46,347 results match your criteria Autism : the international journal of research and practice[Journal]


Disruption of RNA Metabolism in Neurological Diseases and Emerging Therapeutic Interventions.

Neuron 2019 Apr;102(2):294-320

Department of Neurology, The Sean M. Healey and AMG Center for ALS at Mass General, Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Charlestown, MA 02129, USA; Broad Institute of Harvard University and MIT, Cambridge, MA 02142, USA. Electronic address:

RNA binding proteins are critical to the maintenance of the transcriptome via controlled regulation of RNA processing and transport. Alterations of these proteins impact multiple steps of the RNA life cycle resulting in various molecular phenotypes such as aberrant RNA splicing, transport, and stability. Disruption of RNA binding proteins and widespread RNA processing defects are increasingly recognized as critical determinants of neurological diseases. Read More

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https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S08966273193027
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.neuron.2019.03.014DOI Listing
April 2019
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Microglia Sculpt Sex Differences in Social Behavior.

Neuron 2019 Apr;102(2):275-277

Lurie Center for Autism, Massachusetts General Hospital for Children, Boston, MA 02114, USA; Department of Pediatrics, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02114, USA. Electronic address:

Microglia are increasingly recognized as developmental sculptors of neural circuits. In this issue of Neuron, VanRyzin et al. (2019) demonstrate a novel mechanism by which endocannabinoids drive microglia to phagocytose newborn astrocytes in the medial amygdala of male rats, promoting sex differences in social play behavior. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.neuron.2019.03.039DOI Listing

Visual memory profile in children with high functioning autism.

Appl Neuropsychol Child 2019 Apr 18:1-11. Epub 2019 Apr 18.

a Department of Education , University of Genoa , Genoa , Italy.

Visual memory in children with high-functioning autism (HFA) is an area of debate. According to the few studies that have examined visual memory in children with autism, the memory profile appears to vary according to the memory process and type of stimuli, and contrasting results may be found. This study aims to analyze the visual memory profile of children with HFA. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/21622965.2019.1594231DOI Listing

Developmental delay, coarse facial features, and epilepsy in a patient with gene variants.

Clin Case Rep 2019 Apr 19;7(4):632-637. Epub 2019 Feb 19.

Department of Clinical Genomics Mayo Clinic Rochester Minnesota.

We report a patient with developmental delay, autism, epilepsy, macrocephaly, facial dysmorphism, gastrointestinal, and behavioral issues due to compound heterozygous likely pathogenic variants. This case report expands the gene mutation database and the clinical spectrum of patients with deficiencies in the heparan sulfate pathway. Read More

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https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1002/ccr3.2010
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ccr3.2010DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6452521PMC
April 2019
1 Read

Study of developmental disorders among newborns in Fukushima City after the Great East Japan Earthquake and nuclear power plant accident; an adjunct study of the Fukushima Regional Center of the Japan Environmental and Children's Study (JECS).

Fukushima J Med Sci 2019 ;65(1):1-5

Department of Neuropsychiatry, School of Medicine, Fukushima Medical University.

The present adjunct study of the Japan Environment and Children's Study (JECS) aimed to determine the occurrence of developmental disorders in Fukushima Prefecture, which was exposed to low-dose radiation. At two medical institutions in Fukushima City, we enrolled 339 pregnant women from September 2013 through May 31, 2014, who delivered 335 neonates (174 male, including one set of twins) between November 4, 2013 and November 11, 2014. The parents of four neonates declined to participate in the present study and one neonate died. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.5387/fms.2018-19DOI Listing
January 2019

Nuclear Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptors (PPARs) as Therapeutic Targets of Resveratrol for Autism Spectrum Disorder.

Int J Mol Sci 2019 Apr 16;20(8). Epub 2019 Apr 16.

Centre de Recherche des Cordeliers, 75006 Paris, France.

Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by defective social communication and interaction and restricted, repetitive behavior with a complex, multifactorial etiology. Despite an increasing worldwide prevalence of ASD, there is currently no pharmacological cure to treat core symptoms of ASD. Clinical evidence and molecular data support the role of impaired mitochondrial fatty acid oxidation (FAO) in ASD. Read More

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https://www.mdpi.com/1422-0067/20/8/1878
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijms20081878DOI Listing
April 2019
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Evaluation of an Explicit Instructional Approach to Teach Grammatical Forms to Children With Low-Symptom Severity Autism Spectrum Disorder.

Am J Speech Lang Pathol 2019 Apr 17:1-14. Epub 2019 Apr 17.

Department of Speech-Language-Hearing Sciences, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis.

