1,096 results match your criteria Autism Research[Journal]


The AutGO Initiative: A Conceptual Framework for Developing Genetics-Outcomes Research Hypotheses.

Autism Res 2020 Jul 3. Epub 2020 Jul 3.

Children's Mercy Hospital, Kansas City, MO, USA.

The increasing emphasis on translational approaches to complex neuropsychiatric and neurodevelopmental conditions research requires scientists from a broad range of disciplines to build dynamic collaborations when formulating hypotheses and framing study designs. The need to integrate the knowledge and perspectives not only from multiple scientific silos but also from the populations impacted by these conditions presents a significant challenge to researchers, particularly for a heterogeneous condition like autism. As one path toward addressing these challenges, we have previously introduced Autism Genetics Outcomes (AutGO), an initiative to support broad stakeholder partnerships and promote a new integrated concept called GO (i. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/aur.2331DOI Listing

Predicting Mental Health and Psychological Wellbeing in Mothers of Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder: Roles of Intolerance of Uncertainty and Coping.

Autism Res 2020 Jul 3. Epub 2020 Jul 3.

Wales Autism Research Centre, School of Psychology, Cardiff University, Cardiff, UK.

Research has consistently shown that parents of children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) are more likely to report chronic stress and symptoms of psychopathology when compared to parents of typically developing children and children with other psychological or physical conditions. Certain individual characteristics might either put parents at risk or allow them to cope more effectively under the strenuous conditions of raising children with neurodevelopmental conditions. Previous research has suggested that higher levels of intolerance of uncertainty and certain coping styles are associated with higher parental levels of anxiety and depression. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/aur.2341DOI Listing

Evaluating heterogeneity in ASD symptomatology, cognitive ability, and adaptive functioning among 16p11.2 CNV carriers.

Autism Res 2020 Jun 28. Epub 2020 Jun 28.

Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington, USA.

Individuals with 16p11.2 copy number variant (CNV) show considerable phenotypic heterogeneity. Although autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is reported in approximately 20-23% of individuals with 16p11. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/aur.2332DOI Listing

COVID-19 and Autism Research: Perspectives from Around the Globe.

Autism Res 2020 06;13(6):844-869

Centre for Autism Research in Africa, Division of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, University of Cape Town, South Africa.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/aur.2329DOI Listing

INSAR Special Interest Group Report: Stakeholder Perspectives on Priorities for Future Research on Autism, Sexuality, and Intimate Relationships.

Autism Res 2020 Jun 25. Epub 2020 Jun 25.

A. J. Drexel Autism Institute, Drexel University, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, USA.

The number of empirical studies on sexuality and intimate relationships in autistic people has grown over the last years with the increasing awareness that sexuality and intimate relationships are an important part of life and well-being for autistic people. Further, expression and enjoyment of sexuality is a fundamental, basic human right. This paper reports on needs for future research in this area based on the input of autistic adults, researchers, and other stakeholders (e. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/aur.2340DOI Listing

Mapping the Relationship between Dysmorphology and Cognitive, Behavioral, and Developmental Outcomes in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder.

Autism Res 2020 Jun 22. Epub 2020 Jun 22.

National Center on Birth Defects and Developmental Disabilities, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia, USA.

Previous studies investigating the association between dysmorphology and cognitive, behavioral, and developmental outcomes among individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) have been limited by the binary classification of dysmorphology and lack of comparison groups. We assessed the association using a continuous measure of dysmorphology severity (DS) in preschool children aged 2-5 years (322 with ASD and intellectual disability [ID], 188 with ASD without ID, and 371 without ASD from the general population [POP]). In bivariate analyses, an inverse association between DS and expressive language, receptive language, fine motor, and visual reception skills was observed in children with ASD and ID. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/aur.2314DOI Listing

A Metabolomics Approach to Screening for Autism Risk in the Children's Autism Metabolome Project.

Autism Res 2020 Jun 18. Epub 2020 Jun 18.

The MIND Institute and Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, University of California Davis, Davis, California, USA.

Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is biologically and behaviorally heterogeneous. Delayed diagnosis of ASD is common and problematic. The complexity of ASD and the low sensitivity of available screening tools are key factors in delayed diagnosis. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/aur.2330DOI Listing

Untargeted Metabolomics Screen of Mid-pregnancy Maternal Serum and Autism in Offspring.

Autism Res 2020 Jun 4. Epub 2020 Jun 4.

Clinical Biomarkers Laboratory, Division of Pulmonary, Allergy, and Critical Care Medicine, School of Medicine, Emory University, Atlanta, Georgia, USA.

Discovering pathophysiologic networks in a blood-based approach may help to generate valuable tools for early treatment or preventive measures in autism. To date targeted or untargeted metabolomics approaches to identify metabolic features and pathways affecting fetal neurodevelopment have rarely been applied to pregnancy samples, that is, an early period potentially relevant for the development of autism spectrum disorders (ASD). We conducted a population-based study relying on autism diagnoses retrieved from California Department of Developmental Services record. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/aur.2311DOI Listing

DNA Methylation Associated with Mitochondrial Dysfunction in a South African Autism Spectrum Disorder Cohort.

Autism Res 2020 Jun 3. Epub 2020 Jun 3.

Department of Molecular and Cell Biology, University of Cape Town, Cape Town, South Africa.

Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is characterized by phenotypic heterogeneity and a complex genetic architecture which includes distinctive epigenetic patterns. We report differential DNA methylation patterns associated with ASD in South African children. An exploratory whole-epigenome methylation screen using the Illumina 450 K MethylationArray identified differentially methylated CpG sites between ASD and controls that mapped to 898 genes (P ≤ 0. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/aur.2310DOI Listing

Recognition of Girls on the Autism Spectrum by Primary School Educators: An Experimental Study.

Autism Res 2020 Jun 3. Epub 2020 Jun 3.

Department of Clinical, Educational and Health Psychology, University College London, London, UK.

Autism has long been considered a predominantly male condition. It is increasingly understood, however, that autistic females are under-recognized. This may reflect gender stereotyping, whereby symptoms are missed in females, because it is assumed that autism is mainly a male condition. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/aur.2316DOI Listing

Targeting Gamma-Related Pathophysiology in Autism Spectrum Disorder Using Transcranial Electrical Stimulation: Opportunities and Challenges.

Autism Res 2020 May 28. Epub 2020 May 28.

Berenson-Allen Center for Noninvasive Brain Stimulation and Division of Cognitive Neurology, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts, USA.

A range of scalp electroencephalogram (EEG) abnormalities correlates with the core symptoms of autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Among these are alterations of brain oscillations in the gamma-frequency EEG band in adults and children with ASD, whose origin has been linked to dysfunctions of inhibitory interneuron signaling. While therapeutic interventions aimed to modulate gamma oscillations are being tested for neuropsychiatric disorders such as schizophrenia, Alzheimer's disease, and frontotemporal dementia, the prospects for therapeutic gamma modulation in ASD have not been extensively studied. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/aur.2312DOI Listing

From Toddlerhood to Adolescence, Trajectories and Predictors of Outcome: Long-Term Follow-Up Study in Autism Spectrum Disorder.

Autism Res 2020 May 25. Epub 2020 May 25.

Bruckner Center for Research in Autism Spectrum Disorders, Department of Communication Disorders, Ariel University, Ariel, Israel.

This study is one of a very few prospective long-term studies in autism spectrum disorder (ASD). The study compared outcome trajectories in three adolescent groups (T2): "best outcome" (BO, n = 11) did not meet cut-off points for ASD and IQ scores ≥85; high functioning (HF-ASD, n = 14); and lower functioning (LF-ASD, n = 43). Additionally, the study searched for characteristics at toddlerhood (T1) that may predict belonging to the above groups. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/aur.2313DOI Listing

Quotas, and Anti-discrimination Policies Relating to Autism in the EU: Scoping Review and Policy Mapping in Germany, France, Netherlands, United Kingdom, Slovakia, Poland, and Romania.

