1,157 results match your criteria Autoimmune Thyroid Disease and Pregnancy

[Treatment of hypothyroidism in childbearing age].

Livia Barba

Recenti Prog Med 2022 Jun;113(6):3e-6e

Thyroid diseases play a crucial role in conditions of infertility and recurrent miscarriages. We here reported a case of a 34 years old woman, affected by autoimmune thyroiditis with subclinical hypothyroidism. The patient previously had a miscarriage and she was planning another pregnancy. Read More

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Thyroid Autoimmunity in Female Infertility and Assisted Reproductive Technology Outcome.

Front Endocrinol (Lausanne) 2022 26;13:768363. Epub 2022 May 26.

Center for Advanced Studies and Technology (CAST), University "G. d'Annunzio" of Chieti-Pescara, Chieti, Italy.

The regulation of the female reproductive system is one of the most relevant actions of thyroid hormones. Adequate thyroid hormones production is essential for normal menstrual function and fertility as well as for the successful maintenance of pregnancy. The relationship between reproductive failure and thyroid disorders is particularly relevant and attracts attention worldwide. Read More

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Selenium Supplementation in Pregnant Women with Autoimmune Thyroiditis: A Practical Approach.

Nutrients 2022 May 27;14(11). Epub 2022 May 27.

Department of Experimental Medicine, Sapienza University of Rome-Policlinico Umberto I Hospital, 00161 Rome, Italy.

Selenium (Se) is an essential trace element with antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties and a pivotal role in thyroid metabolism. Ensuring a sufficient Se supply is possible via a balanced, wholesome diet; however, Se content in foods may be different throughout geographical areas. Se supplementation is expected to improve inflammatory status in patients with autoimmune thyroiditis, especially in those with high activity, and has been demonstrated as effective in reducing the thyroid peroxidase antibodies titer. Read More

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Association of thyroid peroxidase antibodies and thyroglobulin antibodies with thyroid function in pregnancy - an individual participant data meta-analysis.

Thyroid 2022 May 20. Epub 2022 May 20.

University of Southern California Keck School of Medicine, 12223, Department of Preventive Medicine, Los Angeles, California, United States;

Objectives: Thyroid autoimmunity is common in pregnant women and associated with thyroid dysfunction and adverse obstetric outcomes. Most studies focus on thyroid peroxidase autoantibodies (TPOAbs) assessed by negative-positive dichotomy and rarely take into account thyroglobulin autoantibodies (TgAbs). This study aimed at determining the association of TPOAbs and TgAbs, respectively and interdependently, with maternal thyroid function. Read More

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Nat Rev Dis Primers 2022 05 19;8(1):30. Epub 2022 May 19.

Department of Internal Medicine, Erasmus University Medical Center, Rotterdam, Netherlands.

Hypothyroidism is the common clinical condition of thyroid hormone deficiency and, if left untreated, can lead to serious adverse health effects on multiple organ systems, with the cardiovascular system as the most robustly studied target. Overt primary hypothyroidism is defined as elevated thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) concentration in combination with free thyroxine (fT) concentration below the reference range. Subclinical hypothyroidism, commonly considered an early sign of thyroid failure, is defined by elevated TSH concentrations but fT concentrations within the reference range. Read More

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Thyroid function tests, incongruent internally and with thyroid status, both in a pregnant woman and in her newborn daughter.

Eur Thyroid J 2022 May 24;11(3). Epub 2022 May 24.

Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Endocrinology Section, University of Messina, Messina, Italy.

Introduction: Thyroid function tests (TFT) are extensively used in daily clinical practice. Here, we described a case of incongruent TFT both in a pregnant woman and in her newborn.

Case Presentation: A 32-year-old woman, diagnosed with autoimmune thyroiditis during her first pregnancy, was monitored during her second gestation. Read More

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Differential diagnosis of pituitary enlargement.

Vnitr Lek 2022 ;68(1):58-63

Enlargement of the pituitary gland is heterogenous in the etiology. Common causes of pituitary enlargement are physiological hypertrophy during pregnancy, primary and secondary tumors, autoimmune hypophysitis including side effects of anticancer therapy with check-point inhibitors. Terms like hypertrophy, hyperplasia, sellar expansion and hypophysitis are commonly used to describe enlargement of the pituitary gland on MR scan regardless its etiology. Read More

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Impact of Thyroid Function on Pregnancy and Neonatal Outcome in Women with and without PCOS.