Purpose Weaknesses in the use of grammatical forms may reduce the functional use of language for verbally expressive children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and exacerbate difficulties with academic and social skill development. This early efficacy study evaluated a combined explicit-implicit instructional approach to teach novel grammatical forms to children with ASD. Method Seventeen children with ASD between the ages of 4 and 10 years who demonstrated weaknesses in expressive grammatical language completed 2 tasks, each targeting a different novel grammatical form. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1044/2018_AJSLP-18-0016DOI Listing

Narratives About Autism: An Analysis of YouTube Videos by Individuals Who Self-Identify as Autistic.

Am J Speech Lang Pathol 2019 Apr 17:1-22. Epub 2019 Apr 17.

Department of Speech and Hearing Science, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign.

Purpose The goal of this study was to expand the field's understanding of autism through the analysis of 1st-person perspectives from autistic video webloggers (vloggers). Method This study analyzed the representation of autism in 39 YouTube videos authored by self-identified autistic individuals and published between 2007 and 2015. Consistent with the cross-disciplinary tradition of narrative inquiry, thematic analyses of the video transcripts were conducted. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1044/2018_AJSLP-18-0045DOI Listing

UK parents' experiences of their child receiving a diagnosis of autism spectrum disorder: A systematic review of the qualitative evidence.

Autism 2019 Apr 17:1362361319841488. Epub 2019 Apr 17.

University of Nottingham, UK.

The purpose of this article is to systematically identify, appraise and synthesise qualitative research concerning UK parents' experiences of their child receiving a diagnosis of autism spectrum disorder. In total, 11 articles were located through a systematic search of five databases, reference lists, citations and grey literature. These were critically appraised and their results synthesised using meta-ethnography. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1362361319841488DOI Listing

International comparisons of autism spectrum disorder behaviors in preschoolers rated by parents and caregivers/teachers.

Autism 2019 Apr 17:1362361319839151. Epub 2019 Apr 17.

2 University of Vermont, USA.

This study tested international similarities and differences in scores on a scale comprising 12 items identified by international mental health experts as being very consistent with the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (5th ed.) category of autism spectrum disorder. Participants were 19,850 preschoolers in 24 societies rated by parents on the Child Behavior Checklist for Ages 1½-5; 10,521 preschoolers from 15 societies rated by caregivers/teachers on the Caregiver-Teacher Report Form, and 7380 children from 13 societies rated by both types of informant. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1362361319839151DOI Listing

Broader autism phenotype and couple interactions in parents of children with autism.

Autism 2019 Apr 17:1362361319841312. Epub 2019 Apr 17.

University of Wisconsin-Madison, USA.

The broader autism phenotype refers to sub-clinical autism spectrum disorder characteristics involving socially and emotionally aloof and rigid personality traits and social communication difficulties. Relatives of individuals with autism spectrum disorder, including parents, evidence an increased rate of broader autism phenotype. The goal of this study was to evaluate the association between actor (one's own) and partner (their partner's) broader autism phenotype and the self-reported, observed, and physiological (i. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1362361319841312DOI Listing
April 2019
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Association of Rare Copy Number Variants With Risk of Depression.

JAMA Psychiatry 2019 Apr 17. Epub 2019 Apr 17.

MRC Centre for Neuropsychiatric Genetics and Genomics, Division of Psychological Medicine and Clinical Neurosciences, Cardiff University, Cardiff, Wales, United Kingdom.

Importance: The role of large, rare copy number variants (CNVs) in neuropsychiatric disorders is well established, but their association with common psychiatric disorders, such as depression, remains unclear.

Objective: To examine the association of a group of 53 CNVs associated with neurodevelopmental disorders and burden of rare CNVs with risk of depression.

Design, Setting, And Participants: This case-control study used data from the UK Biobank study sample, which comprised 502 534 individuals living in the United Kingdom. Read More

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http://archpsyc.jamanetwork.com/article.aspx?doi=10.1001/jam
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/jamapsychiatry.2019.0566DOI Listing
April 2019
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Detecting Methylomic Biomarkers of Pediatric Autism in the Peripheral Blood Leukocytes.

Interdiscip Sci 2019 Apr 16. Epub 2019 Apr 16.

BioKnow Health Informatics Lab, College of Computer Science and Technology, and Key Laboratory of Symbolic Computation and Knowledge Engineering of Ministry of Education, Jilin University, Changchun, 130012, Jilin, China.

