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    923 results match your criteria Autoimmune Thyroid Disease & Pregnancy

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    A Retrospective Study on the Association between Thyroid Autoantibodies with β2-glycoprotein and Cardiolipin Antibodies in Recurrent Miscarriage.
    Iran J Allergy Asthma Immunol 2017 Feb;16(1):72-76
    Clinical Division of Gynecologic Endocrinology and Reproductive Medicine, Medical University of Vienna, Austria.
    Etiologic factors for recurrent miscarriage (RM) include autoimmune diseases, the most frequently antiphospholipid syndrome and thyroiditis. Some women who suffer from RM might also have an altered immune system. We aimed to evaluate possible associations between anti-thyroid and anti-phospholipid antibodies in women with RM. Read More

    Increase in thyroglobulin antibody and thyroid peroxidase antibody levels, but not preterm birth-rate, in pregnant Danish women upon iodine fortification.
    Eur J Endocrinol 2017 May;176(5):603-612
    Departments of Medical EndocrinologySection 2132.
    Objective: The presence of thyroid antibodies in pregnancy has been associated with preterm birth. In the non-pregnant population, the implementation of the Danish iodine fortification program has increased the prevalence of thyroid antibodies. This study investigated the prevalence of thyroid peroxidase antibodies (TPOAbs) and thyroglobulin antibodies (TgAbs) in pregnant Danish women before, during and after implementation of the iodine fortification program and association with preterm birth. Read More

    Imprinting of maternal thyroid hormones in the offspring.
    Int Rev Immunol 2017 Mar 8:1-16. Epub 2017 Mar 8.
    a Departamento de Ciencias Biológicas , Millennium Institute on Immunology and Immunotherapy, Facultad de Ciencias Biológicas y Facultad de Medicina, Universidad Andres Bello , Santiago , Chile.
    Thyroid hormones (THs) during pregnancy contribute significantly to cellular differentiation and development in several tissues of the offspring, principally the central nervous system (CNS). TH deficiencies, such as hypothyroidism or hypothyroxinemia, are highly frequent during pregnancy worldwide and known to be detrimental for the development of the fetus. The function of CNS in the offspring gestated under TH deficiency will be irreversible impaired, causing low intellectual quotient, attention deficit, and mental retardation. Read More

    Urinary iodine in early pregnancy is associated with subclinical hypothyroidism in Tianjin, China: an observational study.
    BMC Endocr Disord 2017 Feb 17;17(1):10. Epub 2017 Feb 17.
    Department of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Tianjin Medical University General Hospital, No154 Anshan Road, Heping District, Tianjin, 300052, China.
    Background: Subclinical hypothyroidism (SH) is associated with adverse obstetric outcomes and neurodevelopment disorders. Both iodine deficiency and excess are associated with SH; however, few data regarding iodine nutrition status of pregnant women with SH are available. This study aimed to clarify whether iodine deficiency or excess is associated with SH, especially, when test results for anti-thyroid autoantibodies are negative. Read More

    Thyroid in pregnancy: From physiology to screening.
    Crit Rev Clin Lab Sci 2017 Mar 19;54(2):102-116. Epub 2017 Jan 19.
    c Division of Internal Medicine , University Hospital Basel , Basel , Switzerland.
    Thyroid hormones are crucial for the growth and maturation of many target tissues, especially the brain and skeleton. During critical periods in the first trimester of pregnancy, maternal thyroxine is essential for fetal development as it supplies thyroid hormone-dependent tissues. The ontogeny of mature thyroid function involves organogenesis, and maturation of the hypothalamus, pituitary and the thyroid gland; and it is almost complete by the 12th-14th gestational week. Read More

    Management of Fetal and Neonatal Graves' Disease.
    Horm Res Paediatr 2017 16;87(1):1-6. Epub 2016 Dec 16.
    Service d'Endocrinologie Diabétologie Pédiatrique, Centre de Référence des Maladies Endocriniennes Rares de la Croissance, Hôpital Robert Debré, and Université Paris Diderot, Sorbonne Paris Cité, and Institut National de la Santé et de la Recherche Médicale (INSERM), Unité 1141, DHU Protect, Paris, France.
    Fetal and neonatal autoimmune hyperthyroidism is a rare, serious but transient disorder. Early diagnosis and treatment are key objectives for an optimal prognosis and the well-being of the child. This review focuses on the management of these patients during the fetal and neonatal periods. Read More

