5,792 results match your criteria Autistic Spectrum Disorders


The clinical presentation caused by truncating CHD8 variants.

Clin Genet 2019 Apr 18. Epub 2019 Apr 18.

Manchester Centre for Genomic Medicine, St Mary's Hospital, Manchester University Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust, Manchester Academic Health Sciences Centre, United Kingdom.

Variants in the chromodomain helicase DNA-binding protein 8 (CHD8) have been associated with intellectual disability (ID), autism spectrum disorders (ASD) and overgrowth and CHD8 is one of the causative genes for OGID (overgrowth and ID). We investigated 25 individuals with CHD8 protein truncating variants (PTVs), including 10 previously unreported patients and found a male to female ratio of 2.7:1 (19:7) and a pattern of common features: macrocephaly (62. Read More

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http://doi.wiley.com/10.1111/cge.13554
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/cge.13554DOI Listing
April 2019
1 Read

Emotional and Behavioral Problems of Pre-school Children with Autistic Spectrum Disorder Assessed by the Child Behavior Checklist 1½-5.

Kobe J Med Sci 2019 Jan 22;64(5):E170-E173. Epub 2019 Jan 22.

Graduate School of Health Science, Kobe University, Japan.

Background: Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) experience a significant disruption in the ability to communicate and interact socially. Early detection is important; the earlier the child is identified with ASD, the faster the intervention can begin. The Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL) is a screening tool capable of identifying various emotional and behavioral disorders. Read More

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January 2019
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Brain Network Organization Correlates with Autistic Features in Preschoolers with Autism Spectrum Disorders and in Their Fathers: Preliminary Data from a DWI Analysis.

J Clin Med 2019 Apr 10;8(4). Epub 2019 Apr 10.

IRCCS Stella Maris Foundation, 56128, Pisa, Italy.

Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) is a group of neurodevelopmental disorders that is characterized by an altered brain connectivity organization. Autistic traits below the clinical threshold (i.e. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/jcm8040487DOI Listing
April 2019
1 Read

Prevalence and Characteristics of Autism Spectrum Disorder Among Children Aged 4 Years - Early Autism and Developmental Disabilities Monitoring Network, Seven Sites, United States, 2010, 2012, and 2014.

MMWR Surveill Summ 2019 Apr 12;68(2):1-19. Epub 2019 Apr 12.

Division of Congenital and Developmental Disorders, National Center on Birth Defects and Developmental Disabilities, CDC.

Problem/condition: Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is estimated to affect up to 3% of children in the United States. Public health surveillance for ASD among children aged 4 years provides information about trends in prevalence, characteristics of children with ASD, and progress made toward decreasing the age of identification of ASD so that evidence-based interventions can begin as early as possible.

Period Covered: 2010, 2012, and 2014. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.15585/mmwr.ss6802a1DOI Listing
April 2019
1 Read

Social Cognition in Autism and Other Neurodevelopmental Disorders: A Co-twin Control Study.

J Autism Dev Disord 2019 Apr 10. Epub 2019 Apr 10.

Center of Neurodevelopmental Disorders (KIND), Division of Neuropsychiatry, Department of Women's and Children's Health, Center for Psychiatry Research, Karolinska Institutet & Region Stockholm, Stockholm, Sweden.

Alterations in social cognition (SC) are hypothesized to underlie social communication and interaction challenges in autism spectrum disorder (ASD). The aetiological underpinnings driving this association remain unclear. We examined SC in 196 twins with ASD, other neurodevelopmental disorders or typical development using the naturalistic Movie for the Assessment of Social Cognition. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10803-019-04001-4DOI Listing
April 2019
1 Read

Sleep-behaviour relationship in children with autism spectrum disorder: methodological pitfalls and insights from cognition and sensory processing.

Dev Med Child Neurol 2019 Apr 9. Epub 2019 Apr 9.

Neuroscience Institute, Université Libre de Bruxelles, Brussels, Belgium.

Sleep disturbances are frequent and varied in autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Growing evidence suggests that sleep problems in children with ASD are driven by their clinical characteristics and psychiatric comorbidities. Therefore, the wide range of reported sleep disturbances reflects the marked heterogeneity of clinical pictures in ASD. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/dmcn.14235DOI Listing
April 2019
1 Read

Volumetric MRI study of orbito-frontal cortex and thalamus in obsessive-compulsive personality disorder.

