52,607 results match your criteria Autism : the international journal of research and practice[Journal]


Language characterization in 16p11.2 deletion and duplication syndromes.

Am J Med Genet B Neuropsychiatr Genet 2020 Jul 11. Epub 2020 Jul 11.

Simons Foundation, New York, New York, USA.

Expressive language impairment is one of the most frequently associated clinical features of 16p11.2 copy number variations (CNV). However, our understanding of the language profiles of individuals with 16p11. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ajmg.b.32809DOI Listing

Huntingtin gene CAG repeat size affects autism risk: Family-based and case-control association study.

Am J Med Genet B Neuropsychiatr Genet 2020 Jul 11. Epub 2020 Jul 11.

Interdepartmental Program "Autism 0-90", "Gaetano Martino" University Hospital, University of Messina, Messina, Italy.

The Huntingtin (HTT) gene contains a CAG repeat in exon 1, whose expansion beyond 39 repeats consistently leads to Huntington's disease (HD), whereas normal-to-intermediate alleles seemingly modulate brain structure, function and behavior. The role of the CAG repeat in Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) was investigated applying both family-based and case-control association designs, with the SCA3 repeat as a negative control. Significant overtransmission of "long" CAG alleles (≥17 repeats) to autistic children and of "short" alleles (≤16 repeats) to their unaffected siblings (all p < 10 ) was observed in 612 ASD families (548 simplex and 64 multiplex). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ajmg.b.32806DOI Listing

Learning and memory retention deficits in prepubertal guinea pigs prenatally exposed to low levels of the organophosphorus insecticide malathion.

Neurotoxicol Teratol 2020 Jul 8:106914. Epub 2020 Jul 8.

Division of Translational Toxicology, Department of Epidemiology and Public Health, University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD 21201, United States of America; Department of Pharmacology, University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD 21201, United States of America.

High doses of malathion, an organophosphorus (OP) insecticide ubiquitously used in agriculture, residential settings, and public health programs worldwide, induce a well-defined toxidrome that results from the inhibition of acetylcholinesterase (AChE). However, prenatal exposures to malathion levels that are below the threshold for AChE inhibition have been associated with increased risks of neurodevelopmental disorders, including autism spectrum disorder with intellectual disability comorbidity. The present study tested the hypothesis that prenatal exposures to a non-AChE-inhibiting dose of malathion are causally related to male-biased cognitive deficits later in life in a precocial species. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ntt.2020.106914DOI Listing

Factors Affecting Family Compliance with Genetic Testing of Children Diagnosed with Autism Spectrum Disorder.

J Autism Dev Disord 2020 Jul 10. Epub 2020 Jul 10.

National Autism Research Center of Israel, Ben-Gurion University, Beer-Sheva, Israel.

There is broad consensus about the importance of post-diagnostic genetic testing for children with ASD. However, the extent of compliance with these tests and the factors affecting compliance have rarely been examined. We surveyed a sample of 114 families with a child with ASD in Israel, where such genetic testing is funded by the government. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10803-020-04589-yDOI Listing

Reading Comprehension Instruction for Young Students with Autism: Forming Contextual Connections.

J Autism Dev Disord 2020 Jul 10. Epub 2020 Jul 10.

Educational Psychology, The Graduate Center of the City University of New York, 365 Fifth Avenue, New York, NY, 10016, USA.

Central coherence is the ability to perceive and connect salient information in a context such as a narrative text. Individuals with autism exhibit a detail-focused cognitive style of processing information that overlooks connections and shows weak central coherence. A six-session instructional intervention to foster coherence processing was administered to first and second graders (N = 10) while a control group (N = 10) received an irrelevant treatment, mean age 7. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10803-020-04596-zDOI Listing

A differential effect of lovastatin versus simvastatin in neurodevelopmental disorders.

eNeuro 2020 Jul 10. Epub 2020 Jul 10.

Centre for Discovery Brain Sciences, University of Edinburgh, UK

The statin drug lovastatin normalizes excessive protein synthesis and thereby ameliorates pathological changes in animal models of Fragile X Syndrome (FX), the most commonly identified genetic cause of autism. Recently, we compared the efficacy of lovastatin to the more potent and brain-penetrant drug simvastatin for correcting phenotypes in the mouse (Muscas et al., 2019). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1523/ENEURO.0162-20.2020DOI Listing

Paternal exposure to antiepileptic drugs and offspring outcomes: a nationwide population-based cohort study in Sweden.