    Effects of levothyroxine treatment on pregnancy outcomes in pregnant women with autoimmune thyroid disease.
    Eur J Endocrinol 2017 Feb 22;176(2):253-265. Epub 2016 Nov 22.
    Endocrine Research CenterResearch Institute for Endocrine Sciences, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences and Health Services, Tehran, Iran.
    Background: Despite some studies indicating that thyroid antibody positivity during pregnancy has been associated with adverse pregnancy outcomes, evidence regarding the effects of levothyroxine (LT4) treatment of euthyroid/subclinical hypothyroid pregnant women with autoimmune thyroid disease on pregnancy outcome is limited. We aimed to assess whether pregnant women with autoimmune thyroid disease, but without overt thyroid dysfunction are affected by higher rates of adverse pregnancy outcomes. In addition, we aimed to explore whether LT4 treatment improves the pregnancy outcome of affected women. Read More

    A 2016 Italian Survey about the Clinical Use of Selenium in Thyroid Disease.
    Eur Thyroid J 2016 Sep 6;5(3):164-170. Epub 2016 Aug 6.
    Department of Endocrinology, Regina Apostolorum Hospital, Albano Laziale, Italy.
    Background: Selenium (Se) is a trace element that plays key roles in thyroid physiology. Se deficiency is associated with increased risk of thyroid disease. Some evidence suggests that Se supplementation may be beneficial in autoimmune thyroid disease (either hypo- or hyperthyroidism). Read More

    Fetal/Neonatal Thyrotoxicosis in a Newborn From a Hypothyroid Woman With Hashimoto Thyroiditis.
    J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2017 Jan;102(1):6-9
    Clinical Division of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Department of Medicine III.
    Context: Fetal/neonatal thyrotoxicosis is a rare but potentially life-threatening condition. It is most commonly observed in poorly controlled Graves disease during pregnancy.

    Case Description: Here we describe a fetus/newborn patient with thyrotoxicosis who was born of a woman with Hashimoto thyroiditis and levothyroxine-treated hypothyroidism. Read More

    Onset of Graves' disease during pregnancy in a woman with established hypothyroidism.
    Gynecol Endocrinol 2017 Jan 4;33(1):16-18. Epub 2016 Nov 4.
    a Servicio de Endocrinología y Nutrición, Complejo Hospitalario Universitario Insular Materno Infantil de Gran Canaria, Instituto Universitario de Investigaciones Biomédicas y Sanitarias, Universidad de Las Palmas de Gran Canaria , Las Palmas de Gran Canaria , Spain.
    Background: Pregnancy strongly influences the thyroid gland and its function. Thyroid guidelines recommend a 30 to 50% increase of the preconceptional levothyroxine dose in women with hypothyroidism, when pregnancy is diagnosed.

    Case: A 33 year-old, 8-week pregnant woman with hypothyroidism, presents with a 2-week history of palpitations, sweating, nervousness and fatigue. Read More

    Frequency of Thyroid Peroxidase Antibody and its Association with Miscarriages Among Pregnant Women.
    J Coll Physicians Surg Pak 2016 Oct;26(10):831-834
    Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, The Aga Khan University Hospital, Karachi.
    Objective: To measure the frequency of thyroid peroxidase antibody (TPO Ab) among clinically euthyroid pregnant women during first trimester and determine its association with pregnancy outcome as miscarriage or live birth by estimating the relative risk.

    Study Design: Cohort study.

    Place And Duration Of Study: Section of Chemical Pathology, Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine and the Gynaecology and Obstetric outpatient clinics of the Aga Khan University Hospital, Karachi, from July to December 2012. Read More

    Managing hyperthyroidism in pregnancy: current perspectives.
    Int J Womens Health 2016 19;8:497-504. Epub 2016 Sep 19.
    Department of Endocrinology, Aalborg University Hospital; Department of Clinical Medicine, Aalborg University, Aalborg, Denmark.
    Hyperthyroidism in women who are of childbearing age is predominantly of autoimmune origin and caused by Graves' disease. The physiological changes in the maternal immune system during a pregnancy may influence the development of this and other autoimmune diseases. Furthermore, pregnancy-associated physiological changes influence the synthesis and metabolism of thyroid hormones and challenge the interpretation of thyroid function tests in pregnancy. Read More

    [Endocrine problems during pregnancy].
    Dtsch Med Wochenschr 2016 Sep 6;141(18):1304-12. Epub 2016 Sep 6.
    Endocrine disorders may have an important influence on fertility, the course of a pregnancy and fetal development. For example, fertility is decreased and the risk of miscarriage is increased in women with autoimmune disorders, such as Addison's disease or autoimmune thyroiditis. Treatment of endocrine diseases in many cases has to be adapted during the course of a pregnancy. Read More

    Hypothyroidism incidence in and around pregnancy: a Danish nationwide study.
    Eur J Endocrinol 2016 Nov 10;175(5):387-93. Epub 2016 Aug 10.
    Departments of Endocrinology Department of Clinical MedicineAalborg University, Aalborg, Denmark.
    Objective: Immunological changes in and after a pregnancy may influence the onset of autoimmune diseases. An increased incidence of hyperthyroidism has been observed both in early pregnancy and postpartum, but it remains to be studied if the incidence of hypothyroidism varies in a similar way.