J Clin Neurosci 2019 Apr 5. Epub 2019 Apr 5.

Department of Radiology, Firat University School of Medicine, Elazig, Turkey.

Objectives: Obsessive compulsive personality disorder (OCPD) is currently thought to bear a close relationship with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), and other compulsive disorders such as eating disorder and autistic spectrum disorder, as well as with the personality disorders, focusing on some important dimensions like phenomenology, heritability, environmental risk factors, comorbidity, course of illness, neurocognitive endophenotypes, and treatment response. In the present study, when we have taken into consideration the knowledge aforementioned, we aimed to examine OFC and thalamus volumes in patients with OCPD.

Methods: We comparatively measured orbito-frontal cortex (OFC) and thalamus volumes of patients with OCPD and healthy control subjects. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jocn.2019.03.062DOI Listing
April 2019
2 Reads

Social Brain Functional Maturation in Newborn Infants With and Without a Family History of Autism Spectrum Disorder.

JAMA Netw Open 2019 Apr 5;2(4):e191868. Epub 2019 Apr 5.

Institute of Psychiatry, Psychology & Neuroscience, Department of Forensic and Neurodevelopmental Sciences, King's College London, Denmark Hill, London, United Kingdom.

Importance: What is inherited or acquired in neurodevelopmental conditions such as autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is not a fixed outcome, but instead is a vulnerability to a spectrum of traits, especially social difficulties. Identifying the biological mechanisms associated with vulnerability requires looking as early in life as possible, before the brain is shaped by postnatal mechanisms and/or the experiences of living with these traits. Animal studies suggest that susceptibility to neurodevelopmental disorders arises when genetic and/or environmental risks for these conditions alter patterns of synchronous brain activity in the perinatal period, but this has never been examined in human neonates. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2019.1868DOI Listing
April 2019
4 Reads

Altered bodily self-consciousness and peripersonal space in autism.

Autism 2019 Apr 3:1362361319838950. Epub 2019 Apr 3.

1 Anglia Ruskin University, UK.

There is some evidence that disordered self-processing in autism spectrum disorders is linked to the social impairments characteristic of the condition. To investigate whether bodily self-consciousness is altered in autism spectrum disorders as a result of multisensory processing differences, we tested responses to the full body illusion and measured peripersonal space in 22 adults with autism spectrum disorders and 29 neurotypical adults. In the full body illusion set-up, participants wore a head-mounted display showing a view of their 'virtual body' being stroked synchronously or asynchronously with respect to felt stroking on their back. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1362361319838950DOI Listing
April 2019
1 Read

[Very early onset schizophrenia].

Encephale 2018 Dec;44(6S):S8-S11

Service psychopathologie du développement, hôpital Femme-Mère-Enfant, hospices civils de Lyon, France; Institut des sciences cognitives Marc-Jeannerod, UMR 5304, CNRS et université Claude-Bernard-Lyon-1, France.

Very early onset schizophrenia begins before the age of 13. This form of schizophrenia is particularly difficult to diagnose. The differential diagnosis is difficult because some psychotic signs can be passing or be representative of an anxious or depressive disorder. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0013-7006(19)30071-5DOI Listing
December 2018
2 Reads

Validation of two parent-reported autism spectrum disorders screening tools M-CHAT-R and SCQ in Bamako, Mali.

eNeurologicalSci 2019 Jun 11;15:100188. Epub 2019 Mar 11.

Department of Neurology and Psychiatry, Center for Autism Research and Treatment, UCLA, Los Angeles, United States.

Background: Early screening is crucial for early autism spectrum disorders (ASD) diagnosis and intervention. ASD screening tools have mostly been constructed based on the Western cultural context. We hypothesized that their use in Mali may require a prior validation. Read More

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https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S24056502193001
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ensci.2019.100188DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6423411PMC
June 2019
3 Reads

Bifurcation Theory Approach to Neuro-Developmental Language Impairment in Autistic Children.

Malays J Med Sci 2018 Jul 30;25(4):142-145. Epub 2018 Aug 30.

Institute for Cognitive and Brain Sciences, Shahid Beheshti University, Tehran, Iran.

Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) is defined by a spectrum of deficits in social interactions and limited or stereotyped patterns of behaviours. Consequently, language as the result and the tool of communication is impaired in individuals affected by ASD. Thus, a better knowledge of language impairment leads to a better solution of the communicating problems. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.21315/mjms2018.25.4.14DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6422545PMC
July 2018
1 Read

Prevalence, Characteristics and Diabetes Management in Children with Comorbid Autism Spectrum Disorder and Type 1 Diabetes.