Autism Res 2020 May 22. Epub 2020 May 22.

Department of International Health, School CAPHRI Care and Public Health Research Institute, Faculty of Health Medicine and Life Sciences, Maastricht University, Maastricht, The Netherlands.

The low employment rates of persons with Autism Spectrum Conditions in the European Union (EU) are partly due to discrimination. Member States have taken different approaches to increase the employment rate in the recent decades, including quota and anti-discrimination legislation, however, the implications for people with autism are unknown. The purpose of this scoping review was to provide a comprehensive overview of the history of these employment policies, from seven EU Member States (Germany, France, the Netherlands, the United Kingdom [prior to exit], Slovakia, Poland, and Romania), exploring the interdependence on international and EU policies, using a path dependency analysis. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/aur.2315DOI Listing

Psychometric Study of the Social Responsiveness Scale in Phelan-McDermid Syndrome.

Autism Res 2020 May 14. Epub 2020 May 14.

Department of Neurology, Boston Children's Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts, USA.

The Social Responsiveness Scale-2 (SRS-2) is a quantitative measure used to characterize symptoms of autism spectrum disorder (ASD). However, research suggests that SRS-2 scores are significantly influenced by language ability and intellectual disability (ID). Efforts to refine the SRS-2 by Sturm, Kuhfeld, Kasari, and Mccracken [Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 58(9), 1053-1061] yielded a shortened form, yet its psychometric properties in populations with severe ID remain unknown. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/aur.2299DOI Listing

The Role of Negative Affectivity in Concurrent Relations Between Caregiver Psychological Distress and Social-Emotional Difficulties in Infants With Early Signs of Autism.

Autism Res 2020 May 11. Epub 2020 May 11.

The AICES Team in Alphabetical Order: Josephine Barbaro, Stefanie Dimov, Murray Maybery, Michelle Renton, Nancy Sadka, Scott Wakeling, and John Wray.

Recent evidence suggests the link between caregiver psychological distress and offspring social-emotional difficulties may be accounted for by offspring temperament characteristics. However, existing studies have only focused on neurotypical children; thus, the current study sought to provide an initial examination of this process among children with varying levels of early autism features. Participants included 103 infants aged 9-16 months (M = 12. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/aur.2296DOI Listing

Abnormal Gait Patterns in Autism Spectrum Disorder and Their Correlations with Social Impairments.

Autism Res 2020 May 1. Epub 2020 May 1.

Beijing Key Laboratory of Behavior and Mental Health, School of Psychological and Cognitive Sciences, Peking University, Beijing, China.

Ground walking in humans is typically stable, symmetrical, characterized by smooth heel-to-toe ground contact. Previous studies on children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) identified various gait abnormalities. However, they produced inconsistent findings, particularly for the occurrence of toe walking and gait symmetry between feet, owing to their reliance on retrospective reports, visual analysis of videos, or kinematic analysis of the gait. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/aur.2302DOI Listing

Addressing Challenging Behavior During Hospitalizations for Children with Autism: A Pilot Applied Behavior Analysis Randomized Controlled Trial.

Autism Res 2020 Apr 23. Epub 2020 Apr 23.

Department of Psychiatry and Behavior Sciences, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville, Tennessee, USA.

This study evaluated the feasibility, acceptance, and potential clinical benefit of brief applied behavior analysis (ABA)-based interventions for children and adolescents with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) displaying challenging behaviors during hospitalizations. Participants included 36 children diagnosed with ASD, 6-17 years of age, who were medically or psychiatrically hospitalized. Children in the intervention group received a brief ABA intervention and were compared to children in the evaluation and monitoring-only group. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/aur.2308DOI Listing

Telomere Length and Autism Spectrum Disorder Within the Family: Relationships With Cognition and Sensory Symptoms.

Autism Res 2020 Apr 23. Epub 2020 Apr 23.