    Design: Population-based cohort study using Danish nationwide registers. Read More

    Med Pregl 2016 Jan-Feb;69(1-2):11-5
    Introduction: Depleted uranium radiation and pollution with polychlorinated biphenyls resulting from bombings the territories of Serbia as well as the additional long-term stress may have affected the function of thyroid gland. The objective of this study was to determine the trend of drug utilization in the treatment of thyroid dysfunction during pregnancy in Novi Sad.

    Material And Methods: Women who had given birth at the Department of Gynecology in 1989, 1999, 2007 and 2011 were interviewed during a one-month period about thyroid diseases in the pregnancy as well as the drugs they had taken. Read More

    Genetic Syndromes, Maternal Diseases and Antenatal Factors Associated with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD).
    Front Neurosci 2016 6;10:316. Epub 2016 Jul 6.
    Laboratory of Teratology, Department of Medical Neurobiology, Hadassah Medical School, Hebrew UniversityJerusalem, Israel; Department of Neonatology, Hadassah-Hebrew University Medical CenterJerusalem, Israel.
    Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) affecting about 1% of all children is associated, in addition to complex genetic factors, with a variety of prenatal, perinatal, and postnatal etiologies. In addition, ASD is often an important clinical presentation of some well-known genetic syndromes in human. We discuss these syndromes as well as the role of the more important prenatal factors affecting the fetus throughout pregnancy which may also be associated with ASD. Read More

    Prevalence of thyroid autoimmunity and dysfunction in women with iron deficiency during early pregnancy: is it altered?
    Eur J Endocrinol 2016 Sep 22;175(3):191-9. Epub 2016 Jul 22.
    Endocrine Unit
    Objective: Thyroid disorders and iron deficiency (ID) are associated with obstetrical and fetal complications. Iron is essential for the normal functioning of thyroid peroxidase (TPO-abs) and ID is frequent during pregnancy. The aim of this study was to compare the prevalence of thyroid autoimmunity (TAI) and dysfunction during the first trimester of pregnancy in women with and without ID. Read More

    A primer on pituitary injury for the obstetrician gynecologist: Simmond's disease, Sheehan's Syndrome, traumatic injury, Dahan's Syndrome, pituitary apoplexy and lymphocytic hypophysitis.
    Minerva Ginecol 2017 Apr 13;69(2):190-194. Epub 2016 Jul 13.
    McGill Reproductive Center, McGill University, Royal Victoria Hospital, Montreal, Canada.
    The pituitary gland plays a critical role in reproduction. In response to the hypothalamus the anterior pituitary secretes prolactin, thyroid-stimulating hormone, adreno-corticotropic hormone, follicle-stimulating hormone, luteinizing hormone and growth hormone. Dysregulation in these hormones often lead to reproductive failure. Read More

    [The role of color doppler ultrasonography, thyroid function and auto antibody for the screening of Graves' disease in pregnancy].
    Zhonghua Nei Ke Za Zhi 2016 Jun;55(6):470-3
    Department of Endocrinology Shenzhen People's Hospital, Shenzhen 518020, China.
    Objective: To determine whether color doppler ultrasonography (CDU), thyroid function or thyroid autoimmune antibodies could identify Graves' disease in pregnancy(GDP) in pregnant patients with newly diagnosed thyrotoxicosis.

    Methods: It is an observational study. Sixty-eight pregnant patients with newly diagnosed thyrotoxicosis including gestational hyperthyroidism(GHT) subjects (GHT group, n=33) and GDP subjects (GDP group, n=35), and 62 age-and sex-matched healthy subjects (C1 group: pregnant, n=32, C2 group: non-pregnant, n=30) were recruited. Read More

    Anti-C1q autoantibodies are linked to autoimmune thyroid disorders in pregnant women.
    Clin Exp Immunol 2016 Oct 12;186(1):10-7. Epub 2016 Aug 12.
    Division of Internal Medicine, University Hospital Basel.
    Anti-C1q antibodies (anti-C1q) have been implicated in the pathogenesis of autoimmune diseases, including autoimmune thyroid disorders (AITD). The aim of this study was to evaluate the association between anti-C1q and thyroid function in pregnancy-associated AITD. In 96 pregnant women screened positive for AITD (thyroid dysfunction and/or antibodies against thyroperoxidase - TPOAb), anti-C1q were measured during the 9-11th gestational week and after delivery (median 16 months after delivery), and compared to the corresponding serum levels of thyroid hormones. Read More

