines on the immune system and production parameters of experimentally infected broiler chickens with H9N2 avian influenza.

Comp Immunol Microbiol Infect Dis 2020 May 11;71:101492. Epub 2020 May 11.

Department of Clinical Sciences, School of Veterinary Medicine, Shiraz University, Shiraz, Iran.

H9N2 Avian influenza (AI) is an infectious disease which considered to have low pathogenic virulence, but in the case of coinfection with other pathogens it has the potential to become a major threat to the poultry industry. Infectious bronchitis (IB) and Newcastle diseases (ND) are other common problems to the poultry industry, which there are an extensive vaccination program against these viral pathogens. To investigate the effects of administration of infectious bronchitis and Newcastle disease live vaccines (IBLVs and NDLVs) in the presence of H9N2 AI infection on the immune system and some production parameters, 180 one-day-old broiler chicks were randomly allocated into six groups with different vaccination programs including H120 IBLV, 4/91 IBLV, B1 NDLV and LaSota NDLV. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cimid.2020.101492DOI Listing

Salmonella Enteritidis ghost vaccine carrying the hemagglutinin globular head (HA1) domain from H1N1 virus protects against salmonellosis and influenza in chickens.

Vaccine 2020 Jun 10;38(28):4387-4394. Epub 2020 May 10.

College of Veterinary Medicine, Jeonbuk National University, Iksan Campus, Gobong-ro 79, Iksan 54596, Republic of Korea. Electronic address:

This study evaluated the attenuated Salmonella Enteritidis (SE) ghost strain JOL2114 (Δlon ΔcpxR Δasd), which displays on the bacterial surface the H1N1 hemagglutinin globular head portion (HA1; amino acid residues 63-286) on the bacterial surface for protective efficacy against Salmonella and H1N1 challenge in the chicken model, as the birds are the predominant reservoirs for both diseases. The ghost system enhanced the lysis process by converging two lysis processes found in bacteriophages: bacteriophage PhiX174 lysis gene E and holin-endolysin genes found in bacteriophage λ, complemented with accessory lysis-related proteins Rz/Rz1. The present lysis machinery resulted in complete lysis of host-attenuated SE strains in about 24 hrs of incubation under a non-permissible temperature of 42 °C in the absence of L-arabinose, an antisense inducer that blocks lysis gene expression during the growth phase. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.vaccine.2020.04.077DOI Listing
June 2020
3.624 Impact Factor

Influenza Virus Like Particles (VLPs): Opportunities for H7N9 Vaccine Development.

Viruses 2020 05 8;12(5). Epub 2020 May 8.

Medigen, Inc., 8420 Gas House Pike, Suite S, Frederick, MD 21701, USA.

In the midst of the ongoing COVID-19 coronavirus pandemic, influenza virus remains a major threat to public health due to its potential to cause epidemics and pandemics with significant human mortality. Cases of H7N9 human infections emerged in eastern China in 2013 and immediately raised pandemic concerns as historically, pandemics were caused by the introduction of new subtypes into immunologically naïve human populations. Highly pathogenic H7N9 cases with severe disease were reported recently, indicating the continuing public health threat and the need for a prophylactic vaccine. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/v12050518DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7291233PMC

A Systematic Review Analyzing the Prevalence and Circulation of Influenza Viruses in Swine Population Worldwide.

Pathogens 2020 May 8;9(5). Epub 2020 May 8.

School of Laboratory Medicine and Medical Sciences, College of Health Sciences, University of KwaZulu-Natal, Durban 4001, South Africa.

The global anxiety and a significant threat to public health due to the current COVID-19 pandemic reiterate the need for active surveillance for the zoonotic virus diseases of pandemic potential. Influenza virus due to its wide host range and zoonotic potential poses such a significant threat to public health. Swine serve as a "mixing vessel" for influenza virus reassortment and evolution which as a result may facilitate the emergence of new strains or subtypes of zoonotic potential. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/pathogens9050355DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7281378PMC

Marine Algal Antioxidants as Potential Vectors for Controlling Viral Diseases.

Antioxidants (Basel) 2020 May 7;9(5). Epub 2020 May 7.

Laboratory of Vascular Biology and Angiogenesis, IRCCS MultiMedica, 20138 Milan, Italy.

As the COVID-19 epidemic expands in the world, and with the previous SARS epidemic, avian flu, Ebola and AIDS serving as a warning, biomedical and biotechnological research has the task to find solutions to counteract viral entry and pathogenesis. A novel approach can come from marine chemodiversity, recognized as a relevant source for developing a future natural "antiviral pharmacy". Activities of antioxidants against viruses can be exploited to cope with human viral infection, from single individual infections to protection of populations. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/antiox9050392DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7278791PMC

Effects of migration network configuration and migration synchrony on infection prevalence in geese.