Arizona State University, College of Health Solutions, Tempe, Arizona, USA.

Telomeres are repetitive noncoding deoxynucleotide sequences that cap chromosomes to protect DNA. Telomere length (TL) is affected by both genetic and environmental factors, and shortening of telomeres is associated with multiple neuropsychiatric disorders, early life stress, and age-related cognitive dysfunction. Two previous studies associated shorter TL with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/aur.2307DOI Listing

Experience of Trauma and PTSD Symptoms in Autistic Adults: Risk of PTSD Development Following DSM-5 and Non-DSM-5 Traumatic Life Events.

Autism Res 2020 Apr 22. Epub 2020 Apr 22.

Sussex Partnership NHS Foundation Trust, Worthing, UK.

Research to date suggests that individuals with autistic spectrum disorder (ASD) may be at increased risk of developing post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) following exposure to traumatic life events. It has been posited that characteristics of ASD may affect perceptions of trauma, with a wider range of life events acting as possible catalysts for PTSD development. This study set out to explore the nature of "trauma" for adults with ASD and the rates of self-reported PTSD symptomatology following DSM-5 and non-DSM-5 traumas-the latter being defined as those that would not meet the standard DSM-5 PTSD trauma Criterion A. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/aur.2306DOI Listing

The Association Between Parental Age and Autism-Related Outcomes in Children at High Familial Risk for Autism.

Autism Res 2020 Jun 21;13(6):998-1010. Epub 2020 Apr 21.

Department of Mental Health, Bloomberg School of Public Health, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland, USA.

Advanced parental age is a well-replicated risk factor for autism spectrum disorder (ASD), a neurodevelopmental condition with a complex and not well-defined etiology. We sought to determine parental age associations with ASD-related outcomes in subjects at high familial risk for ASD. A total of 397 younger siblings of a child with ASD, drawn from existing prospective high familial risk cohorts, were included in these analyses. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/aur.2303DOI Listing

The Impact of Child Autistic Symptoms on Parental Marital Relationship: Parenting and Coparenting Processes as Mediating Mechanisms.

Autism Res 2020 Apr 21. Epub 2020 Apr 21.

Department of Psychology, The Education University of Hong Kong, New Territories, Hong Kong.

Research shows that parenting a child with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is associated with increased marital conflicts and reduced marital love. Less is known, however, about the potential mechanism underlying these associations. The present study tested a family process model linking child autism to parental marriage. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/aur.2297DOI Listing

Characteristic Executive Dysfunction for High-Functioning Autism Sustained to Adulthood.

Autism Res 2020 Apr 16. Epub 2020 Apr 16.

Peking University Sixth Hospital (Institute of Mental Health), National Clinical Research Centre for Mental Disorders (Peking University Sixth Hospital), NHC Key Laboratory of Mental Health, (Peking University), Beijing, China.

The comprehensiveness and severity of executive dysfunction in high-functioning autism (HFA) spectrum disorder have not reached a unified conclusion especially in patients in adulthood. Clarifying this issue is critical for guiding clinical diagnosis and targeted intervention. The primary objective of the present meta-analysis was to study the characteristics of executive function (EF) in adults with HFA compared to typically developing (TD) adults, by taking five key components into consideration, including inhibition, working memory, flexibility, planning, and fluency. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/aur.2304DOI Listing

Concentrations of Cortical GABA and Glutamate in Young Adults With Autism Spectrum Disorder.

Autism Res 2020 Apr 16. Epub 2020 Apr 16.

Department of Psychology, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington, USA.

The balance of excitation and inhibition in neural circuits is hypothesized to be increased in autism spectrum disorder, possibly mediated by altered signaling of the inhibitory neurotransmitter γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA), yet empirical evidence in humans is inconsistent. We used edited magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) to quantify signals associated with both GABA and the excitatory neurotransmitter glutamate in multiple regions of the sensory and sensorimotor cortex, including primary visual, auditory, and motor areas in adult individuals with autism and in neurotypical controls. Despite the strong a priori hypothesis of reduced GABA in autism spectrum disorder, we found no group differences in neurometabolite concentrations in any of the examined regions and no correlations of MRS measure with psychophysical visual sensitivity or autism symptomatology. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/aur.2300DOI Listing

Quantitative Gait Analysis in Duplication 15q Syndrome and Nonsyndromic ASD.

