42,915 results match your criteria Autoimmunity Reviews [Journal]


Emerging immunotherapies for autoimmune kidney disease.

Hum Vaccin Immunother 2018 Dec 14. Epub 2018 Dec 14.

a Department of Medicine , Duke University Medical Center , Durham , NC , USA.

Autoimmunity is a leading cause of chronic kidney disease and loss of native and transplanted kidneys. Conventional immunosuppressive therapies can be effective but are non-specific, noncurative, and risk serious side effects such as life-threatening infection and cancer. Novel therapies and targeted interventions are urgently needed. Read More

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December 2018

Anti-psoriatic effect of myeloid-derived suppressor cells on imiquimod-induced skin inflammation in mice.

Scand J Immunol 2018 Dec 13:e12742. Epub 2018 Dec 13.

Pharmicell Co, Ltd, 484, Dunchon-daero, Jungwon-gu, Seongnam, Gyeonggi-do, Korea.

Myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) play an important role in controlling the immune response against cancer and in suppression of autoimmunity and allergic inflammation. However, the beneficial effects of MDSCs on the experimental mouse model of psoriasis have not been reported. Therefore, we investigated the anti-psoriatic effect of MDSCs on IMQ-induced skin inflammation in mice and explored the mechanisms involved. Read More

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December 2018

Immunotherapy in selected patients with Down syndrome disintegrative disorder.

Dev Med Child Neurol 2018 Dec 12. Epub 2018 Dec 12.

Department of Pediatrics, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC, USA.

Down syndrome disintegrative disorder (DSDD) is an increasingly identified condition characterized by cognitive decline, autistic characteristics, insomnia, catatonia, and psychosis in adolescents and young adults with Down syndrome. Previously we reported a higher rate of autoimmune thyroid disease in these patients compared with unaffected individuals with Down syndrome. We therefore hypothesized DSDD may in some cases be immune-mediated. Read More

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December 2018

Polyautoimmunity in rheumatological conditions.

Int J Rheum Dis 2018 Dec 11. Epub 2018 Dec 11.

Department of Connective Tissue Diseases, National Institute of Geriatrics, Rheumatology and Rehabilitation, Warsaw, Poland.

Co-occurrence of autoimmune diseases (ADs) within an individual is postulated to be a frequent phenomenon in rheumatic diseases. Similar clinical signs and symptoms, pathophysiological mechanisms, genetic factors within autoimmune diseases and aggregation of diverse ADs within families sustain the theory of shared pathogenesis of several ADs (autoimmune tautology). Polyautoimmunity (PA) is defined as the presence of more than one autoimmune disease in a single patient. Read More

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December 2018

Increased IL-1β levels are associated with an imbalance of "oxidant/antioxidant" status during Behçet's disease.

Eur Cytokine Netw 2018 Sep;29(3):95-102

USTHB, "Cytokines and NO Synthases" team, LBCM, FSB, BP 32, El Alia, 16111, Bab ezzouar, Algiers, Algeria.

Behçet's disease is a multisystem disease. It stands at the crossroad between the autoimmunity and auto-inflammatory disorders. In this study, we sought to address a relationship that might exist between interleukin-1β (IL-1β) and the oxidants/antioxidants markers in Behçet's patients. Read More

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September 2018

Sex differences in vaccine-induced humoral immunity.

Semin Immunopathol 2018 Dec 13. Epub 2018 Dec 13.

Ragon Institute of MGH, MIT, and Harvard, 400 Technology Square, Cambridge, MA, 02139, USA.

Vaccines are among the most impactful public health interventions, preventing millions of new infections and deaths annually worldwide. However, emerging data suggest that vaccines may not protect all populations equally. Specifically, studies analyzing variation in vaccine-induced immunity have pointed to the critical impact of genetics, the environment, nutrition, the microbiome, and sex in influencing vaccine responsiveness. Read More

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December 2018

Alpha 1 Antitrypsin Gene Therapy Extends the Lifespan of Lupus-Prone Mice.

Mol Ther Methods Clin Dev 2018 Dec 18;11:131-142. Epub 2018 Oct 18.

Department of Pharmaceutics, College of Pharmacy, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32610, USA.

Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a heterogeneous autoimmune disease characterized by high levels of pathogenic autoantibodies and tissue damage. Multiple studies showed that dendritic cell (DC) activation plays a critical role in SLE pathogenesis. Human alpha 1 antitrypsin (hAAT) is a serine proteinase inhibitor with potent anti-inflammatory and cytoprotective properties. Read More

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December 2018

Differential gene expression in human tissue resident regulatory T cells from lung, colon, and blood.

Oncotarget 2018 Nov 16;9(90):36166-36184. Epub 2018 Nov 16.

Bioscience, Respiratory, Inflammation and Autoimmunity, Innovative Medicines and Early Development Biotech Unit, AstraZeneca, Gothenburg, Sweden.

As we learn more about how immune responses occur , it is becoming clear that each organ/tissue is characterized with its own anatomy and microenvironment which may affect and even determine the outcome of the immune responses. With emerging data from animal studies showing that regulatory T cells infiltrating non-lymphoid tissues exhibit unique phenotypes and transcriptional signatures and display functions beyond their well-established suppressive roles, there is an urgent need to explore the function of tissue Treg cells in humans. Here we characterized the transcriptome of Treg residing at the human mucosal tissue obtained from the normal area of cancer resections and their peripheral blood counterparts, identifying human lung and colon tissue Treg signature genes and their upstream regulators. Read More

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November 2018

Proteasomal Protein Degradation: Adaptation of Cellular Proteolysis With Impact on Virus-and Cytokine-Mediated Damage of Heart Tissue During Myocarditis.

Front Immunol 2018 28;9:2620. Epub 2018 Nov 28.

Charité-Universitätsmedizin Berlin, Corporate Member of Freie Universität Berlin, Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin, and Berlin Institute of Health (BIH), Institute of Biochemistry, Berlin, Germany.

Viral myocarditis is an inflammation of the heart muscle triggered by direct virus-induced cytolysis and immune response mechanisms with most severe consequences during early childhood. Acute and long-term manifestation of damaged heart tissue and disturbances of cardiac performance involve virus-triggered adverse activation of the immune response and both immunopathology, as well as, autoimmunity account for such immune-destructive processes. It is a matter of ongoing debate to what extent subclinical virus infection contributes to the debilitating sequela of the acute disease. Read More

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November 2018

TGFβ Superfamily Members as Regulators of B Cell Development and Function-Implications for Autoimmunity.

Int J Mol Sci 2018 Dec 7;19(12). Epub 2018 Dec 7.

Instituto de Biomedicina y Biotecnología de Cantabria, Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas-Universidad de Cantabria, Santander 39011, Spain.

The TGFβ superfamily is composed of more than 33 growth and differentiation factors, including TGFβ1, β2, β3, BMPs, GDFs, nodal-related proteins, and activins. These members usually exert pleiotropic actions on several tissues and control multiple cellular processes, such as cell growth, cell survival, cell migration, cell fate specification, and differentiation, both during embryonic development and postnatal life. Although the effects of these factors on immune responses were elucidated long ago, most studies have been focused on the actions of TGFβs on T cells, as major regulators of adaptive immunity. Read More

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December 2018

SIZ1-Mediated SUMOylation of TPR1 Suppresses Plant Immunity in Arabidopsis.

Mol Plant 2018 Dec 11. Epub 2018 Dec 11.

Key Laboratory of Plant Molecular Physiology, Institute of Botany, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100093, China. Electronic address:

Plant immune responses are tightly regulated to ensure their appropriate deployment. The overexpression of TOPLESS-RELATED 1 (TPR1), a SUPPRESSOR OF npr1-1, CONSTITUTIVE 1 (SNC1)-interacting protein, results in autoimmunity, which reduces plant growth and development. However, how TPR1 activity is regulated remains unknown. Read More

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December 2018

Relapsing Evans syndrome and systemic lupus erythematosus with antiphospholipid syndrome treated with Bortezomib in combination with plasma exchange.

Clin Immunol 2018 Dec 10. Epub 2018 Dec 10.

Laboratory of the Mosaics of Autoimmunity, Saint-Petersburg University, 7/9 Universitetskaya Emb., Saint- Petersburg 199034, Russia.

Relapsing Evans syndrome (ES) and systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) with secondary antiphospholipid syndrome (APS) is very rare association. Coexistence of these syndromes is potentially fatal and require high-dose combined immunosuppressive therapy. We describe a case of successful use of Bortezomib and plasma exchange in a patient with ES and APS refractory to standard therapy. Read More

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December 2018

A large screen for paraneoplastic neurological autoantibodies; diagnosis and predictive values.