    Effect of thyroid autoimmunity per se on assisted reproduction treatment outcomes: A meta-analysis.
    Taiwan J Obstet Gynecol 2016 Apr;55(2):159-65
    Institute of Reproductive & Stem Cell Engineering, Central South University, Changsha, China; Key Laboratory of Reproductive & Stem Cell Engineering, Ministry of Health, Changsha, China; Reproductive Center, Reproductive & Genetic Hospital of CITIC-Xiangya, Changsha 410078, China. Electronic address:
    Objective: Thyroid autoimmunity (TA) is the most prevalent autoimmune disease in women of reproductive age and is often accompanied by subclinical hypothyroidism (SCH). Both TA and SCH have been associated with adverse pregnancy outcomes, but their relative influence is unclear. Therefore, we carried out a meta-analysis to evaluate the sole effect of TA on pregnancy outcomes in euthyroid women undergoing assisted reproductive technology. Read More

    Blood: tests used to assess the physiological and immunological properties of blood.
    Adv Physiol Educ 2016 Jun;40(2):165-75
    Centre for Biomedical Sciences Education, School of Medicine Dentistry and Biomedical Science, Queen's University Belfast, Belfast, Northern Ireland, United Kingdom.
    The properties of blood and the relative ease of access to which it can be retrieved make it an ideal source to gauge different aspects of homeostasis within an individual, form an accurate diagnosis, and formulate an appropriate treatment regime. Tests used to determine blood parameters such as the erythrocyte sedimentation rate, hemoglobin concentration, hematocrit, bleeding and clotting times, mean corpuscular hemoglobin, mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration, mean cell volume, and determination of blood groups are routinely used clinically, and deviations outside the normal range can indicate a range of conditions such as anemia, pregnancy, dehydration, overhydration, infectious disease, cancer, thyroid disease, and autoimmune conditions, to mention a few. As these tests can be performed relatively inexpensively and do not require high levels of technical expertise, they are ideally suited for use in the teaching laboratory, enabling undergraduate students to link theory to practice. Read More

    Connective tissue diseases and autoimmune thyroid disorders in the first trimester of pregnancy.
    J Reprod Immunol 2016 Apr 2;114:32-7. Epub 2016 Mar 2.
    Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, IRCCS Foundation Policlinico San Matteo and University of Pavia, Pavia, Italy.
    Objective: To investigate the rates and coexistence of autoimmune thyroid and connective tissue diseases (CTD) during the first trimester of pregnancy and their influence on pregnancy outcome.

    Study Design: A cohort study of 150 women with CTD diagnosed during first trimester of pregnancy and 150 negative controls.

    Main Outcome Measures: Screening of CTD by a self-reported questionnaire, rheumatic and thyroid autoantibody detection, clinical rheumatological evaluation and obstetric outcomes. Read More

    Is there a role for vitamin D in human reproduction?
    Horm Mol Biol Clin Investig 2016 Jan;25(1):15-28
    Vitamin D is a steroid hormone with canonical roles in calcium metabolism and bone modeling. However, in recent years there has been a growing body of literature presenting associations between vitamin D levels and a variety of disease processes, including metabolic disorders such as diabetes and prediabetes and autoimmune conditions such as thyroid disease. This review focuses on the potential role of vitamin D in both male and female reproductive function. Read More

    [57-year-old patient with hypopituitarism and coexisting autommune hypothyroidism polyglandular syndrome--a case report].
    Przegl Lek 2015 ;72(8):445-8
    A case of 57-year-old patient with hypopituitarism multihormonal whose symptoms occurred after the last birth history of 16 years ago. Completed studies revealed other irregularities on the basis of which ultimately diagnosed with hypothyroidism polyglandular syndrome patients. Read More

    Graves' Disease Pharmacotherapy in Women of Reproductive Age.
    Pharmacotherapy 2016 Jan;36(1):64-83
    Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Division of Maternal Fetal Medicine, Joan C. Edwards School of Medicine at Marshall University, Huntington, West Virginia.
    Graves' disease is an autoimmune disorder in which inappropriate stimulation of the thyroid gland results in unregulated secretion of thyroid hormones resulting in hyperthyroidism. Graves' disease is the most common cause of autoimmune hyperthyroidism during pregnancy. Treatment options for Graves' disease include thioamide therapy, partial or total thyroidectomy, and radioactive iodine. Read More