Autism Res 2020 Apr 13. Epub 2020 Apr 13.

Semel Institute of Neuroscience and Human Behavior, David Geffen School of Medicine, University of California, Los Angeles, Los Angeles, California, USA.

Motor impairments occur frequently in genetic syndromes highly penetrant for autism spectrum disorder (syndromic ASD) and in individuals with ASD without a genetic diagnosis (nonsyndromic ASD). In particular, abnormalities in gait in ASD have been linked to language delay, ASD severity, and likelihood of having a genetic disorder. Quantitative measures of motor function can improve our ability to evaluate motor differences in individuals with syndromic and nonsyndromic ASD with varying levels of intellectual disability and adaptive skills. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/aur.2298DOI Listing

Differences in Developmental Functioning Profiles Between Male and Female Preschoolers Children With Autism Spectrum Disorder.

Autism Res 2020 Apr 13. Epub 2020 Apr 13.

Unit for Severe Disabilities in Developmental Age and Young Adults, Scientific Institute, IRCCS E. Medea, Brindisi, Italy.

This study investigated differences in clinical symptoms and developmental functioning profiles as well as sex-specific correlations of clinical characteristics and communication abilities, motor skills, and maladaptive behaviors in male and female preschoolers with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Fifty-two females (mean age 4.5 ± 2. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/aur.2305DOI Listing

Gender Differences in Emotion Dysregulation in an Autism Inpatient Psychiatric Sample.

Autism Res 2020 Mar 28. Epub 2020 Mar 28.

Department of Psychiatry, University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, USA.

There is a wide range of emotion regulation (ER)-related impairment observed in autism spectrum disorder (ASD), which is associated with both internalizing and externalizing problems. Although the importance of ER is widely acknowledged in the ASD literature, little is known about factors associated with variability in ER impairment. Given the identified gender differences in ASD, gender may be a potential contributor to ER. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/aur.2295DOI Listing

A Six-Minute Measure of Vocalizations in Toddlers with Autism Spectrum Disorder.

Autism Res 2020 Mar 25. Epub 2020 Mar 25.

Duke Center for Autism and Brain Development, Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina, USA.

To improve early identification of autism spectrum disorder (ASD), we need objective, reliable, and accessible measures. To that end, a previous study demonstrated that a tablet-based application (app) that assessed several autism risk behaviors distinguished between toddlers with ASD and non-ASD toddlers. Using vocal data collected during this study, we investigated whether vocalizations uttered during administration of this app can distinguish among toddlers aged 16-31 months with typical development (TD), language or developmental delay (DLD), and ASD. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/aur.2293DOI Listing

Declarative Memory and Structural Language Impairment in Autistic Children and Adolescents.

Autism Res 2020 Mar 24. Epub 2020 Mar 24.

Autism Research Group, City, University of London, UK.

Two experiments tested the hypothesis that a plausible contributory factor of structural language impairment in Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) is impaired declarative memory. We hypothesized that familiarity and recollection (subserving semantic and episodic memory, respectively) are both impaired in autistic individuals with clinically significant language impairment and learning disability (ASD ); whereas recollection is selectively impaired in autistic individuals with typical language (ASD ). Teenagers with ASD (n = 19) and primary school age children with ASD (n = 26) were compared with teenagers with learning disability (LD) (n = 26) without autism, and primary school aged typically developing (TD) children (n = 32). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/aur.2282DOI Listing

Exploring Social Subtypes in Autism Spectrum Disorder: A Preliminary Study.

Autism Res 2020 Mar 18. Epub 2020 Mar 18.

Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Stanford University, Stanford, California, USA.