Biomedicines 2022 Mar 23;10(4). Epub 2022 Mar 23.

Division of Obstetrics and Maternal Fetal Medicine, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Medical University of Graz, 8036 Graz, Austria.

Background: Women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) are more prone to autoimmune thyroiditis, and both disorders lead to subfertility and pregnancy-related complications. The aim of this study was to investigate whether mothers with and without PCOS and their offspring have comparable thyroid parameters at term and how thyroid parameters are associated with perinatal outcome in this population.

Methods: This cross-sectional observational study was performed in a single academic tertiary hospital in Austria. Read More

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Levothyroxine treatment for subclinical hypothyroidism improves the rate of live births in pregnant women with recurrent pregnancy loss: a randomized clinical trial.

Gynecol Endocrinol 2022 Jun 15;38(6):488-494. Epub 2022 Apr 15.

Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Second Affiliated Hospital of Soochow University, Suzhou, China.

This study aimed to assess whether the use of levothyroxine was beneficial in pregnant women with subclinical hypothyroidism (SCH) or women who were positive for thyroid peroxidase antibody (TPOAb). This was a randomized clinical trial involving 1736 populations of pregnant women. Our study was conducted into two groups: normal pregnant group and recurrent pregnancy loss (RPL) pregnant group. Read More

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A prospective study: the effect of fetal hypoxia on myeloperoxidase levels in cord blood.

Minerva Obstet Gynecol 2022 Apr 14. Epub 2022 Apr 14.

Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Ankara Etlik Zubeyde Hanım Women's Health Training and Research Hospital, Ankara, Turkey.

Objective: We aimed to compare myeloperoxidase (MPO) levels in cord blood samples of mothers with and without perinatal hypoxia, since fetal hypoxia results in decreased pH, base excess, and an increase in pCO2 and lactate levels.

Study Design: We enrolled 42 pregnant women to this cross-sectional analytic study if they had met following criteria: uneventful gestational follow-ups, no known chronic or pregnancy-associated diseases, a BMI of <29.9, a singleton pregnancy, those with pregnancy over 34 weeks. Read More

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Levothyroxine in euthyroid thyroid peroxidase antibody positive women with recurrent pregnancy loss (T4LIFE trial): a multicentre, randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, phase 3 trial.

Lancet Diabetes Endocrinol 2022 05 14;10(5):322-329. Epub 2022 Mar 14.

Centre for Reproductive Medicine, Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Amsterdam Reproduction & Development Research Institute, Amsterdam University Medical Centre, University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam, Netherlands. Electronic address:

Background: Women positive for thyroid peroxidase antibodies (TPO-Ab) have a higher risk of recurrent pregnancy loss. Evidence on whether levothyroxine treatment improves pregnancy outcomes in women who are TPO-Ab positive women with recurrent pregnancy loss is scarce. The aim of this study was to determine if levothyroxine increases live birth rates in women who were TPO-Ab positive with recurrent pregnancy loss and normal thyroid function. Read More

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[Subclinical hypothyroidism].

Dtsch Med Wochenschr 2022 Mar 15;147(6):289-294. Epub 2022 Mar 15.

Subclinical hypothyroidism is usually a laboratory diagnosis without significant symptoms and is defined by an elevated thyroid-stimulating hormone (thyrotropin, TSH) with normal thyroid hormone levels. On laboratory checks after two to three months, spontaneous normalization is found in 50 % of all cases in the sense of a transient elevation.With persistently elevated TSH levels, subclinical hypothyroidism is associated with evidence of thyroid-specific antibodies in the sense of autoimmune thyroiditis. Read More

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Steroid-responsive encephalopathy associated with autoimmune thyroiditis presenting with a postpartum psychosis.

BMJ Case Rep 2022 Mar 14;15(3). Epub 2022 Mar 14.

Faculty of Medicine, University of Coimbra, Coimbra, Portugal.