Clin Immunol 2018 Dec 10. Epub 2018 Dec 10.

Department of Medicine A, Tel Hashomer, Israel; Sackler School of Medicine, Ramat Aviv, Israel; The Zabludowicz Center for Autoimmune Diseases, Tel-Hashomer, Israel; The Dr. Pinchas Borenstein Talpiot Medical Leadership Program 2013, Sheba Medical Center, Tel-Hashomer, Israel. Electronic address:

Background: Paraneoplastic neurological syndromes (PNS) are a group of syndromes that affect the central and peripheral neuromuscular system in association with cancer. Specific antibodies may assist in the diagnosis of PNS. The antibodies tested can be classified into those directed against intracellular neuronal proteins ("well characterized" PNS: Hu, Yo, RI, CV2, amphiphysin, Ma1, Ma2) and those directed against neural surface antigens (autoimmune encephalitis syndromes: NMDA, AMPA, LGI1, CASPR2, GABAR). Read More

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December 2018

Insights from the 11th International Congress on Autoimmunity, Lisbon, Portugal, 2018.

Clin Immunol 2018 Dec 10. Epub 2018 Dec 10.

Zabludowicz Center for Autoimmune Diseases, Tel-Aviv University, Israel.; Sackler Faculty of Medicine, Tel-Aviv University, Israel.

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December 2018

The kaleidoscope of autoimmunity - From genes to microbiome.

Clin Immunol 2018 Dec 10. Epub 2018 Dec 10.

Zabludowicz Center for Autoimmune Diseases, Sheba Medical Center, Sackler Faculty of Medicine, Tel Aviv University, Tel-Hashomer, Israel.

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December 2018

Autoimmune and angiogenic biomarkers in autoimmune atherosclerosis.

Clin Immunol 2018 Dec 10. Epub 2018 Dec 10.

Division of Rheumatology, Department of Medicine, University of Debrecen, Faculty of Medicine, Debrecen, Hungary. Electronic address:

Several inflammatory, proteolytic, angiogenic and bone-associated factors play a role in the development of autoimmune, accelerated atherosclerosis in rheumatic diseases. Some of these may serve as biomarkers of vascular pathology and may be useful in the follow-up of vascular damage and outcome. Multi-biomarker profiles rather than a single markers would likely be optimal in this respect. Read More

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December 2018

Intravenous Immunoglobulin (IVIG) in the vanguard therapy of Systemic Sclerosis.

Clin Immunol 2018 Dec 10. Epub 2018 Dec 10.

Sackler Faculty of Medicine, Tel Aviv University, Israel; Zabludowicz Center for Autoimmune Disease, Sheba Medical Center, Tel Hashomer, Israel. Electronic address:

Systemic Sclerosis (SSc) is a rare autoimmune disease that is characterized by a progressive skin fibrosis, an obliteration of the microvasculature and an exaggerated extracellular matrix deposition, which lead to a multisystemic dysfunction. Various pathogenetic mechanisms were described. The lack of a successful therapy make SSc a disease with a poor prognosis. Read More

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December 2018

The loss of tolerance to CHI3L1 - A putative role in inflammatory bowel disease?

Clin Immunol 2018 Dec 10. Epub 2018 Dec 10.

Institute for Biotechnology, Faculty of Environment and Natural Sciences, Brandenburg University of Technology Cottbus-Senftenberg, Universitätsplatz 1, 01968 Senftenberg, Germany. Electronic address:

The incidence of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is steadily increasing. IBD is characterized by a chronic inflammation of the gastrointestinal tract and is classified into the two main groups Crohn's disease (CD) and ulcerative colitis (UC). Genetic predispositions, environmental factors and a dysregulated immune response are known to part take in the onset of IBD. Read More

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December 2018

Drug Discovery for Kinetoplastid Diseases: Future Directions.

ACS Infect Dis 2018 Dec 13. Epub 2018 Dec 13.

Novartis Institute for Tropical Diseases (NITD) , 5300 Chiron Way , Emeryville , California 94608 , United States.

Kinetoplastid parasites have caused human disease for millennia. Significant achievements have been made toward developing new treatments for leishmaniasis (particularly on the Indian subcontinent) and for human African trypanosomiasis (HAT). Moreover, the sustained decrease in the incidence of HAT has made the prospect of elimination a tantalizing reality. Read More

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December 2018

Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation in Patients with Heterozygous STAT1 Gain-of-Function Mutation.