Pediatr Diabetes 2019 Mar 26. Epub 2019 Mar 26.

Barbara Davis Center for Diabetes, Aurora, CO, University of Colorado Anschutz Medical Campus, Aurora, CO, USA.

Objective: To determine autism spectrum disorder (ASD) prevalence within our pediatric type 1 diabetes (T1D) clinic population and determine clinical characteristics and technology use by individuals with both ASD and T1D compared to matched controls with T1D alone and compared to our overall pediatric T1D clinic.

Research Design And Methods: Medical chart review revealed 30 individuals with both ASD and type 1 diabetes (ASD+T1D). Controls (n=90) were matched for age, sex, race/ethnicity, and T1D duration. Read More

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https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1111/pedi.12848
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/pedi.12848DOI Listing
March 2019
4 Reads

Where is the Evidence? A Narrative Literature Review of the Treatment Modalities for Autism Spectrum Disorders.

Cureus 2019 Jan 16;11(1):e3901. Epub 2019 Jan 16.

Pediatrics, Developmental Neurology Associates, New York, USA.

The most important thing about autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is that there is, in fact, no cure for this disorder; however, currently, there are many claims of pharmacological and dietary therapies and behavioral interventions that are said to improve outcome or even lead to "cure" or "recovery." It continues to remain a challenging condition for children and their families. Research conducted on many of these treatment modalities is limited and, consequently, sufficient evidence does not exist to support their use. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.7759/cureus.3901DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6424545PMC
January 2019
1 Read

Gender and psychiatric disorders in children with epilepsy. A meta-analysis.

Epilepsy Behav 2019 Mar 22;94:144-150. Epub 2019 Mar 22.

Academic Department of Child Psychiatry, Institute of Psychiatry, Psychology and Neuroscience, King's College, London SE5 8AF, United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland.

Objective: The objective of the study was to assess the influence of gender on psychiatric disorders in children with epilepsy (CWE).

Method: A systematic review of the literature on risk factors for psychiatric disorder in CWE published between 2004 and June 2018 was undertaken. Studies including data on gender that permitted the calculation of a risk ratio (RR) were included in the meta-analysis. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.yebeh.2019.02.014DOI Listing
March 2019
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Childhood neurodevelopmental difficulties and risk of adolescent depression: the role of irritability.

J Child Psychol Psychiatry 2019 Mar 25. Epub 2019 Mar 25.

MRC Centre for Neuropsychiatric Genetics and Genomics, Division of Psychological Medicine and Clinical Neurosciences, Cardiff University, Cardiff, UK.

Background: Children with neurodevelopmental disorders are at increased risk of developing depression. Irritability predicts depression in the general population and is common in children with neurodevelopmental disorders. Thus, it is possible that irritability in children with neurodevelopmental disorders contributes to the link with later depression. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jcpp.13053DOI Listing
March 2019
1 Read

Familial confounding on the ability to read minds: A co-twin control study.

Autism 2019 Mar 21:1362361319836380. Epub 2019 Mar 21.

1 Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.

Alterations in social cognition are hypothesized to underlie social communication challenges in autism spectrum disorder. However, the etiologic underpinnings driving this association, as well as the impact of other psychiatric conditions on the association, remain unclear. Using a co-twin control design, we examined n = 308 twins (mean age = 16. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1362361319836380DOI Listing
March 2019
2 Reads

Altered Gut Microbiota in Chinese Children With Autism Spectrum Disorders.

Front Cell Infect Microbiol 2019 6;9:40. Epub 2019 Mar 6.

Department of Maternal and Child Health, School of Public Health, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou, China.

The link between gut microbes and autism spectrum disorders (ASD) has been already observed in some studies, but some bacterial families/species were found to be inconsistently up or down regulated. This issue has been rarely explored in the Chinese population. In this study, we assessed whether or not gut microbiota dysbiosis was associated with children with ASD in China. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fcimb.2019.00040DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6414714PMC
March 2019
2 Reads

Pesticides and autism.

BMJ 2019 03 20;364:l1149. Epub 2019 Mar 20.

