518 results match your criteria Autopsy of the Transplant Recipient


Focal Segmental Glomerulosclerosis (FSGS) Progressing to Collapsing Glomerulopathy in Renal Transplant Recipients With and Without COVID-19 Infection.

Transplant Proc 2022 Mar 2. Epub 2022 Mar 2.

Department of Pathology, Beaumont Labs, Beaumont Health, Royal Oak, Michigan. Electronic address:

Background: Collapsing glomerulopathy (CGN) secondary to HIV or COVID-19 infection mainly occurs in patients of African American descent due to APOL-1 gene mutations, but CGN is occasionally reported in white patients. CGNs are rarely reported in renal transplant biopsies and their association with idiopathic focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS) is unclear.

Methods And Results: Patient #1 was a 48-year-old Caucasian white man who had a renal transplant 8 years ago and was recently diagnosed with COVID-19 infection. Read More

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Human Polyomavirus 9-An Emerging Cutaneous and Pulmonary Pathogen in Solid Organ Transplant Recipients.

JAMA Dermatol 2022 Mar;158(3):293-298

Department of Dermatology, Columbia University Irving Medical Center, New York, New York.

Importance: We describe the first report to our knowledge of cutaneous and systemic pathogenicity of human polyomavirus 9 in solid organ transplant recipients.

Objective: Three solid organ transplant recipients developed a widespread, progressive, violaceous, and hyperkeratotic skin eruption. All died from pulmonary and multiorgan failure around 1 year from onset of the rash. Read More

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Human herpesvirus 8 and Kaposi sarcoma: how should we screen and manage the transplant recipient?

Curr Opin Infect Dis 2021 12;34(6):646-653

Unit of Infectious Diseases, IRCCS-ISMETT (Mediterranean Institute for Transplantation and Advanced Specialized Therapies), Palermo, Italy.

Purpose Of Review: HHV-8-associated diseases are rare but potentially fatal in transplant recipients. Important differences exist in the distribution of HHV-8 seroprevalence, which might contribute to the lack of uniform approach to HHV-8. The aim of this review was to discuss recent updates in screening and management of HHV-8 after transplant. Read More

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December 2021

TAFRO Syndrome in a Kidney Transplant Recipient That Was Diagnosed on Autopsy: A Case Report.

Front Med (Lausanne) 2021 4;8:747678. Epub 2021 Oct 4.

Department of Nephrology and Blood Purification, Kidney Disease Center, Tokyo Medical University Hachioji Medical Center, Hachioji, Japan.

A 57-year-old man who received a kidney transplant 4 years previously owing to unknown underlying disease presented with thrombocytopenia and fever. Hepatosplenomegaly and lymphadenopathy were observed, and development of prominent anasarca and worsening of renal function yielded the diagnosis of TAFRO syndrome. He was treated with high-dose steroids and plasmapheresis, and a thrombopoietin receptor agonist was administered for refractory thrombocytopenia. Read More

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October 2021

COVID-19 impact on the renal system: Pathophysiology and clinical outcomes.

Best Pract Res Clin Anaesthesiol 2021 Oct 2;35(3):449-459. Epub 2021 Mar 2.

Department of Anesthesiology, LSU Health Shreveport, 1501 Kings Highway, Shreveport, LA, 71103, USA. Electronic address:

Coronavirus disease (COVID-19) causes many deleterious effects throughout the body. Prior studies show that the incidence of acute kidney injury in COVID-19 patients could be as high as 25%. There are also autopsy reports showing evidence of viral tropism to the renal system. Read More

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October 2021

Forensic Neuropathologic Phenotypes of Fungal Central Nervous System Infections: A Case Series.

Am J Forensic Med Pathol 2021 Dec;42(4):383-386

Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, University of California-Davis, Sacramento, CA.

Abstract: Fungal infections of the central nervous system (FI-CNS) are life-threatening infections that most commonly affect immunocompromised individuals, but immunocompetent individuals may also be infected. Although FI-CNS are relatively rare, the prevalence of FI-CNS is on the rise because of the increasing number of transplant recipients, human immunodeficiency virus-infected individuals, and use of immunosuppressive therapies. Most cases of FI-CNS originate from outside the central nervous system. Read More

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December 2021

Donor-derived Cryptococcus gattii sensu stricto infection in two kidney transplant recipients, southeastern United States.

Am J Transplant 2021 11 31;21(11):3780-3784. Epub 2021 Aug 31.

CDC, Atlanta, Georgia, USA.

Cryptococcus gattii infection is a rare cause of severe pulmonary disease and meningoencephalitis that has only recently been detected in the southeastern United States. We describe an organ transplant-associated outbreak of C. gattii infection involving an HIV-negative immunosuppressed donor in this region who died following new-onset headache and seizure of unknown cause. Read More

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November 2021

A Mixed-chimerism Protocol Utilizing Thymoglobulin and Belatacept Did Not Induce Lung Allograft Tolerance, Despite Previous Success in Renal Allotransplantation.