J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 2020 Jul 10. Epub 2020 Jul 10.

Clinical Epidemiology Unit, Department of Medicine Solna, Karolinska Institute, Stockholm, Sweden.

Objectives: To investigate the association between paternal use of antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) and adverse neurodevelopmental outcomes and major congenital malformations (MCM) in the offspring.

Methods: Using nationwide Swedish registries, we included 1 144 795 births to 741 726 fathers without epilepsy and 4544 births to 2955 fathers with epilepsy. Of these, 2087 (45. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/jnnp-2020-323028DOI Listing

Discrepancies between explicit and implicit evaluation of aesthetic perception ability in individuals with autism: a potential way to improve social functioning.

BMC Psychol 2020 Jul 10;8(1):74. Epub 2020 Jul 10.

Department of Psychology, University Cattolica del Sacro Cuore, Milan, Italy.

Background: The capacity to evaluate beauty plays a crucial role in social behaviour and social relationships. It is known that some characteristics of beauty are important social cues that can induce stereotypes or promote different behavioural expectations. Another crucial capacity for success in social interactions is empathy, i. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s40359-020-00437-xDOI Listing

Speeded reasoning moderates the inverse relationship between autistic traits and emotion recognition.

Autism 2020 Jul 10:1362361320937090. Epub 2020 Jul 10.

University of Bern, Switzerland.

Lay Abstract: Autistic people typically have difficulty recognizing other people's emotions and to process nonverbal cues in an automatic, intuitive fashion. This usually also applies to people who-regardless of an official diagnosis of autism-achieve high values in autism questionnaires. However, some autistic people do not seem to have any problems with emotion recognition. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1362361320937090DOI Listing

Autism Spectrum Disorders in Greece: Nationwide Prevalence in 10-11 Year-Old Children and Regional Disparities.

J Clin Med 2020 Jul 8;9(7). Epub 2020 Jul 8.

Developmental Assessment Unit, Second Department of Pediatrics "P. & A. Kyriakou" Children's Hospital, National and Kapodistrian University of Athens School of Medicine, 11527 Athens, Greece.

Autism spectrum disorders (ASD) constitute a public health concern with increasing prevalence worldwide. We aimed to estimate prevalence and age at diagnosis in Greece, where no large-scale prevalence study has ever been conducted. Aggregate data were collected on ASD diagnoses by gender and calendar year of diagnosis up to 2019, for children born in 2008 and 2009, from the Centers for Educational and Counseling Support, which evaluate children to receive special educational support in school. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/jcm9072163DOI Listing

Morphofunctional Alterations of the Hypothalamus and Social Behavior in Autism Spectrum Disorders.

Brain Sci 2020 Jul 8;10(7). Epub 2020 Jul 8.

Department of Psychology and Cognitive Sciences, University of Trento, 38068 Rovereto, Italy.

An accumulating body of evidence indicates a tight relationship between the endocrine system and abnormal social behavior. Two evolutionarily conserved hypothalamic peptides, oxytocin and arginine-vasopressin, because of their extensively documented function in supporting and regulating affiliative and socio-emotional responses, have attracted great interest for their critical implications for autism spectrum disorders (ASD). A large number of controlled trials demonstrated that exogenous oxytocin or arginine-vasopressin administration can mitigate social behavior impairment in ASD. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/brainsci10070435DOI Listing

"They're the hardest group to treat, that changes the least". Adapted sex offender treatment programmes for individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorders: Clinician views and experiences.

Res Dev Disabil 2020 Jul 7;105:103721. Epub 2020 Jul 7.

The Tizard Centre, University of Kent, Canterbury, UK.

Aims: Clinicians working with individuals with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) who display sexual offending behaviours may face challenges during treatment, as a result of the cognitive and behavioural profile associated with ASD. This research explored the views and experiences of those running adapted sex offender treatment groups with men with ASD.

Method: Semi-structured interviews with group facilitators (n = 12) focused on service user engagement and response to the core components of the treatment programme (e. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ridd.2020.103721DOI Listing

Social Determinants of Health and the Role of Routine Pediatric Care in a Medically Complex Toddler.

J Dev Behav Pediatr 2020 Jul 3. Epub 2020 Jul 3.

Boston University, Boston, MA.

