6,319 results match your criteria Autistic Spectrum Disorders


Tandospirone, a partial 5-HT1A receptor agonist, administered systemically or into anterior cingulate attenuates repetitive behaviors in Shank3B mice.

Int J Neuropsychopharmacol 2020 Jul 3. Epub 2020 Jul 3.

Department of Psychology, University of Illinois at Chicago, Chicago, IL.

Background: Several cases of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) have been linked to mutations in the SHANK3 gene. Haploinsufficiency of the SHANK3 gene contributes to Phelan-McDermid syndrome, which often presents an ASD phenotype along with moderate to severe intellectual disability. A SHANK3 gene deletion in mice results in elevated excitation of cortical pyramidal neurons that alters signaling to other brain areas. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/ijnp/pyaa047DOI Listing

Unconstrained multivariate EEG decoding can help detect lexical-semantic processing in individual children.

Sci Rep 2020 Jul 2;10(1):10849. Epub 2020 Jul 2.

Department of Cognitive Science, Macquarie University, Sydney, Australia.

In conditions such as minimally-verbal autism, standard assessments of language comprehension are often unreliable. Given the known heterogeneity within the autistic population, it is crucial to design tests of semantic comprehension that are sensitive in individuals. Recent efforts to develop neural signals of language comprehension have focused on the N400, a robust marker of lexical-semantic violation at the group level. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-020-67407-6DOI Listing

Short report: Social communication difficulties and restricted repetitive behaviors as predictors of anxiety in adults with autism spectrum disorder.

Autism 2020 Jul 2:1362361320934218. Epub 2020 Jul 2.

University of Technology Sydney, Australia.

Autism spectrum disorder and anxiety are highly comorbid conditions. Understanding the underlying traits of anxiety in autism spectrum disorder is crucial to prevent and treat it efficiently. Hence, this study determined whether social communication difficulties or restricted repetitive behaviors are stronger risk factors for anxiety symptoms in autistic adults in a large cohort. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1362361320934218DOI Listing

[Autism spectrum symptoms in children with congenital blindness].

Z Kinder Jugendpsychiatr Psychother 2020 Jul;48(4):289-302

Lehr- und Forschungsgebiet Klinische Neuropsychologie des Kindes- und Jugendalters, Klinik für Kinder- und Jugendpsychiatrie und -psychotherapie, Universitätsklinikum der RWTH Aachen.

Autism spectrum symptoms in children with congenital blindness Previous studies reported increased rates of autistic symptoms in children with impaired visual abilities (IV). However, the application of existing screening questionnaires for autism spectrum disorders (ASD) proved problematic, as intact visual abilities are typically required. The current study examines the general applicability of three autism-screening questionnaires in children with congenital blindness. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1024/1422-4917/a000738DOI Listing

"I'm Proud to be a Little Bit Different": The Effects of Autistic Individuals' Perceptions of Autism and Autism Social Identity on Their Collective Self-esteem.

J Autism Dev Disord 2020 Jun 30. Epub 2020 Jun 30.

Department of Psychology, University of Bath, Claverton Down, Bath, BA2 7AY, UK.

This study aimed to identify the attributes that autistic people perceive as positively and negatively impacting on their identity and wellbeing. In Study 1, we recruited 140 autistic participants for an online survey. Participants completed autism social identification and collective self-esteem measures and listed attributes they associated with autism. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10803-020-04575-4DOI Listing

Sensory Processing and Gastrointestinal Manifestations in Autism Spectrum Disorders: No Relation to Clostridium difficile.

J Mol Neurosci 2020 Jun 30. Epub 2020 Jun 30.

Department of Pediatrics, Faculty of Medicine, Alexandria University, Alexandria, 21321, Egypt.

The role of the gut microbiota in triggering autism is a rapidly emerging field of research. Gut microbiota have been incriminated because autistic children often have gastrointestinal symptoms. Pathogenic gut bacteria in children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) have been reported. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12031-020-01636-2DOI Listing

The status of chemical elements in the blood plasma of children with autism spectrum disorder in Tunisia: a case-control study.

