122 results match your criteria Avian Conservation and Ecology[Journal]

Madagascar Terrestrial Camera Survey Database 2021: A collation of protected forest camera surveys from 2007-2021.

Ecology 2022 Mar 22:e3687. Epub 2022 Mar 22.

Zoological Society of London, Kanchanaburi, Thailand.

Madagascar is a threatened global biodiversity hotspot and conservation priority, yet we lack broad-scale surveys to assess biodiversity across space and time. To fill this gap, we collated camera trap surveys, capturing species occurrences within Madagascar into a single standardized database. This data set includes nine distinct protected areas of Madagascar and encompasses 13 subprojects, 38 camera arrays, and 1156 sampling units (independent camera site per survey) within two important biodiversity eco-regions: western dry deciduous forest and eastern humid rainforest. Read More

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Plant and bird phenology and plant occurrence from 1851 to 2020 (non-continuous) in Thoreau's Concord, Massachusetts.

Ecology 2022 May 11;103(5):e3646. Epub 2022 Apr 11.

Biology Department, Boston University, Boston, Massachusetts, USA.

Concord, Massachusetts, USA has served as an active location for phenological observations since philosopher and naturalist Henry David Thoreau began recording plant and animal occurrence and phenology in 1851. Since that time, numerous naturalists, scientists, and researchers have continued this tradition, creating an invaluable time series of 758 species in a single location. In total, 13,441 phenological records, spanning 118 years, now exist, with observations of many species ongoing. Read More

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The demographic causes of population change vary across four decades in a long-lived shorebird.

Ecology 2022 04 3;103(4):e3615. Epub 2022 Mar 3.

Centre for Avian Population Studies, Wageningen, The Netherlands.

Understanding which factors cause populations to decline begins with identifying which parts of the life cycle, and which vital rates, have changed over time. However, in a world where humans are altering the environment both rapidly and in different ways, the demographic causes of decline likely vary over time. Identifying temporal variation in demographic causes of decline is crucial to assure that conservation actions target current and not past threats. Read More

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ATLANTIC POLLINATION: a data set of flowers and interaction with nectar-feeding vertebrates from the Atlantic Forest.

Ecology 2022 Feb 12;103(2):e03595. Epub 2022 Jan 12.

Graduação em Ciências Biológicas Bacharelado na Universidade do Estado de Minas Gerais, Rua Sabará 164, Passos, Minas Gerais, CEP: 37900-004, Brazil.

Flowering plant species and their nectar-feeding vertebrates exemplify some of the most remarkable biotic interactions in the Neotropics. In the Brazilian Atlantic Forest, several species of birds (especially hummingbirds), bats, and non-flying mammals, as well as one lizard feed on nectar, often act as pollinators and contribute to seed output of flowering plants. We present a dataset containing information on flowering plants visited by nectar-feeding vertebrates and sampled at 166 localities in the Brazilian Atlantic Forest. Read More

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February 2022

Feather mites at night: an exploration of their feeding, reproduction, and spatial ecology.

Ecology 2022 01 29;103(1):e03550. Epub 2021 Nov 29.

Department of Evolutionary Ecology, Estación Biológica de Doñana (EBD-CSIC), Avda. Américo Vespucio s/n, Seville, 41092, Spain.

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January 2022

A penalized likelihood for multispecies occupancy models improves predictions of species interactions.

Ecology 2021 12 28;102(12):e03520. Epub 2021 Sep 28.

Division of Forestry and Natural Resources, West Virginia University, Morgantown, West Virginia, 26506, USA.

Multispecies occupancy models estimate dependence among multiple species of interest from patterns of co-occurrence, but problems associated with separation and boundary estimates can lead to unreasonably large estimates of parameters and associated standard errors when species are rarely observed at the same site or when data are sparse. In this paper, we overcome these issues by implementing a penalized likelihood, which introduces a small bias in parameter estimates in exchange for a potentially large reduction in variance. We compare parameter estimates obtained from both penalized and unpenalized multispecies occupancy models fit to simulated data that exhibit various degrees of separation and to a real-word data set of bird surveys with little apparent overlap between potentially interacting species. Read More

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December 2021

Functional traits driving species role in the structure of terrestrial vertebrate scavenger networks.

