10,230 results match your criteria Avian Flu

A Review on Equine Influenza from a Human Influenza Perspective.

Viruses 2022 Jun 15;14(6). Epub 2022 Jun 15.

Equine Infectious Disease Surveillance (EIDS), Department of Veterinary Medicine, University of Cambridge, Madingley Road, Cambridge CB3 0ES, UK.

Influenza A viruses (IAVs) have a main natural reservoir in wild birds. IAVs are highly contagious, continually evolve, and have a wide host range that includes various mammalian species including horses, pigs, and humans. Furthering our understanding of host-pathogen interactions and cross-species transmissions is therefore essential. Read More

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The Genomic Evolution and the Transmission Dynamics of H6N2 Avian Influenza A Viruses in Southern China.

Viruses 2022 May 26;14(6). Epub 2022 May 26.

College of Veterinary Medicine, South China Agricultural University, Guangzhou 510642, China.

In China, the broad prevalence of H6 subtype influenza viruses, increasingly detected in aquatic birds, promotes their exchange materials with other highly pathogenic human-infecting H5N1, H5N6, and H7N9 influenza viruses. Strikingly, some H6 subtype viruses can infect pigs, dogs, and humans, posing risks to public health. In this study, 9 H6N2 viruses recovered from waterfowl species in the Guangdong province of China in 2018 were isolated and sequenced. Read More

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Evolutionary and Mutational Characterization of the First H5N8 Subtype Influenza A Virus in Humans.

Pathogens 2022 Jun 8;11(6). Epub 2022 Jun 8.

Department of Veterinary Medicine, Paul Ehrlich Institute, 63225 Langen, Germany.

Highly pathogenic influenza A virus H5 subtype remains a risk for transmission in humans. The H5N8 subtype has caused multiple outbreaks in poultry in Europe over the past few winters. During one recent outbreak in poultry in Astrakhan, workers on the farm were also infected. Read More

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Improved method for avian influenza virus isolation from environmental water samples.

Transbound Emerg Dis 2022 Jun 23. Epub 2022 Jun 23.

Department of Pathogenetic and Preventive Veterinary Science, Joint Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Kagoshima University, Kagoshima, Japan.

Environmental water-targeted surveillance of migratory aquatic birds at overwintering sites is potentially one of the most effective approaches for understanding the ecology of avian influenza viruses (AIVs). In this study, we improved the method for AIV isolation from environmental water samples by making a minor modification to our previously reported process. We experimentally demonstrated that the AIV recovery efficiency of the modified method was 10-100-fold higher than that of the original method. Read More

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Natural Reassortment of Eurasian Avian-Like Swine H1N1 and Avian H9N2 Influenza Viruses in Pigs, China.

Emerg Infect Dis 2022 Jul;28(7):1509-1512

Several zoonotic influenza A viruses detected in humans contain genes derived from avian H9N2 subtypes. We uncovered a Eurasian avian-like H1N1 swine influenza virus with polymerase basic 1 and matrix gene segments derived from the H9N2 subtype, suggesting that H9N2 viruses are infecting pigs and reassorting with swine influenza viruses in China. Read More

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Isolation and Characterization of Novel Reassortant Influenza A(H10N7) Virus in a Harbor Seal, British Columbia, Canada.

Emerg Infect Dis 2022 Jul;28(7):1480-1484

We isolated a novel reassortant influenza A(H10N7) virus from a harbor seal in British Columbia, Canada, that died from bronchointerstitial pneumonia. The virus had unique genome constellations involving lineages from North America and Eurasia and polymerase basic 2 segment D701N mutation, associated with adaptation to mammals. Read More

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"No Regrets" Purchasing in a pandemic: making the most of advance purchase agreements.

Global Health 2022 Jun 17;18(1):62. Epub 2022 Jun 17.

UNICEF Supply Division, New York City, NY, USA.

"No regrets" buying - using Advance Purchase Agreements (APAs) - has characterized the response to recent pandemics such as Avian flu, Zika Virus, and now COVID-19. APAs are used to reduce demand uncertainty for product developers and manufacturers; to hedge against R&D and manufacturing risks; and to secure availability of products in the face of spiking demand. Evidence on the use of APAs to buy vaccines, medicines, diagnostics, and personal protective equipment during recent pandemics illustrates how these contracts can achieve their intended objectives for buyers. Read More

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The First Occurrence of Hepatitis-Hydropericardium Syndrome in Iran and Effective Applied Control Measures in the Affected Commercial Broiler Flock.

Avian Dis 2022 Jun 15. Epub 2022 Jun 15.

Veterinary Head Office of Khorasan Razavi province, 9185333446, Mashhad, Iran.