Environ Sci Pollut Res Int 2020 Jun 29. Epub 2020 Jun 29.

Department of Analytical Chemistry, University of Valencia, Valencia, Spain.

Autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) are a group of neurodevelopmental disorders defined by a deficit in social interactions and the presence of restricted and stereotypical behaviors or interests. The etiologies of autism remain mostly unknown. Many genetic and environmental factors have been suspected. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11356-020-09819-5DOI Listing

Clinical spectrum of KIAA2022/NEXMIF pathogenic variants in males and females: Report of three patients from Indian kindred with a review of published patients.

Brain Dev 2020 Jun 26. Epub 2020 Jun 26.

Department of Pediatrics, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, Rishikesh, Uttarakhand 249203, India.

Background: In the last two decades, with the advent of whole-exome and whole-genome sequencing, supplemented with linkage analysis, more than 150 genes responsible for X-linked intellectual disability have been identified. Some genes like NEXMIF remain an enigmatic entity, as often the carrier females show wide phenotypic diversity ranging from completely asymptomatic to severe intellectual disability and drug-resistant epilepsy.

Methods: We report three patients with pathogenic NEXMIF variants from an Indian family. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.braindev.2020.06.005DOI Listing

Abnormal development pattern of the amygdala and hippocampus from childhood to adulthood with autism.

J Clin Neurosci 2020 Apr 13. Epub 2020 Apr 13.

State Key Laboratory of Cognitive Neuroscience and Learning , Beijing Normal University, Beijing, China. Electronic address:

Using magnetic resonance imaging to determine neuropathology in autism spectrum disorders, we report findings on the volume of the amygdala and hippocampus in autistic children. The volumes of amygdala, hippocampus and total brain were obtained by volbrain and their volumes were measured in young people (6.5-27. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jocn.2020.03.049DOI Listing

Empathic Accuracy in Clinical Populations.

Front Psychiatry 2020 3;11:457. Epub 2020 Jun 3.

Psychology Department, The Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Jerusalem, Israel.

Empathy, broadly defined as the ability to understand the other and to share others' emotions, motivates prosocial behavior and underlies successful interpersonal relations. Dysfunctions in this ability may cause fundamental difficulties in social communication. Empathy has been measured in various ways, from self-report questionnaires to laboratory objective performance tests. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fpsyt.2020.00457DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7283465PMC

A Whole-Brain Cell-Type-Specific Sparse Neuron Labeling Method and Its Application in a Autistic Mouse Model.

Front Cell Neurosci 2020 5;14:145. Epub 2020 Jun 5.

Department of Neurobiology, School of Basic Medicine, Fourth Military Medical University, Xi'an, China.

Single neurons, as the basic unit of the brain, consist of a cell body and processes, including dendrites and axons. Even neurons of the same type show various subtle process characteristics to fit into the diverse neural circuits. Different cell types of neurons form complicated circuits in the brain. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fncel.2020.00145DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7291601PMC

Modelling and treating GRIN2A developmental and epileptic encephalopathy in mice.

Brain 2020 Jun 24. Epub 2020 Jun 24.

Institute for Genomic Medicine, Columbia University, New York, NY, USA.

NMDA receptors play crucial roles in excitatory synaptic transmission. Rare variants in GRIN2A encoding the GluN2A subunit are associated with a spectrum of disorders, ranging from mild speech and language delay to intractable neurodevelopmental disorders, including but not limited to developmental and epileptic encephalopathy. A de novo missense variant, p. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/brain/awaa147DOI Listing

Mapping the Relationship between Dysmorphology and Cognitive, Behavioral, and Developmental Outcomes in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder.

Autism Res 2020 Jun 22. Epub 2020 Jun 22.

National Center on Birth Defects and Developmental Disabilities, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia, USA.

