64,946 results match your criteria Autism


Distinct Symptom Network Structure and Shared Central Social Communication Symptomatology in Autism and Schizophrenia: A Bayesian Network Analysis.

J Autism Dev Disord 2022 Jun 25. Epub 2022 Jun 25.

Yale School of Medicine, New Haven, CT, USA.

Autism (ASD) and schizophrenia spectrum disorders (SCZ) are neurodevelopmental conditions with overlapping and interrelated symptoms. A network analysis approach that represents clinical conditions as a set of "nodes" (symptoms) connected by "edges" (relations among symptoms) was used to compare symptom organization in the two conditions. Gaussian graphical models were estimated using Bayesian methods to model separate symptom networks for adults with confirmed ASD or SCZ diagnoses. Read More

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Egocentric norm in health-based decision making of patients on the autistic spectrum.

Nurs Forum 2022 Jun 25. Epub 2022 Jun 25.

School of Nursing, Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indiana, USA.

Background: Individuals diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) without intellectual disability (ID) may have advanced mental reasoning; however, symptomology may vary within the population. Possible symptomology includes communication problems, difficulty relating to people, things, and events, and sensory sensitivity. Current concepts in determining health behavior are not applicable to the ASD without ID population. Read More

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Community support, family resilience, and mental health among caregivers of youth with autism spectrum disorder.

Child Care Health Dev 2022 Jun 25. Epub 2022 Jun 25.

University of South Alabama, Department of Psychology, Mobile, AL, U.S.

Background: Caregivers of children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) has been shown to have unique mental health vulnerabilities that community support may buffer. Positive caregiver mental health can stimulate family resilience behaviors, such as strong communication and problem-solving. Further, community support has been found to be related to caregiver mental health, as well as improved child functioning. Read More

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A systematic review of observational, naturalistic, and neurophysiological outcome measures of nonpharmacological interventions for autism.

Braz J Psychiatry 2022 Jun 24. Epub 2022 Jun 24.

Departamento de Psiquiatria, Faculdade de Medicina, Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo, SP, Brazil.

Objective: Naturalistic and neurophysiological assessments are relevant as outcome measures in autism intervention trials because they provide, respectively, ecologically valid information about functioning and underlying neurocognitive mechanisms. We conducted a systematic review to highlight which specific neurophysiological techniques, experimental tasks, and naturalistic protocols have been used to assess neural and behavioral functioning in autism intervention studies.

Methods: Studies were collected from four electronic databases between October 2019 and February 2020: MEDLINE (via PubMed), PsycINFO, LILACS, and Web of Science, and were included if they used structured observational, naturalistic, or neurophysiological measures to assess the efficacy of a nonpharmacological intervention for ASD. Read More

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Public awareness of developmental language disorder in Croatia, Italy and Slovenia.

Int J Lang Commun Disord 2022 Jun 25. Epub 2022 Jun 25.

Department of Special Education and Rehabilitation, Faculty of Education, University of Ljubljana, Ljubljana, Slovenia.

Background: Previous research, although scarce, has indicated that the general public is still relatively unaware of developmental language disorder (DLD), one of the most common (neuro)developmental disorders. Raising awareness would increase timely involvement in intervention procedures.

Aims: To examine public awareness of DLD in the neighbouring countries of Croatia, Italy and Slovenia, as well as to assess the influence of age, gender and education level on that awareness. Read More

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Mapping the time course of overt emotion dysregulation, self-injurious behavior, and aggression in psychiatrically hospitalized autistic youth: A naturalistic study.

Autism Res 2022 Jun 25. Epub 2022 Jun 25.

Department of Psychiatry, University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, USA.

Challenges with emotion dysregulation, self-injurious behavior (SIB), and aggression are common in autistic individuals. Prior research on the relationships between these behaviors is limited mainly to cross-sectional correlations of parent-report data. Understanding how emotion dysregulation, SIB, and aggression present and relate to one another in real-time could add to our understanding of the context and function of these behaviors. Read More

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Child ADHD and autistic traits, eating behaviours and weight: A population-based study.

Pediatr Obes 2022 Jun 24:e12951. Epub 2022 Jun 24.

Department of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry/Psychology, Erasmus MC, University Medical Center, Rotterdam, The Netherlands.

Background: Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) and Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) have an increased obesity risk. Although these conditions commonly co-occur, shared factors relating to obesity risk are unknown.

Objectives: To examine the shared and unique associations of ADHD and autistic traits with eating behaviours and BMI. Read More

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Sluggish cognitive tempo: Association with neuropsychological test scores, motor incoordination, and dysgraphia in elementary school children.