J Theor Biol 2020 May 5;502:110315. Epub 2020 May 5.

Wildlife Ecology and Conservation Group, Wageningen University, 6708PB Wageningen, The Netherlands. Electronic address:

Migration can influence dynamics of pathogen-host interactions. However, it is not clearly known how migration pattern, in terms of the configuration of the migration network and the synchrony of migration, affects infection prevalence. We therefore applied a discrete-time SIR model, integrating environmental transmission and migration, to various migration networks, including networks with serial, parallel, or both serial and parallel stopover sites, and with various levels of migration synchrony. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jtbi.2020.110315DOI Listing

Phylogeography of Highly Pathogenic H5 Avian Influenza Viruses in China.

Virol Sin 2020 May 8. Epub 2020 May 8.

Department of Earth System Science, Tsinghua University, Beijing, 100084, China.

The spread of H5 highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses poses serious threats to the poultry industry, wild bird ecology and human health. Circulation of H5 viruses between poultry and wild birds is a significant public health threat in China. Thus, viral migration networks in this region need to be urgently studied. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12250-020-00193-7DOI Listing

[Occupational exposure to influenza virus of the wild birds].

Rev Esp Salud Publica 2020 Mar 31;94. Epub 2020 Mar 31.

Departamento de Sanidad Animal. Facultad de Veterinaria. Campus de Excelencia Internacional "Mare Nostrum". Universidad de Murcia. Murcia. España.

Wild waterfowl are considered the main natural reservoir of influenza viruses and they have contributed to the reassortment of both pandemic viruses and viruses responsible for outbreaks of avian influenza in wild and domestic species. In order to determinate the factors involved, we reviewed the human cases of avian influenza related to the management of wild birds, the use of personal protective equipment, as well as the basis of surveillance programs of highly pathogenic avian influenza in wild birds in Spain. The direct transmission of influenza virus from wild birds to humans is a rare event. Read More

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Response to a DNA vaccine against the H5N1 virus depending on the chicken line and number of doses.

Virol J 2020 05 7;17(1):66. Epub 2020 May 7.

Institute of Biochemistry and Biophysics, Polish Academy of Sciences, Pawinskiego 5A, 02-106, Warsaw, Poland.

Background: Avian influenza virus infections cause significant economic losses on poultry farms and pose the threat of a possible pandemic outbreak. Routine vaccination of poultry against avian influenza is not recommended in Europe, however it has been ordered in some other countries, and more countries are considering use of the avian influenza vaccine as a component of their control strategy. Although a variety of such vaccines have been tested, most research has concentrated on specific antibodies and challenge experiments. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12985-020-01335-9DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7206725PMC
May 2020
2.181 Impact Factor

Diversity of Astroviruses Circulating in Humans, Bats, and Wild Birds in Egypt.

Viruses 2020 Apr 26;12(5). Epub 2020 Apr 26.

Center of Scientific Excellence for Influenza Virus, Environmental Research Division, National Research Centre, El-Buhouth Street, Dokki, Giza 12311, Egypt.

Astroviruses belong to family which includes two main genera: Mamastroviruses that infect mammals, and Avastroviruses that infect avian hosts. Bats and wild birds are considered among the natural reservoirs for astroviruses. Infections in humans are associated with severe gastroenteritis, especially among children. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/v12050485DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7290939PMC
April 2020
3.279 Impact Factor

Highly pathogenic H5N6 avian influenza virus subtype clade 2.3.4.4 indigenous in South Korea.

Sci Rep 2020 Apr 29;10(1):7241. Epub 2020 Apr 29.

Department of Biochemistry, College of Medicine, The Catholic University of Korea, Seoul, Republic of Korea.

The outbreaks of the highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) in 2016-2017 and 2017-2018, caused by novel reassortant clade 2.3.4. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-020-64125-xDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7190616PMC

Co-circulation of multiple reassortant H6 subtype avian influenza viruses in wild birds in eastern China, 2016-2017.

Virol J 2020 04 29;17(1):62. Epub 2020 Apr 29.

School of Life Sciences, East China Normal University, Shanghai, China.

Background: H6 subtype influenza viruses were prevalent in domestic poultry and wild birds, which also could pose potential threat to humans. However, little is known about the prevalence of H6 subtype viruses in wild birds in eastern China, a crucial stopover or wintering site for migratory wild birds along the East Asian-Australasian Flyway.

Methods: During the routine surveillance in 2016-2017, H6 subtype AIVs positive samples were identified, and the representative strains were selected for further sequence and phylogenetic analysis and the pathogenicity in mice were evaluated. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12985-020-01331-zDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7189434PMC
April 2020
2.181 Impact Factor

Spatial spread and emergence of reassortant H5 highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses in Iran.