Previous studies investigating the association between dysmorphology and cognitive, behavioral, and developmental outcomes among individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) have been limited by the binary classification of dysmorphology and lack of comparison groups. We assessed the association using a continuous measure of dysmorphology severity (DS) in preschool children aged 2-5 years (322 with ASD and intellectual disability [ID], 188 with ASD without ID, and 371 without ASD from the general population [POP]). In bivariate analyses, an inverse association between DS and expressive language, receptive language, fine motor, and visual reception skills was observed in children with ASD and ID. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/aur.2314DOI Listing

The face validity of an initial sub-typology of people with autism spectrum disorders detained in psychiatric hospitals.

Autism 2020 Jun 20:1362361320929457. Epub 2020 Jun 20.

Coventry and Warwickshire Partnership NHS Trust and University of Warwick, UK.

Lay Abstract: Autistic adults who have a history of committing crimes pose challenges for the criminal justice system in terms of disposal and treatment. For this reason, we investigated the validity of a proposed sub-typology of autistic adults detained in secure psychiatric hospitals. Initially, we ran a focus group with psychiatrists, clinical psychologists, healthcare workers, family members and autistic adults who had been detained in hospital to consider a sub-typology of autistic adults who may come into contact with secure psychiatric hospitals. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1362361320929457DOI Listing

The relationship between intolerance of uncertainty and anxiety in autism: A systematic literature review and meta-analysis.

Autism 2020 Jun 22:1362361320932437. Epub 2020 Jun 22.

Cardiff University, UK.

Lay Abstract: People who find it especially hard to cope with the unexpected or unknown are said to have an intolerance of uncertainty. Autistic individuals often report a preference for certainty and experience levels of anxiety that can interfere with their daily life. Understanding more about the link between the intolerance of uncertainty and anxiety in autistic people might lead to better treatments for anxiety being developed. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1362361320932437DOI Listing

Commentary: What's so special about girls on the autism spectrum? - a commentary on Kaat et al. (2020).

Authors:
Allison B Ratto

J Child Psychol Psychiatry 2020 Jun 19. Epub 2020 Jun 19.

Division of Neuropsychology, Center for Autism Spectrum Disorders, Children's National Medical Center, Washington, DC, USA.

This commentary on the multisite integrative analysis of sex differences on gold standard measures of autism by Kaat and colleagues (2020) provides perspective on its contributions to the debate surrounding sex differences in autism. While this study reports important findings regarding sex differences using currently available tools and samples, innovative research approaches are needed to develop new tools and methodologies to improve our understanding of how autism manifests across the gender spectrum. This includes developing meaningful research partnerships with autistic colleagues, actively recruiting more diverse samples, and augmenting conventional tools and methodologies with new, and equally rigorous, approaches. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jcpp.13284DOI Listing

Sex differences in the first impressions made by girls and boys with autism.

Mol Autism 2020 Jun 16;11(1):49. Epub 2020 Jun 16.

Children's Hospital of Philadelphia, Center for Autism Research, 2716 South St, Philadelphia, PA, 19104, USA.

Background: Individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) are characterized by social communication challenges and repetitive behaviors that may be quickly detected by experts (Autism Res 10:653-62, 2017; American Psychiatric Association, Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders, 2013). Recent research suggests that even naïve non-experts judge a variety of human dimensions using narrow windows of experience called "first impressions." Growing recognition of sex differences in a variety of observable behaviors in ASD, combined with research showing that some autistic girls and women may "camouflage" outward symptoms, suggests it may be more difficult for naïve conversation partners to detect ASD symptoms in girls. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13229-020-00336-3DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7298946PMC

The Sensory Abnormalities and Neuropsychopathology of Autism and Anxiety.

Cureus 2020 May 12;12(5):e8071. Epub 2020 May 12.

Psychiatry, California Institute of Behavioral Neurosciences and Psychology, Fairfield, USA.

Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a developmental disorder of interpersonal communications and restricted interest and deficits in sensory and social interactions. It co-occurs with anxiety and mostly in 30% of cases related to specific phobia. This review article summarises the sensory association between anxiety and ASD. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.7759/cureus.8071DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7290113PMC

Autistic-like behaviours and associated brain structural plasticity are modulated by oxytocin in maternally separated rats.

Behav Brain Res 2020 Jun 11;393:112756. Epub 2020 Jun 11.