    Relationship between Clinical and Immunological Features of Thyroid Autoimmunity and Ophthalmopathy during Pregnancy.
    J Thyroid Res 2015 21;2015:698470. Epub 2015 Dec 21.
    Department of Medicine, Nepean Clinical School, The University of Sydney, Penrith, NSW 2751, Australia.
    Problem. Clinical features of Graves' hyperthyroidism (GH) generally improve during pregnancy and rebound in the postpartum period. It is unclear whether the ophthalmopathy that is associated with GH and, less often, Hashimoto's thyroiditis (HT) changes in parallel with the thyroid associated antibody reactions and clinical features or runs a different course. Read More

    Post-partum hypoglycemia and hypothermia as first manifestations of lymphocytic adenohypophysitis: A case report.
    J Obstet Gynaecol Res 2016 Apr 19;42(4):467-70. Epub 2016 Jan 19.
    Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Osaka Rosai Hospital, Sakai, Japan.
    Lymphocytic adenohypophysitis is a very rare autoimmune disease characterized by an anterior pituitary infiltration of lymphocytes that cause various symptoms, such as headache, visual disturbance, and hypopituitarism. Lymphocytic adenohypophysitis is more common in women and has a remarkable association with the perinatal period. Recently, we experienced a case of lymphocytic adenohypophysitis shortly after delivery. Read More

    Individualized Follow-up of Pregnant Women with Asymptomatic Autoimmune Thyroid Disease.
    Int J Mol Sci 2016 Jan 12;17(1). Epub 2016 Jan 12.
    Microbiology Department, "Victor Babes" University of Medicine and Pharmacy Timisoara, 2nd Eftimie Murgu Sq., Timisoara 300041, Romania.
    Maternal hormones are essential for the normal fetal development during pregnancy. Autoimmune thyroid disease is a frequent pathology in our iodine replete region. The aim of this study is to evaluate the occurrence of subclinical hypothyroidism (SCH) in cases with known autoimmune thyroid disease, which were in a euthyroid state prior to pregnancy, and to assess the association between supplemental treatments administered and the outcome of the pregnancy. Read More

    Diagnosis and Treatment of Primary Adrenal Insufficiency: An Endocrine Society Clinical Practice Guideline.
    J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2016 Feb 13;101(2):364-89. Epub 2016 Jan 13.
    Medizinische Klinik und Poliklinik III (S.R.B., A.B.), Universitätsklinikum Dresden, 01307 Dresden, Germany; Department of Endocrinology and Diabetes (S.R.B.), King's College London, London WC2R 2LS, United Kingdom; Department of Internal Medicine I (B.A.), Endocrine and Diabetes Unit, University Hospital Würzburg, 97080 Würzburg, Germany; Comprehensive Heart Failure Center (B.A.), University of Würzburg, 97080 Würzburg, Germany; Centre for Endocrinology, Diabetes, and Metabolism (W.A.), University of Birmingham, Birmingham B15 2TT, United Kingdom; Endokrinologikum Ruhr (A.B.), 44866 Bochum, Germany; Department of Pathology and Molecular Medicine (A.D.-W.), McMaster University, Hamilton, ON L8S 4L8, Canada; Hamilton Regional Laboratory Medicine Program (A.D.-W.), Hamilton, ON L8N 4A6, Canada; Department of Internal Medicine (G.D.H.), Division of Metabolism, Endocrinology, and Diabetes, and Cancer Center, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109; Department of Clinical Science, University of Bergen, and Department of Medicine, Haukeland University Hospital (E.S.H.), 5021 Bergen, Norway; National Institutes of Health Clinical Center (D.P.M.), Bethesda, Maryland 20814; Mayo Clinic, Division of Preventive Medicine (M.H.M.), Rochester, Minnesota 55905; Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development (C.A.S.), National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland 20892; and Endocrine and Metabolic Unit (D.J.T.), Royal Adelaide Hospital, University of Adelaide, Adelaide SA 5000, Australia.
    Objective: This clinical practice guideline addresses the diagnosis and treatment of primary adrenal insufficiency.

    Participants: The Task Force included a chair, selected by The Clinical Guidelines Subcommittee of the Endocrine Society, eight additional clinicians experienced with the disease, a methodologist, and a medical writer. The co-sponsoring associations (European Society of Endocrinology and the American Association for Clinical Chemistry) had participating members. Read More

    Postpartum thyroid dysfunction in women with autoimmune thyroiditis.
    Gynecol Endocrinol 2016 15;32(5):379-82. Epub 2015 Dec 15.
    b Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology , Medical University , Plovdiv , Bulgaria.
    Introduction: Autoimmune thyroiditis (AIT) is a predisposing factor for developing postpartum thyroid dysfunction (PPTD).

    Aim: To study the characteristics of PPTD in women with AIT.