Autism was a spectrum of multiple complex diseases that required an interdisciplinary group of experts to make a diagnostic decision. Both genetic and environmental factors play essential roles in causing the onset of Autism. Therefore, this study hypothesized that methylomic biomarkers may facilitate the accurate Autism detection. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12539-019-00328-9DOI Listing

The Association Between Serum Vitamin D3 Levels and Autism Among Jordanian Boys.

J Autism Dev Disord 2019 Apr 16. Epub 2019 Apr 16.

School of Medicine, The University of Jordan, Amman, Jordan.

This study assesses the correlation between vitamin-D deficiency and autism spectrum disorder (ASD) in Jordan. We performed a case-controlled cross-sectional analysis to assess vitamin D levels in 83 children with ASD aged less than 8 years old compared to 106 healthy controls. In addition, the association between vitamin D deficiencies and gastrointestinal (GI) complains and electroencephalogram (EEG) abnormalities commonly found in children with ASD was investigated. Read More

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http://link.springer.com/10.1007/s10803-019-04017-w
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10803-019-04017-wDOI Listing
April 2019
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The Importance of Temperament for Understanding Early Manifestations of Autism Spectrum Disorder in High-Risk Infants.

J Autism Dev Disord 2019 Apr 16. Epub 2019 Apr 16.

The Carolina Institute for Developmental Disabilities, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, NC, USA.

The present study investigated the relationship between infant temperament characteristics and autism spectrum disorder (ASD) risk status. Temperament was examined at 6, 12, and 24 months in 282 infants at high familial risk for ASD and 114 low-risk controls using the Infant Behavior Questionnaire-Revised and Early Childhood Behavior Questionnaire. Infants were divided into three groups at 24 months: High-Risk Positive-classified as ASD (HR Pos), High-Risk Negative (HR Neg), and Low-Risk Negative (LR Neg). Read More

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http://link.springer.com/10.1007/s10803-019-04003-2
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10803-019-04003-2DOI Listing
April 2019
2 Reads

Intracellular calcium dysregulation in autism spectrum disorder: An analysis of converging organelle signaling pathways.

Biochim Biophys Acta Mol Cell Res 2018 Nov 9;1865(11 Pt B):1718-1732. Epub 2018 Aug 9.

Department of Physiology and Biophysics, University of California, Irvine, Irvine, CA, USA; UCI Center for Autism Research and Translation, School of Medicine, University of California, Irvine, Irvine, CA, USA; Department of Pediatrics, Section of Human Genetics and Genomics, University of California, Irvine, Irvine, CA, USA. Electronic address:

Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a group of complex, neurological disorders that affect early cognitive, social, and verbal development. Our understanding of ASD has vastly improved with advances in genomic sequencing technology and genetic models that have identified >800 loci with variants that increase susceptibility to ASD. Although these findings have confirmed its high heritability, the underlying mechanisms by which these genes produce the ASD phenotypes have not been defined. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bbamcr.2018.08.003DOI Listing
November 2018

High-functioning autism spectrum disorder with fluent speech and late-onset epilepsy: an unusual presentation of Inv-Dup (15) syndrome.

Neurocase 2019 Apr 16:1-4. Epub 2019 Apr 16.

c Department of Neuroscience, Reproductive and Odontostomatological Sciences, Epilepsy Centre , "Federico II" University of Naples , Naples , Italy.

Many neuropsychiatric phenotypes have been reported in association with rearrangements in the 15q11-q13 region. Clinical presentations can include hypotonia, developmental delay, severe/moderate intellectual disabilities, poor expressive language, difficult to treat epilepsy, and autism spectrum disorders. Here we report an additional case of a girl with inversion duplication on chromosome 15 (Inv-Dup 15) showing a peculiar and milder clinical phenotype, including atypical high-functioning autism disorder, late onset and drug-responsive epilepsy, and a relatively good language development . Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/13554794.2019.1602144DOI Listing

Immediate effects of coloured overlays on the reading performance of preschool children with an autism spectrum disorder using eye tracking.

Res Dev Disabil 2019 Apr 13;89:141-148. Epub 2019 Apr 13.

School of Medical and Health Sciences, Tung Wah College, Hong Kong Special Administrative Region.

Background: Coloured overlays have often been used to improve reading performance in preschool children with an autism spectrum disorder (ASD), however, previous evidence shows conflicts in its application.

Aims: To investigate the immediate effects of coloured overlays on reading performance using eye tracking in preschool children with ASD and their typical development (TD) counterparts closely matched by chronological age.

Methods: Forty participants with ASD (n = 20) or TD (n = 20) were recruited by convenience sampling and asked to read aloud numbers randomly arranged on paper. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ridd.2019.03.012DOI Listing

Control of neural development and function by glial neuroligins.