Translational Neuropsychiatry Unit, Department of Clinical Medicine, Aarhus University, Aarhus, Denmark; Centre for Perinatal Medicine and Health, Institute of Neuroscience and Physiology, Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.

Background: Early psycho-social experiences influence the developing brain and possible onset of various neurodevelopmental disorders, such as Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD). ASD is characterized by a variety of brain abnormalities, including alteration of oxytocin receptors in the brain. Recently, early life adverse experiences, such as maternal separation (MS), have been shown to constitute risk factors for ASD in preclinical studies. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bbr.2020.112756DOI Listing

Clinical characterization of children and adolescents with NF1 microdeletions.

Childs Nerv Syst 2020 Jun 12. Epub 2020 Jun 12.

Department of Neurology, University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf, Hamburg, Germany.

Purpose: An estimated 5-11% of patients with neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) harbour NF1 microdeletions encompassing the NF1 gene and its flanking regions. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the clinical phenotype in children and adolescents with NF1 microdeletions.

Methods: We retrospectively analysed 30 children and adolescents with NF1 microdeletions pertaining to externally visible neurofibromas. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00381-020-04717-0DOI Listing

A heritable profile of six miRNAs in autistic patients and mouse models.

Sci Rep 2020 Jun 9;10(1):9011. Epub 2020 Jun 9.

Erciyes University, Betul-Ziya Eren Genome and Stem Cell Center, Kayseri, Turkey.

Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a group of developmental pathologies that impair social communication and cause repetitive behaviors. The suggested roles of noncoding RNAs in pathology led us to perform a comparative analysis of the microRNAs expressed in the serum of human ASD patients. The analysis of a cohort of 45 children with ASD revealed that six microRNAs (miR-19a-3p, miR-361-5p, miR-3613-3p, miR-150-5p, miR-126-3p, and miR-499a-5p) were expressed at low to very low levels compared to those in healthy controls. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-020-65847-8DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7280218PMC

ASD with the Bor Syndrome: A Case Report.

Psychopharmacol Bull 2020 May;50(2):45-50

Yaylaci, Gaziosmanpasa University, Child and Adolescent Psychiatry Department, Tokat, Turkey. Sahbudak, Katip Celebi University, Ataturk Research and Training Hospital Child and Adolescent Psychiatry Department, Izmir, Turkey. Citli, Gaziosmanpasa University Medical Genetics Department, Tokat, Turkey. Kilit, Dr. Cevdet Aykan Mental Health Hospital, Child and Adolescent Psychiatry Department, Tokat, Turkey.

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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7255838PMC

Examining the autistic traits in children and adolescents diagnosed with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder and their parents.

BMC Psychiatry 2020 Jun 5;20(1):285. Epub 2020 Jun 5.

Department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, Faculty of Medicine, Trakya University, Edirne, Turkey.

Background: Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) and Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) are two of the most frequently-observed neurodevelopmental disorders. Autistic traits are detected frequently in children who have ADHD. This study aimed to examine autism symptoms in children diagnosed with ADHD and their parents; and also, to investigate parental risk factors that increase autistic traits in children. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12888-020-02703-zDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7275391PMC

The Dual-Active Histamine H Receptor Antagonist and Acetylcholine Esterase Inhibitor E100 Alleviates Autistic-Like Behaviors and Oxidative Stress in Valproic Acid Induced Autism in Mice.

Int J Mol Sci 2020 Jun 3;21(11). Epub 2020 Jun 3.

Department of Pharmacology & Therapeutics, College of Medicine and Health Sciences, United Arab Emirates University, Al Ain P.O. Box 17666, UAE.

The histamine H3 receptor (H3R) functions as auto- and hetero-receptors, regulating the release of brain histamine (HA) and acetylcholine (ACh), respectively. The enzyme acetylcholine esterase (AChE) is involved in the metabolism of brain ACh. Both brain HA and ACh are implicated in several cognitive disorders like Alzheimer's disease, schizophrenia, anxiety, and narcolepsy, all of which are comorbid with autistic spectrum disorder (ASD). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijms21113996DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7312782PMC

Anorexia nervosa and autism: a prospective twin cohort study.

