44,392 results match your criteria Autistic Spectrum Disorders


Sensory wellbeing workshops for inpatient and day-care patients with anorexia nervosa.

Neuropsychiatr 2021 Jun 15. Epub 2021 Jun 15.

Eating Disorders National Service, South London and Maudsley NHS Foundation Trust, London, UK.

Background: The wellbeing of patients with eating disorders is one of the priorities in the "bigger picture" of treatment for eating disorders. Sensory soothing strategies for sensory sensitivities are supportive tools which could be useful in day-care and inpatient clinical programmes.

Methods: Evaluation of multiple separate sensory wellbeing workshops consisting of psychoeducation and experiential components delivered in inpatient and intensive day-care services was performed. Read More

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Verbal Ability, Behavior Problems, and Mother-Child Relationship Quality in Autism Spectrum Disorder.

J Autism Dev Disord 2021 Jun 15. Epub 2021 Jun 15.

Waisman Center, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, USA.

This study examined differences in mother-child relationship quality and parent-rated child behavior problems based on child verbal status (i.e., minimally verbal versus verbal) in mothers and their adolescent and adult children with autism spectrum disorder (n = 219 dyads; child M = 25. Read More

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Correlation analysis of expression of CC and CXC chemokines in children with autism spectrum disorder.

Medicine (Baltimore) 2021 Jun;100(24):e26391

Huanggang Central Hospital, Huanggang, Hubei 438000, China.

Abstract: To investigate the relationship between the expression of CC and CXC chemokines and autism spectrum disorder (ASD).A total of 62 children with ASD (ASD group) and 60 gender- and age-matched normal children (control group) admitted to our hospital from January 2019 to January 2020 were included in the study. Monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1), macrophage inflammatory protein-1α (MIP-1α), macrophage inflammatory protein-1β (MIP-1β), regulated upon activation, normal T-cell expressed and secreted (RANTES), interleukin-8 (IL-8), monokine induced by interferon (IFN)-γ (MIG), and purified human interferon-γ-induced protein-10 (IP-10) were detected in the ASD group. Read More

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Phenotypic spectrum and mechanism analysis of Schaff Yang syndrome: A case report on new mutation of MAGEL2 gene.

Medicine (Baltimore) 2021 Jun;100(24):e26309

Department of Endocrinology, Shandong Provincial Hospital affiliated to Shandong First Medical University.

Rationale: The Schaaf-Yang syndrome (SYS) is an autosomal dominant multi-system genetic disease caused by melanoma antigen L2 (MAGEL2) gene mutations imprinted by mothers and expressed by fathers on the 15q11-15q13 chromosomes in the critical region of Prader-Willi. MAGEL2 is a single exon gene and one of the protein-coding genes of the Prader-Willi domain. MAGEL2 is a matrilineal imprinted gene (i. Read More

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[Genetic risk factors and their influence on neural development in autism spectrum disorders].

Z Kinder Jugendpsychiatr Psychother 2021 Sep 15:1-16. Epub 2021 Sep 15.

Klinik für Psychiatrie, Psychosomatik und Psychotherapie des Kindes- und Jugendalters, Universitätsklinikum Frankfurt, Goethe-Universität, Frankfurt am Main.

Genetic risk factors and their influence on neural development in autism spectrum disorders Abstract. Autism spectrum disorders are etiologically based on genetic and specific gene x biologically relevant environmental risk factors. They are diagnosed based on behavioral characteristics, such as impaired social communication and stereotyped, repetitive behavior and sensory as well as special interests. Read More

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September 2021

The Toddler Autism Symptom Inventory: Use in diagnostic evaluations of toddlers.

Autism 2021 Jun 15:13623613211021699. Epub 2021 Jun 15.

University of Connecticut, USA.

Lay Abstract: Determining whether a young child has an autism spectrum disorder requires direct observation of the child and caregiver report of the child's everyday behaviors. There are few interviews for parents that are specifically designed for children under 3 years of age. The Toddler Autism Symptom Inventory is a new interview that asks caregivers of children age 12-36 months about symptoms of possible autism spectrum disorder. Read More

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Goal attainment scaling-community-based: A method to incorporate personalized outcomes into intervention research with youth and adults on the autism spectrum.