Division of Public Health, Department of Family and Preventive Medicine, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT, USA.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bmj.l1149DOI Listing
March 2019
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[Specialism, specificity and identity - the controversiessurrounding autism in the Brazilian Unified Health System (SUS)].

Cien Saude Colet 2019 Mar;24(3):1111-1120

Instituto de Medicina Social, Centro Biomédico, Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro. R. S. Fco. Xavier 524/7º/Bl. D, Maracanã. 20559-900 Rio de Janeiro RJ Brasil.

The passing of federal law 12,764/2012 marked a victory for the political activism of parents of autistic individuals in Brazil, but it also drew attention to the serious antagonism between parents of autistic individuals and the mental health network. This article examines the perspectives of social actors involved in the controversy that took place after the enactment of this law and seeks to show why this controversy precedes the passing of the law and is not resolved by it. The argument is that the troubled relationship between the political movement of parents of autistic individuals and the mental health network can be better understood when the construction and consolidation of a network of expertise around autism spectrum disorders as being inseparable from the construction of a social and political identity for autistic people in Brazil is taken into consideration. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/1413-81232018243.07862017DOI Listing
March 2019
3 Reads

Ageing and Down syndrome: Neurocognitive characteristics and pharmacological treatment.

Hell J Nucl Med 2019 Jan-Apr;22 Suppl:123-132

Department of Education, University of Nicosia, Cyprus - Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Greece.

Individuals with Down Syndrome (DS) are commonly characterized by unique neurocognitive and neurobehavioural profiles that emerge within specific stages in the developmental continuum. A plethora of studies have confirmed DS's relationship to premature aging and subsequent cognitive decline. Due to having three copies of the amyloid precursor protein (APP) gene which results in amyloid-beta plaque deposition, the cognitive decline often resembles the decline observed in Alzheimer's disease. Read More

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January 2019
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[The prevalence of autism: genuine and imaginary].

Zh Nevrol Psikhiatr Im S S Korsakova 2019;119(2):80-86

Mechnikov North-Western State Medical University, St. Petersburg, Russia.

In this review, the authors analyze the causes of the high prevalence of autism spectrum disorders (ASD) in recent decades. It is shown that the expansion of the boundaries of the 'autistic spectrum' concept led to a significant spread of data on its prevalence, depending on the time, diagnostic criteria, country and region. Stability of the diagnosis of ASD is not high and depends on the age of the child. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.17116/jnevro201911902180DOI Listing
January 2019
1 Read

Learning Generalizable Recurrent Neural Networks from Small Task-fMRI Datasets.

Med Image Comput Comput Assist Interv 2018 Sep 13;11072:329-337. Epub 2018 Sep 13.

Department of Radiology & Biomedical Imaging, Yale School of Medicine, New Haven, CT, USA.

Deep learning has become the new state-of-the-art for many problems in image analysis. However, large datasets are often required for such deep networks to learn effectively. This poses a difficult challenge for many medical image analysis problems in which only a small number of subjects are available, e. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-00931-1_38DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6411297PMC
September 2018
1 Read

Maternal polycystic ovarian syndrome in autism spectrum disorder: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

Mol Psychiatry 2019 Mar 13. Epub 2019 Mar 13.

Assisted Reproduction Unit, Third Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Medical School, National and Kapodistrian University of Athens, "Attikon Hospital", 1 Rimini Street, Chaidari, 12642, Athens, Greece.

There is evidence showing a positive correlation between prenatal androgens and their effect on the development of central nervous system and the autistic spectrum disorder (ASD) phenotype in offspring of mothers with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). We applied a systematic review to investigate whether women with PCOS have increased odds of having a child with ASD, while, secondarily, if these women themselves are at high risk of having the disease. Major databases from inception until 14th October 2018 were searched. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41380-019-0398-0DOI Listing
March 2019
4 Reads

Visual Disengagement: Genetic Architecture and Relation to Autistic Traits in the General Population.

J Autism Dev Disord 2019 Mar 11. Epub 2019 Mar 11.

Center of Neurodevelopmental Disorders (KIND), Division of Neuropsychiatry, Department of Women's and Children's Health, Karolinska Institutet, 113 30, Stockholm, Sweden.

Visual disengagement has been hypothesized as an endophenotype for autism. In this study we used twin modelling to assess the role of genetics in basic measures of visual disengagement, and tested their putative association to autistic traits in the general population. We used the Gap Overlap task in a sample of 492 twins. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10803-019-03974-6DOI Listing
March 2019
1 Read

The within-subject application of diffusion tensor MRI and CLARITY reveals brain structural changes in deletion mice.