J Child Psychol Psychiatry 2020 Jun 4. Epub 2020 Jun 4.

Gillberg Neuropsychiatry Centre, Institute of Neuroscience and Physiology, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.

Background: Anorexia nervosa (AN) and autism spectrum disorder (ASD) may be phenotypically and etiologically linked. However, due to the absence of prospective studies, it remains unclear whether the elevation of autistic traits in AN is evident in early childhood. Here, we prospectively investigated autistic traits before and after the first diagnosis of AN. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jcpp.13265DOI Listing

Should autism spectrum disorder be considered part of CHARGE syndrome? A cross-sectional study of 46 patients.

Orphanet J Rare Dis 2020 Jun 3;15(1):136. Epub 2020 Jun 3.

Faculty of Medicine, University of Paris, Paris, France.

Background: Behavioral problems are an important issue for people with CHARGE syndrome. The similarity of their behavioral traits with those of people with autism raises questions. In a large national cross-sectional study, we used specific standardized tools for diagnosing autism (Autism Diagnostic Interview-Revised and Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 5th edition, DSM-5) and evaluating behavioral disorders (Developmental Behavior Checklist-Parents, DBC-P) to investigate a series of individuals with CHARGE syndrome, defined by Verloes's criteria. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13023-020-01421-9DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7268350PMC

Facial Expression Production and Recognition in Autism Spectrum Disorders: A Shifting Landscape.

Child Adolesc Psychiatr Clin N Am 2020 Jul 9;29(3):557-571. Epub 2020 Apr 9.

School of Psychology, University of Birmingham, Edgbaston, Birmingham B15 2TT, UK. Electronic address:

Social "difficulties" associated with ASD may be a product of neurotypical-autistic differences in emotion expression and recognition. Research suggests that neurotypical and autistic individuals exhibit expressive differences, with autistic individuals displaying less frequent expressions that are rated lower in quality by non-autistic raters. Autistic individuals have difficulties recognizing neurotypical facial expressions; neurotypical individuals have difficulties recognizing autistic expressions. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.chc.2020.02.006DOI Listing

Inhibition of striatal-enriched protein tyrosine phosphatase (STEP) activity reverses behavioral deficits in a rodent model of autism.

Behav Brain Res 2020 Aug 24;391:112713. Epub 2020 May 24.

Child Study Center, Yale University, 230 South Frontage Rd, New Haven, CT 06520, United States; Department of Surgery, University of Alabama at Birmingham, 1900 University Blvd, Birmingham, AL 35233, United States. Electronic address:

Autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) are highly prevalent childhood illnesses characterized by impairments in communication, social behavior, and repetitive behaviors. Studies have found aberrant synaptic plasticity and neuronal connectivity during the early stages of brain development and have suggested that these contribute to an increased risk for ASD. STEP is a protein tyrosine phosphatase that regulates synaptic plasticity and is implicated in several cognitive disorders. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bbr.2020.112713DOI Listing

Generation of human induced pluripotent stem cells (SDUKIi002-A) from a 22-year-old male diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder.

Stem Cell Res 2020 May 7;46:101834. Epub 2020 May 7.

Institute of Clinical Research, Department of Psychiatry Research, University of Southern Denmark, Odense, Denmark; Brain Research - Inter Disciplinary Guided Excellence (BRIDGE), Odense, Denmark; Psychiatry in the Region of Southern Denmark, Odense University Hospital, Denmark. Electronic address:

Autism spectrum disorders are characterized by impaired social interaction and communication as well as restricted and repetitive interests and behavior. Increasing evidence points to an early-stage disruption of brain development. A human-induced pluripotent stem cell line (SDUKIi002-A) was created from skin fibroblasts from a 22-year old autistic male identified in the "FYNEN-cohort" of Southern Denmark. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.scr.2020.101834DOI Listing

Elevated basal transcription can underlie timothy channel association with autism related disorders.

Prog Neurobiol 2020 Aug 11;191:101820. Epub 2020 May 11.

