1,503 results match your criteria Autism Research[Journal]

Mapping the time course of overt emotion dysregulation, self-injurious behavior, and aggression in psychiatrically hospitalized autistic youth: A naturalistic study.

Autism Res 2022 Jun 25. Epub 2022 Jun 25.

Department of Psychiatry, University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, USA.

Challenges with emotion dysregulation, self-injurious behavior (SIB), and aggression are common in autistic individuals. Prior research on the relationships between these behaviors is limited mainly to cross-sectional correlations of parent-report data. Understanding how emotion dysregulation, SIB, and aggression present and relate to one another in real-time could add to our understanding of the context and function of these behaviors. Read More

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Empathizing, systemizing, empathizing-systemizing difference and their association with autistic traits in children with autism spectrum disorder, with and without intellectual disability.

Autism Res 2022 Jul 19;15(7):1348-1357. Epub 2022 Jun 19.

Department of Maternal and Child Health, School of Public Health, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou, Guangdong, China.

Empathizing, systemizing, and empathizing-systemizing difference can be linked to autistic traits in the general adult population and those with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), but these profiles and associations remain unclear in children with ASD, with and without intellectual disability (ASD + ID; ASD-noID). We recruited three groups including 160 boys with ASD (73 ASD + ID; 87 ASD-noID) and 99 typically developing (TD) boys (6-12 years). We measured empathizing, systemizing, and empathizing-systemizing difference using the parent-reported child Empathy and Systemizing Quotient (EQ-C/SQ-C). Read More

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Diagnosing autism in low-income countries: Clinical record-based analysis in Sri Lanka.

Autism Res 2022 Jul 16;15(7):1358-1367. Epub 2022 Jun 16.

Faculty of Computing, Sri Lanka Institute of Information Technology, Malabe, Sri Lanka.

Use of autism diagnosing standards in low-income countries (LICs) are restricted due to the high price and unavailability of trained health professionals. Furthermore, these standards are heavily skewed towards developed countries and LICs are underrepresented. Due to such constraints, many LICs use their own ways of assessing autism. Read More

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The impact of COVID-19 on autism research: A cross-sectional analysis of discontinued or suspended clinical trials.

Autism Res 2022 Jun 7. Epub 2022 Jun 7.

Office of Medical Student Research, Oklahoma State University Center for Health Sciences, Tulsa, Oklahoma, USA.

Due to uncertainties associated with the COVID-19 public health crisis, several clinical trials had to be withdrawn or postponed. Our investigation aimed to assess the rate of discontinuation of clinical trials focusing on Autism Spectrum Disorder. Of the 197 registered trials included in our systematic review, 15 (7. Read More

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Patterns of sensory modulation by age and sex in young people on the autism spectrum.

Autism Res 2022 Jun 6. Epub 2022 Jun 6.

School of Psychiatry, Faculty of Medicine, UNSW Sydney, Kensington, New South Wales, Australia.

Sensory modulation symptoms form a diagnostic criterion for autism spectrum disorder and are associated with significant daily functional limitations. Utilizing caregiver report on Short Sensory Profile-2 (SSP-2) for 919 autistic children (3-14.11 years), we examined the expression of sensory modulation symptoms by age and sex and investigated the existence of specific sensory modulation subtypes. Read More

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Testing a theory-driven factor structure of the autism-spectrum quotient.

Autism Res 2022 Jun 4. Epub 2022 Jun 4.

Department of Psychology, University of Illinois Urbana-Champaign, Champaign, Illinois, USA.

The Autism-Spectrum Quotient (AQ) is a popular instrument used to assess the degree to which individuals exhibit features of autism spectrum conditions (ASC). The current study aimed to develop a theory-driven factor structure of the AQ that would fit as well across samples as the 12 previously proposed factor structures, all of which, except for the original Baron-Cohen model, had been developed on the basis of exploratory factor analysis (EFA) or principal component analysis. We first proposed a six-factor solution: (1) social anhedonia; (2) interest in details/patterns; (3) imagination ability; (4) desire for predictability/routine; (5) social cognition; and (6) social discourse convention. Read More

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Early predictors of language skills at 3 years of age vary based on diagnostic outcome: A baby siblings research consortium study.

Autism Res 2022 Jul 1;15(7):1324-1335. Epub 2022 Jun 1.

Department of Psychological & Brain Sciences, Boston University, Boston, Massachusetts, USA.