    Methods: Thirty-eight women with pre-existing AIT were included in the study. Read More

    Thyroid antibodies in euthyroid and subclinical hypothyroidic pregnant women with autoimmune hypothyroidism: effects on hematological parameters and postpartum hemorrhage.
    Ginekol Pol 2015 Sep;86(9):666-71
    Objectives: The aim of the study was to investigate the relationship between thyroid antibodies and hematological parameters in euthyroid or subclinical hypothyroidic (S H) pregnant women with autoimmune hypothyroidism and to verity whether these pregnant women are affected by a higher rate of postpartum hemorrhage.

    Material And Methods: Thirty-six out hyroid and 21 S H pregnant women with autoimmune thyroid disease and 52 healthy pregnant women were evaluated. The relationship between thyroid hormones, thyroid antibodies level, the dosage of Levotroxin (LT4) and hematological parameters and the amount of postpartum bleeding was investigated. Read More

    Intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy: A risk factor for cancer, autoimmune and cardiovascular diseases?
    Clin Res Hepatol Gastroenterol 2016 Apr 20;40(2):139-40. Epub 2015 Oct 20.
    Paris 7 University, 75013 Paris, France. Electronic address:
    The authors show, in an elegant population-based study, a significant association between intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy and liver and biliary cancer. This association is most probably related to the high frequency of hepatitis C and gallstone disease in women with intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy, both being risk factors for liver and biliary cancer. In addition, the study clearly shows an increased risk of diabetes mellitus and autoimmune diseases, such as thyroid diseases, psoriasis, autoimmune arthropathies and Crohn's disease, and a small increase in cardiovascular diseases. Read More

    Thyroid dysfunction and pregnancy outcomes.
    Iran J Reprod Med 2015 Jul;13(7):387-96
    Endocrine Research Center, Research Institute for Endocrine Sciences, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.
    Background: Pregnancy has a huge impact on the thyroid function in both healthy women and those that have thyroid dysfunction. The prevalence of thyroid dysfunction in pregnant women is relatively high.

    Objective: The objective of this review was to increase awareness and to provide a review on adverse effect of thyroid dysfunction including hyperthyroidism, hypothyroidism and thyroid autoimmune positivity on pregnancy outcomes. Read More

    [Thyroid gland and pregnancy - summary of important findings].
    Vnitr Lek 2015 Oct;61(10):862-7
    Thyroid hormones play fundamental role in conception and pregnancy and are essential for normal adult health, fetus and childhood development. Many studies have shown an association between maternal thyroid diseases esp. hypothyroidism with obstetric problems and/or psychomotoric impairment in the offspring. Read More

    Recurrent Episodes of Thyrotoxicosis in a Man following Pregnancies of his Spouse with Hashimoto's Thyroiditis.
    Case Rep Endocrinol 2015 1;2015:940241. Epub 2015 Sep 1.
    Division of Endocrinology, Metabolism and Bone Diseases, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, 1 Gustave L. Levy Place, P.O. Box 1055, New York, NY 10029, USA.
    Over an 8-year period, a male patient presented three times to an endocrinologist with strikingly similar presentations, including palpitations, anxiety, and tremors. Each of his presentations occurred following either the birth of one of his two children or his wife's late termination of pregnancy. This patient's illness followed the typical time course of silent thyroiditis: hyperthyroidism, followed by euthyroidism, a late hypothyroid phase, and then a complete resolution of symptoms and normalization of thyroid function tests over a period of several months. Read More

    J Ayub Med Coll Abbottabad 2015 Apr-Jun;27(2):467-9
    In polyglandular autoimmune (PGA) syndromes, there is immune dysfunction of two or more endocrine glands. Immunity mediated disorders of non-endocrine organs may also be seen. These syndromes are of two main types: type I and type II. Read More

    Hyperplasia in glands with hormone excess.
    Endocr Relat Cancer 2016 Jan 25;23(1):R1-14. Epub 2015 Sep 25.
    Genetics and Endocrinology SectionNational Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Building 10, Room 9C-103, Bethesda, Maryland 20892, USA
    Five syndromes share predominantly hyperplastic glands with a primary excess of hormones: neonatal severe primary hyperparathyroidism, from homozygous mutated CASR, begins severely in utero; congenital non-autoimmune thyrotoxicosis, from mutated TSHR, varies from severe with fetal onset to mild with adult onset; familial male-limited precocious puberty, from mutated LHR, expresses testosterone oversecretion in young boys; hereditary ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome, from mutated FSHR, expresses symptomatic systemic vascular permeabilities during pregnancy; and familial hyperaldosteronism type IIIA, from mutated KCNJ5, presents in young children with hypertension and hypokalemia. The grouping of these five syndromes highlights predominant hyperplasia as a stable tissue endpoint and as their tissue stage for all of the hormone excess. Comparisons were made among this and two other groups of syndromes, forming a continuum of gland staging: predominant oversecretions express little or no hyperplasia; predominant hyperplasias express little or no neoplasia; and predominant neoplasias express nodules, adenomas, or cancers. Read More