Ecology 2021 12 28;102(12):e03519. Epub 2021 Sep 28.

North Carolina Zoo, 4401 Zoo Parkway, Asheboro, North Carolina, 27205, USA.

Species assemblages often have a non-random nested organization, which in vertebrate scavenger (carrion-consuming) assemblages is thought to be driven by facilitation in competitive environments. However, not all scavenger species play the same role in maintaining assemblage structure, as some species are obligate scavengers (i.e. Read More

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December 2021

SNAPSHOT USA 2019: a coordinated national camera trap survey of the United States.

Ecology 2021 06;102(6):e03353

Department of Biology, Francis Marion University, Florence, South Carolina, 29502, USA.

With the accelerating pace of global change, it is imperative that we obtain rapid inventories of the status and distribution of wildlife for ecological inferences and conservation planning. To address this challenge, we launched the SNAPSHOT USA project, a collaborative survey of terrestrial wildlife populations using camera traps across the United States. For our first annual survey, we compiled data across all 50 states during a 14-week period (17 August-24 November of 2019). Read More

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Excluding mammalian predators increases bird densities and seed dispersal in fenced ecosanctuaries.

Ecology 2021 06 3;102(6):e03340. Epub 2021 May 3.

Department of Fish, Wildlife and Conservation Biology, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, Colorado, 80523, USA.

Islands are epicenters of animal extinctions and population declines. These losses exacerbate biodiversity loss and disrupt ecological services in areas of high endemism. Island defaunation is primarily driven by invasive mammalian predators, and mammal eradications are reversing population declines for some island species. Read More

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Direct and indirect effects of a keystone engineer on a shrubland-prairie food web.

Ecology 2021 01 28;102(1):e03195. Epub 2020 Oct 28.

U.S. Geological Survey, Fort Collins Science Center, 2150 Centre Avenue #C, Fort Collins, Colorado, 80526, USA.

Keystone engineers are critical drivers of biodiversity throughout ecosystems worldwide. Within the North American Great Plains, the black-tailed prairie dog is an imperiled ecosystem engineer and keystone species with well-documented impacts on the flora and fauna of rangeland systems. However, because this species affects ecosystem structure and function in myriad ways (i. Read More

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January 2021

Interspecific competition between resident and wintering birds: experimental evidence and consequences of coexistence.

Ecology 2021 02 24;102(2):e03208. Epub 2021 Jan 24.

Migratory Bird Center, Smithsonian Conservation Biology Institute, National Zoological 7 Park, P.O. Box 37012, Washington, D.C., 20013-7012, USA.

The contribution of interspecific competition to structuring population and community dynamics remains controversial and poorly tested. Interspecific competition has long been thought to influence the structure of migrant-resident bird communities in winter, yet experimental evidence remains elusive. The arrival of billions of songbirds into Neotropical habitats, where they co-exist with residents, provides a unique opportunity to assess interspecific competition and its consequences. Read More

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February 2021

Trait-environment relationships differ between mixed-species flocking and nonflocking bird assemblages.

Ecology 2020 10 23;101(10):e03124. Epub 2020 Jul 23.

Guangdong Key Laboratory of Animal Conservation and Resource Utilization, Guangdong Public Laboratory of Wild Animal Conservation and Utilization, Guangdong Institute of Applied Biological Resources, Guangdong Academy of Science, Guangzhou, 510260, China.

Hypotheses about the mechanisms of community assembly suggest that biotic and abiotic filters constrain species establishment through selection on their functional traits. It is unclear how differences in traits influence the niche dimensions of closely related bird species when they coexist in spatiotemporally heterogeneous environments. Further, it is necessary to take into account their participation in mixed-species flocks, social systems that can include both competition and facilitation. Read More

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October 2020

Full lifetime perspectives on the costs and benefits of lay-date variation in tree swallows.