While previous work has identified the early predictors of language skills in infants at elevated familial risk (ER) and low familial risk (LR) for autism spectrum disorder (ASD), no studies to date have explored whether these predictors vary based on diagnostic outcome of ASD or no ASD. The present study used a large, multisite dataset to examine associations between a set of commonly studied predictor variables (infant gesture abilities, fine motor skills, nonverbal cognition, and maternal education level), measured at 12 months, and language skills, measured at 3 years, across three diagnostic outcome groups-infants with ASD ("ASD"), ER infants without ASD ("ER-no ASD"), and LR infants without ASD ("LR-no ASD"). Findings revealed that the predictors of language skills differed across groups, as gesture abilities were positively associated with language skills in the ER-no ASD group but negatively associated with language skills in the ASD group. Read More

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Understanding the heterogeneity of anxiety in autistic youth: A person-centered approach.

Autism Res 2022 May 31. Epub 2022 May 31.

Melbourne School of Psychological Sciences, University of Melbourne, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia.

The present study aimed to examine anxiety profiles among children and adolescents on the autism spectrum. It further aimed to characterize the association between the identified anxiety profiles and key clinical and developmental variables. The Spence Children's Anxiety Scale-Parent Version (SCAS-P) data from a large international pooled sample of 870 caregivers of autistic children and adolescents (M  = 11. Read More

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Associations between sleep problems and domains relevant to daytime functioning and clinical symptomatology in autism: A meta-analysis.

Autism Res 2022 Jul 30;15(7):1249-1260. Epub 2022 May 30.

Yale School of Medicine, Yale Child Study Center, Yale University, New Haven, Connecticut, USA.

Autistic individuals experience significantly higher rates of sleep problems compared to the general population, which negatively impacts various aspects of daytime functioning. The strength of associations across domains of functioning has not yet been summarized across studies. The present meta-analysis examined the strength of associations between sleep problems and various domains of daytime functioning in autistic individuals. Read More

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Premature mortality in a population-based cohort of autistic adults in Canada.

Autism Res 2022 May 28. Epub 2022 May 28.

Azrieli Adult Neurodevelopmental Centre, Campbell Family Mental Health Research Institute, Centre for Addiction and Mental Health, Toronto, Ontario, Canada.

Research from different countries suggests that autistic adults are more likely to die prematurely than non-autistic adults, but these studies do not always investigate male and female individuals separately and do not consider whether this pattern is unique to autistic people or is also an issue for people with other developmental disabilities. We examined premature mortality in autistic males and females (assigned at birth) in a population-based cohort, compared to males and females with and without other developmental disabilities. Using linked administrative health and social services population data from Ontario, Canada, age-matched males and females aged 19-65 years were followed between 2010 and 2016, and causes of death were determined. Read More

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Psychometric properties of the Chinese version of the children's empathy quotient and systemizing quotient: 4-12 years.

Autism Res 2022 May 25. Epub 2022 May 25.

Department of Psychology, School of Philosophy, Psychology and Language Sciences, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, UK.

We aimed to validate the Children's Empathy Quotient (EQ-C) and Systemizing Quotient (SQ-C) in Mainland China, which can reflect the profiles of empathizing and systemizing, and describing specific characteristics of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and gender-typical behaviors in general population. A total of 800 typically developing (TD) children, aged 4-12 years was recruited initially with whose parents/guardians complete the measurements, and 782 TD children who met inclusion criteria were finally included. A 23-item three-factor EQ-C and a 22-item four-factor SQ-C was developed with good internal consistency (Omega total values of 0. Read More

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Increased context adjustment is associated with auditory sensitivities but not with autistic traits.

Autism Res 2022 May 24. Epub 2022 May 24.

Australian Research Council Centre of Excellence for Integrative Brain Function, Clayton, Victoria, Australia.

Bayesian models of autism suggest that alterations in context-sensitive prediction error weighting may underpin sensory perceptual alterations, such as hypersensitivities. We used an auditory oddball paradigm with pure tones arising from high or low uncertainty contexts to determine whether autistic individuals display differences in context adjustment relative to neurotypicals. We did not find group differences in early prediction error responses indexed by mismatch negativity. Read More

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Clinical and behavioral attributes leading to sleep disorders in children on the autism spectrum.

Autism Res 2022 Jul 21;15(7):1274-1287. Epub 2022 May 21.

School of Psychiatry, Faculty of Medicine, UNSW Sydney, Kensington, New South Wales, Australia.

Sleep disorders are a common comorbid condition in children diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder ("autism"). However, the relationship between the clinical features of autism and sleep disorders remains unclear. A better understanding of the inherent autism-related characteristics linked to comorbid sleep disorders would improve comprehensive assessment and management. Read More

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Gaze and social functioning associations in autism spectrum disorder: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

Autism Res 2022 May 20. Epub 2022 May 20.