Clin Child Psychol Psychiatry 2022 Jun 24:13591045221110730. Epub 2022 Jun 24.

Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Health, 12310Penn State College of Medicine, Hershey, PA, USA.

Research on the relationship between sluggish cognitive tempo (SCT) and scores on neuropsychological tests (such as those measuring processing speed and reaction time) is inconclusive, and the association between SCT and motor incoordination and dysgraphia has not been objectively investigated. Mothers of 413 elementary school children (6-12 years of age) rated their children on the Pediatric Behavior Scale (PBS), which yields psychological problem scores, including SCT. Children were administered an extensive battery of neuropsychological tests assessing processing and performance speed, working memory, immediate and delayed recall, sustained attention, response inhibition, cognitive flexibility, fine motor manipulative skill, verbal fluency and retrieval, set shifting, and interference control, as well as intelligence and reading and math achievement. Read More

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Calculating genetic risk for dysfunction in pleiotropic biological processes using whole exome sequencing data.

J Neurodev Disord 2022 Jun 24;14(1):39. Epub 2022 Jun 24.

Division of Sleep Medicine, Department of Medicine, Perelman School of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA, USA.

Background: Numerous genes are implicated in autism spectrum disorder (ASD). ASD encompasses a wide-range and severity of symptoms and co-occurring conditions; however, the details of how genetic variation contributes to phenotypic differences are unclear. This creates a challenge for translating genetic evidence into clinically useful knowledge. Read More

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The chromatin roots of abnormal splicing in autism.

Trends Genet 2022 Jun 21. Epub 2022 Jun 21.

Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Institute for Medical Research Israel-Canada, Faculty of Medicine, Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Jerusalem 91120, Israel. Electronic address:

Spatiotemporal gene expression drives neurodevelopment. Therefore, abnormal expression during development results in atypical brain function. Alterations in gene expression have been described in autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Read More

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Perinatal exposure to glyphosate- based herbicides induced neurodevelopmental behaviors impairments and increased oxidative stress in the prefrontal cortex and hippocampus in offspring.

Int J Dev Neurosci 2022 Jun 24. Epub 2022 Jun 24.

Programa de Pós-Graduação em Biociências Aplicadas à Saúde, Universidade Federal de Alfenas-Unifal-MG, Alfenas, Brazil.

Glyphosate is the organophosphate pesticide most widely used in the world. Recent studies correlate exposure to glyphosate and the emergence of neurodevelopmental disorders. Therefore, it was objective to propose a rat model of perinatal exposure to glyphosate- based herbicides (HBG) to study associated neurodevelopmental disorders. Read More

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Modeling spatio-temporal patterns of holistic functional brain networks via multi-head guided attention graph neural networks (Multi-Head GAGNNs).

Med Image Anal 2022 Jun 15;80:102518. Epub 2022 Jun 15.

The Clinical Hospital of Chengdu Brain Science Institute, MOE Key Lab for Neuroinformation, School of Life Science and Technology, University of Electronic Science and Technology of China, #2006, Xiyuan Avenue, Chengdu, Sichuan 611731, China. Electronic address:

Mounting evidence has demonstrated that complex brain function processes are realized by the interaction of holistic functional brain networks which are spatially distributed across specific brain regions in a temporally dynamic fashion. Therefore, modeling spatio-temporal patterns of holistic functional brain networks plays an important role in understanding brain function. Compared to traditional modeling methods such as principal component analysis, independent component analysis, and sparse coding, superior performance has been achieved by recent deep learning methodologies. Read More

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Manchester University NHS Foundation Trust v WV [2022] EWCOP 9 : The Court of Protection: On balancing risks; best interests and kidney transplantation.

Authors:
Neera Bhatia

J Bioeth Inq 2022 Jun 24. Epub 2022 Jun 24.

School of Law, Deakin University, Melbourne, Victoria, 3125, Australia.

At first glance, this case might give the impression that a resolution would have been straightforward. A 17-year-old young man with moderate to severe learning disabilities and other conditions discussed below required a kidney transplant-the Court of Protection was tasked with determining whether this was in his best interests. However, the case of WV was in fact far more technical and required nuanced discussion and expert medical evidence from a range of specialists to objectively balance the needs of WV and the risks to WV, and to ultimately determine his fate of life or death based on receiving a kidney transplant. Read More

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Challenging Behavior and Parental Depression: The Effects of Everyday Stressors and Benefit Finding for Parents of Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder.

J Autism Dev Disord 2022 Jun 24. Epub 2022 Jun 24.

Department of Psychology, College of Health Professions, Mercer University, Atlanta, GA, USA.