Curr Opin Neurobiol 2019 Apr 13;57:163-170. Epub 2019 Apr 13.

Department of Cell Biology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC 27710, United States; Department of Neurobiology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC 27710, United States; Duke Institute for Brain Sciences (DIBS), Durham, NC 27710, United States; Regeneration Next Initiative, Duke University, Durham, NC 27710, United States. Electronic address:

Neuroligins are a family of cell adhesion molecules, which are best known for their functions as postsynaptic components of the trans-synaptic neurexin-neuroligin complexes. Neuroligins are highly conserved across evolution with important roles in the formation, maturation and function of synaptic structures. Mutations in the genes that encode for neuroligins have been linked to a number of neurodevelopmental disorders such as autism and schizophrenia, which stem from synaptic pathologies. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.conb.2019.03.007DOI Listing
April 2019
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The effects of 'preferedness of task' on stress, emotion, and behaviour responses to forced activity transitions in boys with ASD.

Int J Dev Neurosci 2019 Apr 13. Epub 2019 Apr 13.

Brain-Behaviour Research Group, University of New England, Armidale, New South Wales, Australia. Electronic address:

Background: Many children with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) exhibit distress when asked to transition from one task to another. This study aimed to determine if physiological stress during transition was due to ASD-related rigidity or to their preference for some tasks over others.

Method: The effects of change of task alone versus a change in task 'preferedness' when undergoing forced activity transition were investigated in 29 boys with Autism Spectrum Disorder. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijdevneu.2019.04.003DOI Listing

Using latent class analysis to identify treatment-use subgroups among parents of children with autism spectrum disorder.

Autism Res 2019 Apr 16. Epub 2019 Apr 16.

Department of Pediatrics, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, Texas.

Among parents of 2,582 children (ages 4-17 years old) with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), we used latent class analysis to identify subgroups and profiles of treatment users and included annual household income in the specification of the models, then described characteristics of each subgroup. Based on three indicators of fit (Akaike's Information Criterion, Bayesian Information Criterion, and Lo-Mendell-Rubin), six latent classes of treatment users emerged. Subgroups included users of: (a) mostly private and school speech and occupational therapies; (b) nearly all treatment types; (c) mostly speech and occupational therapies, plus intensive behavioral and "other" treatments, but little medication use; (d) private therapies almost exclusively; (e) primarily psychotropic medications; and (f) mostly school-based therapies. Read More

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https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1002/aur.2107
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/aur.2107DOI Listing
April 2019
1 Read

A rare autism-associated MINT2/APBA2 mutation disrupts neurexin trafficking and synaptic function.

Sci Rep 2019 Apr 15;9(1):6024. Epub 2019 Apr 15.

Department of Biology, Boston University, 24 Cummington Mall, Boston, MA, 02215, USA.

MINT2/APBA2 is a synaptic adaptor protein involved in excitatory synaptic transmission. Several nonsynonymous coding variants in MINT2 have been identified in autism spectrum disorders (ASDs); however, these rare variants have not been examined functionally and the pathogenic mechanisms are unknown. Here, we examined the synaptic effects of rat Mint2 N723S mutation (equivalent to autism-linked human MINT2 N722S mutation) which targets a conserved asparagine residue in the second PDZ domain of Mint2 that binds to neurexin-1α (Nrxn1α), a presynaptic cell-adhesion protein implicated in ASDs. Read More

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http://www.nature.com/articles/s41598-019-42635-7
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-019-42635-7DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6465354PMC
April 2019
1 Read

Immunoneuropsychiatry - novel perspectives on brain disorders.

Nat Rev Neurol 2019 Apr 15. Epub 2019 Apr 15.

Department of Neurology, University Medical Center of the Johannes Gutenberg University Mainz, Mainz, Germany.

Immune processes have a vital role in CNS homeostasis, resilience and brain reserve. Our cognitive and social abilities rely on a highly sensitive and fine-tuned equilibrium of immune responses that involve both innate and adaptive immunity. Autoimmunity, chronic inflammation, infection and psychosocial stress can tip the scales towards disruption of higher-order networks. Read More

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http://www.nature.com/articles/s41582-019-0174-4
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41582-019-0174-4DOI Listing
April 2019
3 Reads

Emotional and Behavioral Problems of Pre-school Children with Autistic Spectrum Disorder Assessed by the Child Behavior Checklist 1½-5.

Kobe J Med Sci 2019 Jan 22;64(5):E170-E173. Epub 2019 Jan 22.