Fowl adenoviruses cause three economically important diseases in broiler chicken flocks: hepatitis-hydropericardium syndrome (HHS), inclusion body hepatitis (IBH), and adenoviral gizzard erosion. IBH has not been considered a serious threat in northeast Iran since the last decade, because no major effect on flock performance has been noticed along with a low mortality rate. During this period, all the sporadic IBH outbreaks have also been investigated for HHS without finding any confirmed case. Read More

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R848 Adjuvant Laden With Self-Assembled Nanoparticle-Based mRNA Vaccine Elicits Protective Immunity Against H5N1 in Mice.

Front Immunol 2022 31;13:836274. Epub 2022 May 31.

Changchun Veterinary Research Institute, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Changchun, China.

In order to perfect the design strategy of messenger RNA (mRNA) vaccines against the H5N1 influenza virus, we investigated whether different antigen designs and the use of adjuvants could improve the immune effect of mRNA vaccines. We designed three different forms of antigen genes, including Flu [H1/H3/H5/B-HA2(aa90~105)-M2e(24aa)], Flu-Fe (Fe, ferritin), and CD5-Flu-Fe (CD5, a secretion signal peptide). Meanwhile, R848 (Requimod) was selected as the adjuvant of the mRNA vaccine. Read More

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HA gene amino acid mutations contribute to antigenic variation and immune escape of H9N2 influenza virus.

Vet Res 2022 Jun 15;53(1):43. Epub 2022 Jun 15.

College of Veterinary Medicine, Yangzhou University, Yangzhou, 225009, Jiangsu, China.

Based on differences in the amino acid sequence of the protein haemagglutinin (HA), the H9N2 avian influenza virus (H9N2 virus) has been clustered into multiple lineages, and its rapidly ongoing evolution increases the difficulties faced by prevention and control programs. The HA protein, a major antigenic protein, and the amino acid mutations that alter viral antigenicity in particular have always been of interest. Likewise, it has been well documented that some amino acid mutations in HA alter viral antigenicity in the H9N2 virus, but little has been reported regarding how these antibody escape mutations affect antigenic variation. Read More

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Global dissemination of H5N1 influenza viruses bearing the clade HA gene and biologic analysis of the ones detected in China.

Emerg Microbes Infect 2022 Jun 14:1-41. Epub 2022 Jun 14.

State Key Laboratory of Veterinary Biotechnology, Harbin Veterinary Research Institute, CAAS, Harbin, China.

H5N1 avian influenza viruses bearing the clade 2.3.4. Read More

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Quantification and characterisation of commensal wild birds and their interactions with domestic ducks on a free-range farm in southwest France.

Sci Rep 2022 Jun 13;12(1):9764. Epub 2022 Jun 13.

IHAP, ENVT, INRAE, Université de Toulouse, Toulouse, France.

The role of commensal birds in the epidemiology of pathogens in poultry farms remains unclear. Our study aimed to identify potential key species for interactions with domestic ducks on one free-range duck farm in southwest France. Methods combined direct individual observations on duck outdoor foraging areas, network analysis, and general linear mixed models of abundances. Read More

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First detection of avian influenza subtype H4N6 in Israel in a wild mallard (Anas platyrhynchos).

Transbound Emerg Dis 2022 Jun 10. Epub 2022 Jun 10.

Movement Ecology Lab, The Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Jerusalem, Israel.

Avian influenza viruses (AIV) are a worldwide threat to animal and human health. As wild waterfowl circulate and spread these viruses around the world, investigations of AIV prevalence in wild populations are critical for understanding pathogen transmission, as well as predicting disease outbreaks in domestic animals and humans. Surveillance efforts in this study have isolated H4N6 for the first time in Israel from a faecal sample of a wild mallard (Anas platyrhynchos). Read More

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Gross pathology of high pathogenicity avian influenza virus H5N1 2021-2022 epizootic in naturally infected birds in the United Kingdom.

One Health 2022 Jun 27;14:100392. Epub 2022 Apr 27.

Virology Department, APHA, Woodham Lane, New Haw, Addlestone KT15 3NB, UK.

High pathogenicity avian influenza virus (HPAIV) clade 2.3.4. Read More

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Development of a Rapid Fluorescent Diagnostic System for Early Detection of the Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza H5 Clade Viruses in Chicken Stool.

Int J Mol Sci 2022 Jun 4;23(11). Epub 2022 Jun 4.

Department of Tropical Medicine and Parasitology, Department of Biomedical Sciences, College of Medicine, Seoul National University, Seoul 03080, Korea.

Rapid diagnosis is essential for the control and prevention of H5 highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses (HPAIVs). However, highly sensitive and rapid diagnostic systems have shown limited performance due to specific antibody scarcity. In this study, two novel specific monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) for clade 2. Read More

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Potential Threats to Human Health from Eurasian Avian-Like Swine Influenza A(H1N1) Virus and Its Reassortants.

Emerg Infect Dis 2022 Jul 9;28(7):1489-1493. Epub 2022 Jun 9.