Children with autism spectrum disorder present with challenging behaviors that can impact caregivers by increasing parental perceived stress and risk for depression. However, positive coping strategies have also been identified as protective factors for parents of children with ASD. The present study examined parental perceived daily stressors and positive coping strategies (i. Read More

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Effects of Intersectionality Along the Pathway to Diagnosis for Autistic Children With and Without Co-occurring Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder in a Nationally-Representative Sample.

J Autism Dev Disord 2022 Jun 24. Epub 2022 Jun 24.

Department of Physical Therapy, University of North Texas Health Science Center, 3500 Camp Bowie Blvd., Fort Worth, TX, 76107, USA.

Children with complex behavioral profiles (e.g., ASD + ADHD) may experience delays in obtaining a final diagnosis. Read More

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Developmental signs of ADHD and autism: a prospective investigation in 3623 children.

Authors:
Matti Cervin

Eur Child Adolesc Psychiatry 2022 Jun 24. Epub 2022 Jun 24.

Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Sciences Lund, Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, Lund University, Sofiavägen 2D, 22241, Lund, Sweden.

Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and autism spectrum disorder (ASD) are neurodevelopmental disorders with an early onset. Guidelines recommend a careful evaluation of developmental history when assessing the disorders, but it is unclear how children with ADHD and ASD differ from their peers growing up. In this study, physical, family, psychological, social, and educational information were examined in 3623 ethnically diverse children that were prospectively followed from birth to age 15 as part of the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study. Read More

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Maternal antibiotics disrupt microbiome, behavior, and temperature regulation in unexposed infant mice.

Dev Psychobiol 2022 Sep;64(6):e22289

Department of Psychological & Brain Sciences, Indiana University, Bloomington, Indiana, USA.

Maternal antibiotic (ABx) exposure can significantly perturb the transfer of microbiota from mother to offspring, resulting in dysbiosis of potential relevance to neurodevelopmental disorders such as autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Studies in rodent models have found long-term neurobehavioral effects in offspring of ABx-treated dams, but ASD-relevant behavior during the early preweaning period has thus far been neglected. Here, we exposed C57BL/6J mouse dams to ABx (5 mg/ml neomycin, 1. Read More

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September 2022

Obesity and neurodevelopmental and mental health conditions among adolescents aged 10-17 years: The National Survey of Children's Health 2017-2018.

J Paediatr Child Health 2022 Jun 24. Epub 2022 Jun 24.

College of Public Health, University of South Florida, Tampa, Florida, United States.

Aim: Adolescents have a high prevalence of obesity and neurodevelopmental and mental health co-occurring conditions. This study examined the association between obesity and several co-occurring conditions - autism spectrum disorder (ASD); intellectual disability; learning disability; stuttering, stammering or other speech problems; developmental delay; attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder; epilepsy or seizure disorder; cerebral palsy; depression; anxiety; and Tourette Syndrome - in adolescents aged 10-17 years (n = 26 266) using 2017-2018 National Survey of Children's Health data.

Methods: This cross-sectional study used 2017-2018 National Survey of Children's Health data (n = 27 328); χ tests were conducted to compare the prevalence of obesity and several co-occurring conditions. Read More

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Alternatives to Gold Standard Diagnostic Tools for Distinguishing "Natural Kinds" on the Autism Spectrum.

Authors:
Anne Philippe

Front Psychiatry 2022 6;13:862410. Epub 2022 Jun 6.

Developmental Brain Disorders Laboratory, INSERM UMR 1163, Imagine Institute, Université Paris Cité, Paris, France.

Next-generation sequencing techniques have accelerated the discovery of rare mutations responsible for autism spectrum disorder (ASD) in genes involved in a large number of physiological processes, including the control of gene expression, chromatin remodeling, signaling pathways, synaptic scaffolding, neurotransmitter receptors, and lipid metabolism. Genetic diagnosis provides subjects with an explanation of the cause of their disorder. However, it does not, or at least does not yet, shed light on the psychopathological phenomena specific to the individual. Read More

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Motor Signatures in Digitized Cognitive and Memory Tests Enhances Characterization of Parkinson's Disease.

Sensors (Basel) 2022 Jun 11;22(12). Epub 2022 Jun 11.

Rutgers University Center for Cognitive Science, Computational Biomedicine Imaging and Modeling Center at Computer Science Department, Psychology Department, Rutgers University, Piscataway, NJ 08854, USA.