Case: Late on a Friday afternoon, a new family presents to your practice for urgent care. They come with their youngest child Mai, a 2-year-old girl, who, although born in the United States at 36 weeks gestation, has resided in Laos with her grandparents for the past 16 months. Your triage nurse tells you that she has a fever and was found to have profound anemia while at the WIC (Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children) office earlier today. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/DBP.0000000000000831DOI Listing

A novel approach for autism spectrum condition patients with eating disorders: Analysis of treatment cost-savings.

Eur Eat Disord Rev 2020 Jul 10. Epub 2020 Jul 10.

King's College London, Health Service and Population Research Department, Institute of Psychology, Psychiatry and Neuroscience, London, UK.

Objective: In the current economic context, it is critical to ensure that eating disorder (ED) treatments are both effective and cost-effective. We describe the impact of a novel clinical pathway developed to better meet the needs of autistic patients with EDs on the length and cost of hospital admissions.

Method: The pathway was based on the Institute for Healthcare's Model of Improvement methodology, using an iterative Plan, Do, Study, Act format to introduce change and to co-produce the work with people with lived experience and with healthcare professionals. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/erv.2760DOI Listing

Correction and repair: a comparative analysis of a boy with ASD interacting with a parent and with an ABA trainer.

Clin Linguist Phon 2020 Jul 10:1-27. Epub 2020 Jul 10.

Formerly of the Department of Psychology, University of Roehampton , London, UK.

Applied Behaviour Analysis (ABA) is a widely used therapeutic intervention for children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) yet there has been little research into the interactional organization of ABA sessions. We report a comparative case study of two interactions in which the same child, a 12-year-old boy with ASD, interacts with his father and interacts with an Applied Behaviour Analysis (ABA) trainer. Both interactions occur at home and are drawn from a small corpus (2 h) of children with ASD in domestic settings. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/02699206.2020.1754920DOI Listing

Participation Difficulties in Autism Spectrum Disorders and Intellectual Disabilities: Findings from the 2011 Survey of Pathway to Diagnosis and Services.

J Autism Dev Disord 2020 Jul 9. Epub 2020 Jul 9.

Department of Occupational Therapy, College of Health Sciences, Yonsei University, 135 Backun Hall, 1 Yonseiade-gil, Wonju-si, Gangwon-do, Republic of Korea.

Greater understanding can increase our knowledge and intervention effectiveness for activity participation problems of children with disabilities. We examined participation difficulties of children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) and intellectual disabilities (ID) in the 2011 Survey of Pathway to Diagnosis and Services. We utilized propensity score matching with inverse probability of treatment weight with questions from parents of 1783 children aged 6-17 years. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10803-020-04591-4DOI Listing

Alteration of Emotion Knowledge and Its Relationship with Emotion Regulation and Psychopathological Behavior in Children with Cerebral Palsy.

J Autism Dev Disord 2020 Jul 9. Epub 2020 Jul 9.

Research Institute of Health Sciences (IUNICS-IDISBA), University of the Balearic Islands, Palma, Spain.

Emotion knowledge has not been explored in children with cerebral palsy (CP). To evaluate differences in emotion knowledge between children with CP and their typically developing peers (TDP), and explore its associations with affective regulation and behavioral psychopathology. 36 Children with CP and 45 TDP completed the Emotion Matching Task (emotion knowledge); their parents completed the Emotion Regulation Checklist and Child Behavior Checklist (emotional regulation and lability; psychopathological behaviors). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10803-020-04605-1DOI Listing

Connecting People with People: Diagnosing Persons with Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder Using Telehealth.

J Autism Dev Disord 2020 Jul 9. Epub 2020 Jul 9.

Canada FASD Research Network, PO Box 11364 Wessex PO, Vancouver, BC, V5R 0A4, Canada.

Fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD) is a diagnostic term used to describe an array of structural, neurocognitive, and behavioral effects that result from prenatal alcohol exposure. While ongoing efforts have been made to increase the capacity of communities to provide early FASD diagnosis, there continues to be on-going challenges, particularly for remote and rural communities. Telehealth is the use of technology to connect communities at a distance and has been effectively used in medicine for several decades. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10803-020-04607-zDOI Listing

Mothers' Adjustment to Autism: Exploring the Roles of Autism Knowledge and Culture.

J Pediatr Psychol 2020 Jul 10. Epub 2020 Jul 10.

