211,176 results match your criteria Autoimmune Thyroid Disease & Pregnancy


Recent findings on hyperprolactinemia and its pathological implications: a literature review.

J Investig Med 2022 Jun 29. Epub 2022 Jun 29.

Department of Clinical Biochemistry, Afzalipur Faculty of Medicine, Kerman University of Medical Sciences, Kerman, The Islamic Republic of Iran

The prolactin hormone (PRL) is often secreted by lactotrophic cells of the anterior pituitary and has been shown to play a role in various biological processes, including breast feeding and reproduction. The predominant form of this hormone is the 23 kDa form and acts through its receptor (PRLR) on the cell membrane. This receptor is a member of the superfamily of hematopoietic/cytokine receptors. Read More

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Proinflammatory signaling in islet β cells propagates invasion of pathogenic immune cells in autoimmune diabetes.

Cell Rep 2022 Jun;39(13):111011

Department of Medicine and the Kovler Diabetes Center, The University of Chicago, Chicago, IL 60637, USA. Electronic address:

Type 1 diabetes is a disorder of immune tolerance that leads to death of insulin-producing islet β cells. We hypothesize that inflammatory signaling within β cells promotes progression of autoimmunity within the islet microenvironment. To test this hypothesis, we deleted the proinflammatory gene encoding 12/15-lipoxygenase (Alox15) in β cells of non-obese diabetic mice at a pre-diabetic time point when islet inflammation is a feature. Read More

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FOXP3 Gene Variants in Patients with Systemic Lupus Erythematosus: Association with Disease Susceptibility in Men and Relationship with Abortion in Women.

Iran J Immunol 2022 Jun;19(2)

Department of Immunology, School of Medicine, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, Iran.

Background: FOXP3, an important transcription factor of regulatory T cells has shown a contribution to the development of various autoimmune diseases.

Objectives: To investigate the influence of FOXP3 polymorphisms (rs3761548 and rs2294021) on systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) susceptibility and patients' characteristics.

Methods: Genotyping was performed on 265 patients with SLE and 404 healthy controls using PCR-RFLP. Read More

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Association Between Polymorphisms of IL-23/IL-17 Pathway and Clinical Phenotypes of Autoimmune Thyroid Diseases.

Iran J Immunol 2022 Jun;19(2)

Graduate School, Shanghai University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Shanghai, 201203, People's Republic of China.

Background: Several autoimmune and inflammatory disorders, including autoimmune thyroid diseases (AITD), have been linked to Th17 cells and the IL-23/IL-17 axis. Current data suggest that genetic variation contributes greatly to disease susceptibility to AITD.

Objectives: To study the role of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of IL-23/IL-17 pathway in AITD predisposition and test the gene-gene/gene-sex interactions in these loci. Read More

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Essential Transcription Factors and Functional Roles of Follicular Helper T Cells ‎in Human Autoimmune Diseases.

Iran J Immunol 2022 Jun;19(2)

Department of Immunology, Ahvaz Jundishapur University of Medical Sciences, Ahvaz, Iran.

Follicular helper T (TFH) cells are a subset of effector CD4+ T cells that support the differentiation of antigen-specific B cells in the germinal center reaction. TFH cells are distinct from other established CD4+ T cell subsets and possess a list of transcription factors, including BCL6, IRF4, c-Maf, Batf, NFAT1-2, and STAT3. The mentioned factors direct several activities such as cell differentiation, migration to the follicles, cell-to-cell interaction, as well as cell programming. Read More

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Susac's syndrome - the crucial role of imaging tests for proper diagnosis.

Ann Agric Environ Med 2022 Jun 2;29(2):190-200. Epub 2022 Jun 2.

Ophthalmology Clinic Boni Fratres Lodziensis, Poland.

Introduction: Susac's syndrome (SS) is a rare, autoimmune-mediated endoteliopathy characterized by a clinical triad of encephalopathy, branch retinal artery occlusion, and sensorineural hearing loss. SS is also characterized by a neuroimaging triad consisting of white matter lesions, grey matter lesions, and leptomeningeal enhancement on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Considering the rarity of SS, as well as certain similarity to other, more frequent neurological diseases, such as multiple sclerosis (MS), this syndrome is sometimes incorrectly diagnosed and treated. Read More

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Frontal Fibrosing Alopecia - a review and a practical guide for clinicians.

Ann Agric Environ Med 2022 Jun 31;29(2):169-184. Epub 2021 Aug 31.