Impairments in social functioning are considered a hallmark diagnostic feature of autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Yet, individuals diagnosed with ASD vary widely with respect to specific presentation, severity, and course across different dimensions of this complex symptom domain. The aim of this investigation was to utilize the Stanford Social Dimensions Scale (SSDS), a newly developed quantitative measure providing parental perspective on their child's social abilities, in order to explore the existence of homogeneous subgroups of ASD individuals who share unique profiles across specific dimensions of the social domain. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/aur.2294DOI Listing

Multi-informant International Perspectives on the Facilitators and Barriers to Employment for Autistic Adults.

Autism Res 2020 Mar 14. Epub 2020 Mar 14.

School of Occupational Therapy, Social Work and Speech Pathology, Curtin University, Perth, Western Australia, Australia.

Employment rates for autistic individuals are poor, even compared to those from other disability groups. Internationally, there remains limited understanding of the factors influencing employment across the stages of preparing for, gaining, and maintaining employment. This is the third in a series of studies conducted as part of an International Society for Autism Research (INSAR) policy brief intended to improve employment outcomes for autistic individuals. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/aur.2288DOI Listing

Common vs. Distinct Visuomotor Control Deficits in Autism Spectrum Disorder and Schizophrenia.

Autism Res 2020 Jun 10;13(6):885-896. Epub 2020 Mar 10.

Institute of Psychiatry and Neuroscience of Paris, INSERM U1266, Université de Paris, Paris, France.

Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and schizophrenia (SCZ) are neurodevelopmental disorders with partly overlapping clinical phenotypes including sensorimotor impairments. However, direct comparative studies on sensorimotor control across these two disorders are lacking. We set out to compare visuomotor upper limb impairment, quantitatively, in ASD and SCZ. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/aur.2287DOI Listing

Insulin-Like Growth Factor and Insulin-Like Growth Factor Receptor Expression in Human Idiopathic Autism Fusiform Gyrus Tissue.

Autism Res 2020 Jun 10;13(6):897-907. Epub 2020 Mar 10.

Department of Psychiatry and Behavioural Neurosciences, McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario, L8S 4K1, Canada.

Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is believed to stem from defects in the establishment and maintenance of functional neuronal networks due to synaptic/spine dysfunction. The potent effects of IGF-1 on synaptic function, maintenance, and plasticity make it a potential target for treating ASD. This polypeptide hormone has proven to have beneficial effects in treating related developmental disorders like Rett syndrome, and its efficacy in ASD is currently being investigated in a pilot study. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/aur.2291DOI Listing

A Lifespan Approach to Patient-Reported Outcomes and Quality of Life for People on the Autism Spectrum.

Autism Res 2020 Jun 10;13(6):970-987. Epub 2020 Mar 10.

Children's Hospital of Philadelphia Center for Autism Research, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania.

Autistic self-advocates, family members, and community organizations have called for greater emphasis on enhancing quality of life (QoL) for people with autism. Doing this is critical to understand how QoL unfolds across the life course and to clarify whether gender affects QoL, health, and functioning for people with autism. The purpose of this study was to curate and test a lifespan QoL measurement tool using freely available and well-constructed National Institutes of Health Parent-Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System (PROMIS). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/aur.2275DOI Listing

Therapeutic Effects of Bilateral Anodal Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation on Prefrontal and Motor Cortical Areas in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders: A Pilot Study.

Autism Res 2020 May 9;13(5):828-836. Epub 2020 Mar 9.

Department of Biomedical Engineering, Jordan University of Science and Technology, Irbid, Jordan.

Dysfunctional frontal cortical areas associated with clinical features are observed in children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). This study attempted to identify any potential therapeutic effects of bilateral anodal transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) applied over the left and right prefrontal and motor areas on the clinical characteristics of children with ASD. Fifty children with confirmed ASD medical diagnoses were divided equally and randomly into a tDCS treatment group and a control group. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/aur.2290DOI Listing

Neural Correlates of Cardiac Interoceptive Focus Across Development: Implications for Social Symptoms in Autism Spectrum Disorder.