Autism 2021 Jun 15:13623613211024492. Epub 2021 Jun 15.

Vanderbilt University Medical Center, USA.

Lay Abstract: Among people with autism-all who have the same diagnosis-there are major differences on a nearly limitless number of areas, such as language, daily living skills, intellectual ability, sensory difficulties, and physical and mental health diagnoses. Despite these many differences, the targeted outcomes of intervention studies are often measured the same way across autistic adults, including outcomes such as getting a job, achieving greater independence, or getting more services. People have different goals and abilities, and it is important to have a way for intervention studies to measure outcomes in a way that is more personal to each individual. Read More

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Preschool teachers' selection of social communication interventions for children with autism: An application of the theory of planned behavior.

Autism 2021 Jun 15:13623613211024795. Epub 2021 Jun 15.

University of Minnesota, USA.

Lay Abstract: Preschool special educators' are more likely to choose an educational practice to teach a young child with autism a social communication skill if they have positive beliefs about it. We asked preschool special educators to read a description of an autistic student and their social communication goal and imagine they were the student's teacher. We then asked them to pick one of five practices to teach the student. Read More

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Parent responsiveness mediates the association between hyporeactivity at age 1 year and communication at age 2 years in children at elevated likelihood of ASD.

Autism Res 2021 Jun 15. Epub 2021 Jun 15.

Program for Early Autism Research, Leadership, and Service (PEARLS), University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, North Carolina, USA.

Studies suggest that higher parent responsiveness is associated with higher child language abilities. Infants and toddlers later diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) often display hyporeactivity to sensory stimuli, which has also been associated with lower child communication abilities and lower parent responsiveness. Yet, whether parent responsiveness mediates the relationship between child hyporeactivity and later communication outcomes remains unexplored. Read More

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Improving Executive Function of Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder through Cycling Skill Acquisition.

Med Sci Sports Exerc 2021 Jul;53(7):1417-1424

Department of Health and Physical Education, The Education University of Hong Kong, Ting Kok, HONG KONG.

Purpose: Executive dysfunction has been widely reported in children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Although studies have clearly documented the cognitive benefits of physical exercise on cognition in children, similar studies in children with ASD are scarce. The purpose of this study was to compare the effect of cognitively engaging exercise and noncognitively engaging exercise on executive function in children with ASD. Read More

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Clinical utility of the ECLECTIC framework in providing culturally-informed autism spectrum disorder evaluations: a pediatric case-based approach.

Clin Neuropsychol 2021 Jun 14:1-24. Epub 2021 Jun 14.

Department of Pediatrics, Division of Developmental-Behavioral Pediatrics, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, TX, USA.

Social cognition does not exist within a vacuum. One's culture and surrounding social environment influence 1) development of social skills and behaviors, and 2) society's expectations regarding "normal" behavior versus behaviors consistent with the diagnosis of Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD). Use of a comprehensive cultural framework such as Fujii's ECLECTIC model undergirds valid ASD testing by enhancing clinician awareness of potential biases during clinical decision-making and by supporting culturally relevant recommendations. Read More

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Hypermobility among children with autism spectrum disorders and its correlation with anthropometric characteristics.

J Pak Med Assoc 2021 Apr;71(4):1076-1080

Department of Medical Rehabilitation Sciences, College of Applied Medical Sciences, King Khalid University, Abha, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.

Objective: To determine the extent of hypermobility in children with Autism Spectrum Disorder and to determine the correlation between age, gender, height, weight, BMI and hypermobility.

Methods: This cross-sectional study included 117 children with Autism Spectrum Disorder aged 2 to 17 years, of whom 91 were boys and 26 were girls. After obtaining the written informed consent from the parents of these children with Autism Spectrum Disorder, we assessed their level of hypermobility using the Beighton score. Read More

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Hardware Acceleration of EEG-based Emotion Classification Systems: A Comprehensive Survey.

IEEE Trans Biomed Circuits Syst 2021 Jun 14;PP. Epub 2021 Jun 14.