Graduate School of Health Science, Kobe University, Japan.

Background: Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) experience a significant disruption in the ability to communicate and interact socially. Early detection is important; the earlier the child is identified with ASD, the faster the intervention can begin. The Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL) is a screening tool capable of identifying various emotional and behavioral disorders. Read More

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January 2019

A school-based mentoring program developing healthy behaviors of adolescents with intellectual and developmental disabilities: A pilot feasibility study.

Disabil Health J 2019 Apr 3. Epub 2019 Apr 3.

Department of Kinesiology, College of Health & Human Performance, East Carolina University, Greenville, NC 27858, USA. Electronic address:

Background: Studies have reported that adolescents with intellectual and developmental disabilities (IDD) have a higher prevalence of obesity due to medication intake, poor diet, and physical inactivity. More importantly, they lack awareness and comprehension to prevent weight problems. Thereby, health-promoting practices should be offered in schools for adolescents with IDD. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.dhjo.2019.03.012DOI Listing

Purpose in adolescents diagnosed with an autism spectrum disorder.

J Adolesc 2019 Apr 12;73:53-62. Epub 2019 Apr 12.

Texas Christian University, USA.

Introduction: Drawing from positive youth development theory, the research team examined purpose in life among adolescents diagnosed with an autism spectrum disorder (ASD).

Methods: Members of the research team conducted paired interviews about purpose in life with adolescents diagnosed with an ASD and one of each adolescent's parents. Data collection took place in the south-central region of the US. Read More

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https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S01401971193004
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.adolescence.2019.03.001DOI Listing
April 2019
1 Read

Picture my well-being: Listening to the voices of students with autism spectrum disorder.

Res Dev Disabil 2019 Apr 12;89:130-140. Epub 2019 Apr 12.

School of Education, University of New South Wales, Sydney, 2052, Australia. Electronic address:

Background: Student well-being, though widely researched, continues to be a poorly defined concept. Few student well-being studies focus on students with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), who may have a poorer sense of well-being compared to typically developing students.

Aims: The current study aims to explore the conceptualisation, barriers, and ways to enhance the well-being of students with ASD from their perspectives. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ridd.2019.04.005DOI Listing
April 2019
2 Reads

Exposure to prenatal antidepressant alters medial prefrontal-striatal synchronization in mice.

Brain Res 2019 Apr 12. Epub 2019 Apr 12.

School of Life Sciences, Guangzhou University, Guangzhou, 510006, China. Electronic address:

Citalopram (CTM), a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI), has been widely used to treat panic disorders, such as depression which is one of the most disabling, yet common, psychiatric disorders. Although prenatal antidepressant exposure has a major impact on the neurobehavioral development of the offspring, such as anxiety, depression- and autism-like behaviors, the brain alterations of SSRI influence remained largely unknown. We show here, using electrophysiological recordings, that CTM exposure during the last 7 d of gestation can alter theta- and gamma-band oscillation and synchronization in the corticostriatal loop of 2-3 month-old mouse offspring. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.brainres.2019.04.008DOI Listing

Does Animation Facilitate Understanding of Graphic Symbols Representing Verbs in Children With Autism Spectrum Disorder?

J Speech Lang Hear Res 2019 Apr;62(4):965-978

Department of Linguistics, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge.

Purpose The effects of animation on identification of graphic symbols for verbs were studied using the Autism Language Program Graphic Symbols Set in children diagnosed with mild-to-severe autism spectrum disorder between the ages of 3 and 7 years. Method The participants were randomly assigned to an animated symbol condition or a static symbol condition. Static symbols were spliced from the animated symbols to ensure that the symbols differed only in terms of the absence or presence of movement. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1044/2018_JSLHR-L-18-0243DOI Listing

The MMR Vaccine and Autism.

Annu Rev Virol 2019 Apr 15. Epub 2019 Apr 15.

Immunization Safety Office, Division of Healthcare Quality Promotion, National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia 30329, USA; email:

Autism is a developmental disability that can cause significant social, communication, and behavioral challenges. A report published in 1998, but subsequently retracted by the journal, suggested that measles, mumps, and rubella (MMR) vaccine causes autism. However, autism is a neurodevelopmental condition that has a strong genetic component with genesis before one year of age, when MMR vaccine is typically administered. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-virology-092818-015515DOI Listing

Autism: The Second Triad of Impairment Demystified.