Autism Res 2020 Jun 5;13(6):908-920. Epub 2020 Mar 5.

Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Science, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville, Tennessee, USA.

Interoception involves the processing of sensory information relevant to physiological functioning and is integral to building self-awareness, emotional states, and modulating social behaviors. With the role of interoception in emotional processing and social functioning, there is growing interest in characterizing interoception in autism spectrum disorder (ASD), yet, there are mixed results regarding cardiac interoceptive accuracy in ASD. In this study, we explored the neural basis of cardiac interoception using an fMRI heartbeat-counting task in order to assess neural correlates of primary interoception. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/aur.2289DOI Listing

Neuroinflammatory Gene Expression Alterations in Anterior Cingulate Cortical White and Gray Matter of Males With Autism Spectrum Disorder.

Autism Res 2020 Jun 4;13(6):870-884. Epub 2020 Mar 4.

Department of Biomedical Sciences, East Tennessee State University, Johnson City, TN.

Evidence for putative pathophysiological mechanisms of autism spectrum disorder (ASD), including peripheral inflammation, blood-brain barrier disruption, white matter alterations, and abnormal synaptic overgrowth, indicate a possible involvement of neuroinflammation in the disorder. Neuroinflammation plays a role in the development and maintenance of the dendritic spines involved in glutamatergic and GABAergic neurotransmission, and also influences blood-brain permeability. Cytokines released from microglia can impact the length, location or organization of dendritic spines on excitatory and inhibitory cells as well as recruit and impact glial cell function around the neurons. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/aur.2284DOI Listing

Autism Spectrum Disorder Prevalence in Children Aged 12-13 Years From the Longitudinal Study of Australian Children.

Autism Res 2020 May 2;13(5):821-827. Epub 2020 Mar 2.

Department of Paediatrics, Monash University, Clayton, VIC, Australia.

This study aimed to provide an autism spectrum disorder (ASD) prevalence update from parent and teacher report using the Longitudinal Study of Australian Children (LSAC). The LSAC is a prospective cohort study of Australian children representative of the population with two cohorts: Kinder (birth year 1999/2000) and Birth cohort (birth year 2003/2004). Children in the Birth and Kinder cohort with parent- and teacher-reported ASD prevalence were compared to children without ASD. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/aur.2286DOI Listing

Does the Factor Structure of IQ Differ Between the Differential Ability Scales (DAS-II) Normative Sample and Autistic Children?

Autism Res 2020 Feb 29. Epub 2020 Feb 29.

The Children's Hospital of Philadelphia, Center for Autism Research, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania.

The Differential Abilities Scales, 2nd edition (DAS-II) is frequently used to assess intelligence in autism spectrum disorder (ASD). However, it remains unknown whether the DAS-II measurement model (e.g. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/aur.2285DOI Listing
February 2020

A Conceptual Framework for Understanding the Cultural and Contextual Factors on Autism Across the Globe.

Autism Res 2020 Feb 21. Epub 2020 Feb 21.

Institute of Psychiatry, Psychology and Neuroscience (IoPPN), King's College London, London, UK.

Autism research is heavily skewed toward western high-income countries. Culturally appropriate screening and diagnostic instruments for autism are lacking in most low- and middle-income settings where the majority of the global autism population lives. To date, a clear overview of the possible cultural and contextual factors that may affect the process of identifying and diagnosing individuals with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) is missing. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/aur.2276DOI Listing
February 2020

Vitamin D Receptor Polymorphisms Associated with Autism Spectrum Disorder.

Autism Res 2020 May 21;13(5):680-690. Epub 2020 Feb 21.

IRCCS Fondazione Don Carlo Gnocchi, Milan, Italy.