Mol Autism 2019 28;10. Epub 2019 Feb 28.

1School of Biomedical Sciences, University of Leeds, Leeds, LS2 9JT UK.

Background: Of the many genetic mutations known to increase the risk of autism spectrum disorder, a large proportion cluster upon synaptic proteins. One such family of presynaptic proteins are the neurexins (NRXN), and recent genetic and mouse evidence has suggested a causative role for in generating altered social behaviours. Autism has been conceptualised as a disorder of atypical connectivity, yet how single-gene mutations affect such connectivity remains under-explored. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13229-019-0261-9DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6394023PMC
April 2019
1 Read

DSM-5 criteria for autism spectrum disorder maximizes diagnostic sensitivity and specificity in preschool children.

Soc Psychiatry Psychiatr Epidemiol 2019 Mar 8. Epub 2019 Mar 8.

Center for Autism Research, Children's Hospital of Philadelphia, Philadelphia, PA, USA.

Purpose: The criteria for autism spectrum disorder (ASD) were revised in the fifth edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM). The objective of this study was to compare the sensitivity and specificity of DSM-IV-Text Revision (DSM-IV-TR) and DSM-5 definitions of ASD in a community-based sample of preschool children.

Methods: Children between 2 and 5 years of age were enrolled in the Study to Explore Early Development-Phase 2 (SEED2) and received a comprehensive developmental evaluation. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00127-019-01674-1DOI Listing
March 2019
2 Reads

Autistic Symptoms in Schizophrenia Spectrum Disorders: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

Front Psychiatry 2019 21;10:78. Epub 2019 Feb 21.

Child Neurology and Psychiatry Unit, System Medicine Department, University of Rome Tor Vergata, Rome, Italy.

Recent studies have examined the association between autism spectrum disorder and schizophrenia spectrum disorders, describing a number of cognitive features common to both conditions (e.g., weak central coherence, difficulties in set-shifting, impairment in theory of mind). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fpsyt.2019.00078DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6393379PMC
February 2019
3 Reads

Altered social cognition and connectivity of default mode networks in the co-occurrence of autistic spectrum disorder and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder.

Aust N Z J Psychiatry 2019 Mar 7:4867419836031. Epub 2019 Mar 7.

2 Developmental and Behavioral Pediatric Department & Child Primary Care Department, Brain and Behavioral Research Unit of Shanghai Institute for Pediatric Research and MOE Shanghai Key Laboratory for Children's Environmental Health, Xinhua Hospital, Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, Shanghai, P.R. China.

Objective:: As two common neurodevelopmental disorders, autistic spectrum disorder and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder frequently occur together. Until now, only a few studies have investigated the co-occurrence of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and autistic spectrum disorder, this is due to restrictions associated with previous Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition, Text Revision. Most previous research has focused on the developmental trajectories for autistic spectrum disorder and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder separately, while the neural mechanisms underpinning the co-occurrence of autistic spectrum disorder and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder remain largely unknown. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0004867419836031DOI Listing
March 2019
2 Reads

Equine Assisted Therapy for Patients with Post Traumatic Stress Disorder: A Case Series Study.

Mil Med 2019 Mar 6. Epub 2019 Mar 6.

Dunedin School of Medicine, Otago University, New Zealand.

Introduction: Equine assisted therapy (EAT) which includes therapeutic horseback riding (THR), grooming, horsemanship and ground level work with horses, has been studied as treatment for children with special needs and/or autistic spectrum disorder. Preliminary evidence indicates that EAT is also effective for improving self-efficacy and self-esteem in adults with psychiatric disorders. Empowerment, bonding and building trust with the horses, may promote functioning of patients struggling with post traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/milmed/usz036DOI Listing
March 2019
14 Reads

Speaking the Same Language? A Preliminary Investigation, Comparing the Language and Communication Skills of Females and Males with High-Functioning Autism.

J Autism Dev Disord 2019 Mar 4. Epub 2019 Mar 4.

School of Health Sciences, The University of Manchester, Manchester, UK.

Understanding the nature of language and communication disorders in High-Functioning Autism Spectrum Disorder (HFASD) populations may provide insight into why females are more likely than males to go undiagnosed. Language and communication skills were compared between 13 females and 13 males (aged 8.11-11. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10803-019-03920-6DOI Listing
March 2019
3 Reads

Heritability of reflexive social attention triggered by eye gaze and walking direction: common and unique genetic underpinnings.