Steroid-responsive encephalopathy associated with autoimmune thyroiditis (SREAT) is a rare condition characterised by neuropsychiatric symptoms, presence of antithyroid antibodies and significant response to steroid therapy. Postpartum psychosis (PP), although having a low prevalence, is a psychiatrical emergency with potentially serious impact in the mother and children. PP has an atypical presentation when compared with affective or psychotic episodes unrelated to pregnancy. Read More

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Postpartum Levothyroxine Adjustment and Its Impact Factors in Women With Hypothyroidism in Pregnancy.

Endocr Pract 2022 Jun 9;28(6):578-585. Epub 2022 Mar 9.

Department of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Institute of Endocrinology, NHC Key laboratory of Diagnosis and Treatment of Thyroid Diseases, The First Affiliated Hospital of China Medical University, Shenyang, Liaoning, People's Republic of China. Electronic address:

Objective: Women with hypothyroidism need to increase exogenous thyroid hormone levels during pregnancy to reduce adverse outcomes. Few studies have reported the effect of gestational levothyroxine (LT4) variations on postpartum LT4 treatment.

Methods: Women were classified as having subclinical hypothyroidism (SCH) (n = 101), overt hypothyroidism (OH) caused by autoimmune thyroiditis (AIT-OH), OH following thyroidectomy for benign thyroid disease (BA-OH) (n = 66), and OH after surgery for papillary thyroid cancer (PTC-OH) (n = 46). Read More

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Women with female infertility seeking medically assisted reproduction are not at increased risk of developing multiple sclerosis.

Hum Reprod 2022 05;37(6):1324-1333

The Danish Multiple Sclerosis Registry, Department of Neurology, Rigshospitalet, Copenhagen University Hospital, Glostrup, Denmark.

Study Question: Is female infertility among women seeking medically assisted reproduction (MAR) associated with prevalent as well as incident multiple sclerosis (MS)?

Summary Answer: Women with a record of female infertility did not have an increased risk of developing MS compared with apparent fertile women; however, the prevalence of MS was slightly higher among women undergoing MAR compared with women who had a child without MAR, but this was not related to origin of infertility (i.e. male versus female factor infertility). Read More

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Levothyroxine dosages during pregnancy among hypothyroid women. An experience from a tertiary care center of Karachi, Pakistan, based on data from Maternal Hypothyroidism on Pregnancy Outcomes Study (MHPO-5).

BMC Res Notes 2022 Mar 7;15(1):92. Epub 2022 Mar 7.

Section of Endocrinology, Department of Medicine, Aga Khan University Hospital, Karachi, Pakistan.

Objectives: The dosage of levothyroxine (LT4) during pregnancy differs among different ethnic groups worldwide. These differences are due to variations in geographical iodine distribution, autoimmunity, and variations in thyrotropin (TSH) targets for pregnancy. To the best of our knowledge, we report the levothyroxine dosage prescribed during pregnancy in hypothyroid women, for the first time from Pakistan. Read More

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Levothyroxine Supplementation in Euthyroid Pregnant Women With Positive Autoantibodies: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

Front Endocrinol (Lausanne) 2022 17;13:759064. Epub 2022 Feb 17.

Center for Fetal Care and High-Risk Pregnancy, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of Chieti, Chieti, Italy.

Objectives: To explore the role of levothyroxine (LT4) supplementation in affecting the outcome of pregnant euthyroid women with thyroperoxidase (TPO) antibodies.

Methods: MEDLINE, EMBASE, Google Scholar, and the Web of Science databases were searched. The primary outcome was pre-term birth (PTB), defined as live birth before 37 weeks of gestation; secondary outcomes were gestational hypertension, pre-eclampsia (PE), placental abruption, miscarriage, intra-uterine death (IUD), and admission to neonatal intensive care unit (NICU). Read More

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Hashimoto thyroiditis: an evidence-based guide to etiology, diagnosis and treatment.

Pol Arch Intern Med 2022 03 3;132(3). Epub 2022 Mar 3.

Georgetown University School of Medicine, Washington, United States

Hashimoto thyroiditis (HT) is a common autoimmune disorder, affecting women 7-10 times more often than men, that develops because of genetic susceptibility, Xchromosome inactivation patterns modulated by environmental factors as well as microbiome composition, and leads to an imbalance in self‑tolerance mechanisms. The consequential thyroid infiltration by lymphocytes, potentiated by antibody‑mediated autoimmune response through the antibodies against thyroid peroxidase (TPOAbs), leads to a destruction of thyrocytes. The presence of TPOAbs is associated with a 2 to 4‑fold increase in the risk of recurrent miscarriages and preterm birth in pregnant women. Read More

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Thyroid and Parathyroid Conditions: Hypothyroidism.