J Nerv Ment Dis 2019 May;207(5):417

Al-Manara CAP Centre Kuwait Centre for Mental Health, Shuwaikh, State of Kuwait E-mail: School Psychiatry Clinic, Az-Zahraa, Kuwait.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/NMD.0000000000000988DOI Listing

A Machine Learning Strategy for Autism Screening in Toddlers.

J Dev Behav Pediatr 2019 Apr 12. Epub 2019 Apr 12.

Computer Science, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, Blacksburg, VA.

Objective: Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) screening can improve prognosis via early diagnosis and intervention, but lack of time and training can deter pediatric screening. The Modified Checklist for Autism in Toddlers, Revised (M-CHAT-R) is a widely used screener but requires follow-up questions and error-prone human scoring and interpretation. We consider an automated machine learning (ML) method for overcoming barriers to ASD screening, specifically using the feedforward neural network (fNN). Read More

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http://Insights.ovid.com/crossref?an=00004703-900000000-9921
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/DBP.0000000000000668DOI Listing
April 2019
1 Read

Is psychopathology elevated in Big-C visual artists and scientists?

J Abnorm Psychol 2019 Apr 15. Epub 2019 Apr 15.

Jane and Terry Semel Institute of Neuroscience and Human Behavior.

The idea that psychopathology is associated with exceptional creativity has persisted despite a paucity of corroborating or disconfirming evidence. The authors measured psychopathology, including schizotypal personality traits, social responsiveness/autism spectrum traits, and lifetime incidence of mental disorders, along with lab-based tests of creativity in a unique sample of (exceptionally creative) individuals. The authors examined Big-C visual artists (VIS; = 35), Big-C scientists (SCI; = 41), and a smart comparison group (SCG; n = 31) matched on age, sex, race/ethnicity, parental education, and estimated IQ. Read More

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http://doi.apa.org/getdoi.cfm?doi=10.1037/abn0000416
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/abn0000416DOI Listing
April 2019
1 Read

Quantitative assessments reveal improved neuroscience engagement and learning through outreach.

J Neurosci Res 2019 Apr 15. Epub 2019 Apr 15.

Interdepartmental Program in Neuroscience, University of California, Los Angeles, Los Angeles, California.

Lack of resources and exposure to neuroscience in K-12 education has resulted in a limited number of K-12 students pursuing higher education in the field. Meanwhile, the rapid expansion of the field of neuroscience has encouraged many higher educational institutes to offer neuroscience majors. This has opened up the opportunity to engage faculty, as well as graduate and undergraduate students in bringing the most needed knowledge and awareness about neuroscience into K-12 classrooms. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jnr.24429DOI Listing

Rare Case of a Heterozygous Microdeletion 9q21.11-q21.2: Clinical and Genetic Characteristics.

Balkan J Med Genet 2018 Dec 31;21(2):59-62. Epub 2018 Dec 31.

Department of Genomics, Hospital "Dr. Malinov," Sofia, Bulgaria.

Intellectual disability is affecting 3.0-4.0% of the general population. Read More

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http://content.sciendo.com/view/journals/bjmg/21/2/article-p
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2478/bjmg-2018-0021DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6454245PMC
December 2018
2 Reads

Investigation of Circulating Serum MicroRNA-328-3p and MicroRNA-3135a Expression as Promising Novel Biomarkers for Autism Spectrum Disorder.

Balkan J Med Genet 2018 Dec 31;21(2):5-12. Epub 2018 Dec 31.

Department of Plant Physiology and Molecular Biology, University of Plovdiv "Paisii Hilendarski," Plovdiv, Plovdiv, Bulgaria.

Circulating microRNAs (miRNAs) are emerging as promising diagnostic biomarkers for autism spectrum disorder (ASD), but their usefulness for detecting ASD remains unclear. Nowadays, development of promising biomarkers for ASD remains a challenge. Recently, dysregulation of the miRNAs expression in postmortem brain tissue, serum and peripheral blood, have been associated with ASD. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.2478/bjmg-2018-0026DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6454235PMC
December 2018

The Vessels Shaping Mental Health or Illness.

Open Neurol J 2019 15;13:1-9. Epub 2019 Feb 15.

Department of Psychiatry, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA-02215, USA.

The mammalian brain receives the lion's share of the body's blood supply and is a highly vascularized organ. The vascular and nervous systems arise at two distinct time points of embryogenesis; however, their functions tend to overlap or complement each other in the growth promoting milieu of the embryonic Central Nervous System (CNS). The pre-existing idea that mental disorders are a direct result from defects solely in neuronal populations and networks is gradually changing. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.2174/1874205X01913010001DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6460472PMC
February 2019

Variations in Genes Related to Sleep Patterns in Children With Autism Spectrum Disorder.