Ecology 2020 09 8;101(9):e03109. Epub 2020 Jul 8.

Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, Tennessee, 37996, USA.

Animals must balance various costs and benefits when deciding when to breed. The costs and benefits of breeding at different times have received much attention, but most studies have been limited to investigating short-term season-to-season fitness effects. However, breeding early, versus late, in a season may influence lifetime fitness over many years, trading off in complex ways across the breeder's lifespan. Read More

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September 2020

Year-round spatiotemporal distribution pattern of a threatened sea duck species breeding on Kolguev Island, south-eastern Barents Sea.

BMC Ecol 2020 05 25;20(1):31. Epub 2020 May 25.

Department of Animal Ecology and Systematics, Justus Liebig University Giessen, Heinrich-Buff-Ring 26-32, 35392, Giessen, Germany.

Background: The long-tailed duck (Clangula hyemalis) was categorized as ´Vulnerable` by the IUCN after a study revealed a rapid wintering population decline of 65% between 1992-1993 and 2007-2009 in the Baltic Sea. As knowledge about the European long-tailed duck's life cycle and movement ecology is limited, we investigate its year-round spatiotemporal distribution patterns. Specifically, we aimed to identify the wintering grounds, timing of migration and staging of this population via light-level geolocation. Read More

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The role of native and introduced birds in transmission of avian malaria in Hawaii.

Ecology 2020 07 7;101(7):e03038. Epub 2020 Apr 7.

Department Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, University of California, 130 McAllister Way, Santa Cruz, California, 95060, USA.

The introduction of nonnative species and reductions in native biodiversity have resulted in substantial changes in vector and host communities globally, but the consequences for pathogen transmission are poorly understood. In lowland Hawaii, bird communities are composed of primarily introduced species, with scattered populations of abundant native species. We examined the influence of avian host community composition, specifically the role of native and introduced species, as well as host diversity, on the prevalence of avian malaria (Plasmodium relictum) in the southern house mosquito (Culex quinquefasciatus). Read More

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Increased songbird nest depredation due to Aleppo pine (Pinus halepensis) encroachment in Mediterranean shrubland.

BMC Ecol 2019 12 17;19(1):52. Epub 2019 Dec 17.

School of Zoology, The George S. Wise Faculty of Life Sciences, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv, Israel.

Background: In recent decades, a decrease of passerine densities was documented in Mediterranean shrublands. At the same time, a widespread encroachment of Aleppo pines (Pinus halepensis) to Mediterranean shrubland occurred. Such changes in vegetation structure may affect passerine predator assemblage and densities, and in turn impact passerine densities. Read More

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December 2019

Sunning in extreme heat by the critically endangered hooded vulture: a strategy to fight ectoparasites?

Ecology 2020 05 3;101(5):e02948. Epub 2020 Mar 3.

Departamento de Biologia Animal, Faculdade de Ciências da Universidade de Lisboa, CESAM, 1749-016, Lisboa, Portugal.

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Wandering woodpeckers: foray behavior in a social bird.

Ecology 2020 02 12;101(2):e02943. Epub 2020 Jan 12.

Old Dominion University, Norfolk, Virginia, 23529, USA.

In many cooperatively breeding taxa, nonbreeding subordinates, or helpers, use extra-territorial forays to discover dispersal opportunities. Such forays are considered energetically costly and foraying birds face aggression from conspecific members of the territories they visit. In contrast, breeders in cooperatively breeding taxa are expected to foray seldomly. Read More

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February 2020

Sex ratio is variable and increasingly male biased at two colonies of Magellanic Penguins.

Ecology 2020 03 23;101(3):e02939. Epub 2020 Jan 23.

Department of Biology and Center for Ecosystem Sentinels, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington, 98103, USA.

