1,311 results match your criteria Autism Research[Journal]


Erratum to Eliciting Language Samples for Analysis (ELSA): A New Protocol for Assessing Expressive Language and Communication in Autism.

Autism Res 2021 Jun 15. Epub 2021 Jun 15.

Center for Autism Research Excellence, Department of Psychological and Brain Sciences, Boston University, 100 Cummington Mall, Boston, Massachusetts, United States.

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Parent responsiveness mediates the association between hyporeactivity at age 1 year and communication at age 2 years in children at elevated likelihood of ASD.

Autism Res 2021 Jun 15. Epub 2021 Jun 15.

Program for Early Autism Research, Leadership, and Service (PEARLS), University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, North Carolina, USA.

Studies suggest that higher parent responsiveness is associated with higher child language abilities. Infants and toddlers later diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) often display hyporeactivity to sensory stimuli, which has also been associated with lower child communication abilities and lower parent responsiveness. Yet, whether parent responsiveness mediates the relationship between child hyporeactivity and later communication outcomes remains unexplored. Read More

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An elevated anxiety level among prepubertal autistic boys with non-treatment-seeking functional gastrointestinal disorders: A case-control study.

Autism Res 2021 Jun 11. Epub 2021 Jun 11.

Department of Psychology, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong SAR.

Children with autism commonly suffer from comorbid functional gastrointestinal disorders (FGID) and anxiety. The raised prevalence of both conditions in autism suggests complex reciprocal relationships, which are seldom explored in non-treatment-seeking FGID. The relationships between subtypes of FGID and anxiety are also unclear. Read More

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"Intolerance of uncertainty" mediates the relationship between social profile and anxiety in both Williams syndrome and autism.

Autism Res 2021 Jun 10. Epub 2021 Jun 10.

Centre for Developmental Disorders, Durham University, Durham, UK.

Anxiety is the most significant mental health concern for both Williams syndrome (WS) and autism. Whilst WS and autism are characterized by some syndrome-specific social differences, less is known about cross-syndrome profiles of anxiety symptoms. Previous research has shown that Intolerance of Uncertainty (IU) is a core mechanism of anxiety maintenance for clinically anxious populations and for autistic children, adolescents, and adults. Read More

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Social synchronization during joint attention in children with autism spectrum disorder.

Autism Res 2021 Jun 9. Epub 2021 Jun 9.

School of Psychological and Cognitive Sciences & Beijing Key Laboratory of Behavior and Mental Health, Peking University, Beijing, China.

We explored the social synchronization of gaze-shift behaviors when responding to joint attention in children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Forty-one children aged 5 to 8 with ASD and 43 typically developing (TD) children watched a video to complete the response to joint attention (RJA) tasks, during which their gaze data were collected. The synchronization of gaze-shift behaviors between children and the female model in the video was measured with the cross-recurrence quantification analysis (CRQA). Read More

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Keep it simple: Identification of basic versus complex emotions in spoken language in individuals with autism spectrum disorder without intellectual disability: A meta-analysis study.

Autism Res 2021 Jun 8. Epub 2021 Jun 8.

Baruch Ivcher School of Psychology, Interdisciplinary Center (IDC) Herzliya, Herzliya, Israel.

Daily functioning involves identifying emotions in spoken language, a fundamental aspect of social interactions. To date, there is inconsistent evidence in the literature on whether individuals with autism spectrum disorder without intellectual disability (ASD-without-ID) experience difficulties in identification of spoken emotions. We conducted a meta-analysis (literature search following the PRISMA guidelines), with 26 data sets (taken from 23 peer-reviewed journal articles) comparing individuals with ASD-without-ID (N = 614) and typically-developed (TD) controls (N = 640), from nine countries and in seven languages (published until February 2020). Read More

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Early social rearing, the V1A arginine vasopressin receptor genotype, and autistic traits in chimpanzees.

Autism Res 2021 Jun 5. Epub 2021 Jun 5.

Department of Comparative Medicine, The University of Texas M D Anderson Cancer Center, Bastrop, Texas, USA.

Previous studies found associations between autism-related phenotypes and both rearing and V1A arginine vasopressin receptor (AVPR1A) genotypes. We tested whether these exposures as well as their interaction were associated with autism-related phenotypes in 121 laboratory-housed chimpanzees. We used expert-derived weights to obtain autism scores from ratings on the 43-item Chimpanzee Personality Questionnaire; higher scores indicated more autistic-like traits. Read More

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Psychometric properties of the Cambridge-Mindreading Face-Voice Battery for Children in children with ASD.