Biol Res Nurs 2019 May;21(3):335-342

2 Department of Psychiatry, School of Medicine, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA, USA.

Background: Sleep disturbance is a frequent comorbidity in children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), affecting an estimated 40-80% of cases. Previous reports have shown relationships between several circadian rhythm-related genes and sleep problems in ASD. The purpose of the present study was to relate variation in and around melatonin synthesis and suprachiasmatic nucleus genes to sleep problems in a large sample of children with ASD. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1099800419843604DOI Listing
May 2019
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Effects of Magnitude on the Displacement of Leisure Items by Edible Items During Preference Assessments.

Behav Modif 2019 Apr 15:145445519843937. Epub 2019 Apr 15.

4 Trumpet Behavioral Health, San Jose, CA, USA.

Studies on preference assessments have shown that when both edible and leisure items are compared, edible items tend to displace leisure items in preference hierarchies. However, the mechanisms behind this process are currently unclear. One possibility is that displacement may be a product of the relatively brief periods of access to leisure items typically used in preference assessments. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0145445519843937DOI Listing

Primate Amygdala Neurons Simulate Decision Processes of Social Partners.

Cell 2019 Apr 10. Epub 2019 Apr 10.

Department of Physiology, Development and Neuroscience, University of Cambridge, Downing Street, Cambridge CB2 3DY, UK.

By observing their social partners, primates learn about reward values of objects. Here, we show that monkeys' amygdala neurons derive object values from observation and use these values to simulate a partner monkey's decision process. While monkeys alternated making reward-based choices, amygdala neurons encoded object-specific values learned from observation. Read More

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https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S00928674193022
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cell.2019.02.042DOI Listing
April 2019
5 Reads

Associations between long-term adherence to healthy diet and recurrent depressive symptoms in Whitehall II Study.

Eur J Nutr 2019 Apr 13. Epub 2019 Apr 13.

Inserm, U1198, University of Montpellier, Ecole Pratique des Hautes Etudes, PSL Research University, Montpellier, 34095, France.

Purpose: We examined whether long-term adherence to three diet quality scores-the Alternative Healthy Eating Index-2010 (AHEI-2010), Dietary Approach to Stop Hypertension (DASH) and  transformed-Mediterranean Diet Score (tMDS), Alternative Healthy Eating Index-2010 (AHEI-2010) and Dietary Approach to Stop Hypertension (DASH) is associated with the risk of recurrent depressive symptoms.

Methods: Analyses were conducted on a sample of 4949 men and women from the Whitehall II study. Diet scores were calculated using data collected from food frequency questionnaires repeated over 11 years of exposure (1991/1993-2002/2004). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00394-019-01964-zDOI Listing

Causal evidence of right temporal parietal junction involvement in implicit Theory of Mind processing.

Neuroimage 2019 Apr 11. Epub 2019 Apr 11.

School of Psychology, The University of Queensland, St Lucia, 4072, Australia.

The ability to represent the internal thoughts, beliefs and desires of others, and recognise that these might be distinct from one's own, is crucial for adaptive social interaction. Such operations are thought to tap Theory of Mind (ToM), with its importance underscored by the link between ToM impairment and a range of neurodevelopmental disorders (e.g. Read More

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https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S10538119193031
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.neuroimage.2019.04.032DOI Listing
April 2019
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Improved memory and reduced anxiety in δ-catenin transgenic mice.

Exp Neurol 2019 Apr 11. Epub 2019 Apr 11.

College of Pharmacy and Research Institute for Drug Development, Chonnam National University, Gwangju 61186, Republic of Korea. Electronic address:

δ-Catenin is abundant in the brain and affects its synaptic plasticity. Furthermore, loss of δ-catenin is related to the deficits of learning and memory, mental retardation (cri-du-chat syndrome), and autism. A few studies about δ-catenin deficiency mice were performed. Read More

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https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S00144886193006
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.expneurol.2019.04.006DOI Listing
April 2019
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Inter-rater Reliability in Videos of Patients With a Suspected Diagnostic of Autism and Child Psychosis.

Rev Colomb Psiquiatr 2019 Apr - Jun;48(2):80-87. Epub 2017 Nov 2.

Clínica Nuestra Señora de la Paz, Bogotá, Colombia.

Introduction: Diagnosing and treating autism and child psychoses is very difficult; these pathologies impact not only the child's life but also the family as a whole. Therefore caution is required when giving a diagnosis with prognostic implications. We use the psychodynamic perspective in order to take into consideration both pathological and healthy diagnostic aspects, and to promote evolutionary potential of each patient. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.rcp.2017.08.003DOI Listing
November 2017

Adaptation to different communicative contexts: an eye tracking study of autistic adults.