Cutaneous Histopathology and Immunopathology Section, Department of Dermatology, Poznan University of Medical Sciences, Poznan, Poland.

Despite a significant increase in reported cases of frontal fibrosing alopecia (FFA) in literature, discussion about the possible role of environmental factors, instruction for diagnosis and guideline for treatment, are limited. The review aims to provide a detailed synthesis of this condition that could be used by clinicians in their practise. Whether single-centre or multi-centre, studies of more than 60 cases less than 5 years old were mainly taken into consideration. Read More

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Phenylsulfamoyl Benzoic Acid Inhibitor of ERAP2 with a Novel Mode of Inhibition.

ACS Chem Biol 2022 Jun 29. Epub 2022 Jun 29.

Department of Pathology, University of Massachusetts Chan Medical School, Worcester, Massachusetts 01655, United States.

ERAP1 and ERAP2 are endoplasmic reticulum zinc-binding aminopeptidases that play crucial roles in processing peptides for loading onto class I major histocompatibility complex proteins. These enzymes are therapeutic targets in cancer and autoimmune disorders. The discovery of inhibitors specific to ERAP1 or ERAP2 has been challenging due to the similarity in their active site residues and domain architectures. Read More

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NAC1 modulates autoimmunity by suppressing regulatory T cell-mediated tolerance.

Sci Adv 2022 Jul 29;8(26):eabo0183. Epub 2022 Jun 29.

Department of Microbial Pathogenesis and Immunology, Texas A&M University Health Science Center, Bryan, TX 77807, USA.

We report here that nucleus accumbens-associated protein-1 (NAC1), a nuclear factor of the Broad-complex, Tramtrack, Bric-a-brac/poxvirus and zinc finger (BTB/POZ) gene family, is a negative regulator of FoxP3 in regulatory T cells (T) and a critical determinant of immune tolerance. Phenotypically, NAC1 mice showed substantial tolerance to the induction of autoimmunity and generated a larger amount of CD4 T that exhibit a higher metabolic profile and immune-suppressive activity, increased acetylation and expression of FoxP3, and slower turnover of this transcription factor. Treatment of T with the proinflammatory cytokines interleukin-1β or tumor necrosis factor-α induced a robust up-regulation of NAC1 but evident down-regulation of FoxP3 as well as the acetylated FoxP3. Read More

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Inducing apoptosis using chemical treatment and acidic pH, and detecting it using the Annexin V flow cytometric assay.

PLoS One 2022 29;17(6):e0270599. Epub 2022 Jun 29.

National Health Laboratory Service, Johannesburg, South Africa.

Cell death is important in physiology, and can happen as a result of structural damage, or as a sequence of programmed cellular processes known as apoptosis. Pathogenic alterations in apoptosis occur in a number of diseases, including cancer, viral infections, autoimmune diseases, immunodeficiencies, and degenerative conditions. Developing accurate and reproducible laboratory methods for inducing and detecting apoptosis is vital for research into these conditions. Read More

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Leukocyte mitochondrial DNA copy number is a potential non-invasive biomarker for psoriasis.

PLoS One 2022 29;17(6):e0270714. Epub 2022 Jun 29.

Department of Molecular Medicine and Al-Jawhara Centre for Molecular Medicine, Genetics, and Inherited Disorders, College of Medicine and Medical Sciences, Arabian Gulf University, Manama, Kingdom of Bahrain.

Abnormalities in the mitochondria have been linked to psoriasis, a chronic immune-mediated inflammatory skin disease. The mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) is present in thousands of copies per cell and altered mtDNA copy number (mtDNA-CN), a common indicator of mitochondrial function, has been proposed as a biomarker for several diseases including autoimmune diseases. In this case-control study, we investigated whether the mtDNA-CN is related to psoriasis, correlates with the disease duration and severity, and can serve as a disease biomarker. Read More

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Acute Hepatitis with Positive Autoantibodies: A Case of Natalizumab-Induced Early-Onset Liver Injury.

Am J Case Rep 2022 Jun 29;23:e936318. Epub 2022 Jun 29.

Division of Gastroenterology (Gastrocentro), University of Campinas (Unicamp), Campinas, SP, Brazil.

BACKGROUND Natalizumab is an anti-integrin monoclonal antibody used as an alternative treatment regimen for patients with autoimmune disorders, especially multiple sclerosis and Crohn's disease. Natalizumab-induced liver injury has been rarely reported and may follow the first dose (with increases in liver enzymes usually after 6 or more days), or after multiple doses. In general, it is non-severe acute hepatitis (with a hepatocellular pattern) and autoantibodies can be positive, mainly anti-nuclear and anti-smooth muscle antibodies. Read More

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Discovery of an Oral, Rule of 5 Compliant, Interleukin 17A Protein-Protein Interaction Modulator for the Potential Treatment of Psoriasis and Other Inflammatory Diseases.