J Clin Immunol 2018 Dec 13. Epub 2018 Dec 13.

Division of Pediatric Allergy/Immunology, Marmara University, Fevzi Çakmak Mah. No: 41, Pendik, Istanbul, Turkey.

Purpose: Human signal transducer and activator of transcription 1 (STAT1) gain-of-function (GOF) mutations present with a broad range of manifestations ranging from chronic mucocutaneous candidiasis and autoimmunity to combined immunodeficiency (CID). So far, there is very limited experience with hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) as a therapeutic modality in this disorder. Here, we describe two patients with heterozygous STAT1 GOF mutations mimicking CID who were treated with HSCT. Read More

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December 2018

Anti‑osteopontin autoantibodies in various types of cancer.

Oncol Rep 2018 Oct 5. Epub 2018 Oct 5.

College of Pharmacy, University of Cincinnati Academic Health Center, Cincinnati, OH 45267‑0004, USA.

The aberrant processing of biomolecules by cancer cells may give rise to autoimmune phenomena. The metastasis gene osteopontin is alternatively spliced only in transformed cells, and the variants promote tumor progression. They may also serve as tumor‑associated antigens, and their neutralization by autoantibodies could favorably affect prognosis. Read More

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October 2018

Are we aiming to miss in translational autoimmunity treatments?

F1000Res 2018 6;7:1754. Epub 2018 Nov 6.

Webb-Waring Center, University of Colorado, Anschutz Medical Campus, Aurora, CO, 80045, USA.

Autoimmunity treatments, fruitfully pioneered in mouse models, can be disappointing or result in immunosuppression and opportunistic infections in translational trials. Many possible reasons exist, but one major, overlooked reason may be the treatment timing in relation to circadian oscillations of the immune system. Mice and humans both have immunological circadian clocks and experience the same circulatory oscillations of immune cells with regards to their sleep/wake phases, but have opposite sleep/wake phases with regard to the daylight cycle. Read More

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November 2018

CTLA-4 and PD-1 Control of T-Cell Motility and Migration: Implications for Tumor Immunotherapy.

Front Immunol 2018 27;9:2737. Epub 2018 Nov 27.

Research Center-Maisonneuve-Rosemont Hospital (CRHMR), Montreal, QC, Canada.

CTLA-4 is a co-receptor on T-cells that controls peripheral tolerance and the development of autoimmunity. Immune check-point blockade (ICB) uses monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) to block the binding of inhibitory receptors (IRs) to their natural ligands. A humanized antibody to CTLA-4 was first approved clinically followed by the use of antibody blockade against PD-1 and its ligand PD-L1. Read More

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November 2018

Autoimmunity to hypocretin and molecular mimicry to flu in type 1 narcolepsy.

Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2018 Dec 12. Epub 2018 Dec 12.

Center for Sleep Sciences and Medicine, Stanford University School of Medicine, Palo Alto, CA 94304;

Type 1 narcolepsy (T1N) is caused by hypocretin/orexin (HCRT) neuronal loss. Association with the HLA DQB1*06:02/DQA1*01:02 (98% vs. 25%) heterodimer (DQ0602), T cell receptors (TCR) and other immune loci suggest autoimmunity but autoantigens are unknown. Read More

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December 2018

Spontaneous Cure of Acute Hepatitis C.

Curr Health Sci J 2015 Oct-Dec;41(4):375-378. Epub 2015 Dec 22.

Department of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Universitary Hospital Santa Maria, Lisbon.

The statistics proved that approximately 25% of the patients with acute HCV present with jaundice, and only 10-20% develop gastrointestinal symptoms. We present the case of a 58 year-old woman, with prior antecedents of arterial hypertension and diabetes mellitus since 25 years old, hypercholesterolemia and hypertriglyceridemia, psoriasis, epilepsy and depressive syndrome. She clinically presents asthenia, anorexia, itching, jaundice and choluria. Read More

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December 2015

Imaging Evaluation of the Orbit in Graves Ophthalmopathy.

Curr Health Sci J 2015 Jul-Sep;41(3):285-287. Epub 2015 Mar 15.

Radiology and Imaging Department, University of Medicine and Pharmacy of Craiova.