J Neurodev Disord 2019 Apr 13;11(1). Epub 2019 Apr 13.

Department of Psychiatry, Perelman School of Medicine at the University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA, 19104, USA.

Background: Learning through social observation (i.e., watching other people interact) lays the foundation for later social skills and social cognition. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s11689-019-9265-1DOI Listing

Influence of poly(I:C) variability on thermoregulation, immune responses and pregnancy outcomes in mouse models of maternal immune activation.

Brain Behav Immun 2019 Apr 10. Epub 2019 Apr 10.

Institute of Pharmacology and Toxicology, University of Zurich - Vetsuisse, Zurich, Switzerland.

Maternal immune activation (MIA) models that are based on administration of the viral mimetic, poly(I:C), are widely used as experimental tools to study neuronal and behavioral dysfunctions in relation to immune-mediated neurodevelopmental disorders and mental illnesses. Evidence from investigations in non-pregnant rodents suggests that different poly(I:C) products can vary in terms of their immunogenicity, even if they are obtained from the same vendor. The present study aimed at extending these findings to pregnant mice, while also controlling various poly(I:C) products for potential contamination with lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Read More

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https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S08891591193012
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bbi.2019.04.019DOI Listing
April 2019
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Retinal Defects in Mice Lacking the Autism-Associated Gene Engrailed-2.

Neuroscience 2019 Apr 10. Epub 2019 Apr 10.

Centre for Integrative Biology, University of Trento, Trento, Italy; CNR Neuroscience Institute, Pisa, Italy. Electronic address:

Defective cortical processing of visual stimuli and altered retinal function have been described in autism spectrum disorder (ASD) patients. In keeping with these findings, anatomical and functional defects have been found in the visual cortex and retina of mice bearing mutations for ASD-associated genes. Here we sought to investigate the anatomy and function of the adult retina of Engrailed 2 knockout (En2) mice, a model for ASD. Read More

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https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S03064522193023
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.neuroscience.2019.03.061DOI Listing
April 2019
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Fetal Anogenital Distance Using Ultrasound.

Prenat Diagn 2019 Apr 13. Epub 2019 Apr 13.

Autism Research Centre, Department of Psychiatry, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, UK.

Objective: This study measured anogenital distance (AGD) during late second/early third trimester of pregnancy to confirm previous findings that AGD can be measured non-invasively in the fetus using ultrasound, and further showed differences in reference ranges between populations.

Method: 210 singleton pregnancies were recruited at the Rosie Hospital, Cambridge, UK. A 2D ultrasound was performed between 26-30 weeks pregnancy. Read More

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https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1002/pd.5459
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/pd.5459DOI Listing
April 2019
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Baclofen as an adjuvant therapy for autism: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial.

Eur Child Adolesc Psychiatry 2019 Apr 12. Epub 2019 Apr 12.

Psychiatric Research Center, Roozbeh Psychiatric Hospital, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, South Kargar Street, Tehran, 13337, Iran.

Increasing evidence suggests that the function of the GABAergic system is abnormally low in autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Baclofen, which functions as a selective agonist for GABA receptors, does appear promising for the treatment of ASD. We conducted a 10-week randomized-controlled study aimed at evaluating the potential of baclofen as an adjuvant therapy to enhance the effect of risperidone in children with ASD. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00787-019-01333-5DOI Listing

A molecular biomarker for prediction of clinical outcome in children with ASD, constipation, and intestinal inflammation.

Sci Rep 2019 Apr 12;9(1):5987. Epub 2019 Apr 12.

Pediatric Gastroenterology Resources of New York and Texas, Austin, Texas, USA.

In children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) who present to the gastroenterologist with chronic constipation on a background of colonic inflammation, we have identified two distinct clinical subtypes: (1) patients who experience a sustained state of GI symptomatic remission while on maintenance anti-inflammatory therapy (fast responders) and, (2) those with recurrent right-sided fecal loading requiring regular colon cleanouts during treatment for enterocolitis (slow responders). We hypothesized that a detailed molecular analysis of tissue from the affected region of the colon would provide mechanistic insights regarding the fast versus slow response to anti-inflammatory therapy. To test this, ascending colon biopsy tissues from 35 children with ASD (20 slow responders and 15 fast responders) were analyzed by RNAseq. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-019-42568-1DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6461625PMC
April 2019
1 Read