J Med Chem 2022 Jun 29. Epub 2022 Jun 29.

Skin Research, LEO Pharma Research & Early Development, 2750 Ballerup, Denmark.

Interleukin 17A (IL-17A) is an interleukin cytokine whose dysregulation is implicated in autoimmune disorders such as psoriasis, and monoclonal antibodies against the IL-17A pathway are now well-established and very effective treatments. This article outlines the work that led to the identification of as an oral, small-molecule protein-protein interaction modulator (PPIm) clinical development candidate. Protein crystallography provided knowledge of the key binding interactions between small-molecule ligands and the IL-17A dimer, and this helped in the multiparameter optimization toward identifying an orally bioavailable, Rule of 5 compliant PPIm of IL-17A. Read More

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Bridging Knowledge Gaps in the Diagnosis and Management of Neuropsychiatric Sequelae of COVID-19.

JAMA Psychiatry 2022 Jun 29. Epub 2022 Jun 29.

Department of Psychiatry, New York University Grossman School of Medicine, New York.

Importance: Neuropsychiatric symptoms have been reported as a prominent feature of postacute sequelae of COVID-19 (PASC), with common symptoms that include cognitive impairment, sleep difficulties, depression, posttraumatic stress, and substance use disorders. A primary challenge of parsing PASC epidemiology and pathophysiology is the lack of a standard definition of the syndrome, and little is known regarding mechanisms of neuropsychiatric PASC.

Observations: Rates of symptom prevalence vary, but at least 1 PASC neuropsychiatric symptom has been reported in as many as 90% of patients 6 months after COVID-19 hospitalization and in approximately 25% of nonhospitalized adults with COVID-19. Read More

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SARS-CoV-2 infection and liver involvement.

Hepatol Int 2022 Jun 29. Epub 2022 Jun 29.

The Roger Williams Institute of Hepatology, Foundation for Liver Research, London, UK.

The COVID-19 pandemic is the largest public health challenge in living memory. Patients with underlying liver disease have been disproportionately affected, experiencing high morbidity and mortality. In addition, elevated liver enzymes appear to be a risk factor for disease progression, even in the absence of underlying liver disease. Read More

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Clinical and radiological features of lung disorders related to connective-tissue diseases: a pictorial essay.

Insights Imaging 2022 Jun 29;13(1):108. Epub 2022 Jun 29.

Radiology Unit 1, Department of Medical Surgical Sciences and Advanced Technologies "GF Ingrassia", University Hospital Policlinico "G. Rodolico-San Marco", 95123, Catania, Italy.

Connective tissue diseases (CTDs) include a spectrum of disorders that affect the connective tissue of the human body; they include autoimmune disorders characterized by immune-mediated chronic inflammation and the development of fibrosis. Lung involvement can be misdiagnosed, since pulmonary alterations preceded osteo-articular manifestations only in 20% of cases and they have no clear clinical findings in the early phases. All pulmonary structures may be interested: pulmonary interstitium, airways, pleura and respiratory muscles. Read More

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Updated S2 K guidelines for the management of bullous pemphigoid initiated by the European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology (EADV).

J Eur Acad Dermatol Venereol 2022 Jun 29. Epub 2022 Jun 29.

Department of Dermatology and Venereology, School of Medicine, University Hospital Centre Zagreb, University of Zagreb, Zagreb, Croatia.

Background: Bullous pemphigoid (BP) is the most common autoimmune subepidermal blistering disease of the skin and mucous membranes. This disease typically affects the elderly and presents with itch and localized or, most frequently, generalized bullous lesions. A subset of patients only develops excoriations, prurigo-like lesions, and eczematous and/or urticarial erythematous lesions. Read More

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Concurrence between Guillain-Barré syndrome and immune thrombocytopenic purpura possibly induced by long COVID-19.

Rev Peru Med Exp Salud Publica 2022 Jan-Mar;39(1):111-114. Epub 2022 Jun 24.

Facultad de Medicina, Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos, Lima, Perú.