Sex ratios are commonly skewed and variable in wild populations, but few studies track temporal trends in this demographic parameter. We examined variation in the operational sex ratio at two protected and declining breeding colonies of Magellanic Penguins (Spheniscus magellanicus) in Chubut, Argentina. Penguins from the two colonies, separated by 105 km, migrate north in the non-breeding season and have overlapping distributions at sea. Read More

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Social interactions do not drive territory aggregation in a grassland songbird.

Ecology 2020 02 31;101(2):e02927. Epub 2019 Dec 31.

Division of Biology, Kansas State University, 116 Ackert Hall, Manhattan, Kansas, 66506, USA.

Understanding the drivers of animal distributions is a fundamental goal of ecology and informs habitat management. The costs and benefits of colonial aggregations in animals are well established, but the factors leading to aggregation in territorial animals remain unclear. Territorial animals might aggregate to facilitate social behavior such as (1) group defense from predators and/or parasites, (2) cooperative care of offspring, (3) extra-pair mating, and/or (4) mitigating costs of extra-pair mating through kin selection. Read More

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February 2020

Say what? Bivalent singing in Vermivora warblers.

Ecology 2020 02 24;101(2):e02881. Epub 2019 Sep 24.

Department of Environmental Sciences, University of Toledo, Toledo, Ohio, 43606, USA.

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February 2020

Southward breeding range expansion of the Baird's Sparrow.

Ecology 2020 02 24;101(2):e02872. Epub 2019 Sep 24.

Bird Conservancy of the Rockies, 230 Cherry Street, No. 150, Fort Collins, Colorado, 80521, USA.

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February 2020

FragSAD: A database of diversity and species abundance distributions from habitat fragments.

Ecology 2019 Dec 1;100(12):e02861. Epub 2019 Oct 1.

Faculty of Sciences, Centre for Ecology, Evolution and Environmental Changes - cE3c, University of Lisbon, Lisbon, 1749-016, Portugal.

Habitat destruction is the single greatest anthropogenic threat to biodiversity. Decades of research on this issue have led to the accumulation of hundreds of data sets comparing species assemblages in larger, intact, habitats to smaller, more fragmented, habitats. Despite this, little synthesis or consensus has been achieved, primarily because of non-standardized sampling methodology and analyses of notoriously scale-dependent response variables (i. Read More

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December 2019

Predicting invasiveness of exotic woody species using a traits-based framework.

Ecology 2019 10 15;100(10):e02797. Epub 2019 Jul 15.

Department of Forestry and Natural Resources, Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indiana, 47906, USA.

Identifying potentially invasive species and preventing their introduction and establishment are of critical importance in invasion ecology and land management. Although an extensive body of research has been dedicated to identifying traits that confer invasiveness, our current knowledge is still often inconclusive due to limitations in geographic extent and/or scope of traits analyzed. Here, using a comprehensive set of 45 traits, we performed a case study of invasive traits displayed by exotic woody plants in the United States (U. Read More

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October 2019

A practical guide for combining data to model species distributions.

Ecology 2019 06 9;100(6):e02710. Epub 2019 May 9.

Department of Biology, San Francisco State University, 1600 Holloway Avenue, San Francisco, California, 94132, USA.

Understanding and accurately modeling species distributions lies at the heart of many problems in ecology, evolution, and conservation. Multiple sources of data are increasingly available for modeling species distributions, such as data from citizen science programs, atlases, museums, and planned surveys. Yet reliably combining data sources can be challenging because data sources can vary considerably in their design, gradients covered, and potential sampling biases. Read More

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Disentangling data discrepancies with integrated population models.

Ecology 2019 06 13;100(6):e02714. Epub 2019 May 13.

Department of Integrative Biology, Michigan State University, 288 Farm Lane RM 203, East Lansing, Michigan, 48824, USA.

A common challenge for studying wildlife populations occurs when different survey methods provide inconsistent or incomplete inference on the trend, dynamics, or viability of a population. A potential solution to the challenge of conflicting or piecemeal data relies on the integration of multiple data types into a unified modeling framework, such as integrated population models (IPMs). IPMs are a powerful approach for species that inhabit spatially and seasonally complex environments. Read More

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