Autoimmun Rev 2022 Jun 9;21(8):103135. Epub 2022 Jun 9.
Semey Medical University, Semey, Kazakhstan; CONEM Kazakhstan Environmental Health and Safety Research Group, Semey Medical University, Semey, Kazakhstan.
Autoimmune polyendocrine syndrome type 1 (APS-1) is an autosomal recessive hereditary pathology that develops with endocrine and non-endocrine manifestations in childhood. The classic triad of APS-1 includes chronic candidiasis of the skin and mucous membranes, adrenal insufficiency, and hypoparathyroidism. APS-1 is often accompanied by hypogonadism, type 1 diabetes, autoimmune thyroiditis, vitiligo, alopecia, asplenia, pneumonitis, gastritis, pernicious anemia, and intestinal dysfunction, nephritis, and hepatitis. Read More