Recent years have witnessed a growing interest in EEG-based wearable classifiers of emotions, which could enable the real-time monitoring of patients suffering from neurological disorders such as Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS), Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD), or Alzheimer's. The hope is that such wearable emotion classifiers would facilitate the patients' social integration and lead to improved healthcare outcomes for them and their loved ones. Yet in spite of their direct relevance to neuro-medicine, the hardware platforms for emotion classification have yet to fill up some important gaps in their various approaches to emotion classification in a healthcare context. Read More

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Expression Analysis of VDR-Related LncRNAs in Autism Spectrum Disorder.

J Mol Neurosci 2021 Jun 14. Epub 2021 Jun 14.

Skull Base Research Center, Loghman Hakim Hospital, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Vitamin D receptor (VDR) signaling has been reported to affect neurodevelopment, thus participating in the risk of autism spectrum disorder (ASD). We have measured expression amounts of VDR, CYP27B1, and two related long non-coding RNAs, namely SNHG6 and LINC00511, in the circulation of ASD patients compared with normal controls. Expression of CYP27B1 was remarkably higher in ASD cases compared with controls (posterior beta = 2. Read More

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Play interactions of parents toward children with autism spectrum disorder: NeuroPLAY parent play behavior assessment scale.

J Child Adolesc Psychiatr Nurs 2021 Jun 14. Epub 2021 Jun 14.

Istanbul Pediatric Neurology Clinic, Istanbul, Turkey.

Problem: The aim of this study is to analyze the changes that NeuroPLAY, which is an intensive early intervention method for children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and ages of 12-42 months, has created in the play skills of the parents of children with ASD by using method strategies.

Methods: The study cohort includes 91 children ages ranging from 18 to 42 months old. The study is designed for repetitive measurements performed pre- and post-intervention. Read More

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Smiles as a Signal of Prosocial Behaviors Toward the Robot in the Therapeutic Setting for Children With Autism Spectrum Disorder.

Front Robot AI 2021 26;8:599755. Epub 2021 May 26.

Faculty of Engineering, Information and Systems, University of Tsukuba, Tsukuba, Japan.

We explored how robot-assisted therapy based on smile analysis may facilitate the prosocial behaviors of children with autism spectrum disorder. Prosocial behaviors, which are actions for the benefit of others, are required to belong to society and increase the quality of life. As smiling is a candidate for predicting prosocial behaviors in robot-assisted therapy, we measured smiles by annotating behaviors that were recorded with video cameras and by classifying facial muscle activities recorded with a wearable device. Read More

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Estimating Gender and Age from Brain Structural MRI of Children and Adolescents: A 3D Convolutional Neural Network Multitask Learning Model.

Comput Intell Neurosci 2021 26;2021:5550914. Epub 2021 May 26.

Center of Mathematics, Computing, and Cognition, Universidade Federal do ABC, Rua Arcturus no. 03, São Bernardo do Campo, SP 09606-070, Brazil.

Despite recent advances, assessing biological measurements for neuropsychiatric disorders is still a challenge, where confounding variables such as gender and age (as a proxy for neurodevelopment) play an important role. This study explores brain structural magnetic resonance imaging (sMRI) from two public data sets (ABIDE-II and ADHD-200) with healthy control (HC,  = 894), autism spectrum disorder (ASD,  = 251), and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD,  = 357) individuals. We used gray and white matter preprocessed via voxel-based morphometry (VBM) to train a 3D convolutional neural network with a multitask learning strategy to estimate gender, age, and mental health status from structural brain differences. Read More

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Case Report: Adolescent With Autism and Gender Dysphoria.

Front Psychiatry 2021 26;12:671448. Epub 2021 May 26.

Center for Mental Health, University Psychiatric Clinic Ljubljana, Ljubljana, Slovenia.

There is increasing clinical evidence of an association between gender variability, gender dysphoria (GD), and autism spectrum disorder (ASD). This seems to be a two-way relationship, a person with GD is more likely to be diagnosed with ASD and vice versa. In youth, it is important to distinguish whether the presented symptoms are a manifestation of ASD focus on special interests or symptoms of co-occurring GD. Read More

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Considerations and Perspectives on Interventions to Improve Social Cognition in Adolescents With ASD Without ID: Involving Parents in Social Skills Groups.