During 2018-2020, we isolated 32 Eurasian avian-like swine influenza A(H1N1) viruses and their reassortant viruses from pigs in China. Genomic testing identified a novel reassortant H3N1 virus, which emerged in late 2020. Derived from G4 Eurasian H1N1 and H3N2 swine influenza viruses. Read More

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A lesser scaup (Aythya affinis) naturally infected with Eurasian highly pathogenic H5N1 avian influenza virus: Movement ecology and host factors.

Transbound Emerg Dis 2022 Jun 9. Epub 2022 Jun 9.

Department of Entomology and Wildlife Ecology, University of Delaware, Newark, Delaware, USA.

Despite the recognized role of wild waterfowl in the potential dispersal and transmission of highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) virus, little is known about how infection affects these birds. This lack of information limits our ability to estimate viral spread in the event of an HPAI outbreak, thereby limiting our abilities to estimate and communicate risk. Here, we present telemetry data from a wild Lesser Scaup (Aythya affinis), captured during a separate ecology study in the Chesapeake Bay, Maryland. Read More

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Comparison of CpG- and UpA-mediated restriction of RNA virus replication in mammalian and avian cells and investigation of potential ZAP-mediated shaping of host transcriptome compositions.

RNA 2022 Jun 8. Epub 2022 Jun 8.

University of Oxford

The ability of zinc finger antiviral protein (ZAP) to recognise and respond to RNA virus sequences with elevated frequencies of CpG dinucleotides has been proposed as a functional part of the vertebrate innate immune antiviral response. It has been further proposed that ZAP activity shapes compositions of cytoplasmic mRNA sequences to avoid self-recognition, particularly mRNAs for interferons (IFNs) and IFN-stimulated genes (ISGs) expressed during the antiviral state. We investigated whether restriction of the replication of mutants of influenza A virus (IAV) and the echovirus 7 (E7) replicon with high CpG and UpA frequencies varied in different species of mammals and birds. Read More

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Infectious diseases in free range as compared to conventional poultry production.

Paul McMullin

Avian Pathol 2022 Jun 8:1-30. Epub 2022 Jun 8.

Poultry Health International, Thirsk, YO7 3HB, United Kingdom.

Commercial chicken production for the supply of meat and eggs has expanded in both scale and variety of production systems in use to facilitate the supply of a range of cost-effective products in response to consumer demand. In the egg sector traditional cage systems were required to be replaced in the EU by 2012, and most of this production capacity has been replaced by colony cage systems which provide more space, perching, environmental enrichment. In some countries there is significant production of 'cage-free' or 'barn' eggs in which the birds remain housed, but have access to litter. Read More

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Genetic subtyping and phylogenetic analysis of HA and NA from avian influenza virus in wild birds from Peru reveals unique features among circulating strains in America.

PLoS One 2022 7;17(6):e0268957. Epub 2022 Jun 7.

Laboratory of Avian Pathology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos, Lima, Lima, Peru.

Avian influenza virus (AIV) represents a major concern with productive implications in poultry systems but it is also a zoonotic agent that possesses an intrinsic pandemic risk. AIV is an enveloped, negative-sense and single-stranded RNA virus with a segmented genome. The eight genomic segments, comprising the whole genome, encode for eleven proteins. Read More

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Big data-based risk assessment of poultry farms during the 2020/2021 highly pathogenic avian influenza epidemic in Korea.

PLoS One 2022 7;17(6):e0269311. Epub 2022 Jun 7.

Veterinary Epidemiology Division, Animal and Plant Quarantine Agency, Gimcheon, Gyeongsangbuk-do, Republic of Korea.

Outbreaks of H5-type highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) in poultry have been reported in various parts of the world. To respond to these continuous threats, numerous surveillance programs have been applied to poultry raising facilities as well as wild birds. In Korea, a surveillance program was developed aimed at providing a preemptive response to possible outbreaks at poultry farms. Read More

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A broadly neutralizing human monoclonal antibody against the hemagglutinin of avian influenza virus H7N9.

Chin Med J (Engl) 2022 Apr 5;135(7):799-805. Epub 2022 Apr 5.

Department for Vaccine Clinical Evaluation, NHC Key Laboratory of Enteric Pathogenic Microbiology, Jlangsu Provincial Center for Diseases Control and Prevention, Nanjing, Jiangsu 210009, China.

Background: The new emerging avian influenza A H7N9 virus, causing severe human infection with a mortality rate of around 41%. This study aims to provide a novel treatment option for the prevention and control of H7N9.

Methods: H7 hemagglutinin (HA)-specific B cells were isolated from peripheral blood plasma cells of the patients previously infected by H7N9 in Jiangsu Province, China. Read More

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Public Social Media Discussions on Agricultural Product Safety Incidents: Chinese African Swine Fever Debate on Weibo.