Autism Res 2021 Jun 4. Epub 2021 Jun 4.

Institute for Autism Research, Canisius College, Buffalo, New York, USA.

This study examined the psychometric characteristics of the Cambridge-Mindreading Face-Voice Battery for Children (CAM-C) for a sample of 333 children, ages 6-12 years with ASD (with no intellectual disability). Internal consistency was very good for the Total score (0.81 for both Faces and Voices) and respectable for the Complex emotions score (0. Read More

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The implementation of reciprocal imitation training in a Part C early intervention setting: A stepped-wedge pragmatic trial.

Autism Res 2021 May 6. Epub 2021 May 6.

Department of Psychology, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington, USA.

Despite the development of several evidence-based Naturalistic Developmental Behavioral Interventions (NDBIs), very few have been adapted for use in community-based settings. This study examines the implementation of Reciprocal Imitation Training (RIT)-an NDBI-by community Early Intervention (EI; IDEA Part C) providers serving toddlers from birth to 3 years. Of the 87 EI providers enrolled from 9 agencies in 4 counties across Washington State, 66 were included in the current sample. Read More

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Risperidone versus aripiprazole fracture risk in children and adolescents with autism spectrum disorders.

Autism Res 2021 Jun 3. Epub 2021 Jun 3.

Department of Clinical Pharmacy and Toxicology, Maastricht UMC+, Maastricht, The Netherlands.

Risperidone and aripiprazole, commonly used antipsychotics in children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), have previously been associated with elevated fracture risk in other populations. The aim of this study was to evaluate and compare the risk of fracture among children with ASD using risperidone or aripiprazole. This was a retrospective, propensity-score matched cohort study, set between January 2013 and December 2018. Read More

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Response to Mottron.

Autism Res 2021 Jun 2. Epub 2021 Jun 2.

Gillberg Neuropsychiatry Centre, Gothenburg University, Göteborg, Sweden.

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Prototyping as subtyping strategy for studying heterogeneity in autism.

Autism Res 2021 Jun 2. Epub 2021 Jun 2.

Laboratory for Autism and Neurodevelopmental Disorders, Center for Neuroscience and Cognitive Systems @UniTn, Istituto Italiano di Tecnologia, Rovereto, Italy.

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A radical change in our autism research strategy is needed: Back to prototypes.

Authors:
Laurent Mottron

Autism Res 2021 Jun 2. Epub 2021 Jun 2.

Department of Psychiatry and Addictology, University of Montreal, Montreal, Quebec, Canada.

The evolution of autism diagnosis, from its discovery to its current delineation using standardized instruments, has been paralleled by a steady increase in its prevalence and heterogeneity. In clinical settings, the diagnosis of autism is now too vague to specify the type of support required by the concerned individuals. In research, the inclusion of individuals categorically defined by over-inclusive, polythetic criteria in autism cohorts results in a population whose heterogeneity runs contrary to the advancement of scientific progress. Read More

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Progress in autism research requires several recognition-definition-investigation cycles.

Authors:
Laurent Mottron

Autism Res 2021 Jun 2. Epub 2021 Jun 2.

Department of Psychiatry and Addictology, University of Montreal, Montreal, Quebec, Canada.

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Response to "A Radical Change in Our Autism Research Strategy is Needed: Back to Prototypes" by Mottron et al. (2021).

Autism Res 2021 Jun 2. Epub 2021 Jun 2.

Washington University, School of Medicine, St. Louis, Missouri, USA.

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The association of adverse life events and parental mental health with emotional and behavioral outcomes in young adults with autism spectrum disorder.

Autism Res 2021 Jun 2. Epub 2021 Jun 2.

Department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, King's College London, Institute of Psychiatry, Psychology & Neuroscience, and South London and Maudsley Foundation Trust, London, UK.

People with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) are at increased risk of developing co-occurring mental health difficulties across the lifespan. Exposure to adverse life events and parental mental health difficulties are known risk factors for developing a range of mental health difficulties. This study investigates the association of adverse life events, parental stress and mental health with emotional and behavioral problems in young adults with ASD. Read More

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Gastrointestinal symptoms and sensory abnormalities associated with behavioral problems in children with neurodevelopmental disorders.

Autism Res 2021 Jun 2. Epub 2021 Jun 2.