FP Essent 2022 Mar;514:18-23

Department of Family Medicine - College of Medicine - Medical University of South Carolina, 135 Cannon St Suite 405 MSC 192, Charleston, SC 29425.

Hypothyroidism is caused by deficient thyroid hormone production secondary to autoimmune disease or insufficient iodine consumption or as a complication of hyperthyroidism management. Signs and symptoms include fatigue, weight gain, dry skin, constipation, and cold intolerance. The U. Read More

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The Detrimental Effect of Thyroiditis on Pregnancy Outcome of Patients Affected by Autoimmune Diseases: An Open Question.

Front Pharmacol 2022 9;13:827735. Epub 2022 Feb 9.

Dipartimento Scienze della Salute della Donna, Del Bambino e di Sanità Pubblica, Fondazione Policlinico Universitario A. Gemelli IRCCS, Università Cattolica Del Sacro Cuore, Rome, Italy.

Few data are available evaluating obstetrical outcome when thyroiditis coexist with autoimmune diseases. Objectives of our study were: 1) To assess the prevalence of thyroiditis in pregnant women with autoimmune diseases; 2) To evaluate the effects on pregnancy outcome when different autoimmune diseases are associated with thyroiditis. Two groups of pregnant women were analysed: a study group of pregnant women with autoimmune diseases ( = 268) a control group of pregnant women ( = 1,150). Read More

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February 2022

An update on thyroid disorders in the postpartum period.

J Endocrinol Invest 2022 Feb 18. Epub 2022 Feb 18.

Section of Endocrinology, Diabetes, Nutrition and Weight Management, Boston University School of Medicine, 720 Harrison Ave, Boston, MA, 02118, USA.

Purpose: To review the pathophysiology, diagnosis and management of postpartum thyroid dysfunction, and related management of thyroid disorders during lactation.

Methods: We reviewed the literature on postpartum thyroid dysfunction and management of thyroid disorders during lactation.

Results: The postpartum period is characterized by a rebound from the immunotolerance induced by pregnancy. Read More

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February 2022

Management of thyrotoxicosis and pregnancy: Review of the current literature and an update of the care pathway.

Philippe Caron

Ann Endocrinol (Paris) 2022 Feb 7. Epub 2022 Feb 7.

Department of Endocrinology and Metabolic Diseases, Cardiovascular and Metabolic Unit, CHU Larrey, 24, chemin de Pouvourville, TSA 30030, 31059 Toulouse cedex, France. Electronic address:

Pregnancy can be complicated by hyperthyroidism or thyrotoxicosis. Diagnosis is founded on an increase in free thyroid hormones and low TSH. The most frequent etiologies are Graves' disease, an autoimmune disease linked to stimulatory anti-TSH receptor antibodies, and non-autoimmune gestational hyperthyroidism linked to the TSH-like activity of the chorionic growth hormone (hCG). Read More

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February 2022

Correlation between Maternal Vitamin D and Thyroid Function in Pregnancy with Maternal and Neonatal Outcomes: A Cross-Sectional Study.

Int J Endocrinol 2022 29;2022:6295775. Epub 2022 Jan 29.

Student Research Committee, Jahrom University of Medical Sciences, Jahrom, Iran.

Background: The aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of vitamin D deficiency in pregnant women to investigate the relationship between vitamin D level and thyroid function.

Methods: In this cross-sectional descriptive study, a total number of 66 patients during the three trimesters of pregnancy were investigated; 22 pregnant women were studied in each trimester of pregnancy. We evaluated thyroid function tests and thyroid autoantibodies (TPOAb and TGAb), as well as the serum level of 25OHD, to determine the relationship between vitamin D level and autoimmune or non-autoimmune thyroid disease in pregnancy. Read More

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January 2022

Effects of Thyroperoxidase Antibody and Thyroglobulin Antibody on Maternal and Neonatal Outcomes in Pregnant Women.

