2,743 results match your criteria Autoimmunity Reviews[Journal]

The role of B cell metabolism in autoimmune diseases.

Autoimmun Rev 2022 May 17;21(7):103116. Epub 2022 May 17.

Division of Allergy and Clinical immunology, Bnai-Zion Medical Center, The Rappaport Faculty of Medicine, Technion, Haifa, Israel. Electronic address:

B cells are major players in immune responses being the source of protective antibodies and antigen presenting cells. When self-tolerance fails, auto reactive B cells produce autoantibodies and pro-inflammatory cytokines leading to the development of autoimmune diseases. Many recent studies have assessed importance of metabolic pathways in B cells, demonstrating their role in controlling autoimmunity and maintaining immune homeostasis. Read More

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Combination tacrolimus and ustekinumab therapy is effective in inducing clinical, biochemical and endoscopic remission in refractory moderate to severe ulcerative colitis.

Autoimmun Rev 2022 May 17;21(7):103115. Epub 2022 May 17.

St Vincent's Hospital Melbourne Pty Ltd, Gastroenterology, 41 Victoria Parade, Fitzroy AUS 3065, Australia.

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Significance of IL-7 and IL-7R in RA and autoimmunity.

Autoimmun Rev 2022 May 17;21(7):103120. Epub 2022 May 17.

Jesse Brown VA Medical Center, Chicago, IL, USA; Department of Medicine, Division of Rheumatology, the University of Illinois at Chicago, IL, USA. Electronic address:

While physiological levels of IL-7 are essential for T cell proliferation, survival and co-stimulation, its escalated concentration has been associated with autoimmune diseases such as Rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Expression of IL-7 and IL-7R in RA monocytes is linked to disease activity score and TNF transcription. TNF stimulation can modulate IL-7 secretion and IL-7R frequency in myeloid cells, however, only IL-7R transcription levels are downregulated in anti-TNF responsive patients. Read More

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Expanding the spectrum of the hyperferritinemic syndrome, from pathogenic mechanisms to clinical observations, and therapeutic implications.

Autoimmun Rev 2022 May 17:103114. Epub 2022 May 17.

Department of Biotechnological and Applied Clinical Sciences, University of L'Aquila, L'Aquila, Italy.

From the introduction of hyperferritinemic syndrome concept, a growing body of evidence has suggested the role of ferritin as a pathogenic mediator and a relevant clinical feature in the management of patients with inflammatory diseases. From a pathogenic point of view, ferritin may directly stimulate the aberrant immune response by triggering the production of pro-inflammatory mediators in inducing a vicious pathogenic loop and contributing to the occurrence of cytokine storm syndrome. The latter has been recently defined as a clinical picture characterised by elevated circulating cytokine levels, acute systemic inflammatory symptoms, and secondary organ dysfunction beyond that which could be attributed to a normal response to a pathogen It is noteworthy that the occurrence of hyperferritinemia may be correlated with the development of the cytokine storm syndrome in the context of an inflammatory disease. Read More

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Caffeine and rheumatoid arthritis: A complicated relationship.

Autoimmun Rev 2022 May 17;21(7):103117. Epub 2022 May 17.

Clinical Rheumatology Unit, ASST Pini-CTO, Dept. of Clinical Sciences & Community Health, Research Center for Adult and Pediatric Rheumatic Diseases, Università degli Studi di Milano, Milano, Italy.

The current ideal goal of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) management is to resolve joint and systemic inflammation by using pharmacological interventions, assuming this will correspondingly lead to overall well-being. Nonetheless, it has emerged that a substantial number of RA patients do not reach optimal disease control, thus suggesting the holistic management of subjective symptoms might be overlooked. This poses significant medical challenges; hence the proposal of incorporating lifestyle interventions as part of a multidimensional approach. Read More

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Rare antibody-mediated and seronegative autoimmune encephalitis: An update.

Autoimmun Rev 2022 May 18;21(7):103118. Epub 2022 May 18.

Department of Neuroscience, Central Clinical School, Faculty of Medicine, Nursing and Health Science, Monash University, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia; Department of Neurology, Alfred Hospital, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia; Department of Neurology, Royal Melbourne Hospital, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia. Electronic address:

Paralleling advances with respect to more common antibody-mediated encephalitides, such as anti-N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) and anti-leucine-rich glioma-inactivated 1 (LGI1) Ab-mediated encephalitis, the discovery and characterisation of novel antibody-mediated encephalitides accelerated over the past decade, adding further depth etiologically to the spectrum of antibody-mediated encephalitis. Herein, we review the major mechanistic, clinical features and management considerations with respect to anti-γ-aminobutyric acid B (GABA)-, anti-α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropinoic receptor- (AMPAR), anti-GABA-, anti-dipeptidyl-peptidase-like protein-6 (DPPX) Ab-mediated encephalitides, delineate rarer subtypes and summarise findings to date regarding seronegative autoimmune encephalitis. Read More

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Sjögren syndrome overlapping with ANCA-associated vasculitis: Four additional cases and systematic literature review.