Department of Psychological & Brain Sciences, Boston University.

Introduction: Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) service-use disparities are well-documented among racial/ethnic minorities. Yet the nuanced impact that culture has on barriers to ASD service-use has not been sufficiently explored among these populations. This study explores the interrelatedness of culture and service-use barriers (i. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/jpepsy/jsaa044DOI Listing

Systematic Review of Verbal Operants in Speech Generating Device Research from Skinner's Analysis of Verbal Behavior.

Perspect Behav Sci 2020 Jun 25;43(2):387-413. Epub 2020 Mar 25.

Chimes of Delaware, Inc., Newark, DE USA.

Skinner's (1957) book is a critical tool in designing effective communication programs for individuals with limited speech. The purpose of this systematic review was to analyze the speech generating device (SGD) research literature from Skinner's taxonomy of primary verbal operants. An extraction procedure yielded 56 studies published between 1995 and 2018, with a total of 221 participants, most of whom had autism spectrum disorder (ASD) or an intellectual and developmental disability (IDD). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s40614-020-00243-1DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7316899PMC

Increasing Vocalizations and Echoics in Infants at Risk of Autism Spectrum Disorder.

Behav Anal Pract 2020 Jun 9;13(2):467-472. Epub 2020 Mar 9.

Endicott College, 376 Hale St., Beverly, MA 01915 USA.

Infant siblings of children with an autism spectrum disorder (ASD) diagnosis (i.e., infants at risk of ASD) are excellent candidates for early interventions based on the principles of applied behavior analysis. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s40617-020-00413-2DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7314873PMC

Training Soccer Skills to Adolescents with Autism Spectrum Disorder via Peer-Mediated Behavioral Skills Training.

Behav Anal Pract 2020 Jun 19;13(2):454-461. Epub 2019 Aug 19.

Department of Psychology, University of Southern Mississippi, Hattiesburg, MS USA.

Peer-mediated interventions have been identified as efficient means of promoting the acquisition of skills of students with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Limited research, however, has evaluated the utility of such procedures for promoting recreational skills that may allow for greater interaction with peers. The purpose of the current study was to evaluate the effectiveness of peer-mediated behavioral skills training on the acquisition of discrete soccer skills of 3 students with ASD. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s40617-019-00381-2DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7314889PMC

An Evaluation of Assistive Technology in Determining Job-Specific Preference for Adults With Autism and Intellectual Disabilities.

Behav Anal Pract 2020 Jun 5;13(2):434-444. Epub 2019 Aug 5.

School of Psychology, National University of Ireland, Galway, Ireland.

The transition to employment can be difficult for adults with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) and intellectual disabilities (IDs). Currently, a limited number of ASD-specific career-planning tools exist within the literature, creating a challenge in terms of accurately identifying jobs that match individual preferences and strengths. This study evaluated the effects of a technology-based prework assessment on job performance among 3 adults with ASD and ID, aged 20-21 years prior to beginning supported employment. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s40617-019-00380-3DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7314875PMC

Behavioral tests assessing neuropsychiatric phenotypes in adolescent mice reveal strain- and sex-specific effects.

Sci Rep 2020 Jul 9;10(1):11263. Epub 2020 Jul 9.

Interdisciplinary Neurobehavioral Core, Heidelberg University, Heidelberg, Germany.

In humans, infancy and adolescence are associated with major changes in synaptic functions and ongoing maturation of neural networks, which underlie the major behavioral changes during these periods. Among adult cases with neuropsychiatric disorders including autism spectrum disorder, schizophrenia, attention deficit hyperactivity, and bipolar disorders, 50% have developed behavioral symptoms and received a diagnosis before 15 years of age. However, most of the behavioral studies in mice modeling neuropsychiatric phenotypes are performed in adult animals, missing valuable phenotypic information related to the effect of synaptic maturation during development. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-020-67758-0DOI Listing

Cross-Disorder Analysis of Brain Structural Abnormalities in Six Major Psychiatric Disorders: A Secondary Analysis of Mega- and Meta-analytical Findings From the ENIGMA Consortium.

Biol Psychiatry 2020 May 11. Epub 2020 May 11.

Department of Psychiatry, University of Münster, Münster, Germany.

Background: Neuroimaging studies have consistently reported similar brain structural abnormalities across different psychiatric disorders. Yet, the extent and regional distribution of shared morphometric abnormalities between disorders remains unknown.