Department of Psychiatry, Central Clinical School, Monash University, Melbourne, Victoria.

Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is characterized by significant social functioning impairments, including (but not limited to) emotion recognition, mentalizing, and joint attention. Despite extensive investigation into the correlates of social functioning in ASD, only recently has there been focus on the role of low-level sensory input, particularly visual processing. Extensive gaze deficits have been described in ASD, from basic saccadic function through to social attention and the processing of complex biological motion. Read More

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Increased prefrontal GABA concentrations in adults with autism spectrum disorders.

Autism Res 2022 Jul 19;15(7):1222-1236. Epub 2022 May 19.

Section for Experimental Neuropsychiatry, Department of Psychiatry and Psychotherapy, Medical Center-University of Freiburg, Faculty of Medicine, University of Freiburg, Freiburg, Germany.

The excitatory-inhibitory imbalance hypothesis postulates dysregulation of the gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) and glutamate (Glu) neurotransmitter systems as a common underlying deficit in individuals with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Previous studies suggest an important role of these systems in the pathophysiology of ASD, including a study of our group reporting decreased glutamate concentrations in the pregenual anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) of adults with ASD. The aim of this study was to replicate our previous findings of impaired glutamate metabolism in ASD in a new sample and to additionally quantify GABA in the ACC and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (dlPFC). Read More

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Developmental profiles of children at risk for autism spectrum disorder at school entry.

Autism Res 2022 Jul 19;15(7):1301-1310. Epub 2022 May 19.

Division of Developmental Pediatrics, Department of Pediatrics, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada.

Functional abilities in children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) are highly heterogenous, and impairments can overlap with non-ASD neurodevelopmental disorders. We compared the profiles of children assessed for ASD with and without an ASD diagnosis using a retrospective cohort study of 101,739 children born in British Columbia (2000-2008). The children were grouped into the following five comparison groups: (1) ASD- (n = 1131), (2) ASD+ (n = 1583), (3) Ministry of Education designated ASD+ (n = 654), (4) special need other than ASD (n = 11,663), and (5) typically developing (n = 86,708). Read More

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Inaccurate prevalence estimates impacts autism policy: A letter to the editor in relation to "Global prevalence of autism: A systematic review update" by Zeidan et al. (2022).

Autism Res 2022 Jul 15;15(7):1184-1186. Epub 2022 May 15.

Department of International Health, School CAPHRI, Faculty of Health, Medicine and Life Sciences, Maastricht University, Maastricht, The Netherlands.

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Reduced mismatch negativity in children and adolescents with autism spectrum disorder is associated with their impaired adaptive functioning.

Autism Res 2022 May 12. Epub 2022 May 12.

Department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, Copenhagen University Hospital - Psychiatry Region Zealand, Roskilde, Denmark.

Children and adolescents on the autism spectrum display sensory disturbances, rigid and repetitive behavior, social communication problems and a high prevalence of impaired adaptive functioning. Autism is associated with slowed behavioral and neural habituation to repeated sensory input and decreased responses to sensory deviations. Mismatch negativity (MMN) reflects a pre-attentive difference in the neural response to sensory deviations relative to regularities and studies overall suggest that children and adolescents with autism tend to have smaller MMN. Read More

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The mediating role of gaze patterns in the association of child sleep disturbances and core symptoms of autism spectrum disorder.

Autism Res 2022 May 6. Epub 2022 May 6.

Pediatric Translational Medicine Institution, Department of Developmental and Behavioral Pediatrics, Shanghai Children's Medical Center, School of Medicine, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai, China.

Children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) are at high risk for sleep disturbances, but the mechanism underlying the association between sleep disturbances and ASD core symptoms is largely unknown. This study examined the relationship between sleep disturbances and ASD core symptoms, and the mediating role of gaze patterns during the facial emotion recognition (FER) task. The study included 57 children with ASD and 59 age- and intelligence-matched typically developing (TD) controls aged 3-7 years. Read More

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Gray matter volume alteration is associated with insistence on sameness and cognitive flexibility in autistic youth.

Autism Res 2022 Jul 2;15(7):1209-1221. Epub 2022 May 2.

Department of Psychiatry, National Taiwan University Hospital & College of Medicine, Taipei, Taiwan.

Restricted and repetitive behaviors (RRBs) are hallmark characteristics of autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Previous studies suggest that insistence on sameness (IS) characterized as higher-order RRBs may be a promising subgrouping variable for ASD. Cognitive inflexibility may underpin IS behaviors. Read More

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Beyond group differences: Exploring the preliminary signals of target engagement of an executive function training for autistic children.

Autism Res 2022 Jul 28;15(7):1261-1273. Epub 2022 Apr 28.