Autoimmun Rev 2022 Jun 19;21(6):103099. Epub 2022 Apr 19.

Department of Internal Medicine - Multi-Organic Diseases, Local Referral Center for Rare Auto-immune Diseases, Montpellier University Hospital, Montpellier, France; Institute of Regenerative Medicine and Biotherapy, Institut national de la santé et de la recherche médicale U1183, Montpellier, France. Electronic address:

Objectives: Sjögren's syndrome (SS) and ANCA-associated vasculitis (AAV) have distinct clinical presentation and evolution, with paucity of reports on overlap syndrome. We aimed to better characterize this entity.

Methods: We report four additional cases from the Montpellier university hospital. Read More

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Performance of MPO-ANCA and PR3-ANCA immunoassays for the stratification of specific ANCA-associated vasculitis: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

Autoimmun Rev 2022 Jun 19;21(6):103100. Epub 2022 Apr 19.

ARUP Laboratories, Salt Lake City, UT, United States of America; Department of Pathology, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT, United States of America. Electronic address:

Objective: To determine the impact of myeloperoxidase (MPO) and proteinase 3 (PR3) antigen-specific immunoassays in the stratification of patients at-risk for anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies (ANCA)-associated vasculitides (AAV) at diagnosis.

Methods: A Medline search was conducted to identify diagnostic accuracy studies using PR3-ANCA or MPO-ANCA for the evaluation of granulomatosis with polyangiitis (GPA), microscopic polyangiitis (MPA), and eosinophilic granulomatosis with polyangiitis (EGPA). Studies estimates were pooled using the bivariate method. Read More

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Antiphospholipid antibodies in women with recurrent embryo implantation failure: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

Autoimmun Rev 2022 Jun 20;21(6):103101. Epub 2022 Apr 20.

Systemic Autoimmune Research Unit, Vall d'Hebron Institut de Recerca, Barcelona, Spain; Systemic Autoimmune Diseases Unit, Department of Internal Medicine, Vall d'Hebron University Hospital, Barcelona, Spain; Department of Medicine, Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain. Electronic address:

Objective: Antiphospholipid antibodies (aPL) are related to poor pregnancy outcomes, but their effect on embryo implantation is unclear. We aimed to assess the prevalence of different aPL in women with recurrent implantation failure (RIF).

Methods: We searched studies in PubMed (MEDLINE), Scopus and Cochrane Library. Read More

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Transverse myelitis in systemic lupus erythematosus: A case report and systematic literature review.

Autoimmun Rev 2022 Jun 20;21(6):103103. Epub 2022 Apr 20.

Department of Critical Care Medicine, Union Hospital, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430022, PR China; Institute of Anesthesia and Critical Care Medicine, Union Hospital, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430022, PR China.. Electronic address:

Objective: Acute transverse myelitis (TM) is a rare complication secondary to systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) that can cause patients' extensive and severe neuropsychiatric disorders. Due to the rarity of the onset of acute TM, there is still no standard treatment protocol. This study was to summarize the clinical features of SLE-TM through a case report and systematic review. Read More

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Novel treatment strategies for acetylcholine receptor antibody-positive myasthenia gravis and related disorders.

Autoimmun Rev 2022 Apr 19:103104. Epub 2022 Apr 19.

Department of Psychiatry and Neuropsychology, Maastricht University, Maastricht, Netherlands; School of Mental Health and Neuroscience, Faculty of Health, Medicine and Life Sciences, Maastricht University, Maastricht, Netherlands. Electronic address:

The presence of autoantibodies directed against the muscle nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (AChR) is the most common cause of myasthenia gravis (MG). These antibodies damage the postsynaptic membrane of the neuromuscular junction and cause muscle weakness by depleting AChRs and thus impairing synaptic transmission. As one of the best-characterized antibody-mediated autoimmune diseases, AChR-MG has often served as a reference model for other autoimmune disorders. Read More

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A machine learning analysis to predict the response to intravenous and subcutaneous immunoglobulin in inflammatory myopathies. A proposal for a future multi-omics approach in autoimmune diseases.

Autoimmun Rev 2022 Jun 19;21(6):103105. Epub 2022 Apr 19.