During acute SARS-CoV-2 infection, there is persistent deregulation of the immune system that can last up to 8 months after the acute condition is controlled. This, added to other factors, is possibly associated with an increased risk of the appearance and concurrence of autoimmune diseases. The simultaneous occurrence of GBS and ITP has been rarely reported in the literature, and GBS is rarely associated with another autoimmune disease. Read More

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Correlation between Amerindian ancestry and neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorders (NMSOD) among patients in Midwestern Brazil.

Arq Neuropsiquiatr 2022 May;80(5):497-504

Universidade Federal de Goiás, Faculdade de Medicina, Centro de Referência em Doenças Desmielinizantes, Departamento de Neurologia, Goiânia GO, Brazil.

Background: Neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder (NMOSD) is the second most frequently demyelinating, autoimmune, and inflammatory Central Nervous System (CNS) disease, and its prevalence varies greatly according to geography and ethnicity.

Objective: To determine the prevalence and phenotype of NMOSD at a reference center for demyelinating diseases in Goiás State.

Methods: This was a cross-sectional study, approved under CAAE number 8380. Read More

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Immunodominant MHC-II Restricted Epitopes in Human Apolipoprotein B.

Circ Res 2022 Jun 29:101161CIRCRESAHA122321116. Epub 2022 Jun 29.

Center for Autoimmune Disease, Laboratory of Inflammation Biology, La Jolla Institute for Immunology, CA. (P.R., S.S.A.S., M.B., J.V., V.S., M.O., J.M., K.L.).

Background: CD (cluster of differentiation) 4 T-cell responses to APOB (apolipoprotein B) are well characterized in atherosclerotic mice and detectable in humans. CD4 T cells recognize antigenic peptides displayed on highly polymorphic HLA (human leukocyte antigen)-II. Immunogenicity of individual APOB peptides is largely unknown in humans. Read More

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Discoveries in Thyroid Autoimmunity in the Past Century.

Thyroid 2022 Jun 29. Epub 2022 Jun 29.

University of California Los Angeles, 8783, Medicine, Los Angeles, California, United States;

This review on the 100th anniversary of the American Thyroid Association summarizes the remarkable progress attained during the past century regarding the pathogenesis and treatment of thyroid autoimmune diseases. Indeed, the general concept of autoimmune diseases in humans in was established 70 years ago by thyroid investigators. Graves' disease is a paradigm for the rare occurrence of how autoimmunity can cause disease by stimulating rather than destroying an organ system. Read More

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Real-World Application of Plasmapheresis for Neurological Disease: Results from the Japan-Plasmapheresis Outcome and Practice Patterns Study (J-POPPS).

Ther Apher Dial 2022 Jun 29. Epub 2022 Jun 29.

Department of Neurology, Nagasaki Kawatana Medical Center.

Introduction: Plasmapheresis is a well-recognized treatment for autoimmune neurological diseases in Japan. However, the practice varies depending on the facility, and the actual treatment conditions are unclear.

Methods: To clarify real-world conditions, a prospective observational study was conducted on patients with neurological diseases who were scheduled to receive plasmapheresis. Read More

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Peripheral Ulcerative Keratitis: A Review.

J Ophthalmic Vis Res 2022 Apr-Jun;17(2):252-275. Epub 2022 Apr 29.

Department of Ophthalmology, Long School of Medicine, University of Texas Health at San Antonio, San Antonio, TX, USA.

Peripheral ulcerative keratitis (PUK) is a rare but serious ocular condition that is an important clinical entity due to its ophthalmological and systemic implications. It is characterized by progressive peripheral corneal stromal thinning with an associated epithelial defect and can be associated with an underlying local or systemic pro-inflammatory condition, or present in an idiopathic form (Mooren ulcer). Associated conditions include autoimmune diseases, systemic and ocular infections, dermatologic diseases, and ocular surgery. Read More

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Temporal trends in COVID-19 outcomes among patients with systemic autoimmune rheumatic diseases: From the first wave to Omicron.

medRxiv 2022 Jun 20. Epub 2022 Jun 20.

Objectives: To investigate temporal trends in incidence and severity of COVID-19 among patients with systemic autoimmune rheumatic diseases (SARDs) from the first wave through the Omicron wave.

Methods: We conducted a retrospective cohort study investigating COVID-19 outcomes among SARD patients systematically identified to have confirmed COVID-19 from March 1, 2020 to January 31, 2022 at a large healthcare system in Massachusetts. We tabulated COVID-19 counts of total and severe cases (hospitalizations or deaths) and compared the proportion with severe COVID-19 by calendar period and by vaccination status. Read More

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Coinfection of torque teno virus (TTV) and human papillomavirus (HPV) in cervical samples of women living in Tehran, Iran.