Dept. of Biological Chemistry, Institute of Life Sciences, Israel. Electronic address:

Timothy syndrome (TS) is a neurodevelopmental disorder caused by mutations in the pore-forming subunit α1.2 of the L-type voltage-gated Ca-channel Cav1.2, at positions G406R or G402S. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.pneurobio.2020.101820DOI Listing

Work, living, and the pursuit of happiness: Vocational and psychosocial outcomes for young adults with autism.

Autism 2020 May 20:1362361320919246. Epub 2020 May 20.

King's College London, UK.

Lay Abstract: It is important to better understand how adults with autism are functioning in adulthood. Studies that have tracked individuals across the lifespan can help identify developmental factors influence differences in adult outcomes. The present study examines the independence, well-being, and functioning of 123 adults that have been closely followed since early childhood. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1362361320919246DOI Listing

Age-related differences in white matter diffusion measures in autism spectrum condition.

Mol Autism 2020 May 18;11(1):36. Epub 2020 May 18.

Department of Forensic & Neurodevelopmental Sciences, Institute of Psychiatry, Psychology & Neuroscience, King's College London, London, UK.

Background: Autism spectrum condition (ASC) is accompanied by developmental differences in brain anatomy and connectivity. White matter differences in ASC have been widely studied with diffusion imaging but results are heterogeneous and vary across the age range of study participants and varying methodological approaches. To characterize the neurodevelopmental trajectory of white matter maturation, it is necessary to examine a broad age range of individuals on the autism spectrum and typically developing controls, and investigate age × group interactions. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13229-020-00325-6DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7236504PMC

Self-Reported Autistic Traits Using the AQ: A Comparison between Individuals with ASD, Psychosis, and Non-Clinical Controls.

Brain Sci 2020 May 14;10(5). Epub 2020 May 14.

Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Psychiatry Unit, University of Catania, Via Santa Sofia 78, 95123 Catania, Italy.

The term "autism" was originally coined by Eugen Bleuler to describe one of the core symptoms of schizophrenia. Even if autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and schizophrenia spectrum disorders (SSD) are now considered two distinct conditions, they share some clinical features. The present study aimed to investigate self-reported autistic traits in individuals with ASD, SSD, and non-clinical controls (NCC), using the Autism-Spectrum Quotient (AQ), a 50-item questionnaire. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/brainsci10050291DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7288044PMC

Patterns of Cortical Folding Associated with Autistic Symptoms in Carriers and Noncarriers of the 22q11.2 Microdeletion.

Cereb Cortex 2020 May 18. Epub 2020 May 18.

Department of Forensic and Neurodevelopmental Sciences, and the Sackler Institute for Translational Neurodevelopmental Sciences, Institute of Psychiatry, Psychology and Neuroscience, King's College, London, UK.

22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22q11.2DS) is a genetic condition accompanied by a range of psychiatric manifestations, including autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/cercor/bhaa108DOI Listing

Novel potential of metformin on valproic acid-induced autism spectrum disorder in rats: involvement of antioxidant defence system.

Fundam Clin Pharmacol 2020 May 15. Epub 2020 May 15.

Department of Pharmacology, Therapeutics and Toxicology, Faculty of Basic Medical Sciences, College of Medicine, University of Lagos, Idi-Araba, Lagos State, Nigeria.

Prenatal exposure to valproic acid (VPA) has been shown to increase the risk of autism in children. This study examined the effect of metformin on VPA-induced autism spectrum disorders in rats. Pregnant albino rats administered VPA (500 mg/kg, i. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/fcp.12567DOI Listing

[Relationship between parental stress and psychological distress and emotional and behavioural problems in pre-school children with autistic spectrum disorder].

An Pediatr (Barc) 2020 May 8. Epub 2020 May 8.

Unidad de Salud Cerebral, CIMES, Facultad de Medicina, Universidad de Málaga, IBIMA, Málaga, España.

Introduction: The Autistic Spectrum Disorders (ASD) are characterised by general deficits in social communication, stereotypes, and restricted interests. The ASD have a high prevalence of additional psychiatric disorders that make their daily functioning worse, and reduces the quality of life of them and their families.