Front Psychol 2022 20;13:903760. Epub 2022 May 20.

School of Economics and Management, Neijiang Normal University, Neijiang, China.

Public concern over major agricultural product safety incidents, such as swine flu and avian flu, can intensify financial losses in the livestock and poultry industries. Crawler technology were applied to reviewed the Weibo social media discussions on the African Swine Fever (ASF) incident in China that was reported on 3 August 2018, and used content analysis and network analysis to specifically examine the online public opinion network dissemination characteristics of verified individual users, institutional users and ordinary users. It was found that: (1) attention paid to topics related to "epidemic," "treatment," "effect" and "prevent" decrease in turn, with the interest in "prevent" increasing significantly when human infections were possible; (2) verified individual users were most concerned about epidemic prevention and control and play a supervisory role, the greatest concern of institutional users and ordinary users were issues related to agricultural industry and agricultural products price fluctuations respectively; (3) among institutional users, media was the main opinion leader, and among non-institutional users, elites from all walks of life, especially the food safety personnel acted as opinion leaders. Read More

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Dominance of the zoonotic pathogen Cryptosporidium meleagridis in broiler chickens in Guangdong, China, reveals evidence of cross-transmission.

Parasit Vectors 2022 Jun 6;15(1):188. Epub 2022 Jun 6.

Zhaoqing/Maoming Branch Center of Guangdong Laboratory for Lingnan Modern Agricultural Science and Technology, Key Laboratory of Livestock Disease Prevention of Guangdong Province, Key Laboratory for prevention and control of Avian Influenza and Other Major Poultry Diseases, Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Affairs; Institute of Animal Health, Guangdong Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Guangzhou, 510640, Guangdong, People's Republic of China.

Background: Cryptosporidium is one of the most prevalent parasites infecting both birds and mammals. To examine the prevalence of Cryptosporidium species and evaluate the public health significance of domestic chickens in Guangdong Province, southern China, we analyzed 1001 fecal samples from 43 intensive broiler chicken farms across six distinct geographical regions.

Methods: Individual DNA samples were subjected to nested PCR-based amplification and sequencing of the small subunit of the nuclear ribosomal RNA gene (SSU rRNA). Read More

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Maintenance and dissemination of avian-origin influenza A virus within the northern Atlantic Flyway of North America.

PLoS Pathog 2022 06 6;18(6):e1010605. Epub 2022 Jun 6.

U.S. Geological Survey, Alaska Science Center, Anchorage, Alaska, United States of America.

Wild waterbirds, the natural reservoirs for avian influenza viruses, undergo migratory movements each year, connecting breeding and wintering grounds within broad corridors known as flyways. In a continental or global view, the study of virus movements within and across flyways is important to understanding virus diversity, evolution, and movement. From 2015 to 2017, we sampled waterfowl from breeding (Maine) and wintering (Maryland) areas within the Atlantic Flyway (AF) along the east coast of North America to investigate the spatio-temporal trends in persistence and spread of influenza A viruses (IAV). Read More

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A novel reassortant avian influenza H4N6 virus isolated from an environmental sample during a surveillance in Maharashtra, India.

Indian J Med Res 2021 06;154(6):871-887

Avian Influenza Group, ICMR-National Institute of Virology, Pune, Maharashtra, India.

Background & Objectives: Low pathogenic avian influenza (LPAI) viruses cause mild clinical illness in domestic birds. Migratory birds are a known reservoir for all subtypes of avian influenza (AI) viruses. The objective of the study was to characterize AI H4N6 virus isolated from an environmental sample during surveillance in Maharashtra, India. Read More

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The Spanish flu.

Patrick Berche

Presse Med 2022 Jun 1;51(3):104127. Epub 2022 Jun 1.

Professeur Emeritus, Université de Paris, France. Electronic address:

The Spanish flu occurred at the end of the First world war, in disastrous epidemiological conditions on populations exhausted by four years of war. At that time, there were no vaccines, no antibiotics, no oxygen and no resuscitation. It was even thought that the infectious agent was a bacterium. Read More

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Single-Nanoparticle Collision Electrochemistry Biosensor Based on an Electrocatalytic Strategy for Highly Sensitive and Specific Detection of H7N9 Avian Influenza Virus.

Anal Chem 2022 Jun 3;94(23):8392-8398. Epub 2022 Jun 3.

College of Chemistry and Molecular Sciences, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430072, P. R. China.

Single-nanoparticle collision electrochemistry (SNCE) has gradually become an attractive analytical method due to its advantages in analytical detection, such as a fast response, low cost, low sample consumption, and in situ real-time detection of analytes. However, the biological analyte's direct detection based on the SNCE blocking mode has the problems of low sensitivity and specificity. In this work, an SNCE biosensor based on SNCE electrocatalytic strategy was used for the detection of H7N9 AIV. Read More

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