Transplant Direct 2021 Jun 25;7(6):e705. Epub 2021 May 25.

Center for Transplantation Science, Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA.

Background: In kidney transplantation, long-term allograft acceptance in cynomolgus macaques was achieved using a mixed-chimerism protocol based on the clinically available reagents, rabbit anti-thymocyte globulin (ATG), and belatacept. Here, we have tested the same protocol in cynomolgus macaques transplanted with fully allogeneic lung grafts.

Methods: Five cynomolgus macaques underwent left orthotopic lung transplantation. Read More

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PCR Array Technology in Biopsy Samples Identifies Up-Regulated mTOR Pathway Genes as Potential Rejection Biomarkers After Kidney Transplantation.

Front Med (Lausanne) 2021 17;8:547849. Epub 2021 Feb 17.

Department of Immunology, University Clinical Hospital Virgen de la Arrixaca-Biomedical Research Institute of Murcia (IMIB), Murcia, Spain.

Antibody-mediated rejection (AMR) is the major cause of kidney transplant rejection. The donor-specific human leukocyte antigen (HLA) antibody (DSA) response to a renal allograft is not fully understood yet. mTOR complex has been described in the accommodation or rejection of transplants and integrates responses from a wide variety of signals. Read More

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February 2021

Post-transplant Lymphoproliferative Disorders After Liver Transplantation: A Retrospective Cohort Study Including 1954 Transplants.

Liver Transpl 2021 08 5;27(8):1165-1180. Epub 2021 May 5.

Department of Surgery, Division of Hepato-Biliary-Pancreatic Surgery and Transplantation/Pediatric Surgery, Kyoto University Graduate School of Medicine, Kyoto, Japan.

Post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorders (PTLDs) are life-threatening neoplasms after organ transplantation. Because of their rarity and multiple grades of malignancy, the incidence, outcomes, and clinicopathological features affecting patient survival after liver transplantation (LT) remain unclear. We reviewed 1954 LTs in 1849 recipients (1990-2020), including 886 pediatric (<18 years of age) and 963 adult recipients. Read More

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Toxoplasmosis Among 38 751 Hematopoietic Stem-cell Transplant Recipients: A Systematic Review of Disease Prevalence and a Compilation of Imaging and Autopsy Findings.

Transplantation 2021 12;105(12):e375-e386

Dr. Jack S. Remington Laboratory for Specialty Diagnostics, Palo Alto Medical Foundation, Palo Alto, CA.

Background: Toxoplasmosis in hematopoietic stem-cell transplant (HSCT) recipients can be life threatening if not promptly diagnosed and treated.

Methods: We performed a systematic review (PubMed last search March 29, 2020) of toxoplasmosis among HSCT recipients and calculated the toxoplasmosis prevalence across studies. We also created a compilation list of brain imaging, chest imaging, and autopsy findings of toxoplasmosis among HSCT recipients. Read More

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December 2021

Post-mortem molecular investigations of SARS-CoV-2 in an unexpected death of a recent kidney transplant recipient.

Am J Transplant 2021 07 15;21(7):2590-2595. Epub 2021 Mar 15.

Department of Medicine, Cumming School of Medicine, University of Calgary, Calgary, AB, Canada.

Solid organ transplant recipients are vulnerable to severe infection during induction therapy. We report a case of a 67-year-old male who died unexpectedly 10 days after receiving a kidney transplant on February 10, 2020. There was no clear cause of death, but COVID-19 was considered retrospectively, as the death occurred shortly after the first confirmed case of COVID-19 in Canada. Read More

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Cutaneous cytomegalovirus - A case of disseminated cytomegalovirus presenting with extensive ulcerative skin lesions in a renal transplant recipient.

Transpl Infect Dis 2021 Aug 16;23(4):e13582. Epub 2021 Feb 16.

Division of Infectious Diseases and Geographic Medicine, Department of Medicine, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, CA, USA.

Cytomegalovirus (CMV) reactivation is common in organ transplant recipients and can lead to significant morbidity and mortality. Cutaneous CMV findings are rarely reported in the literature and diagnosis can be delayed if not clinically recognized. We describe a case of a female patient 20 years post renal transplant who presented with extensive ulcerative skin lesions and diarrhea. Read More

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Two cases of rare HHV8-driven intravascular lymphoma with synchronous Kaposi sarcoma, both diagnosed at autopsy in renal transplant recipients.

Autops Case Rep 2020 Nov 20;10(4):e2020206. Epub 2020 Nov 20.