Psychol Med 2019 Mar 4:1-9. Epub 2019 Mar 4.

State Key Laboratory of Brain and Cognitive Science,CAS Center for Excellence in Brain Science and Intelligence Technology,Institute of Psychology,Chinese Academy of Sciences,16 Lincui Road, Beijing 100101,P. R. China.

Background: Social attention ability is crucial for human adaptive social behaviors and interpersonal communications, and the malfunction of which has been implicated in autism spectrum disorder (ASD), a highly genetic neurodevelopmental disorder marked by striking social deficits.

Methods: Using a classical twin design, the current study investigated the genetic contribution to individual variation in social and non-social attention abilities, and further probed their potential genetic linkage. Moreover, individual autistic traits were further measured in an independent group of non-twin participants to examine the hypothetical link between the core social attention ability and ASD. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S003329171900031XDOI Listing
March 2019
4 Reads
5.938 Impact Factor

Same behaviours, different reasons: what do patients with co-occurring anorexia and autism want from treatment?

Int Rev Psychiatry 2019 Mar 1:1-10. Epub 2019 Mar 1.

a Institute of Psychiatry, Psychology and Neuroscience, Department of Psychological Medicine , King's College London , London , UK.

Research suggests that up to one in four individuals with anorexia nervosa (AN) may be on the autistic spectrum, and that these autistic traits may not have been recognized or diagnosed prior to eating disorder (ED) treatment. Significantly, these heightened autistic traits are associated with poorer treatment outcomes, suggesting that treatment may need to be adapted for this population. The purpose of this study was to explore with people with AN on the autistic spectrum their experiences of ED treatment, and their views on what needs to be changed. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/09540261.2018.1531831DOI Listing
March 2019
3 Reads

Negatively phrased items of the Autism Spectrum Quotient function differently for groups with and without autism.

Autism 2019 Feb 28:1362361319828361. Epub 2019 Feb 28.

1 University of Amsterdam, The Netherlands.

The Autism Spectrum Quotient is a widely used instrument for the detection of autistic traits. However, the validity of comparisons of Autism Spectrum Quotient scores between groups may be threatened by differential item functioning. Differential item functioning entails a bias in items, where participants with equal values of the latent trait give different answers because of their group membership. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1362361319828361DOI Listing
February 2019
1 Read

Crosstalk Between the Microbiome and Gestational Immunity in Autism-Related Disorders.

DNA Cell Biol 2019 Feb 28. Epub 2019 Feb 28.

1 Department of Neuroscience, Center for Brain Immunology and Glia (BIG), University of Virginia, Charlottesville, Virginia.

The etiologies of most neurodevelopmental disorders, including autism spectrum disorder (ASD), remain incompletely understood. However, recent epidemiological and experimental data suggest that dysregulated maternal immune activation (MIA) can impede normal brain maturation and promote the development of autism-related phenotypes. Indeed, our studies and work by others demonstrate that offspring born to pregnant animals that were exposed to immune activators develop many of the defining behavioral features of ASD, including abnormalities in social preference, communicative impairments, and repetitive/stereotyped behaviors. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1089/dna.2019.4653DOI Listing
February 2019
1 Read

Autism spectrum disorder diagnosis in adults: phenotype and genotype findings from a clinically derived cohort.

Br J Psychiatry 2019 Feb 26:1-7. Epub 2019 Feb 26.

Director and Research Theme Lead,Neuroscience and Mental Health Research Institute,Cardiff University,UK.

Background: The past decade has seen the development of services for adults presenting with symptoms of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) in the UK. Compared with children, little is known about the phenotypic and genetic characteristics of these patients.AimsThis e-cohort study aimed to examine the phenotypic and genetic characteristics of a clinically presenting sample of adults diagnosed with ASD by specialist services. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1192/bjp.2019.30DOI Listing
February 2019
2 Reads

Anti-NMDA receptor encephalitis in a toddler: A diagnostic challenge.

Int J Pediatr Adolesc Med 2018 Jun 30;5(2):75-77. Epub 2018 Apr 30.

Distinguished Professor of Pediatrics and Infectious Disease, Department of Pediatrics, Faculty of Medicine, The University of Jordan, Amman, Jordan.