    Does the presence of autoantibodies without autoimmune diseases and hereditary thrombophilia have an effect on recurrent pregnancy loss?
    J Matern Fetal Neonatal Med 2016 18;29(14):2352-7. Epub 2015 Sep 18.
    d Department of Clinical Microbiology , Hacettepe University Faculty of Medicine , Ankara , Turkey.
    Objective: To assess whether the presence of autoantibodies has any effect on recurrent pregnancy loss (RPL) and obstetric complications in women who do not have autoimmune diseases and hereditary thrombophilia.

    Methods: Retrospectively, 515 patients who underwent antibody investigation with anti-nuclear antibody, extractable nuclear antigen, anti-double stranded DNA, anti-parietal cell, anti-smooth muscle, anti-mitochondrial (AMA), anti-thyroid peroxidase, anti-thyroglobulin (anti-TG) and anti-phospholipid (aPL) at Hacettepe University were included. Of those patients, 212 had one or more autoantibodies whereas the remaining 303 were negative for all autoantibodies. Read More

    Impaired Fertility Associated with Subclinical Hypothyroidism and Thyroid Autoimmunity: The Danish General Suburban Population Study.
    J Pregnancy 2015 17;2015:132718. Epub 2015 Aug 17.
    The Mitochondrial Research Unit, Naestved Hospital, Ringstedgade 61, 4700 Naestved, Denmark ; Department of Internal Medicine, Naestved Hospital, Ringstedgade 61, 4700 Naestved, Denmark ; Institute of Regional Health Services, University of Southern Denmark, Denmark.
    Introduction: The aim of this study was to estimate the significance of TSH, thyroid peroxidase antibody (TPOAb), and mild (subclinical) hypothyroidism in women from The Danish General Suburban Population Study (GESUS) on the number of children born, the number of pregnancies, and the number of spontaneous abortions.

    Methods: Retrospective cross sectional study of 11254 women participating in GESUS. Data included biochemical measurements and a self-administrated questionnaire. Read More

    Maternal autoimmune diseases and the risk of autism spectrum disorders in offspring: A systematic review and meta-analysis.
    Behav Brain Res 2016 Jan 30;296:61-9. Epub 2015 Aug 30.
    Department of Epidemiology, School of Public Health and Tropical Medicine, Southern Medical University, Guangzhou 510515, China,. Electronic address:
    Although inherited and immune disorder factors are known to be involved in autism spectrum disorders (ASD), controversy still exists as to whether maternal autoimmune disease is an independent risk of ASD in offspring. We aimed to quantitatively summarize the risk of ASD in offspring in relation to maternal autoimmune diseases. A literature search in Pubmed, Web of science, Embase, and China national knowledge internet was conducted to identify relevant studies. Read More

    Fetal microchimerism and maternal health: a review and evolutionary analysis of cooperation and conflict beyond the womb.
    Bioessays 2015 Oct 28;37(10):1106-18. Epub 2015 Aug 28.
    Department of Psychology, Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ, USA.
    The presence of fetal cells has been associated with both positive and negative effects on maternal health. These paradoxical effects may be due to the fact that maternal and offspring fitness interests are aligned in certain domains and conflicting in others, which may have led to the evolution of fetal microchimeric phenotypes that can manipulate maternal tissues. We use cooperation and conflict theory to generate testable predictions about domains in which fetal microchimerism may enhance maternal health and those in which it may be detrimental. Read More

    Thyroid function and autoimmunity in Danish pregnant women after an iodine fortification program and associations with obstetric outcomes.
    Eur J Endocrinol 2015 Dec;173(6):709-18
    Departments of Medical EndocrinologySection 2132Growth and ReproductionClinical BiochemistryCopenhagen University Hospital (Rigshopitalet), Blegdamsvej 9, 2100 Copenhagen, DenmarkDepartment of Clinical BiochemistrySlagelse-Naestved Hospital, Naestved, DenmarkDepartment of ObstetricsCenter of Fetal Medicine, Copenhagen University Hospital (Rigshospitalet), Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Objective: Aberrations in maternal thyroid function and autoimmunity during pregnancy have been associated with negative obstetric outcome. In Denmark, a national iodine fortification program was implemented in the year 2000 with the aim to alleviate the mild-moderate iodine deficiency. Following the iodine implementation, there has been an increase in thyroid autoimmunity in the background population. Read More