Department of Cellular Pathology, North Bristol NHS Trust, Bristol, UK.

We present the first report of two rare yet remarkably similar autopsy cases of Kaposi sarcoma (KS) and intravascular human herpesvirus 8 (HHV8) positive lymphoproliferative disorder in renal transplant patients. It is well established that HHV8 infection causes Kaposi sarcoma (KS). More recently, it is recognized that HHV8 is also related to several lymphoproliferative conditions. Read More

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November 2020

Endocarditis in kidney transplant recipients: a systematic review.

J Chemother 2021 Sep 17;33(5):269-275. Epub 2020 Dec 17.

Department of Internal Medicine & Infectious Diseases, University Hospital of Heraklion, Heraklion, Greece.

Infective Endocarditis (IE) carries significant mortality. Bacteremia, which is a predisposing factor for IE, occurs more frequently in immunocompromised individuals. Interestingly, IE in kidney transplant recipients has not been adequately described. Read More

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September 2021

Fatal disseminated infection involving the central nervous system in a renal transplant recipient.

J Clin Tuberc Other Mycobact Dis 2020 Dec 19;21:100197. Epub 2020 Oct 19.

The University of Kansas Medical Center, Department of Internal Medicine, Division of Infectious Diseases, Kansas City, KS, United States.

Mycobacterium haemophilum is a slow growing nontuberculous mycobacterium which prefers cooler temperatures and requires iron for growth. It usually causes skin and soft tissue infections in immunocompromised hosts and cervical lymphadenitis in healthy children. We present the case of fatal disseminated M. Read More

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December 2020

Lessons for the clinical nephrologist: recurrence of nephrotic syndrome induced by SARS-CoV-2.

J Nephrol 2020 Dec 5;33(6):1369-1372. Epub 2020 Sep 5.

Medical Department 1, University Hospital Marien Hospital Herne, Ruhr-University Bochum, Hölkeskampring 40, 44625, Herne, Germany.

SARS-CoV-2 is characterized by a multiorgan tropism including the kidneys. Recent autopsy series indicated that SARS-CoV-2 can infect both tubular and glomerular cells. Whereas tubular cell infiltration may contribute to acute kidney injury, data on a potential clinical correlative to glomerular affection is rare. Read More

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December 2020

Projection neurons are preferentially affected in West Nile viral encephalitis: Case series and review of mechanisms of neuroinvasion and toxicity in a setting of solid organ transplant.

Clin Neuropathol 2021 Jan-Feb;40(1):47-56

West Nile virus (WNV) is an emerging human pathogen responsible for a systemic disease with generally indolent clinical course in immunocompetent hosts. Solid organ transplant recipients are vulnerable to WNV-induced encephalitis (WNVE) with no effective treatment and high mortality. We systematically assess various nuclei of the central nervous system in two human autopsy cases of WMVE using in situ hybridization (ISH) in combination with immunohistochemistry (IHC). Read More

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November 2021

Autopsy among recipients of stem cell transplant for hematologic malignancies in the modern era.

Bone Marrow Transplant 2021 01 8;56(1):282-284. Epub 2020 Jul 8.

Center for Hematologic Malignancies, OHSU Knight Cancer Institute, Portland, OR, USA.

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January 2021

Fungal endocarditis in transplant recipients: A systematic review.

Mycoses 2020 Sep 4;63(9):952-963. Epub 2020 Jul 4.

Department of Internal Medicine and Infectious Diseases, University Hospital of Heraklion, Heraklion, Greece.

Background: Invasive fungal infections remain a major cause of morbidity and mortality in transplant recipients. Moreover, Fungal Infective Endocarditis (FIE) is a rare infection that carries a higher mortality than bacterial IE in normal host, while in transplant recipients may be even higher. The purpose of this study was to systemically review all published cases of FIE in solid organ and allogeneic bone marrow transplant recipients, describe the epidemiology, microbiology, clinical characteristics, treatment and outcomes of these infections, and to identify risk factors for mortality by FIE. Read More

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September 2020

Influence of Preformed Antibodies in Liver Transplantation.

J Clin Med 2020 Mar 5;9(3). Epub 2020 Mar 5.

Immunology Service, Murcia Institute of Biosanitary Research (IMIB) and Biomedical Research Center in Liver and Digestive Diseases Network (CIBERehd), Virgen de la Arrixaca University Clinical Hospital (HCUVA), 30120 Murcia, Spain.

The significance of human leukocyte antigen (HLA) matching and preformed donor-specific antibodies (DSAs) in liver transplantation remains unclear. The aim of this study was to analyze the presence of DSAs in a large cohort of 810 liver recipients undergoing liver transplant to determine the influence on acute (AR) or chronic liver rejection (CR), graft loss and allograft survival. DSAs were identified using complement dependent cytotoxicity crossmatch (CDC-CM) and multiplexed solid-phase-based flow cytometry assay (Luminex). Read More

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Accelerated chronic skin changes without allograft vasculopathy: A 10-year outcome report after face transplantation.