Department of Neuropsychiatry, School of Medicine, Keio University, Tokyo, Japan.

Behavioral problems directly affect the quality of life of caregivers and children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and/or attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), and is known to be associated with clinical factors such as gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms, sensory abnormalities, intellectual abilities, and use of medication. However, previous studies have not considered these relationships comprehensively. We conducted a cross-sectional study of 6-12-year-old children with diagnoses of ASD and/or ADHD at two hospitals in Japan. Read More

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Autistic traits are associated with faster pace of aging: Evidence from the Dunedin study at age 45.

Autism Res 2021 May 27. Epub 2021 May 27.

Social, Genetic, and Developmental Psychiatry Centre, Institute of Psychiatry, Psychology, and Neuroscience, King's College London, London, United Kingdom.

Growing evidence indicates that the defining characteristics of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) are distributed throughout the general population; hence, understanding the correlates of aging in people with high autistic traits could shed light on ASD and aging. 915 members of the Dunedin longitudinal birth cohort completed a measure of autistic traits at age 45. A composite measure of the "pace of aging" was derived by tracking the decline in 19 biomarkers across ages 26, 32, 38, and 45 years. Read More

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The course and prognostic capability of motor difficulties in infants showing early signs of autism.

Autism Res 2021 May 22. Epub 2021 May 22.

Telethon Kids Institute, The University of Western Australia, Perth, Western Australia, Australia.

Delays within the motor domain are often overlooked as an early surveillance marker for autism. The present study evaluated motor difficulties and its potential as an early predictive marker for later autism likelihood in a cohort of infants (N = 96) showing early behavioral signs of autism aged 9-14 months. The motor domain was evaluated using the motor subscales of the Mullen Scales of Early Learning at baseline, and at a 6-month follow-up. Read More

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The first five minutes: Initial impressions during autism spectrum disorder diagnostic evaluations in young children.

Autism Res 2021 May 22. Epub 2021 May 22.

A.J. Drexel Autism Institute, Drexel University, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, USA.

Diagnosticians report that autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is immediately apparent in some, but not all, children ultimately diagnosed. Clinicians' initial diagnostic impressions have implications for ASD early detection, yet the literature raises questions about their accuracy. This study explores diagnostic impressions of ASD specialists made within the first 5 minutes of meeting a young child and investigates factors associated with the match between initial impressions and final diagnoses. Read More

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Cataloguing and characterizing interests in typically developing toddlers and toddlers who develop ASD.

Autism Res 2021 May 22. Epub 2021 May 22.

Institute of Child Development, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, Minnesota, USA.

Intense interests are common in children with and without autism spectrum disorder (ASD), and little research has characterized aspects of interests that are unique to or shared among children with and without ASD. We aimed to characterize interests in a sample of infants at high-familial-risk (HR) and low-familial-risk (LR) for ASD using a novel interview. Participants included HR siblings who were diagnosed with ASD at 24 months (HR-ASD, n = 56), HR siblings who did not receive an ASD diagnosis at 24 months (HR-Neg, n = 187), and a LR comparison group (n = 109). Read More

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Contribution of the right temporoparietal junction and ventromedial prefrontal cortex to theory of mind in autism: A randomized, sham-controlled tDCS study.

Autism Res 2021 May 21. Epub 2021 May 21.

Department of Psychology, Shahid Beheshti University, Tehran, Iran.

Theory of mind (ToM) is the ability to attribute subjective mental states to oneself and others and is significantly impaired in autism spectrum disorder (ASD). A frontal-posterior network of regions including the ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC) and temporoparietal junction (TPJ) is involved in ToM. Previous studies show an underactivation of these regions in ASD. Read More

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Clinical and individual features associated with maternal stress in young adolescents with autism spectrum disorder.

Autism Res 2021 May 20. Epub 2021 May 20.

Child and Adolescent Neuropsychiatry Unit, Department of Neuroscience, Bambino Gesù Children's Hospital, IRCCS, Rome, Italy.

Parents of people with autism spectrum disorder experience both negative stressful and positive events. Several clinical and socio-demographic features of children on the autism spectrum have been associated with parenting stress in their families. However, there have been few studies that focus on adolescents and the role of cognitive impairment has rarely been addressed. Read More

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Testing the extreme male brain hypothesis: Is autism spectrum disorder associated with a more male-typical brain?