School and Operative Unit of Allergy and Clinical Immunology, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, University of Messina, Via Consolare Valeria 1, 98125 Messina, Italy. Electronic address:

Objective: To evaluate the response to treatment with intravenous (IVIg) and subcutaneous (20%SCIg) immunoglobulin in our series of patients with Inflammatory idiopathic myopathies (IIM) by the means of artificial intelligence.

Background: IIM are rare diseases mainly involving the skeletal muscle with particular clinical, laboratory and radiological characteristics. Artificial intelligence (AI) represents computer processes which allows to perform complex calculations and data analyses, with the least human intervention. Read More

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Infectious agents breaking the immunological tolerance: The holy grail in rheumatoid arthritis reconsidered.

Autoimmun Rev 2022 Jun 19;21(6):103102. Epub 2022 Apr 19.

Università Cattolica del Sacro Cuore, Rome, Italy. Electronic address:

Multiple Sclerosis (MS) has been shown to be linked to Epstein Barr Virus (EBV) infection, a virus that infects B cells inside the CNS. The seminal study raises a key interest into the infectious origin of several other autoimmune inflammatory diseases.We will discuss here the infectious agents that have been studied over the years in Rheumatoid Arthritis (RA), a crippling arthritis that was treated a century ago with gold salts (anti mycobacterial agent), chloroquine (anti malarial agent), or sulphasalazine (an antibacterial-antiinflammatory agent). Read More

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Standardised interpretation of capillaroscopy in autoimmune idiopathic inflammatory myopathies: A structured review on behalf of the EULAR study group on microcirculation in Rheumatic Diseases.

Autoimmun Rev 2022 Jun 12;21(6):103087. Epub 2022 Apr 12.

Department of Rheumatology, Ghent University Hospital, C. Heymanslaan 10, 9000 Ghent, Belgium; Department of Internal Medicine, Ghent University, C. Heymanslaan 10, 9000 Ghent, Belgium; Unit for Molecular Immunology and Inflammation, VIB Inflammation Research Center (IRC), Technologiepark-Zwijnaarde 71, 9052, Ghent, Belgium. Electronic address:

Objective: We conducted a systematic review, on behalf of the EULAR Study Group on Microcirculation in Rheumatic Diseases (EULAR SG MC/RD), to investigate the value of nailfold videocapillaroscopy (NVC) in idiopathic inflammatory myopathies (IIM).

Methods: Three electronic databases were systematically searched to find all relevant manuscripts reporting NVC outcomes in IIM patients. Articles were assessed based on study design, population, NVC methodology and description of NVC results. Read More

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The role of B cells and their interactions with stromal cells in the context of inflammatory autoimmune diseases.

Autoimmun Rev 2022 Jun 11;21(6):103098. Epub 2022 Apr 11.

Department of Clinical Immunology and Rheumatology, Immunogenomics and Inflammation Research Unit, University of Lyon, Hospices Civils de Lyon, Edouard Herriot Hospital, 5 Place d'Arsonval, 69437 Lyon, France. Electronic address:

Interactions between B cells and stromal cells have essential functions in immune cell development and responses. During chronic inflammation, the pro-inflammatory microenvironment leads to changes in stromal cells, which acquire a pathogenic phenotype specific to each organ and disease. B cells are recruited to the site of inflammation and interact with these pathogenic stromal cells contributing to the disease's severity. Read More

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Susac syndrome: A scoping review.

Autoimmun Rev 2022 Jun 10;21(6):103097. Epub 2022 Apr 10.

Département de Médecine Interne, Hôpital Bichat, Assistance Publique Hôpitaux de Paris (APHP), Institut national de la santé et de la recherche médicale (INSERM) U1149, Université de Paris, Paris, France. Electronic address:

Susac syndrome is a rare disease characterized by an inflammatory microangiopathy limited to the brain, eye, and ear vessels. It mainly affects young women. Although the pathophysiology is not fully elucidated, recent advances favour a primitive vasculitis affecting the cerebral, retinal and cochlear small vessels. Read More

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Worsening of Graves' ophthalmopathy after SARS-CoV-2 mRNA vaccination.

Autoimmun Rev 2022 Apr 9;21(7):103096. Epub 2022 Apr 9.

Department of Translational Research and New Technologies in Medicine and Surgery, University of Pisa, Italy. Electronic address:

More reports are documenting how vaccines against severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) could represent new external triggers for autoimmune endocrine diseases (AIED) in patients with individual predisposition. We report two cases of Graves' Ophthalmopathy (GO) recrudescence few days after the administration of BNT162B2 (Pfizer-BioNTech) SARS-CoV-2 vaccine. Even if causality relationship cannot be excluded, the development of these events could be explained through immune mediated mechanism such as the autoimmune/inflammatory syndrome induced by adjuvants (ASIA). Read More

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Prevalence and titres of antinuclear antibodies in juvenile idiopathic arthritis: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

Autoimmun Rev 2022 Jun 6;21(6):103086. Epub 2022 Apr 6.