Surgery 2020 06 26;167(6):991-998. Epub 2020 Feb 26.

Division of Plastic Surgery, Department of Surgery, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA. Electronic address:

Background: Long-term outcomes after face transplantation are rarely reported in the scientific literature. Here we present outcome data of a partial face allograft recipient 10 years after transplantation.

Methods: Medical records were reviewed for functional and psychosocial outcomes as well as complications. Read More

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Response to "Missed diagnosis and misdiagnosis of infectious diseases in hematopoietic cell transplant recipients: an autopsy study".

Blood Adv 2020 01;4(2):420-421

Infectious Disease Service, Department of Medicine, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, New York, NY.

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January 2020

Missed diagnosis and misdiagnosis of infectious diseases in hematopoietic cell transplant recipients: an autopsy study.

Blood Adv 2019 11;3(22):3602-3612

Division of Infectious Diseases and Geographic Medicine, Department of Medicine.

Hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) is potentially curative for patients with hematologic disorders, but carries significant risks of infection-related morbidity and mortality. Infectious diseases are the second most common cause of death in HCT recipients, surpassed only by progression of underlying disease. Many infectious diseases are difficult to diagnose and treat, and may only be first identified by autopsy. Read More

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November 2019

Increased Mac-2 binding protein glycan isomer in patients at risk for late nonrelapse mortality after HSCT.

Blood Adv 2019 11;3(21):3287-3296

Macrophages play a crucial role in the pathogenesis of chronic graft-versus-host disease (cGVHD). We hypothesized that galectin-3, Mac-2 binding protein (M2BP), or Wisteria floribunda agglutinin (WFA)+-M2BP, called M2BP glycan isomer (M2BPGi), might contribute to macrophage activation, and fibrosis would be associated with cGVHD and nonrelapse mortality (NRM) in hematopoietic stem cell transplant (HSCT) recipients. Patients who underwent their first allogeneic HSCT and survived for >180 days without relapse were included. Read More

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November 2019

Mortality after lung transplantation: a single-centre cohort analysis.

Transpl Int 2020 02 18;33(2):130-141. Epub 2019 Nov 18.

Department of Respiratory Diseases, University Hospitals Leuven, Leuven, Belgium.

Detailed data on postoperative death in lung transplant (LTx) recipients are lacking. Therefore, we investigated all deaths after LTx in a large, single-centre, 25-year follow-up cohort. Prevalence, time, place and cause of death (COD) were retrospectively analysed for all patients undergoing primary LTx between July 1991 and December 2015 in our centre. Read More

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February 2020

Isolated Superior Mesenteric Artery Dissection Following Liver Transplant: Report of 3 Cases.

Transplant Proc 2019 Jun;51(5):1502-1505

Department of Organ Transplantation and General Surgery, Kyoto Prefectural University of Medicine, Kajii-cho 465, Kamigyo-ku, Kyoto-prefecture, Japan.

Background: Isolated superior mesenteric artery (SMA) dissection (SMAD) is considered a relatively rare disease. Especially, isolated SMAD following liver transplant has been rarely reported.

Report Of Cases: Among 96 consecutive adult recipients who underwent liver transplant at our institution, 3 recipients (3. Read More

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Why are so many cases of invasive aspergillosis missed?

Med Mycol 2019 Apr;57(Supplement_2):S94-S103

Department of Infectious Diseases and Tropical Medicine, Necker-Pasteur Infectious Diseases Center, Necker-Enfants Malades University Hospital, Assistance Publique-Hôpitaux de Paris (AP-HP), Institut Imagine, Paris Descartes University, Paris, France.

Invasive aspergillosis (IA) incidence is increasing in several countries like France, and numerous cases are indeed missed and still only diagnosed at autopsy as evidenced by recently published data. Such missed diagnoses are obviously encountered when appropriate diagnostic tools are not available especially in low resource areas or when biologists have not been trained enough in medical mycology (i.e. Read More

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A fatal case of Exophiala dermatitidis disseminated infection in an allogenic hematopoietic stem cell transplant recipient during micafungin therapy.

J Infect Chemother 2019 Jun 22;25(6):463-466. Epub 2019 Jan 22.

Division of Infection Control and Prevention, Osaka University Hospital, Osaka, Japan.

Exophiala dermatitidis is a dematiaceous fungus that is increasingly becoming the cause of fungal infection in immunocompromised patients. However, the risk factors and optimal treatment modality for E. dermatitidis infection are unknown to date. Read More

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