Methods: Here, we conducted a cross-disorder analysis of brain structural abnormalities in 6 psychiatric disorders based on effect size estimates for cortical thickness and subcortical volume differences between healthy control subjects and psychiatric patients from 11 mega- and meta-analyses from the ENIGMA (Enhancing Neuro Imaging Genetics Through Meta Analysis) consortium. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.biopsych.2020.04.027DOI Listing

Cerebrospinal Fluid Magnetic Resonance Imaging: Improving Early Diagnosis of Autism and Other Neurodevelopmental Conditions.

Biol Psychiatry Cogn Neurosci Neuroimaging 2020 Jul;5(7):635-637

Department of Pathology, Boston Children's Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts. Electronic address:

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bpsc.2020.05.007DOI Listing

Other and other waters in the river: Autism and the futility of prediction.

Behav Brain Sci 2020 Jun 19;43:e122. Epub 2020 Jun 19.

The Com DEALL Trust, Bangalore560043, India.

Autism has been described as a neural deficit in prediction, people with autism manifest low perceptual construal and are impaired at traversing psychological distances, and Gilead et al.'s hierarchy from iconic to multimodal to fully abstract, socially communicated representations is exactly the hierarchy of representational impairment in autism, making autism a natural behavioural and neurophysiological test case for the prediction-abstraction relationship. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0140525X19003194DOI Listing

Reinforcer Choice as an Antecedent Versus Consequence During Skill Acquisition.

Behav Anal Pract 2020 Jun 29;13(2):462-466. Epub 2019 Apr 29.

Caldwell University, Caldwell, NJ USA.

Providing a choice of reinforcers is a commonly used strategy with children with autism spectrum disorder; however, less is known about the differential effectiveness and efficiency of providing choices before or after responding during acquisition tasks. Therefore, we evaluated reinforcer choice using untaught targets prior to and following responding. Results showed faster acquisition of targets in the consequence condition for 2 of 3 participants. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s40617-019-00356-3DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7314890PMC

The Teaching Interaction Procedure as a Staff Training Tool.

Behav Anal Pract 2020 Jun 28;13(2):421-433. Epub 2019 May 28.

Autism Partnership Foundation, 200 Marina Drive, Seal Beach, CA 90740 USA.

The teaching interaction procedure is an evidence-based procedure that has been utilized for the development of social skills. The teaching interaction procedure consists of labeling the targeted skill, providing a meaningful rationale for the importance of the skill, describing the steps of the targeted skill, modeling the skill, and providing feedback throughout the interaction. Although the teaching interaction procedure has been used to teach a variety of social skills to children and adolescents diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and other social and behavioral disorders, its use has not been evaluated for training staff. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s40617-019-00357-2DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7314872PMC

The Training Experiences of Behavior Analysts: Compassionate Care and Therapeutic Relationships with Caregivers.

Behav Anal Pract 2020 Jun 28;13(2):387-393. Epub 2019 May 28.

Breakthrough Autism, Richmond Hill, Canada.

Successfully working with families of children with autism requires technical behavior-analytic skills and critical interpersonal relationship-building skills. Taylor, LeBlanc, and Nosik (2018) suggested that many Board Certified Behavior Analysts might have been trained in graduate programs that focus primarily on conceptual and technical skills with little coverage of skills related to building therapeutic relationships. The current paper provides the results of an online survey of the precredential and postcredential training experiences of behavior analysts. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s40617-019-00368-zDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7314888PMC

An Exploration into Mothers' Experiences of Feeding Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder in South Africa.

Folia Phoniatr Logop 2020 Jul 9:1-10. Epub 2020 Jul 9.

Department of Speech Pathology and Audiology, School of Human and Community Development, University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, South Africa.

Objectives: To explore the experiences of mothers feeding their children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) in South Africa as well as to better understand the impact of context and culture on feeding disorders.

Participants And Methods: A qualitative research design was employed. Seven mothers of 8 children (1 mother had twins), aged 4-9 years, who were diagnosed with ASD and who had associated feeding difficulties participated in the study. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1159/000507928DOI Listing

Identification of novel loss of function variants in MBOAT7 resulting in intellectual disability.

Genomics 2020 Jul 6. Epub 2020 Jul 6.