Anti N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) encephalitis is an autoimmune disorder and is considered to be one of the most common causes of encephalitis in children. Despite the fact that around half of all reported cases are of children, the number of studies that report infants and toddlers is very small. Furthermore, reports on children from the Middle East particularly are extremely rare. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijpam.2018.03.001DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6363247PMC
June 2018
3 Reads

Mortality and cause of death of Australians on the autism spectrum.

Autism Res 2019 Feb 25. Epub 2019 Feb 25.

Department of Developmental Disability Neuropsychiatry, UNSW Sydney, New South Wales, Australia.

Focused investigations regarding mortality rates, risk factors, and cause of death in autistic populations remain scarce. The present study used large linked datasets spanning 2001-2015 to report the rates and risk factors for mortality and cause of death in individuals on the autism spectrum (n = 35,929 age range 5-64) with and without concurrent intellectual disability (ID) in New South Wales, Australia. Mortality rates for those on the autism spectrum were 2. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/aur.2086DOI Listing
February 2019
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Carbohydrate Scaffolds for the Study of the Autism-associated Bacterium, Clostridium bolteae.

Curr Med Chem 2019 Feb 25. Epub 2019 Feb 25.

Department of Chemistry, University of Guelph, Guelph, ON. Canada.

A large number of children in the autism spectrum disorder suffer from gastrointestinal (GI) conditions, such as constipation and diarrhea. Clostridium bolteae is part of a set of pathogens being regularly detected in the stool samples of hosts affected by GI and autism symptoms. Accompanying studies have pointed to the possibility that such microbes affect behaviour through the production of neurotoxic metabolites in a so-called, gut-brain connection. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.2174/0929867326666190225164527DOI Listing
February 2019
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Nucleus Accumbens (NAc) DBS for obsessive compulsive disorder and aggression in an autistic patient: a case report and hypothesis of the role of NAc in autism and co-morbid symptoms.

World Neurosurg 2019 Feb 21. Epub 2019 Feb 21.

Consultant Psychiatrist, Jaslok Hospital and research centre, 15 Dr. G Deshmukh Marg, Mumbai 400026, INDIA.

Background: Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a set of developmental disorders characterized by lack of social interaction, verbal and non-verbal communication in the first 3 years of life. It is also associated with several co-morbidities, including epilepsy, aggression, self-mutilating behaviour and obsessive-compulsive behaviour. In some cases this can turn in to obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.wneu.2019.02.021DOI Listing
February 2019
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Genetic association of DNMT variants can play a critical role in defining the methylation patterns in autism.

IUBMB Life 2019 Feb 20. Epub 2019 Feb 20.

Human Molecular Genetics Laboratory, Rajiv Gandhi Centre for Biotechnology, Trivandrum, Kerala, India.

Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a complex neurodevelopmental disorder with impairments in social communication, restricted, repetitive and stereotyped behaviors. Both genetic and environmental factors are known to contribute toward pathophysiology of Autism. Environmental influences on gene expression can be mediated by methylation patterns which are established and maintained by DNA methyltransferases. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/iub.2021DOI Listing
February 2019
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Visual Search Performance Does Not Relate to Autistic Traits in the General Population.

J Autism Dev Disord 2019 Feb 16. Epub 2019 Feb 16.

Uppsala Child & Babylab, Department of Psychology, Uppsala University, Box 256, 751 05, Uppsala, Sweden.

Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is commonly conceived as the extreme end of a continuum. Research suggests that autistic individuals outperform typically developing controls in visual search. Thus, enhanced visual search may represent an adaptive trait associated with ASD. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10803-019-03907-3DOI Listing
February 2019
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Autistic traits impact on olfactory processing in adolescent girls with Anorexia Nervosa restricting type.

Psychiatry Res 2019 04 11;274:20-26. Epub 2019 Feb 11.

IRCCS Fondazione Stella Maris, Pisa, Italy; Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, University of Pisa, Pisa, Italy.

The correct functioning of the chemosensory pathway is pivotal for the attitude towards feeding. In some neuropsychiatric disorders, abnormalities of the sensory processing dramatically affect feeding behavior; however, evidences for an olfactory involvement in Anorexia Nervosa (AN) are still controversial. We administered a complete olfactory testing battery, the Sniffin' Sticks Extended Test, to a cohort of 19 girls with Restrictive Anorexia Nervosa (AN-R) and 19 healthy controls. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.psychres.2019.02.026DOI Listing
April 2019
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[Functional adaptation and disorders of the autistic spectrum].