Diagnosis of Graves ophthalmopathy is based on the typical eye signs and symptoms, the exclusion of other orbital pathologies and evidence of thyroid autoimmunity. We report the case of a non-smoker 61 years old woman, known with Graves disease, which performed a 3T MRI examination in order to evaluate the orbits. The MRI exam revealed eye protrusion, increased orbital fat with compression on the optic nerve and increased volume of the extraocular muscles. Read More

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Long-peptide vaccination with driver gene mutations in p53 and Kras induces cancer mutation-specific effector as well as regulatory T cell responses.

Oncoimmunology 2018 21;7(12):e1500671. Epub 2018 Sep 21.

Department of Translational Immunology, German Cancer Research Center (DKFZ) and National Center for Tumor Diseases (NCT), Heidelberg, Germany.

Mutated proteins arising from somatic mutations in tumors are promising targets for cancer immunotherapy. They represent true tumor-specific antigens (TSAs) as they are exclusively expressed in tumors, reduce the risk of autoimmunity and are more likely to overcome tolerance compared to wild-type (wt) sequences. Hence, we designed a panel of long peptides (LPs, 28-35 aa) comprising driver gene mutations in and frequently found in gastrointestinal tumors to test their combined immunotherapeutic potential. Read More

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September 2018

MDR1 in immunity: friend or foe?

Oncoimmunology 2018 6;7(12):e1499388. Epub 2018 Sep 6.

Centre Léon Bérard, Cancer Research Center of Lyon (CRCL), Univ Lyon, Université Claude Bernard Lyon 1, Lyon France.

MDR1 is an ATP-dependent transmembrane transporter primarily studied for its role in the detoxification of tissues and for its implication in resistance of tumor cells to chemotherapy treatment. Several studies also report on its expression on immune cells where it plays a protective role from xenobiotics and toxins. This review provides an overview of what is known on MDR1 expression in immune cells in human, and its implications in different pathologies and their treatment options. Read More

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September 2018

Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus-Associated Genetic Variants Contribute to Overlapping Immune Regulatory Networks.

Front Genet 2018 21;9:535. Epub 2018 Nov 21.

The Liggins Institute, The University of Auckland, Auckland, New Zealand.

Type 1 diabetes (T1D) is a chronic metabolic disorder characterized by the autoimmune destruction of insulin-producing pancreatic islet beta cells in genetically predisposed individuals. Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified over 60 risk regions across the human genome, marked by single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), which confer genetic predisposition to T1D. There is increasing evidence that disease-associated SNPs can alter gene expression through spatial interactions that involve distal loci, in a tissue- and development-specific manner. Read More

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November 2018

Myocarditis Elicits Dendritic Cell and Monocyte Infiltration in the Heart and Self-Antigen Presentation by Conventional Type 2 Dendritic Cells.

Front Immunol 2018 21;9:2714. Epub 2018 Nov 21.

Immunoregulation and Mucosal Immunology, VIB-UGent Center for Inflammation Research, Ghent, Belgium.

Autoimmune myocarditis often leads to dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM). Although T cell reactivity to cardiac self-antigen is common in the disease, it is unknown which antigen presenting cell (APC) triggers autoimmunity. Experimental autoimmune myocarditis (EAM) was induced by immunizing mice with α-myosin loaded bone marrow APCs cultured in GM-CSF. Read More

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November 2018

Commensal Bacteria-Specific CD4 T Cell Responses in Health and Disease.

Front Immunol 2018 20;9:2667. Epub 2018 Nov 20.

Immunology and Allergy Unit, Department of Medicine Solna, Karolinska Institute, Stockholm, Sweden.

Over the course of evolution, mammalian body surfaces have adapted their complex immune system to allow a harmless coexistence with the commensal microbiota. The adaptive immune response, in particular CD4 T cell-mediated, is crucial to maintain intestinal immune homeostasis by discriminating between harmless (e.g. Read More

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November 2018
1 Read

Generation of anti-idiotypic antibodies to detect anti-spacer antibody idiotopes in acute thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura patients.

Haematologica 2018 Dec 6. Epub 2018 Dec 6.