Infect Genet Evol 2020 Sep 27;83:104342. Epub 2020 Apr 27.

EU/OIE/National Reference Laboratory for Avian Influenza and Newcastle Disease, FAO Reference Centre for Animal Influenza and Newcastle Disease, Istituto Zooprofilattico Sperimentale delle Venezie, viale dell'università 10, 35020 Legnaro, Padova, Italy. Electronic address:

Since 2005, H5Nx highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) viruses of the Goose/Guangdong (Gs/GD) lineage have spread worldwide, affecting poultry and wild birds in Asia, Europe, Africa and North America. So far, the role of Western Asia and the Middle East in the diffusion dynamics of this virus has been poorly explored. In order to investigate the genetic diversity and the role of Iran in the transmission dynamics of the Gs/GD lineage, we sequenced the complete genome of twenty-eight H5Nx viruses which were circulating in the country between 2016 and 2018. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.meegid.2020.104342DOI Listing
September 2020

Historical origins and zoonotic potential of avian influenza virus H9N2 in Tunisia revealed by Bayesian analysis and molecular characterization.

Arch Virol 2020 Jul 25;165(7):1527-1540. Epub 2020 Apr 25.

Laboratory of Epidemiology and Veterinary Microbiology, LR19IPT03, Institut Pasteur de Tunis, University Tunis El Manar, 13, Place Pasteur, BP74, 1002, Tunis, Belvedere, Tunisia.

During 2009-2012, several outbreaks of avian influenza virus H9N2 were reported in Tunisian poultry. The circulating strains carried in their hemagglutinins the human-like marker 226L, which is known to be important for avian-to-human viral transmission. To investigate the origins and zoonotic potential of the Tunisian H9N2 viruses, five new isolates were identified during 2012-2016 and their whole genomes were sequenced. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00705-020-04624-4DOI Listing

Emerging Diseases of Avian Wildlife.

Vet Clin North Am Exot Anim Pract 2020 May;23(2):383-395

USGS Patuxent Wildlife Research Center, 12302 Beech Forest Road, Laurel, MD 20708, USA.

Climate change and the interaction with humans and domestic species influences disease in avian wildlife. This article provides updated information on emerging disease conditions such as the spread of an Asian tick, Haemaphysalis longicornis, and its associated diseases among migratory birds in the eastern United States; lymphoproliferative disease virus in wild turkeys in the United States; and salmonellosis, particularly among passerines, which has zoonotic potential. In addition, it includes updated information on West Nile virus, Wellfleet Bay virus, and avian influenza and is intended to serve as a complement to the current veterinary literature for veterinarians treating avian wildlife species. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cvex.2020.01.002DOI Listing

Investigation of a Cluster of Severe Respiratory Disease Referred from Uganda to Kenya, February 2017.

Health Secur 2020 Mar/Apr;18(2):96-104

Paul Edward Okello, MSc, is an Epidemiologist/Microbiologist; Benon Kwesiga, MPH, is Field Supervisor; Susan Kizito, MSc, Steven N. Kabwama, MPH, and Daniel Kadobera, MSc, are Epidemiologists; all with the Uganda Public Health Fellowship Program, Ministry of Health, Kampala, Uganda. Robert Kaos Majwala, MA, is an Epidemiologist and Data Analyst, National Disease Control, Uganda Ministry of Health, and University Research Co, LLC, Center for Human Services, Kampala. Rosalia Kalani, MSc, is a Public Health Specialist, Disease Surveillance and Epidemic Response, Ministry of Health, Nairobi, Kenya. Lilian Bulage, MSc, is an Epidemiologist and Scientific Writer, African Field Epidemiology Network-Uganda Public Health Fellowship Program. Linus K. Ndegwa, PhD, is an Epidemiologist; Elizabeth Hunsperger, PhD, is Laboratory Director, Division of Global Health Protection; Sandra S. Chaves, MD, is Director, Influenza Program; and Marc-Alain Widdowson, VetMB, is Director, CDC-Kenya; all with CDC, Nairobi, Kenya. Dr. Widdowson is also Director, Institute of Tropical Medicine, Antwerp, Belgium. Henry Kajumbula, PhD, is Chair, Clinical Microbiology, Makerere University College of Health Sciences, Kampala, Uganda. Melvin Ochieng is a Biochemical Research Assistant, Kenya Medical Research Institute (KEMRI), Nairobi. Julie R. Harris, PhD, is Resident Advisor, Uganda Public Health Fellowship Program, Division of Global Health Protection, US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), Kampala, Uganda. Bao-Ping Zhu, MD, is a Medical Epidemiologist, Center for Global Health, CDC, Atlanta, GA. Alex Riolexus Ario, PhD, is Director, Uganda National Institute of Public Health, Kampala. The findings and conclusions in this report are those of the authors and do not necessarily represent the official position of the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.