Department of Medicine, Cumming School of Medicine, University of Calgary, Calgary, AB, Canada.

Background: Antinuclear antibodies (ANA) detected in juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) sera are considered to be a biomarker for JIA-related uveitis. There is an unclear consensus on the screening dilutions of ANA as detected by the HEp-2 indirect immunofluorescence assay (IFA) that should be used when predicting the risk of uveitis in JIA. The primary aim of this systematic review and meta-analysis was to summarize the evidence regarding ANA prevalence and performance in JIA and JIA-associated uveitis. Read More

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The role of cholesterol metabolism in multiple sclerosis: From molecular pathophysiology to radiological and clinical disease activity.

Autoimmun Rev 2022 Jun 6;21(6):103088. Epub 2022 Apr 6.

Department of Neurology and Center of Clinical Neuroscience, Charles University in Prague, 1st Faculty of Medicine and General University Hospital, Prague, Czech Republic; Department of Physiotherapy, Faculty of Health Care, University of Presov, Slovak Republic. Electronic address:

Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic inflammatory disease of the CNS leading to demyelination and axonal degeneration. An increasing body of evidence suggests that lipid metabolism is associated with adverse clinical and MRI outcomes in MS. In this review we summarize the findings of association between low-density lipoproteins (LDL), high-density lipoproteins (HDL), their apolipoproteins and oxysterols with clinical and radiological disease activity in MS. Read More

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Lymphocyte activation gene-3 (LAG-3) regulatory T cells: An evolving biomarker for treatment response in autoimmune diseases.

Autoimmun Rev 2022 Jun 24;21(6):103085. Epub 2022 Mar 24.

Department of Rheumatology, Tel Aviv Sourasky Medical Center, Tel Aviv, Israel, affiliated to the Sackler Faculty of Medicine, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv, Israel.

Regulatory T cells (Tregs) comprise a CD4CD25Foxp3 T cell subset for maintaining immune tolerance, and their deficits and/or dysfunction are observed in autoimmune diseases. The lymphocyte activation gene 3 (LAG-3, also known as CD223), which is an immunoglobulin superfamily member expressed on peripheral immune cells, is recognized as an inhibitory regulator of Tregs. LAG-3 T cells represent a novel protective Tregs subset that produces interleukin-10. Read More

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Cranial giant cell arteritis mimickers: A masquerade to unveil.

Autoimmun Rev 2022 May 24;21(5):103083. Epub 2022 Mar 24.

Rheumatology Unit, First Department of Propaedeutic Internal Medicine, School of Medicine, Laiko Hospital, National and Kapodistrian University of Athens, Athens, Greece.

Giant cell arteritis (GCA) is a large-vessel vasculitis that affects cranial and extra-cranial arteries. Extra-cranial GCA presents mainly with non-specific symptoms and the differential diagnosis is very broad, while the cranial form has more typical clinical picture and physicians have a lower threshold for diagnosis and treatment. Although temporal artery biopsy (TAB) has an established role, ultrasound (US) is being increasingly used as the first-line imaging modality in suspected GCA. Read More

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Primary Sjögren's syndrome is associated with increased risk of malignancies besides lymphoma: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

Autoimmun Rev 2022 May 24;21(5):103084. Epub 2022 Mar 24.

Department of Rheumatology and Clinical Immunology, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences & Peking Union Medical College, National Clinical Research Center for Dermatologic and Immunologic Diseases (NCRC-DID), Ministry of Science & Technology, State Key Laboratory of Complex Severe and Rare Diseases, Peking Union Medical College Hospital (PUMCH), Key Laboratory of Rheumatology and Clinical Immunology, Ministry of Education, Beijing, China.

Objective: Patients with primary Sjögren's syndrome(pSS) have increased risk of non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL). However, whether pSS patients have increased risk of other malignancies is unclear. The aim of this study is to investigate the association between pSS and the risk of malignancy, with a focus on hematological malignancies besides lymphoma and solid tumors through a systematic review and meta-analysis. Read More

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Contemporary advances in antibody-mediated encephalitis: anti-LGI1 and anti-Caspr2 antibody (Ab)-mediated encephalitides.

Autoimmun Rev 2022 May 3;21(5):103074. Epub 2022 Mar 3.