Horm Metab Res 2022 Feb 7;54(2):76-83. Epub 2022 Feb 7.

Department of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Affiliated Hospital, Nanjing Medical University, Nanjing, China.

The aim of the study was to evaluate the effects of thyroperoxidase antibody (TPOAb) and thyroglobulin antibody (TgAb) on maternal and neonatal adverse outcomes in pregnant women. A total of 296 singleton pregnant women were classified into four groups according to the thyroid auto-antibody in the first trimester. Finally, there were 97 women in TPOAb positive group (TPOAb+/TgAb-), 35 in TgAb positive group (TPOAb-/TgAb+), 85 in TPOAb and TgAb positive group (TPOAb+/TgAb+), and 79 in TPOAb and TgAb negative group (TPOAb-/TgAb-). Read More

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February 2022

Pregnancy, delivery, and neonatal outcomes among women with psoriatic arthritis, a population based study.

J Perinat Med 2022 Jun 21;50(5):581-586. Epub 2022 Jan 21.

Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Division of Reproductive Endocrinology and Infertility, McGill University, Montreal, QC, Canada.

Objectives: Many autoimmune diseases negatively affect pregnancies. Studies report conflicting data about the effects of psoriatic arthritis (PsA) in pregnancy. We sought to evaluate the pregnancy, delivery, and neonatal outcomes among women with PsA. Read More

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Prunella vulgaris can improve the pregnancy outcomes of experimental autoimmune thyroiditis rats by inhibiting Th1/Th17 immune responses.

J Reprod Immunol 2022 02 24;149:103469. Epub 2021 Dec 24.

Institute of Reproductive Health, Center for Reproductive Medicine, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, PR China. Electronic address:

Autoimmune thyroiditis (AIT), one of the most common autoimmune diseases among women of reproductive age, is closely associated with reproductive failure and other obstetric complications. However, effective clinical strategies for the management of pregnant women with AIT are limited. It has been shown that Prunella vulgaris (PV), a traditional herbal medicine, can ameliorate AIT and other common thyroid disorders. Read More

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February 2022


Probl Radiac Med Radiobiol 2021 Dec;26:188-198

Republican Research Center for Radiation Medicine and Human Ecology, 290 Ilyicha Street, Gomel, 246040, Belarus.

Objective: To describe the status and results of thyroid disease screening and assessment of reliability of radiationthyroid doses in the Belarusian in utero cohort of 2,965 individuals exposed to Chernobyl (Chornobyl) fallout.

Materials And Methods: Thyroid screening examinations are currently underway including thyroid palpation by anendocrinologist, ultrasonographic examination by an ultrasonographer and analysis of blood samples for diagnosisof hypo- and hyperthyroidism, autoimmune thyroiditis, thyroid function tests (thyroid-stimulating hormone [TSH],thyroxine [T4], thyroid peroxidase antibody [anti-TPO], and thyroglobulin antibodies [anti-TG]). Reliability of (i)information from 780 pairs of questionnaires obtained during the first and second interviews of the mothers and (ii)thyroid doses, which were calculated for the cohort members using this information, is evaluated. Read More

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December 2021

Possible effect of the HLA-DQ2/DQ8 polymorphism on autoimmune parameters and lymphocyte subpopulation in recurrent pregnancy losses.

J Reprod Immunol 2022 Feb 17;149:103467. Epub 2021 Dec 17.

Department of Genetics and Clinical Immunology, Institute of Tuberculosis and Lung Diseases in Warsaw, Warsaw, Poland.

Recurrent pregnancy loss (RPL) affects 1-2 % of women. Allo- and autoimmune disorders are a recognized factor for RPL and poor pregnancy outcomes. There is a link between antiphospholipid syndrome (APS), Hashimoto's thyroiditis or coeliac disease, and pregnancy losses. Read More

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February 2022

The importance of iodine nutrition during pregnancy - clinical aspect.

Cas Lek Cesk 2021 ;160(6):224-228

Iodine is an essential constituent of thyroid hormones. Thyroid hormones regulate brain development, growth and metabolism of the human body. Inadequately low iodine intake and decreased thyroid hormone synthesis can lead to iodine deficiency disorders. Read More

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December 2021