Department of Medical Genetics, Faculty of Medical Sciences, Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran, Iran. Electronic address:

The membrane bound O-acyltransferase domain-containing 7 (MBOAT7) gene codes for an enzyme involved in regulating arachidonic acid incorporation in lysophosphatidylinositol. Patients with homozygous nonsense mutations in MBOAT7 have intellectual disability (ID) accompanied with seizure and autism. Accumulating evidences obtained from human genetic studies have shown that MBOAT7 is also involved in fatty liver disease. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ygeno.2020.07.008DOI Listing

Exploring the spatial working memory and visual perception in children with autism spectrum disorder and general population with high autism-like traits.

PLoS One 2020 9;15(7):e0235552. Epub 2020 Jul 9.

Mental Health Center, West China Hospital of Sichuan University, Chengdu, China.

The aim of the study is to compare the spatial working memory and visual perception between children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and typically developing control (TDC). Furthermore, this study validated whether this impairment was a feature of autism in general population with different autism-like traits (ALTs). This study contains two parts: case-control study and community population study. Read More

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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0235552PLOS

Effects of Extended-Release Methylphenidate Treatment on Cognitive Task Performance in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder and Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder.

J Child Adolesc Psychopharmacol 2020 Jul 9. Epub 2020 Jul 9.

Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, McGovern Medical School, University of Texas Health Science Center at Houston, Houston, Texas, USA.

To examine the effectiveness of four doses of psychostimulant medication, combining extended-release methylphenidate (ER-MPH) in the morning with immediate-release MPH (IR-MPH) in the afternoon, on cognitive task performance. The sample comprised 24 children (19 boys and 5 girls) who met the (DSM-IV-TR) criteria for an autism spectrum disorder (ASD) on the and the , and had significant symptoms of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). This sample consisted of elementary school-age, community-based children (mean chronological age = 8. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1089/cap.2020.0004DOI Listing

The astrocytic-neuronal crosstalk gets jammed: alternative perspectives on the onset of neuropsychiatric disorders.

Eur J Neurosci 2020 Jul 9. Epub 2020 Jul 9.

Department of Psychiatry and Psychotherapy, University of Regensburg, 93053, Regensburg, Germany.

Investigating interactions of glia cells and synapses during development and in adulthood is the focus of several research programmes which aim at understanding the neurobiology of brain physiological and pathological processes. Both glia-specific released and membrane-bound proteins play essential roles in the development, maintenance and functionality of synaptic connections. Alterations in synaptic contacts in specific brain areas are hallmarks of several brain diseases, such as major depressive disorder, autism spectrum disorder and schizophrenia. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/ejn.14900DOI Listing

Perspective influences eye movements during real-life conversation: Mentalising about self versus others in autism.

Autism 2020 Jul 9:1362361320936820. Epub 2020 Jul 9.

University of Kent, UK.

Lay Abstract: Previous lab-based studies suggest that autistic individuals are less attentive to social aspects of their environment. In our study, we recorded the eye movements of autistic and typically developing adults while they engaged in a real-life social interaction with a partner. Results showed that autistic adults were less likely than typically developing adults to look at the experimenter's face, and instead were more likely to look at the background. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1362361320936820DOI Listing

Peer engagement in toddlers with autism: Community implementation of dyadic and individual Joint Attention, Symbolic Play, Engagement, and Regulation intervention.

Autism 2020 Jul 9:1362361320935689. Epub 2020 Jul 9.

University of California, Los Angeles, USA.

Lay Abstract: Although young children may participate in education and intervention programs that take place in classrooms or groups, there is little information about how toddlers with special needs, and specifically toddlers with autism, are engaging with their peers. This study takes place in a public center-based early intervention program for toddlers with autism. Classrooms of toddlers were randomly assigned to an individual social communication intervention or the same intervention adapted to include a peer. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1362361320935689DOI Listing

Risperidone plasma concentrations are associated with side-effects and effectiveness in children and adolescents with autism spectrum disorder.

Br J Clin Pharmacol 2020 Jul 9. Epub 2020 Jul 9.

Department of Hospital Pharmacy, Erasmus MC, University Medical Center Rotterdam, The Netherlands.

Aim: Risperidone is the most commonly prescribed antipsychotic drug to children and adolescents worldwide, but is associated with serious side-effects, including weight gain. This study assessed the relationship of risperidone and 9-hydroxyrisperidone trough concentrations, maximum concentrations and 24-h area-under-the curves with BMI z-scores in children and adolescents with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and behavioral problems. Secondary outcomes were metabolic, endocrine, extrapyramidal and cardiac side-effects and effectiveness. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/bcp.14465DOI Listing

The role of lipid peroxidation in individuals with autism spectrum disorders.