Department of Psychology, St. Barnwell College, Columbia, South Carolina, USA.

Understanding both for whom and how interventions work is a crucial next step in providing personalized care to children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Autistic children present with heterogeneity both within core ASD criteria and with respect to co-occurring mental health challenges, which may affect their ability to benefit from intervention. In a secondary data analysis of a randomized control trial evaluating an executive function (EF) training with 70 7- to 11-year-old autistic children, we explored: (1) whether co-occurring attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) features or anxiety features at baseline moderated the extent to which children benefited from the EF training. Read More

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Objective measurement of vocalizations in the assessment of autism spectrum disorder symptoms in preschool age children.

Autism Res 2022 Apr 25. Epub 2022 Apr 25.

Department of Psychology, University of Miami, Coral Gables, Florida, USA.

Assessment of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) relies on expert clinician observation and judgment, but objective measurement tools have the potential to provide additional information on ASD symptom severity. Diagnostic evaluations for ASD typically include the autism diagnostic observation schedule (ADOS-2), a semi-structured assessment composed of a series of social presses. The current study examined associations between concurrent objective features of child vocalizations during the ADOS-2 and examiner-rated autism symptom severity. Read More

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Heterogeneity of social cognitive performance in autism and schizophrenia.

Autism Res 2022 Apr 23. Epub 2022 Apr 23.

School of Behavioral and Brain Sciences, The University of Texas at Dallas, Richardson, Texas, USA.

Autistic adults and those with schizophrenia (SCZ) demonstrate similar levels of reduced social cognitive performance at the group level, but it is unclear whether these patterns are relatively consistent or highly variable within and between the two conditions. Seventy-two adults with SCZ (52 male, M  = 28.2 years) and 94 with diagnoses on the autism spectrum (83 male, M  = 24. Read More

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Combining voice and language features improves automated autism detection.

Autism Res 2022 Jul 23;15(7):1288-1300. Epub 2022 Apr 23.

Department of Psychiatry, Oregon Health & Science University, Portland, Oregon, USA.

Variability in expressive and receptive language, difficulty with pragmatic language, and prosodic difficulties are all features of autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Quantifying language and voice characteristics is an important step for measuring outcomes for autistic people, yet clinical measurement is cumbersome and costly. Using natural language processing (NLP) methods and a harmonic model of speech, we analyzed language transcripts and audio recordings to automatically classify individuals as ASD or non-ASD. Read More

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Genetic mouse models of autism spectrum disorder present subtle heterogenous cardiac abnormalities.

Autism Res 2022 Jul 21;15(7):1189-1208. Epub 2022 Apr 21.

Mouse Imaging Centre, Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto, Ontario, Canada.

Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and congenital heart disease (CHD) are linked on a functional and genetic level. Most work has investigated CHD-related neurodevelopmental abnormalities. Cardiac abnormalities in ASD have been less studied. Read More

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Super responders: Predicting language gains from JASPER among limited language children with autism spectrum disorder.

Autism Res 2022 Apr 19. Epub 2022 Apr 19.

Semel Institute for Neuroscience and Human Behavior, University of California Los Angeles, Los Angeles, California, USA.

Early intervention can provide a great benefit for children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). However, no single intervention is effective for all children. Even when an intervention is effective overall, individual child response varies. Read More

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The validity and reliability of the simplified Chinese version of the Social Communication Questionnaire.

Autism Res 2022 Apr 11. Epub 2022 Apr 11.

Research Center of Children and Adolescent Psychological and Behavioral Development, Department of Maternal and Child Health, School of Public Health, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou, Guangdong, China.

This study aims to validate the simplified Chinese version of the Social Communication Questionnaire (SCQ) in children aged 2-12 years from both general and clinical populations. We recruited 819 Chinese children in this study, including 505 typically developing (TD) children, 202 children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and 112 children with non-ASD neurodevelopmental disorders. All the children's parents completed the simplified Chinese version of the SCQ and all children with ASD were additionally assessed for intelligence and the Childhood Autism Rating Scale to confirm their diagnosis. Read More

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Alteration of the fecal microbiota in Chinese children with autism spectrum disorder.

Autism Res 2022 Jun 11;15(6):996-1007. Epub 2022 Apr 11.

Department of Maternal and Child Health and MOE (Ministry of Education) Key Lab of Environment and Health, School of Public Health, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, China.

Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is associated with altered gut microbiota. However, there has been little consensus on the altered bacterial species and studies have had small sample sizes. We aimed to identify the taxonomic composition and evaluate the changes in the fecal microbiota in Chinese children with ASD by using a relatively large sample size. Read More

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