Iran J Microbiol 2022 Apr;14(2):181-185

Department of Microbiology, Faculty of Advanced Science and Technology, Tehran Medical Sciences, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran.

Background And Objectives: Torque Teno virus or transfusion-transmitted virus (TTV) is a non-enveloped virus with a single strand circular DNA genome that currently is classified in the Alphatorquevirus genus and the family of . Unlike other DNA viruses, TTV has an extremely wide genomic diversity. This virus, based on previous studies, infects both healthy people, as well as those who have HCV and human papillomavirus (HPV). Read More

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A CB2 Receptor Agonist Reduces the Production of Inflammatory Mediators and Improves Locomotor Activity in Experimental Autoimmune Encephalomyelitis.

Rep Biochem Mol Biol 2022 Apr;11(1):1-9

Research Center for Biochemistry and Nutrition in Metabolic Diseases, Kashan University of Medical Sciences, Kashan, Iran.

Background: Cannabinoids (CBs) have been found to regulate the immune system, affect innate and adaptive immune responses, and reduce inflammatory reactions. This study assessed the therapeutic effects of GW-405833 synthetic CB2 agonist on inflammatory factors as well as locomotor activity in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE).

Methods: In this experimental study, 48 adult male C57BL/6 mice were randomly and equally assigned to eight groups. Read More

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A Rare Case of Susac's Syndrome Masquerading as Progressive-Relapsing Multiple Sclerosis.

Cureus 2022 May 26;14(5):e25366. Epub 2022 May 26.

Internal Medicine, Arnot Ogden Medical Center, Elmira, USA.

Susac's syndrome (SS) is a rare, autoimmune-mediated vasculitis involving central nervous system (CNS) microvasculature, which typically targets the brain, retina, and cochlea. The disease pathology in these regions produces the characteristic triad of encephalopathy, visual loss, and hearing loss. Unfortunately, less than 20% of cases present as the full triad, often making diagnosis challenging. Read More

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Mission, Organization, and Future Direction of the Serological Sciences Network for COVID-19 (SeroNet) Epidemiologic Cohort Studies.

Open Forum Infect Dis 2022 Jun 27;9(6):ofac171. Epub 2022 Apr 27.

Department of Family and Community Medicine, Ohio State University College of Medicine, Columbus, Ohio, USA.

Background: Global efforts are needed to elucidate the epidemiology of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), the underlying cause of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), including seroprevalence, risk factors, and long-term sequelae, as well as immune responses after vaccination across populations and the social dimensions of prevention and treatment strategies.

Methods: In the United States, the National Cancer Institute in partnership with the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, established the SARS-CoV-2 Serological Sciences Network (SeroNet) as the nation's largest coordinated effort to study coronavirus disease 2019. The network comprises multidisciplinary researchers bridging gaps and fostering collaborations among immunologists, epidemiologists, virologists, clinicians and clinical laboratories, social and behavioral scientists, policymakers, data scientists, and community members. Read More

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Rituximab pediatric drug development: Pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic modeling to inform regulatory approval for rituximab treatment in patients with granulomatosis with polyangiitis or microscopic polyangiitis.

Clin Transl Sci 2022 Jun 28. Epub 2022 Jun 28.

JJG Pharma Consulting, Basel, Switzerland.

Anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibody-associated vasculitides granulomatosis with polyangiitis (GPA) and microscopic polyangiitis (MPA) are rare, potentially organ- and life-threatening autoimmune conditions affecting adult and pediatric patients. An open-label phase II study was conducted to determine safe and effective dosing regimens of rituximab in pediatric patients with GPA/MPA. To determine the selection of an appropriate dose regimen in children for induction and maintenance, a population pharmacokinetic approach was used (nonlinear mixed-effect modeling), combining pediatric data with data from adults with GPA/MPA. Read More

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Development and validation of a trans-ancestry polygenic risk score for type 2 diabetes in diverse populations.

Genome Med 2022 Jun 29;14(1):70. Epub 2022 Jun 29.

Department of Neurology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA, USA.

Background: Type 2 diabetes (T2D) is a worldwide scourge caused by both genetic and environmental risk factors that disproportionately afflicts communities of color. Leveraging existing large-scale genome-wide association studies (GWAS), polygenic risk scores (PRS) have shown promise to complement established clinical risk factors and intervention paradigms, and improve early diagnosis and prevention of T2D. However, to date, T2D PRS have been most widely developed and validated in individuals of European descent. Read More

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