Metab Brain Dis 2020 Jul 8. Epub 2020 Jul 8.

Department of Urology, Fujita Medical University School of Medicine, Aichi, 470-1192, Japan.

The role of malondialdehyde-modified low-density lipoprotein (MDA-LDL), an oxidized LDL, in the pathophysiology of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is unclear. We studied association between MDA-LDL and behavioral symptoms in 11 individuals with ASD and 7 age -matched normal controls. Behavioral symptoms were assessed using the Aberrant Behavior Checklists (ABC). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11011-020-00585-4DOI Listing

Repetitive Behavior in Children and Adolescents: Psychometric Properties of the German Version of the Repetitive Behavior Scale-Revised.

J Autism Dev Disord 2020 Jul 8. Epub 2020 Jul 8.

Department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, Psychosomatics and Psychotherapy, Autism Research and Intervention Center of Excellence, University Hospital Frankfurt, Goethe-University, Goethe-Universität, Deutschordenstr. 50, 60528, Frankfurt, Germany.

Restricted repetitive behaviors (RRBs) are a core feature of autism spectrum disorders (ASD) and further occur in intellectual disability (ID), mental disorders (MD), and in typically developed people (TD). There is a need of a valid and reliable measure to record RRBs as transdiagnostic symptom, which captures RRBs heterogeneity and evaluates severity. The Repetitive Behavior Scale-Revised (RBS-R) is an established screening instrument for RRBs, but was predominantly limited to ASD samples. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10803-020-04588-zDOI Listing

Brief Report: Improving Employment Interview Self-efficacy Among Adults with Autism and Other Developmental Disabilities Using Virtual Interactive Training Agents (ViTA).

J Autism Dev Disord 2020 Jul 8. Epub 2020 Jul 8.

Department of Biostatistics, Robert Stempel College of Public Health and Social Work, Florida International University, 11200 S.W. 8th Street, Miami, FL, 33199, USA.

This study evaluated the measurable impact of the use of virtual interactive training agents (ViTA) as a way to practice interviewing and gain confidence in responding to questions asked during job interviews. Of the total participants (n = 153), the majority were male (72.55%) with an average age of 21. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10803-020-04571-8DOI Listing

Delay to Early Intensive Behavioral Intervention and Educational Outcomes for a Medicaid-Enrolled Cohort of Children with Autism.

J Autism Dev Disord 2020 Jul 8. Epub 2020 Jul 8.

Department of Educational Psychology, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN, USA.

Increased prevalence of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) has underscored the need for early intervention services. Early Intensive Behavioral Intervention (EIBI) is among the most common evidence-based approaches, however, stakeholders report significant waitlists. The effects of these delays to intervention are unknown. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10803-020-04586-1DOI Listing

Brief Report: Intranasal Ketamine in Adolescents and Young Adults with Autism Spectrum Disorder-Initial Results of a Randomized, Controlled, Crossover, Pilot Study.

J Autism Dev Disord 2020 Jul 8. Epub 2020 Jul 8.

Cincinnati Children's Hospital Medical Center, 3333 Burnet Ave. MLC 4002, Cincinnati, OH, 45229, USA.

Dysregulation of glutamate neurotransmission plays a critical role in autism spectrum disorder (ASD) pathophysiology and is a primary target for core deficit research treatment trials. The mechanism of action of ketamine has striking overlap with the theory of ASD as a disorder of synaptic communication and neuronal networks. This two-dose, double-blind, placebo controlled, cross-over pilot trial of intranasal (IN) ketamine targeting core social impairment included individuals with ASD (N = 21) between 14 and 29 years. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10803-020-04542-zDOI Listing

Social Cognition in Autism and Schizophrenia Spectrum Disorders: The Same but Different?

J Autism Dev Disord 2020 Jul 8. Epub 2020 Jul 8.

Department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, Programa AMI-TEA, Servicio de Psiquiatría del Niño y del Adolescente, Hospital General Universitario Gregorio Marañón, Centro de Investigación Biomédica en Red de Salud Mental, CIBERSAM, School of Medicine, Instituto de Investigación Sanitaria Gregorio Marañón, IiSGM, Universidad Complutense, C/ Ibiza, 43, 28009, Madrid, Spain.