Laboratory for Thrombosis Research, IRF Life Sciences, KU Leuven Campus Kulak Kortrijk;

In autoantibody-mediated autoimmune diseases, autoantibody profiling allows to stratify patients and link autoantibodies with disease severity and outcome. However, in immune-mediated thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura patients, stratification according to antibody profiles and their clinical relevance has not been fully explored. We aimed at developing a new type of autoantibody profiling assay for immune-mediated thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura based on the use of anti-idiotypic antibodies. Read More

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December 2018

Editorial overview: Autoimmunity: A new frontier awaits.

Authors:
Daniel B Stetson

Curr Opin Immunol 2018 Dec;55:iii-iv

Department of Immunology, University of Washington School of Medicine, 750 Republican St, Seattle, WA 98109, USA. Electronic address:

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December 2018

Is systemic lupus erythematosus different in urban versus rural living environment? Data from the Cretan Lupus Epidemiology and Surveillance Registry.

Lupus 2018 Dec 6:961203318816820. Epub 2018 Dec 6.

1 Rheumatology, Clinical Immunology and Allergy, University of Crete School of Medicine, Iraklio, Greece.

Background: Examining urban-rural differences can provide insights into susceptibility or modifying factors of complex diseases, yet limited data exist on systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE).

Objective: To study SLE risk, manifestations and severity in relation to urban versus rural residence.

Methodology: Cross-sectional analysis of the Crete Lupus Registry. Read More

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December 2018

Postactivated B cells in systemic lupus erythematosus: update on translational aspects and therapeutic considerations.

Curr Opin Rheumatol 2018 Dec 11. Epub 2018 Dec 11.

Department of Medicine/Rheumatology and Clinical Immunology.

Purpose Of Review: This review summarizes recent insights and current understanding of the role of postactivated B cells in SLE and related pathogenic and potential therapeutic implications.

Recent Finding: B cells are considered key players in SLE and experience from various B-cell-targeted therapies underlines their clinical relevance. In the last years, new insights have been obtained on B-cell abnormality within the complex pathophysiology of SLE. Read More

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December 2018

Gene-function studies in SLE.

Curr Opin Rheumatol 2018 Dec 11. Epub 2018 Dec 11.

Department of Immunology and Rheumatology, Instituto Nacional de Ciencias Médicas y Nutrición Salvador Zubirán.

Purpose Of Review: The aim of this review is to discuss recent developments in our understanding of how systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE)-associated genes contribute to autoimmunity.

Recent Findings: Gene-function studies have revealed mechanisms through which SLE-associated alleles of IFIH1, TNFAIP3, IRF5, and PRDM1 likely contribute to the development of autoimmunity. Novel research has identified Mac-1 (encoded by ITGAM), CaMK4, and iRhom2 as plausible therapeutic targets in lupus nephritis. Read More

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December 2018
1 Read

G-protein-coupled formyl peptide receptors play a dual role in neutrophil chemotaxis and bacterial phagocytosis.

Mol Biol Cell 2018 Dec 12:mbcE18060358. Epub 2018 Dec 12.

Chemotaxis Signal Section, Laboratory of Immunogenetics, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Rockville, MD.

A dogma of innate immunity is that neutrophils use G-Protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) for chemoattractant to chase bacteria through chemotaxis and then use phagocytic receptors coupled with tyrosine kinases to destroy opsonized bacteria via phagocytosis. Our current work showed that G-protein-coupled formyl peptide receptors (FPRs) directly mediate neutrophil phagocytosis. Mouse neutrophils lacking formyl peptide receptors (Fpr1/2) are defective in the phagocytosis of E. Read More

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December 2018

Determination of Autoantibodies to Transglutaminase by Electrochemiluminescence (ECL) Assay.

Methods Mol Biol 2019 ;1901:197-203

Barbara Davis Center for Childhood Diabetes, University of Colorado, Aurora, CO, USA.

Appearance of autoantibodies to tissue transglutaminase (TGA) is the most reliable biomarker to identify celiac disease autoimmunity. A nonradioactive assay of determination of TGA was newly developed using electrochemiluminescence (ECL) technology. This ECL assay has been demonstrated to be more sensitive than current standard radio-binding assay (RBA) in detecting TGA and can detect TGA earlier among high-risk young children followed from birth. Read More

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January 2019

Detection of Autoantibodies by Indirect Immunofluorescence Cytochemistry on Hep-2 Cells.

Methods Mol Biol 2019 ;1901:19-46

Rheumatology Division, Escola Paulista de Medicina, Universidade Federal de São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil.