Front Psychiatry 2021 28;12:629761. Epub 2021 May 28.

Division of Autism Spectrum Disorders and Related Conditions, Department of Psychiatry, Lausanne University Hospital and University of Lausanne, Lausanne, Switzerland.

Improving social cognition and social skills is a challenge faced by individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorder without Intellectual Disability at any age. This process is particularly critical during late adolescence (15-18 years), a developmental phase generally characterized by rich social experiences that usually foster the development of friendships. Nevertheless, for youth with ASD, lingering difficulties in social cognition often hinder their ability to generate responses considered socially appropriated. Read More

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All-Optical Electrophysiology in hiPSC-Derived Neurons With Synthetic Voltage Sensors.

Front Cell Neurosci 2021 28;15:671549. Epub 2021 May 28.

Department of Biomedical Engineering, Boston University, Boston, MA, United States.

Voltage imaging and "all-optical electrophysiology" in human induced pluripotent stem cell (hiPSC)-derived neurons have opened unprecedented opportunities for high-throughput phenotyping of activity in neurons possessing unique genetic backgrounds of individual patients. While prior all-optical electrophysiology studies relied on genetically encoded voltage indicators, here, we demonstrate an alternative protocol using a synthetic voltage sensor and genetically encoded optogenetic actuator that generate robust and reproducible results. We demonstrate the functionality of this method by measuring spontaneous and evoked activity in three independent hiPSC-derived neuronal cell lines with distinct genetic backgrounds. Read More

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Inborn Errors of Metabolism Associated With Autism Spectrum Disorders: Approaches to Intervention.

Front Neurosci 2021 28;15:673600. Epub 2021 May 28.

Department of Paediatrics, University Hospital Center Zagreb and University of Zagreb School of Medicine, Zagreb, Croatia.

Increasing evidence suggests that the autism spectrum disorder (ASD) may be associated with inborn errors of metabolism, such as disorders of amino acid metabolism and transport [phenylketonuria, homocystinuria, S-adenosylhomocysteine hydrolase deficiency, branched-chain α-keto acid dehydrogenase kinase deficiency, urea cycle disorders (UCD), Hartnup disease], organic acidurias (propionic aciduria, L-2 hydroxyglutaric aciduria), cholesterol biosynthesis defects (Smith-Lemli-Opitz syndrome), mitochondrial disorders (mitochondrial encephalomyopathy, lactic acidosis, and stroke-like episodes-MELAS syndrome), neurotransmitter disorders (succinic semialdehyde dehydrogenase deficiency), disorders of purine metabolism [adenylosuccinate lyase (ADSL) deficiency, Lesch-Nyhan syndrome], cerebral creatine deficiency syndromes (CCDSs), disorders of folate transport and metabolism (cerebral folate deficiency, methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase deficiency), lysosomal storage disorders [Sanfilippo syndrome, neuronal ceroid lipofuscinoses (NCL), Niemann-Pick disease type C], cerebrotendinous xanthomatosis (CTX), disorders of copper metabolism (Wilson disease), disorders of haem biosynthesis [acute intermittent porphyria (AIP)] and brain iron accumulation diseases. In this review, we briefly describe etiology, clinical presentation, and therapeutic principles, if they exist, for these conditions. Additionally, we suggest the primary and elective laboratory work-up for their successful early diagnosis. Read More

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Relationship Between Social Motivation in Children With Autism Spectrum Disorder and Their Parents.

Front Neurosci 2021 26;15:660330. Epub 2021 May 26.

Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Stanford University, Stanford, CA, United States.

Impairment in social motivation (SM) has been suggested as a key mechanism underlying social communication deficits observed in autism spectrum disorder (ASD). However, the factors accounting for variability in SM remain poorly described and understood. The current study aimed to characterize the relationship between parental and proband SM. Read More

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Altered Gut Microbiota in a Fragile X Syndrome Mouse Model.

Front Neurosci 2021 26;15:653120. Epub 2021 May 26.

Department of Genetics, Institute of Ecology and Biodiversity (IEB), Faculty of Sciences, Universidad de Chile, Santiago, Chile.