Material And Methods: In an effort to identify family environmental characteristics that may influence in the course of additional psychiatric disorders, this study has focused on the symptoms of parental stress and psychological distress as possible risk factors. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.anpedi.2020.03.012DOI Listing

Sensory processing profiles and autistic symptoms as predictive factors in autism spectrum disorder and Williams syndrome.

J Intellect Disabil Res 2020 May 13. Epub 2020 May 13.

Institute of Neuroscience, Newcastle University, Sir James Spence Institute, Royal Victoria Infirmary, Newcastle upon Tyne, UK.

Background: Unusual sensory responses were included in the diagnostic criteria for autism spectrum disorder (ASD), yet they are also common among individuals with other neurodevelopmental disorders, including Williams syndrome (WS). Cross-syndrome comparisons of sensory atypicalities and the evaluation of their syndrome specificity however have rarely been undertaken. We aimed to (1) examine and compare the sensory profiles in ASD and WS groups and (2) investigate whether autistic symptoms, including sensory processing scores, can predict a group membership. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jir.12738DOI Listing

A Sleeping rs-fMRI Study of Preschool Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders.

Curr Med Imaging 2020 May 9. Epub 2020 May 9.

Department of Radiology, Children's Hospital of Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing 400014. China.

Objectives: The brain functional network of autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) in the earlier stages of life has been almost unknown due to difficulties in obtaining a resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI). This study aimed to perform rs-MRI under a sedated sleep state and reveal possible alterations in the brain functional network.

Methods: Rs-fMRI was performed in a group of preschool children (aged 2-6 years, 53 with ASD, 63 as controls) under a sedated sleeping state. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.2174/1573405616666200510003144DOI Listing

A Clinical Program for Transgender and Gender-Diverse Neurodiverse/Autistic Adolescents Developed through Community-Based Participatory Design.

J Clin Child Adolesc Psychol 2020 May 6:1-16. Epub 2020 May 6.

Department of Psychiatry, Pediatric Mental Health Institute, Children's Hospital of Colorado, University of Colorado School of Medicine.

Objective: A series of studies report elevated rates of autism and autistic characteristics among gender-diverse youth seeking gender services. Although youth with the co-occurrence present with complex care needs, existing studies have focused on co-occurrence rates. Further, clinical commentaries have emphasized provider-centered interpretations of clinical needs rather than key stakeholder-driven clinical approaches. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/15374416.2020.1731817DOI Listing

Etiology of Autism Spectrum Disorders and Autistic Traits Over Time.

JAMA Psychiatry 2020 May 6. Epub 2020 May 6.

Gillberg Neuropsychiatry Centre, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.

Importance: The frequency with which autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) are diagnosed has shown a marked increase in recent years. One suggestion is that this is partly because of secular changes in the environment, yet to our knowledge this hypothesis lacks evidence.

Objective: To assess whether the relative importance of genetic and environmental associations with ASD and autistic traits has changed over a 16-year and 26-year period. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/jamapsychiatry.2020.0680DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7203675PMC

The social brain in female autism: a structural imaging study of twins.

Soc Cogn Affect Neurosci 2020 Jun;15(4):423-436

Department of Women's and Children's Health, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm Health Care Services, Stockholm 11330, Sweden.

A female advantage in social cognition (SoC) might contribute to women's underrepresentation in autism spectrum disorder (ASD). The latter could be underpinned by sex differences in social brain structure. This study investigated the relationship between structural social brain networks and SoC in females and males in relation to ASD and autistic traits in twins. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/scan/nsaa064DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7308659PMC

Which autistic traits are related to depressive symptoms in Japanese workers?

Ind Health 2020 Apr 25. Epub 2020 Apr 25.

Department of Public Health, Kitasato University School of Medicine, Japan.

Individuals with autism spectrum disorders are at a high risk of experiencing depressive symptoms. However, the relationship between autistic traits and depressive symptoms is unclear. This study aimed to identify which autistic traits are related to depressive symptoms in Japanese workers. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.2486/indhealth.2019-0206DOI Listing

Intellectual functioning and behavior in Dravet syndrome: A systematic review.