Social cognition impairment is a core shared phenotype in both schizophrenia spectrum disorders (SSD) and autism spectrum disorders (ASD). This study compares social cognition performance through four different instruments in a sample of 147 individuals with ASD or SSD and in healthy controls. We found that both clinical groups perform similarly to each other and worse than healthy controls in all social cognition tasks. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10803-020-04408-4DOI Listing

Long-term cognitive outcome in adult survivors of an early childhood posterior fossa brain tumour.

Int J Clin Oncol 2020 Jul 8. Epub 2020 Jul 8.

Cambridgeshire and Peterborough NHS Foundation Trust, South Team, Comberton Road, Toft, Cambridgeshire, CB23 2RY, UK.

Purpose: Posterior fossa brain tumours (PFT) and their treatment in young children are often associated with subsequent cognitive impairment. However, reported follow-up periods rarely exceed 10 years. This study reports very long-term cognitive consequences of surviving an early childhood PFT. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10147-020-01725-7DOI Listing

Clinical factors associated with mood affective disorders among adults with cerebral palsy.

Neurol Clin Pract 2020 Jun;10(3):206-213

Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation (DGW, SAW, DW, AK, SLM, EAH, MDP), University of Michigan; University of Michigan (DGW, MDP), Institute for Healthcare Policy and Innovation; University of Michigan (DGW), University of Michigan Depression Center, Ann Arbor, MI; and Epidemiology Group (DW), University of Aberdeen, School of Medicine, Medical Sciences and Nutrition, Scotland, UK.

Objective: To determine individual and aggregated associations of cerebral palsy (CP)-related symptoms and the effect of comorbid neurodevelopmental conditions on mood (affective) disorders among adults with CP.

Methods: Cross-sectional data from 2016 were extracted from a random 20% sample of the Medicare fee-for-service database. diagnosis codes were used to identify 18- to -64-year-old beneficiaries with CP, as well as mood (affective) disorders, pain, sleep disorders, fatigue, and comorbid neurodevelopmental conditions (intellectual disabilities [ID], autism spectrum disorders [ASD], and epilepsy). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1212/CPJ.0000000000000721DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7292558PMC

Infant EEG theta modulation predicts childhood intelligence.

Sci Rep 2020 Jul 8;10(1):11232. Epub 2020 Jul 8.

Centre for Brain and Cognitive Development, Birkbeck, University of London, Malet Street, London, WC1E 7HX, UK.

Intellectual functioning is a critical determinant of economic and personal productivity. Identifying early neural predictors of cognitive function in infancy will allow us to map the neurodevelopmental pathways that underpin individual differences in intellect. Here, in three different cohorts we investigate the association between a putative neurophysiological indicator of information encoding (change in frontal theta during a novel video) in infancy and later general cognitive outcome. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-020-67687-yDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7343785PMC

Prickle2 and Igsf9b coordinately regulate the cytoarchitecture of the axon initial segment.

Cell Struct Funct 2020 Jul 8. Epub 2020 Jul 8.

Institute for Comprehensive Medical Science, Fujita Health University.

Prickle2 has been identified in genetic studies of subjects with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and epilepsy, but the pathological mechanism of Prickle2 remains to be fully understood. Proteomic analysis of Prickle2 with mass spectrometry revealed twenty-eight Prickle2 interactors, including immunoglobulin superfamily member 9b (Igsf9b), in the brain. Here, because Igsf9 family proteins are associated with psychiatric diseases and seizures, we studied the physiological interaction between Prickle2 and Igsf9b. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1247/csf.20028DOI Listing

Reelin counteracts chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan-mediated cortical dendrite growth inhibition.

eNeuro 2020 Jul 8. Epub 2020 Jul 8.

Department of Neuroscience and Physiology, SUNY Upstate Medical University, 505 Irving Ave, Syracuse, NY, 13210, USA

Disruptions in neuronal dendrite development alter brain circuitry and are associated with debilitating neurological disorders. Nascent apical dendrites of cortical excitatory neurons project into the marginal zone (MZ), a cell-sparse layer characterized by intense chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan (CSPG) expression. Paradoxically, CSPGs are known to broadly inhibit neurite growth and regeneration. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1523/ENEURO.0168-20.2020DOI Listing