On February 22, 2017, Hospital X-Kampala and US CDC-Kenya reported to the Uganda Ministry of Health a respiratory illness in a 46-year-old expatriate of Company A. The patient, Mr. A, was evacuated from Uganda to Kenya and died. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1089/hs.2019.0107DOI Listing

Phenotypic Effects of Substitutions within the Receptor Binding Site of Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza H5N1 Virus Observed during Human Infection.

J Virol 2020 Jun 16;94(13). Epub 2020 Jun 16.

Department of Chemical Biology and Drug Discovery, Utrecht Institute for Pharmaceutical Sciences, Utrecht University, Utrecht, the Netherlands.

Highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) viruses are enzootic in wild birds and poultry and continue to cause human infections with high mortality. To date, more than 850 confirmed human cases of H5N1 virus infection have been reported, of which ∼60% were fatal. Global concern persists that these or similar avian influenza viruses will evolve into viruses that can transmit efficiently between humans, causing a severe influenza pandemic. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/JVI.00195-20DOI Listing

Phylogeography and Antigenic Diversity of Low-Pathogenic Avian Influenza H13 and H16 Viruses.

J Virol 2020 Jun 16;94(13). Epub 2020 Jun 16.

Southeastern Cooperative Wildlife Disease Study, College of Veterinary Medicine, Department of Population Health, University of Georgia, Athens, Georgia, USA.

Low-pathogenic avian influenza viruses (LPAIVs) are genetically highly variable and have diversified into multiple evolutionary lineages that are primarily associated with wild-bird reservoirs. Antigenic variation has been described for mammalian influenza viruses and for highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses that circulate in poultry, but much less is known about antigenic variation of LPAIVs. In this study, we focused on H13 and H16 LPAIVs that circulate globally in gulls. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/JVI.00537-20DOI Listing

A "One-Health" approach for diagnosis and molecular characterization of SARS-CoV-2 in Italy.

One Health 2020 Apr 19:100135. Epub 2020 Apr 19.

Istituto Zooprofilattico Sperimentale dell'Abruzzo e Molise "G. Caporale", Teramo, Italy.

The current pandemic is caused by a novel coronavirus (CoV) called SARS-CoV-2 (species , subgenus , genus , family ). In Italy, up to the 2nd of April 2020, overall 139,422 confirmed cases and 17,669 deaths have been notified, while 26,491 people have recovered. Besides the overloading of hospitals, another issue to face was the capacity to perform thousands of tests per day. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.onehlt.2020.100135DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7166304PMC

[Epidemiological characteristics of a case infected with avian influenza A (H5N6) virus associated with exposure to aerosol].

Zhonghua Liu Xing Bing Xue Za Zhi 2020 Mar;41(3):358-362

Guangzhou Municipal Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Guangzhou 510440, China.

To investigate the epidemiological and clinical characteristics of a case infected with avian influenza A (H5N6) virus associated with exposure to aerosol and provide evidence for the prevention and control of human infection with avian influenza virus. Epidemiological investigation was conducted to identify the history of exposure, infection route, and disease progression. Real-time fluorescent quantitative RT-PCR was used to test the samples collected from the case, close contacts, environment and poultry market. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3760/cma.j.issn.0254-6450.2020.03.015DOI Listing

Development and Evaluation of Real-Time Reverse Transcription Polymerase Chain Reaction Test for Quantitative and Qualitative Recognition of H5 Subtype of Avian Influenza Viruses.

Arch Razi Inst 2020 03 1;75(1):17-22. Epub 2020 Mar 1.

Department of Poultry Diseases Research and Diagnosis, Razi Vaccine and Serum Research Institute, Agricultural Research, Education and Extension Organization (AREEO), Karaj, Iran.

Avian influenza viruses (AIV) affect a wide range of birds and mammals, cause severe economic damage to the poultry industry, and pose a serious threat to humans. Highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses (HPAI) H5N1 were first identified in Southeast Asia in 1996 and spread to four continents over the following years. The viruses have caused high mortality in chickens and various bird species and deadly infections in humans. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.22092/ari.2019.120821.1201DOI Listing

Genetic variability of avian influenza virus subtype H5N8 in Egypt in 2017 and 2018.

Arch Virol 2020 Jun 13;165(6):1357-1366. Epub 2020 Apr 13.

Reference Laboratory for Veterinary Quality Control on Poultry Production, Animal Health Research Institute, Agriculture Research Center, Giza, 12618, Egypt.

Since the incursion of avian influenza virus subtype H5N8 in Egypt in late 2016, it has spread rapidly, causing severe losses in poultry production. Multiple introductions of different reassorted strains were observed in 2017. In this study, a genetic characterization of the HA gene was carried out with 31 isolates selected from different governorates and sectors. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00705-020-04621-7DOI Listing