Medicina (B Aires) 2019 ;79 Suppl 1:10-15

IGAIN, Instituto Global de Atención Integral al Neurodesarrollo, Barcelona, España.

Autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are neurodevelopmental disorders that affect social communication and present stereotyped behaviors; 30% of the cases diagnosed with ASD have intellectual disability and 2/3 an intellectual capacity within the norm. Although cognitive ability is related to better functional adaptation, however, the vast majority of people with ASD in adulthood have limited autonomy and are dependent on adults. In this article we review the concept of functional adaptation, its relationship with ASD, factors that influence a better functional adaptation, how to evaluate it and implications for treatment. Read More

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January 2019
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Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) with and without Mental Regression is Associated with Changes in the Fecal Microbiota.

Nutrients 2019 Feb 5;11(2). Epub 2019 Feb 5.

Pediatric Research and Metabolism Unit, Reina Sofia University Hospital, Maimónides Institute forBiomedical Research of Córdoba (IMIBIC), University of Córdoba, 14010 Córdoba, Spain.

New microbiome sequencing technologies provide novel information about the potential interactions among intestinal microorganisms and the host in some neuropathologies as autism spectrum disorders (ASD). The microbiota⁻gut⁻brain axis is an emerging aspect in the generation of autistic behaviors; evidence from animal models suggests that intestinal microbial shifts may produce changes fitting the clinical picture of autism. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the fecal metagenomic profiles in children with ASD and compare them with healthy participants. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/nu11020337DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6412819PMC
February 2019
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HLA-G allelic distribution in Sardinian children with Autism spectrum disorders: A replication study.

Brain Behav Immun 2019 Feb 11. Epub 2019 Feb 11.

IRCCS Fondazione Don Carlo Gnocchi, Milano, Italy; Pathophysiology and Transplantation, University of Milano, Milano, Italy.

Recent results show that in mainland Italian children with Autism spectrum disorder (ASD), HLA-G coding alleles distribution is skewed and an association between HLA-G*01:05N and ASD is present. Herein, in an independent cohort of Sardinian ASD (sASD) children and their relatives, we verify whether HLA-G allele association with ASD could be confirmed in this genetically peculiar insular population. One hundred children with a diagnosis of ASD, born in Sardinia and of Sardinian descent, 91 of their mothers, and 40 of their healthy siblings were enrolled. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bbi.2019.02.003DOI Listing
February 2019
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Measurement of serum hepatitis B surface antibody levels in Iranian autistic children and evaluation of immunological memory after booster dose injection in comparison with controls.

J Med Virol 2019 Feb 13. Epub 2019 Feb 13.

Department of Virology, Tehran University of Medical Science, Tehran, Iran.

Background: Responsiveness to hepatitis B vaccine among patients with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) has not been evaluated worldwide. We aimed to determine the anti-HBs antibody duration in autistic and healthy children few years after primary vaccination and evaluate their immunological memory against hepatitis B virus (HBV) vaccine with booster dose administration.

Methods: One hundred seven and 147 HBsAg-negative children from ASD and normal population were recruited, respectively. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jmv.25429DOI Listing
February 2019
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Recognising autism: a latent transition analysis of parental reports of child autistic spectrum disorder 'red flag' traits before and after age 3.

Soc Psychiatry Psychiatr Epidemiol 2019 Feb 13. Epub 2019 Feb 13.

School of Psychology, Ulster University, Derry, BT48 7JL, Northern Ireland, UK.

Purpose: It has been proposed that parents should be educated about child autistic spectrum disorder (ASD) 'red flag' traits to help professionals identify and address concerning behaviours as early as possible. This study aimed to empirically demonstrate that established/recognised 'red flag' traits in the first 3 years of life would reliably predict ASD risk severity in later childhood, associated with established ASD risk correlates and mirroring functioning diagnostic categories.

Methods: Using retrospective parental report data from the Mental Health of Children and Young People in Great Britain survey (N = 7977), latent class analysis (LCA) and a quasi -latent transition analysis were used to (1) identify profiles of variation in parent reports of child 'red flag' traits before and after age 3 and (2) model transitions in risk from 3 years and below to ≥ 3 years, respectively, per the 'optimal outcome' model. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00127-019-01664-3DOI Listing
February 2019
6 Reads