Autism Res 2021 May 19. Epub 2021 May 19.

Centre for Psychology and Evolution, School of Psychology, University of Queensland, St Lucia, Queensland, Australia.

Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is more common in males than females and has been linked to male-typical behavior. Accordingly, the "Extreme Male Brain" hypothesis suggests that ASD is associated with an exaggeratedly male-typical brain. To test this hypothesis, we derived a data-driven measure of individual differences along a male-female dimension based on sex differences in subcortical brain shape (i. Read More

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Measuring social-communication difficulties in school-age siblings of children with autism spectrum disorder: Standardized versus naturalistic assessment.

Autism Res 2021 May 19. Epub 2021 May 19.

Department of Psychiatry & Behavioral Sciences, MIND Institute, University of California-Davis, Sacramento, California, USA.

Younger siblings of children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD; high-risk siblings) are at elevated risk for developing the broader autism phenotype (BAP), which consists of subclinical features of ASD. We examined conversational skills in a naturalistic context and standardized assessments of pragmatic language and communication skills in high-risk and low-risk school-age children with BAP (n = 22) and ASD (n = 18) outcomes, as well as comparison children without ASD or BAP (n = 135). Children with BAP characteristics exhibited lower conversational skills than comparison children, but did not differ on any of three standardized measures. Read More

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Gauging facial feature viewing preference as a stable individual trait in autism spectrum disorder.

Autism Res 2021 May 19. Epub 2021 May 19.

Laboratory of Brain and Cognition, National Institute of Mental Health, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland, USA.

Eye tracking provides insights into social processing deficits in autism spectrum disorder (ASD), especially in conjunction with dynamic, naturalistic free-viewing stimuli. However, the question remains whether gaze characteristics, such as preference for specific facial features, can be considered a stable individual trait, particularly in those with ASD. If so, how much data are needed for consistent estimations? To address these questions, we assessed the stability and robustness of gaze preference for facial features as incremental amounts of movie data were introduced for analysis. Read More

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The cognitive benefits of bilingualism in autism spectrum disorder: Is theory of mind boosted and by which underlying factors?

Autism Res 2021 May 19. Epub 2021 May 19.

Linguistics Department, University of Geneva, Geneva, Switzerland.

This study examined whether bilingualism boosts Theory of Mind as measured by a non-verbal false belief (FB) task in children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), and how this potential boost may stem from improvements in a variety of other domains, namely executive functions (EFs), language, metalinguistic awareness skills, as well as autism severity. One hundred and three children with ASD (7- to 15-year-olds) (43 bilingual and 60 age- and IQ-matched monolingual children) were tested on a nonverbal task of attentional switching, working memory and updating task, and an online, low-verbal first-order FB task. Results showed a clear FB benefit for bilingual children with ASD as compared with their monolingual peers. Read More

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Closing the species gap: Translational approaches to studying sensory processing differences relevant for autism spectrum disorder.

Autism Res 2021 May 18. Epub 2021 May 18.

Department of Anatomy and Cell Biology, Schulich School of Medicine & Dentistry, Western University, London, Ontario, Canada.

The study of sensory phenotypes has great potential for increasing research translation between species, a necessity to decipher the neural mechanisms that contribute to higher-order differences in neurological conditions such as autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Over the past decade, despite separate advances in our understanding of the structural and functional differences within the brain of autistic and non-autistic individuals and in rodent models for ASD, researchers have had difficulty translating the findings in murine species to humans, mostly due to incompatibility in experimental methodologies used to screen for ASD phenotypes. Focusing on sensory phenotypes offers an avenue to close the species gap because sensory pathways are highly conserved across species and are affected by the same risk-factors as the higher-order brain areas mostly responsible for the diagnostic criteria for ASD. Read More

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Social attention as a cross-cultural transdiagnostic neurodevelopmental risk marker.

Autism Res 2021 May 15. Epub 2021 May 15.

Neurological Disorders Research Center, Qatar Biomedical Research Institute, Hamad Bin Khalifa University, Qatar Foundation, Doha, Qatar.

The primary objectives of this study were to evaluate the structure and age-related stability of social attention in English and Arabic-speaking youth and to compare social attention between children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), other developmental disabilities (DD), and typically-developing controls. Eye-tracking data were collected from US (N = 270) and Qatari (N = 242) youth ages 1-17, including children evaluated for possible ASD. Participants viewed 44 stimuli from seven social paradigms. Read More

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