Indirect immunofluorescence assay (IFA) has been used for detection of autoantibodies against cellular antigens for more than 50 years. Originally using rodent tissue as substrate, the method was optimized by using the human immortal HEp-2 cell line derived from a larynx epidermal carcinoma. The HEp-2/IFA platform allows for optimal visualization of several cellular domains recognized by autoantibodies in the samples being tested. Read More

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January 2019

Antibodies to and reproductive health issues in women with SLE: a case-control study.

Lupus Sci Med 2018 21;5(1):e000293. Epub 2018 Nov 21.

Department of Immunology and Allergy, Lausanne University Hospital, Lausanne, Switzerland.

Background: SLE is an autoimmune condition affecting predominantly women. Little is known regarding infection in women with SLE, which may drive autoimmunity and contribute to obstetrical and vascular complications.

Methods: This single-centre, case-control study set primary endpoint in the comparative seropositivity rate to major outer membrane protein (MOMP) and chlamydial heat-shock protein-60 (cHSP60) in age-matched subjects. Read More

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November 2018
1 Read

Type I interferon receptor blockade with anifrolumab corrects innate and adaptive immune perturbations of SLE.

Lupus Sci Med 2018 22;5(1):e000286. Epub 2018 Nov 22.

Research Bioinformatics, MedImmune LLC, Gaithersburg, Maryland, USA.

Objective: Anifrolumab is a fully human immunoglobulin G κ monoclonal antibody specific for subunit 1 of the type I interferon (IFN) α receptor. In a phase IIb study of adults with moderate to severe SLE, anifrolumab treatment demonstrated substantial reductions in multiple clinical endpoints. Here, we evaluated serum proteins and immune cells associated with SLE pathogenesis, type I interferon gene signature (IFNGS) test status and disease activity, and how anifrolumab affected these components. Read More

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November 2018

Glycans as Key Checkpoints of T Cell Activity and Function.

Front Immunol 2018 27;9:2754. Epub 2018 Nov 27.

Institute of Molecular Pathology and Immunology of the University of Porto (IPATIMUP) Porto, Portugal.

The immune system is highly controlled and fine-tuned by glycosylation, through the addition of a diversity of carbohydrates structures (glycans) to virtually all immune cell receptors. Despite a relative backlog in understanding the importance of glycans in the immune system, due to its inherent complexity, remarkable findings have been highlighting the essential contributions of glycosylation in the regulation of both innate and adaptive immune responses with important implications in the pathogenesis of major diseases such as autoimmunity and cancer. Glycans are implicated in fundamental cellular and molecular processes that regulate both stimulatory and inhibitory immune pathways. Read More

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November 2018

Tissue Adaptations of Memory and Tissue-Resident Gamma Delta T Cells.

Front Immunol 2018 27;9:2636. Epub 2018 Nov 27.

Department of Molecular Genetics and Microbiology, Center for Infectious Diseases, Stony Brook University, Stony Brook, NY, United States.

Epithelial and mucosal barriers are critical interfaces physically separating the body from the outside environment and are the tissues most exposed to microorganisms and potential inflammatory agents. The integrity of these tissues requires fine tuning of the local immune system to enable the efficient elimination of invasive pathogens while simultaneously preserving a beneficial relationship with commensal organisms and preventing autoimmunity. Although they only represent a small fraction of circulating and lymphoid T cells, γδ T cells form a substantial population at barrier sites and even outnumber conventional αβ T cells in some tissues. Read More

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November 2018
2 Reads

GPCR-specific autoantibody signatures are associated with physiological and pathological immune homeostasis.

Nat Commun 2018 12 6;9(1):5224. Epub 2018 Dec 6.

Department of Rheumatology and Clinical Immunology, University of Lübeck, Lübeck, 23538, Germany.

Autoantibodies have been associated with autoimmune diseases. However, studies have identified autoantibodies in healthy donors (HD) who do not develop autoimmune disorders. Here we provide evidence of a network of immunoglobulin G (IgG) autoantibodies targeting G protein-coupled receptors (GPCR) in HD compared to patients with systemic sclerosis, Alzheimer's disease, and ovarian cancer. Read More

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December 2018
8 Reads

Inflammasomes in CNS Diseases.

Exp Suppl 2018 ;108:41-60

School of Biomedical Sciences, Faculty of Medicine, University of Queensland, Brisbane, QLD, Australia.