The human gut microbiome is the ecosystem of microorganisms that live in the human digestive system. Several studies have related gut microbiome variants to metabolic, immune and nervous system disorders. Fragile X syndrome (FXS) is a neurodevelopmental disorder considered the most common cause of inherited intellectual disability and the leading monogenetic cause of autism. Read More

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A road map for identifying autism spectrum disorder: recognizing and evaluating characteristics that should raise red or "pink" flags to guide accurate differential diagnosis.

Clin Neuropsychol 2021 Jun 13:1-36. Epub 2021 Jun 13.

Department of Psychiatry and Education, Semel Institute of Neuroscience and Human Behavior, David Geffen School of Medicine, Los Angeles, CA, USA.

Given the high population prevalence of Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) and overlapping symptoms with medically complex groups, ASD is a common rule out diagnosis for neuropsychologists even when not identified in the referral or initial presenting concerns. This paper presents practical guidance to support neuropsychologists in their ability to accurately assess, diagnose, and/or rule out ASD, especially in patients with more subtle presentations. This paper combines clinical experience and empirical literature to highlight important assessment measures and related considerations, differential diagnostic considerations, common misconceptions about ASD and person/family characteristics, as well as variability in presentation and comorbidities that can obscure the diagnosis. Read More

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In Addition to Stigma: Cognitive and Autism-Related Predictors of Mental Health in Transgender Adolescents.

J Clin Child Adolesc Psychol 2021 Jun 14:1-18. Epub 2021 Jun 14.

Center for Autism Spectrum Disorders, Division of Neuropsychology, Children's National Hospital.

: Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is significantly over-represented among transgender adolescents. Independently, ASD and gender diversity are associated with increased mental health risks. Yet, mental health in autistic-transgender adolescents is poorly understood. Read More

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Coaching paraeducators to implement functional communication training involving augmentative and alternative communication for students with autism spectrum disorder.

Augment Altern Commun 2021 Jun 12:1-12. Epub 2021 Jun 12.

Department of Special Education and Child Development, University of North Carolina, Charlotte, NC, USA.

Paraeducators play an important role in assisting teachers and other professionals to support students with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), including delivering positive behavioral supports to those students who engage in persistent challenging behavior. The purpose of this multiple baseline design across participants study was to support paraeducators to implement functional communication training (FCT) to address challenging behavior among three students with ASD who used augmentative and alternative communication (AAC). Paraeducators implemented FCT with high levels of fidelity after participating in an initial training session and follow-up coaching and generally found the initial training and coaching strategies to be effective and feasible. Read More

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Pediatric brain imaging research: brain maturation constrains study design and clinical interpretation.

Psychiatry Clin Neurosci 2021 Jun 13. Epub 2021 Jun 13.

Lurie Family Foundations MEG Imaging Center, Department of Radiology, The Children's Hospital of Philadelphia, Philadelphia, PA, USA.

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The Digital Divide in Technologies for Autism: Feasibility Considerations for Low- and Middle-Income Countries.

J Autism Dev Disord 2021 Jun 13. Epub 2021 Jun 13.

Division of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, Centre for Autism Research in Africa (CARA), University of Cape Town, 46 Sawkins Road, Rondebosch, 7700, Cape Town, South Africa.

Digital technologies have the potential to empower individuals with autism and their families. The COVID-19 pandemic emphasized and accelerated the drive towards technology for information, communication, training, clinical care and research, also in the autism community. However, 95% of individuals with autism live in low- and middle-income countries (LMIC) where access to electricity, internet and the ever-increasing range of digital devices may be highly limited. Read More

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Mental health correlates and potential childhood predictors for the wish to be of the opposite sex in young autistic adults.

Autism 2021 Jun 12:13623613211024098. Epub 2021 Jun 12.

National Taiwan University Hospital, Taiwan.

Lay Abstract: Autistic people/people with autism spectrum disorder are more likely to experience gender dysphoria. However, the possible longitudinal predictors and underlying mechanisms of this co-occurrence are unclear. To fill this knowledge gap, we assessed 88 people with autism spectrum disorder and 42 typically developing individuals at their average ages of 13. Read More

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