Although interest in using wearable sensors to characterize movement disorders is growing, there is a lack of methodology for developing clinically interpretable biomarkers. Such digital biomarkers would provide a more objective diagnosis, capturing finer degrees of motor deficits, while retaining the information of traditional clinical tests. We aim at digitizing traditional tests of cognitive and memory performance to derive motor biometrics of pen-strokes and voice, thereby complementing clinical tests with objective criteria, while enhancing the overall characterization of Parkinson's disease (PD). Read More

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Utility of Downstream Biomarkers to Assess and Optimize Intranasal Delivery of Oxytocin.

Pharmaceutics 2022 May 31;14(6). Epub 2022 May 31.

Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN 55455, USA.

Oxytocin (OT), a mammalian neurohormone associated with social cognition and behavior, can be administered in its synthetic form intranasally (IN) and impact brain chemistry and behavior. IN-OT shows potential as a noninvasive intervention for disorders characterized by social challenges, e.g. Read More

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Gut Microbiome: A Brief Review on Its Role in Schizophrenia and First Episode of Psychosis.

Microorganisms 2022 May 29;10(6). Epub 2022 May 29.

Second Department of Psychiatry, Attikon University General Hospital, National and Kapodistrian University of Athens, 12462 Athens, Greece.

There is a growing body of evidence highlighting the role of gut microbiota as a biological basis of psychiatric disorders. The existing literature suggest that cognitive and emotional activities can be influenced by microbes through the microbiota-gut-brain axis and implies an association between alterations in the gut microbiome and several psychiatric conditions, such as autism, depression, bipolar disorder and psychosis. The aim of this review is to summarise recent findings and provide concise updates on the latest progress of the role of gut microbiota in the development and maintenance of psychiatric symptoms in schizophrenia and the first episode of psychosis. Read More

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How Is CYP17A1 Activity Altered in Autism? A Pilot Study to Identify Potential Pharmacological Targets.

Life (Basel) 2022 Jun 10;12(6). Epub 2022 Jun 10.

Teaching Hospital Internal Medicine, Lindenhofgruppe, 3006 Berne, Switzerland.

Increasing evidence exists that higher levels of androgens can be found in individuals with autism. Evidence yields to a susceptible role of Cytochrome P450 17A1 (CYP17A1) with its catalyzation of the two distinct types of substrate oxidation by a hydroxylase activity (17-alpha hydroxylase) and C17/20 lyase activity. However, to what extent steps are altered in affected children with autism versus healthy controls remains to be elucidated. Read More

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Two Genetic Mechanisms in Two Siblings with Intellectual Disability, Autism Spectrum Disorder, and Psychosis.

J Pers Med 2022 Jun 20;12(6). Epub 2022 Jun 20.

Department of Psychiatry, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital-Linkou, Taoyuan 33343, Taiwan.

Intellectual disability (ID) and autism spectrum disorder (ASD) are complex neurodevelopmental disorders with high heritability. To search for the genetic deficits in two siblings affected with ID and ASD in a family, we first performed a genome-wide copy number variation (CNV) analysis using chromosomal microarray analysis (CMA). We found a 3. Read More

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Multivariate Analysis of Metabolomic and Nutritional Profiles among Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder.

J Pers Med 2022 Jun 1;12(6). Epub 2022 Jun 1.

Department of Biomedical Engineering, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Troy, NY 12180, USA.

There have been promising results regarding the capability of statistical and machine-learning techniques to offer insight into unique metabolomic patterns observed in ASD. This work re-examines a comparative study contrasting metabolomic and nutrient measurements of children with ASD (n = 55) against their typically developing (TD) peers ( = 44) through a multivariate statistical lens. Hypothesis testing, receiver characteristic curve assessment, and correlation analysis were consistent with prior work and served to underscore prominent areas where metabolomic and nutritional profiles between the groups diverged. Read More

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Integrated microRNA-mRNA Expression Profiling Identifies Novel Targets and Networks Associated with Autism.

J Pers Med 2022 Jun 1;12(6). Epub 2022 Jun 1.

Barrow Neurological Institute at Phoenix Children's Hospital, Phoenix, AZ 85016, USA.

Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a complex neurodevelopmental disorder, with mutations in hundreds of genes contributing to its risk. Herein, we studied lymphoblastoid cell lines (LCLs) from children diagnosed with autistic disorder ( = 10) and controls ( = 7) using RNA and miRNA sequencing profiles. The sequencing analysis identified 1700 genes and 102 miRNAs differentially expressed between the ASD and control LCLs ( ≤ 0. Read More

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Special Issue "Precision Medicine in Neurodevelopmental Disorders: Personalized Characterization of Autism from Molecules to Behavior".

J Pers Med 2022 Jun 1;12(6). Epub 2022 Jun 1.

Department of Psychology, Rutgers the State University of New Jersey, Piscataway, NJ 08854, USA.

The Precision Medicine (PM) platform [... Read More

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