Department of Neuroscience, Central Clinical School, Faculty of Medicine, Nursing and Health Science, Monash University, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia; Department of Neurology, Alfred Hospital, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia; Department of Neurology, Royal Melbourne Hospital, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia. Electronic address:

Encephalitides with antibodies directed against leucine-rich glioma-inactivated 1 (LGI1) and contactin-associated protein-like 2 (Caspr2) represent two increasingly well characterised forms of autoimmune encephalitis. Both share overlapping and distinct clinical features, are mediated by autoantibodies directed against differing proteins complexed with voltage-gated potassium channels, with unique genetic predisposition identified to date. Herein we summarise disease mechanisms, clinical features, treatment considerations, prognostic factors and clinical outcomes regarding these disorders. Read More

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Renal autoimmunity: The role of bacterial and viral infections, an extensive review.

Autoimmun Rev 2022 May 1;21(5):103073. Epub 2022 Mar 1.

Zabludowicz Center for autoimmune diseases, Sheba Medical Center, Ramat-Gan, Israel; International School of Medicine, Istanbul Medipol University, Istanbul, Turkey.

Autoimmunity is a process by which the loss of self-tolerance results in an immune attack against the body own tissues and organs. For autoimmunity to occur, various elements serving as triggers were described by which infections are considered one of the leading factors. In turn, renal involvement in autoimmune diseases, whether by an organ-specific attack, or as part of a systemic disease process, is well known. Read More

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Kidney disease in antiphospholipid antibody syndrome: Risk factors, pathophysiology and management.

Autoimmun Rev 2022 May 23;21(5):103072. Epub 2022 Feb 23.

Hôpitaux universitaires de Genève, Service de Néphrologie, Rue Gabrielle-Perret-Gentil 4, 1205 Genève, Switzerland.

Antiphospholipid antibody syndrome (APLS) is a rare autoimmune disease characterized by recurrent arterial and venous thromboembolic events, pregnancy related complications as well as the persistent detection of antiphospholipid antibodies at a 12 week interval. Renal complications tend to occur in 3% of APLS patients, with renal artery stenosis being the most common kidney related complication. Renal pathology may be subdivided into macro as well as microvascular thrombotic complications with stenosis, thrombosis and infarction representing the principle macrovascular events and APLS nephropathy representing the predominant microvascular complication. Read More

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The autonomic aspects of the post-COVID19 syndrome.

Autoimmun Rev 2022 May 16;21(5):103071. Epub 2022 Feb 16.

Ariel University, Israel; Zabludowicz Center for Autoimmune Diseases, Sheba Medical Center, Tel-Hashomer, Ramat-Gan 52621, Israel; Laboratory of the Mosaics of Autoimmunity, Saint Petersburg University, 199034, Russia.

The SARS-CoV-2 outbreak, responsible for the widespread COVID-19, led to one of the most rogue pandemics in modern time, yet the major effects of the pandemic may still be ahead of us. SARS-CoV-2 had been found to possess autoimmune properties. Close to 20 distinct autoantibodies which target GPCR of the nervous system and renin-angiotensin system-related molecules were found significantly associated with the clinical severity of COVID-19. Read More

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The current state of knowledge of the immune ecosystem in alopecia areata.

Autoimmun Rev 2022 May 10;21(5):103061. Epub 2022 Feb 10.

Interdisciplinary Graduate Program in Immunology, The University of Iowa, Iowa City, IA, USA; Department of Dermatology, The University of Iowa, Iowa City, IA, USA; Iowa City Veterans Affairs Medical Center, Iowa City, IA, USA. Electronic address:

Alopecia areata (AA) is an autoimmune disease that affects approximately 2% of the general population. Patients with AA most commonly present with one or more patches of hair loss on the scalp in defined circular areas. A fraction of patients progress to more severe forms of the disease, in some cases with involvement of all body surfaces. Read More

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Pathogenesis, clinical features, and treatment strategy for rheumatoid arthritis-associated interstitial lung disease.

Autoimmun Rev 2022 May 1;21(5):103056. Epub 2022 Feb 1.

Division of Rheumatology, Department of Internal Medicine, Keio University School of Medicine, 1608582 Tokyo, Japan. Electronic address:

Rheumatoid arthritis is an autoimmune disease that primarily affects the joints. The emergence of highly effective anti-rheumatic drugs such as biologic agents and janus kinase inhibitors has dramatically improved the management of the disease by preventing irreversible joint destruction and disability. This disease can manifest the serious extra-articular involvements including interstitial lung disease, which has the significant impact on the patients' morbidity and mortality. Read More

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