Neuroinflammation is a common pathological feature in almost all neurological diseases and is a response triggered as a consequence of the chronic activation of the innate immune response in the CNS against a variety of stimuli, including infection, traumatic brain injury, toxic metabolites, aggregated proteins, or autoimmunity. Crucial mediators of this neurinflammatory process are the intracellular protein complexes known as inflammasomes which can be triggered by pathogens as well as pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) and damage-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs). However, chronic inflammasome activation can eventually result in cellular death and tissue damage, leading to the release of DAMPs that can reactivate the inflammasome, thereby propagating a vicious cycle of inflammation. Read More

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January 2018

Delayed onset of severe chronic pain in CASPR2 autoantibody-associated Morvan syndrome in a former UK swine abattoir worker.

Pain Rep 2018 Sep-Oct;3(5):e675. Epub 2018 Sep 17.

Neurology, Walton Centre NHS Foundation Trust, Liverpool, United Kingdom.

Introduction: Autoantibody-mediated autoimmunity directed against targets within the voltage-gated potassium channel complex (VGKCC autoantibodies) has been implicated in causing neuropathic pain.

Methods: We report the case of a 76-year-old, United Kingdom male who was diagnosed with contactin-associated protein 2 (CASPR2) autoantibody-associated Morvan syndrome, a rare neurological condition.

Results: He had previously worked in a swine abattoir; exposure to aerosol within swine abattoirs has been reported to elicit an immune response resulting in the production of these autoantibodies; however, unusually, his manifestations emerged with several years' latency. Read More

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September 2018

Eosinophil Extracellular Traps and Inflammatory Pathologies-Untangling the Web!

Front Immunol 2018 26;9:2763. Epub 2018 Nov 26.

Department of General Internal Medicine and Clinical Laboratory Medicine, Akita University Graduate School of Medicine, Akita, Japan.

Eosinophils are an enigmatic white blood cell, whose immune functions are still under intense investigation. Classically, the eosinophil was considered to fulfill a protective role against parasitic infections, primarily large multicellular helminths. Although eosinophils are predominantly associated with parasite infections, evidence of a role for eosinophils in mediating immunity against bacterial, viral, and fungal infections has been recently reported. Read More

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November 2018

Is Chimeric Antigen Receptor T-cell Therapy the Future of Autoimmunity Management?

Authors:
Amber Tahir

Cureus 2018 Oct 3;10(10):e3407. Epub 2018 Oct 3.

Internal Medicine, Dow University of Health Sciences, Karachi, PAK.

Clinical trials with chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T-cell therapy in oncology have been promising. The spectrum of this novel therapy is being expanded to include autoimmunity. It ensures "targeted treatment," resulting in more selective outcomes, fewer toxic effects, and a permanent restoration of immune system imbalance. Read More

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October 2018
2 Reads

An Insight Into the Intestinal Web of Mucosal Immunity, Microbiota, and Diet in Inflammation.

Front Immunol 2018 20;9:2617. Epub 2018 Nov 20.

Faculty of Medicine, Nursing and Health Sciences, School of Biomedical Sciences, Monash University, Clayton, VIC, Australia.

The rising global incidence of autoimmune and inflammatory conditions can be attributed to changes in the large portion of the immune system that belongs to our gastrointestinal tract (GI). The intestinal immune system serves as a gatekeeper to prevent pathogenic invasions and to preserve a healthier gut microbiota. The gut microbiota has been increasingly studied as a fundamental contributor to the state of health and disease. Read More

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November 2018
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Bioluminescent reporter assay for monitoring ER stress in human beta cells.

Sci Rep 2018 Dec 10;8(1):17738. Epub 2018 Dec 10.

Departments of Cell and Chemical Biology, Leiden University Medical Center, Leiden, The Netherlands.

During type 1 diabetes development, cells in the islets of Langerhans engage adaptive mechanisms in response to inflammatory signals to cope with stress, to restore cellular homeostasis, and to preserve cell function. Disruption of these mechanisms may induce the formation of a repertoire of stress-induced neoantigens, which are critical in the loss of tolerance to beta cells and the development of autoimmunity. While multiple lines of evidence argue for a critical role of the endoplasmic reticulum in these processes, the lack of tools to specifically monitor beta cell stress hampers the development of therapeutic interventions focusing on maintaining endoplasmic reticulum homeostasis. Read More

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December 2018