Epilepsy Behav 2020 Jul 22;108:107079. Epub 2020 Apr 22.

Dept. of Paediatrics, Institute of Clinical Sciences, Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden; Queen Silvia Children's Hospital, Sahlgrenska University Hospital, Gothenburg, Sweden. Electronic address:

Background: Dravet syndrome (DS) is a developmental and epileptic encephalopathy with onset in the first year of life. At onset, the child displays normal development, but during the second year of life, stagnation/slowing of neurodevelopment is seen. In addition to difficulties with intellectual development, many children display behavioral problems including autistic features, and difficulties with attention and hyperactivity. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.yebeh.2020.107079DOI Listing

Effect of prednisolone on language function in children with autistic spectrum disorder: a randomized clinical trial.

J Pediatr (Rio J) 2020 Apr 22. Epub 2020 Apr 22.

Universidade Federal Fluminense (UFF), Departamento Materno-Infantil, Niterói, RJ, Brazil. Electronic address:

Objective: To describe the effect of prednisolone on language in children with autism spectrum disorder. This study is based upon two hypotheses: autism etiology may be closely related to neuroinflammation; and, an effective treatment should restore the individual's language skills.

Method: This is a prospective, double-blinded, randomized, placebo-controlled clinical trial, carried out in a federal university hospital. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jped.2019.10.012DOI Listing

Telomere Length and Autism Spectrum Disorder Within the Family: Relationships With Cognition and Sensory Symptoms.

Autism Res 2020 Apr 23. Epub 2020 Apr 23.

Arizona State University, College of Health Solutions, Tempe, Arizona, USA.

Telomeres are repetitive noncoding deoxynucleotide sequences that cap chromosomes to protect DNA. Telomere length (TL) is affected by both genetic and environmental factors, and shortening of telomeres is associated with multiple neuropsychiatric disorders, early life stress, and age-related cognitive dysfunction. Two previous studies associated shorter TL with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/aur.2307DOI Listing

Prevalence of oral disease and treatment types proposed to children affected by Autistic Spectrum Disorder in Pediatric Dentistry: a Systematic Review.

Clin Ter 2020 May-Jun;171(3):e275-e282

Department of Oral and Maxillo-facial Sciences, Sapienza University of Rome, Italy.

Purpose: To investigate the prevalence of dental caries and periodontal disease in children with ASD, and to analyse the necessity of treatment and the prevalence of using general anaesthesia in order to perform it.

Materials And Methods: A search was performed covering the last 10 years utilising the following databases: Pubmed, Scopus, Medline, BASE, Science Citation Index, Science Direct, Web of Science. Four reviewers evaluated each study. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.7417/CT.2020.2226DOI Listing

Adaptive behavior and its related factors in children with focal epilepsy.

Epilepsy Behav 2020 Jul 19;108:107092. Epub 2020 Apr 19.

Department of Developmental Disorders, National Institute of Mental Health, National Center of Neurology and Psychiatry, Tokyo, Japan.

Objective: We aimed to clarify the strengths and weaknesses in adaptive behavior in children with focal epilepsy and show children-associated factors related to adaptive behavior.

Materials And Methods: Sixty-three children with focal epilepsy aged 5-18 years with intellectual quotient (IQ) ranging from 67 to 135 were enrolled in this study. Adaptive behavior was evaluated using the Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scale, 2nd edition (VABS-II). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.yebeh.2020.107092DOI Listing

Abnormal Cerebellar Development Is Involved in Dystonia-Like Behaviors and Motor Dysfunction of Autistic BTBR Mice.

Front Cell Dev Biol 2020 7;8:231. Epub 2020 Apr 7.

Department of Military Cognitive Psychology, School of Psychology, Army Medical University, Chongqing, China.

Motor control and learning impairments are common complications in individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Abnormal cerebellar development during critical phases may disrupt these motor functions and lead to autistic motor dysfunction. However, the underlying mechanisms behind these impairments are not clear. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fcell.2020.00231DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7154340PMC