Vitamin D is endowed with a number of biological properties, including down-regulation of inflammation, and might contribute to the pathogenesis of autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Vitamin D binds to the vitamin D Receptor (VDR); the biological activity of the ensuing complex depends on VDR FokI, BsmI, ApaI, and TaqI gene polymorphisms. We evaluated such Single Nucletoide Polymorphismsm (SNPs) in a cohort of 100 Italian families with ASD children. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/aur.2279DOI Listing

Reduced White Matter Integrity and Deficits in Neuropsychological Functioning in Adults With Autism Spectrum Disorder.

Autism Res 2020 May 19;13(5):702-714. Epub 2020 Feb 19.

Department of Psychiatry, University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania.

Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is currently viewed as a disorder of cortical systems connectivity, with a heavy emphasis being on the structural integrity of white matter tracts. However, the majority of the literature to date has focused on children with ASD. Understanding the integrity of white matter tracts in adults may help reveal the nature of ASD pathology in adulthood and the potential contributors to cognitive impairment. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/aur.2271DOI Listing

Three Brothers With Autism Carry a Stop-Gain Mutation in the HPA-Axis Gene NR3C2.

Autism Res 2020 Apr 17;13(4):523-531. Epub 2020 Feb 17.

John P. Hussman Institute for Human Genomics, University of Miami Miller School of Medicine, Miami, Florida.

Whole exome sequencing and copy-number variant analysis was performed on a family with three brothers diagnosed with autism. Each of the siblings shares an alteration in the nuclear receptor subfamily 3 group C member 2 (NR3C2) gene that is predicted to result in a stop-gain mutation (p.Q919X) in the mineralocorticoid receptor (MR) protein. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/aur.2269DOI Listing

Sensory Processing Patterns and Fusiform Activity During Face Processing in Autism Spectrum Disorder.

Autism Res 2020 May 14;13(5):741-750. Epub 2020 Feb 14.

Research Center for Child Mental Development, Hamamatsu University School of Medicine, Hamamatsu, Japan.

A growing body of evidence has indicated that individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) exhibit abnormal reactions to sensory stimuli and impaired face processing. Although behavioral studies have reported that individual differences in sensory processing patterns are correlated with performance in face processing tasks, the neural substrates underlying the association between sensory processing patterns and face processing remain unknown. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging, the present study examined the relationships between sensory processing patterns assessed with the Adolescent/Adult Sensory Profile (AASP) and brain activity during a one-back task with two types of stimuli (face or house pictures). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/aur.2283DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7317875PMC

Metacognitive Monitoring and Control of Eyewitness Memory Reports in Autism.

Autism Res 2020 Feb 13. Epub 2020 Feb 13.

Flinders University, Adelaide, Australia.

Providing eyewitness testimony involves monitoring one's memory to provide a detailed and accurate account: reporting details likely to be accurate and withholding potentially inaccurate details. Autistic individuals reportedly experience difficulties in both retrieving episodic memories and monitoring their accuracy, which has important implications for eyewitness testimony. Thirty autistic and 33 IQ-matched typically developing (TD) participants viewed a video of a mock bank robbery followed by three phases of questions (with judgments of confidence). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/aur.2278DOI Listing
February 2020

INSAR President's Message - February 2020.

Authors:
Peter Mundy

Autism Res 2020 Feb;13(2):338-339

INSAR President (2019-2021), University of California, Davis.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/aur.2281DOI Listing
February 2020

Microstructural Anomalies Evaluated by Neurite Orientation Dispersion and Density Imaging Are Related to Deficits in Facial Emotional Recognition via Perceptual-Binding Difficulties in Autism Spectrum Disorder.

Autism Res 2020 May 12;13(5):729-740. Epub 2020 Feb 12.

Department of Psychiatry, Nara Medical University, Kashihara, Japan.

The integration of visual features is important for recognizing objects as a coherent whole, a key domain of difficulty in autism spectrum disorder (ASD). We tested the hypothesis that ASD patients exhibit difficulties in facial emotional recognition via perceptual binding difficulties due to weak coherence. We assessed 18 ASD and 27 typically developing individuals for their ability to identify emotional expressions from faces in pictures moving behind a narrow vertical and horizontal slit. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/aur.2280DOI Listing