    Selenium and the thyroid.
    Curr Opin Endocrinol Diabetes Obes 2015 Oct;22(5):392-401
    Institute of Experimental Endocrinology, Charité University Medicine Berlin, Berlin, Germany.
    Purpose Of Review: This article provides an update on the role of the essential trace element selenium and its interaction with the other trace elements iodine and iron that together contribute to adequate thyroid hormone status. Synthesis, secretion, metabolism and action of thyroid hormone in target tissues depend on a balanced nutritional availability or supplementation of these elements. Selenium status is altered in benign and malignant thyroid diseases and various selenium compounds have been used to prevent or treat widespread diseases such as goiter, autoimmune thyroid disease or thyroid cancer. Read More

    Thyroid Autoimmunity is Associated with Decreased Cytotoxicity T Cells in Women with Repeated Implantation Failure.
    Int J Environ Res Public Health 2015 Aug 25;12(9):10352-61. Epub 2015 Aug 25.
    Fertility Center, Shenzhen Zhongshan Urology Hospital, Shenzhen 518045, China.
    Thyroid autoimmunity (TAI), which is defined as the presence of autoantibodies against thyroid peroxidase (TPO) and/or thyroglobulin (TG), is related to repeated implantation failure (RIF). It is reported that TAI was involved in reproductive failure not only through leading thyroid function abnormality, but it can also be accompanied with immune imbalance. Therefore, this study was designed to investigate the association of thyroid function, immune status and TAI in women with RIF. Read More

    Type of fish consumed and thyroid autoimmunity in pregnancy and postpartum.
    Endocrine 2016 Apr 26;52(1):120-9. Epub 2015 Aug 26.
    Department of Pediatric, Gynecology, Microbiology and Biomedical Sciences, University of Messina School of Medicine, Viale Gazzi, 98125, Messina, Italy.
    Fish consumption or supplementation with omega-3 fatty acids was reported to cure and/or prevent autoimmune and nonautoimmune disorders. Serum positivity for thyroid autoantibodies is a predictive marker of postpartum thyroiditis and postpartum depression. We hypothesized that stable consumption of the omega-3-rich oily fish was associated with a more favorable profile of serum thyroid antibodies throughout pregnancy and early postpartum compared with stable consumption of swordfish, a predator that concentrates pollutants. Read More

    Association between previously unknown connective tissue disease and subclinical hypothyroidism diagnosed during first trimester of pregnancy.
    Fertil Steril 2015 Nov 19;104(5):1195-201. Epub 2015 Aug 19.
    Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, IRCCS Foundation Policlinico San Matteo and University of Pavia, Pavia, Italy.
    Objective: To investigate the presence of autoimmune rheumatic disorders among women with autoimmune thyroid disorders diagnosed during the first trimester of pregnancy and subsequent pregnancy outcomes.

    Design: Case-control study.

    Setting: Tertiary obstetric and gynecologic center. Read More

    Thyroid autoantibodies and the effect on pregnancy outcomes.
    J Obstet Gynaecol 2016 ;36(1):3-9
    Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.
    Thyroid antibody positivity is relatively common in women. While many epidemiological studies have investigated the links between thyroid antibodies and pregnancy complications, evidence regarding the effect of Levothyroxine treatment of euthyroid pregnant women with autoimmune thyroid disease on pregnancy outcome is limited. The objective of this paper is to provide a review on the impact of treatment of euthyroid thyroid antibody-positive pregnant women on adverse pregnancy outcome. Read More

    [Characteristics of postpartum thyroid dysfunction].
    Akush Ginekol (Sofiia) 2015 ;54(3):3-8
    Introduction: The risk factors and mechanisms for the development of postpartum thyroid dysfunction have been widely discussed. However data on patients suffered spontaneous or induced abortion during early pregnancy are scarce.

    Objective: To reveal the characteristics of thyroid dysfunction in women after an abortion in the first trimester of pregnancy. Read More

    Serum macroprolactin levels in pregnancy and association with thyroid autoimmunity.
    BMC Endocr Disord 2015 Jun 20;15:31. Epub 2015 Jun 20.
    Department of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Sevket Yilmaz Research and Education Hospital, Bursa, Turkey.
    Bacground: To assess the contribution of macroprolactin to high serum prolactin levels and their association with thyroid status and thyroid autoimmunity during pregnancy.

    Methods: 138 pregnant women who suspected of having thyroid dysfunction were studied and divided into three groups according to the thyroid status; group 1; euthyroidism (n 40), group 2; hypothyroidism (n 54), and group 3; hyperthyroid (n 44). Polyethylene glycol (PEG) precipitation method was used for detection of macroprolactin. Read More

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