44,621 results match your criteria Autism


Hyperexcitability of hippocampal CA1 pyramidal neurons in male offspring of a rat model of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) induced by prenatal exposure to valproic acid: a possible involvement of Ih channel current.

Brain Res 2018 Dec 8. Epub 2018 Dec 8.

Neuroscience Research Center, School of Medicine, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran; Department of Physiology, School of Medicine, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran. Electronic address:

Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a common neuropsychiatric disorder, which is characterized by impairment in social interaction and cognitive behaviors. However, there is not much electrophysiological data available on alterations of neuronal excitability in autism. Here, we assessed the pattern of neuronal excitability and the possible contribution of Ih current to the altered excitability of hippocampal CA1 pyramidal neurons in a rat model of VPA-induced ASD-like behavior. Read More

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December 2018

Genotype and phenotype correlations for SHANK3 de novo mutations in neurodevelopmental disorders.

Am J Med Genet A 2018 Dec 9. Epub 2018 Dec 9.

Center for Medical Genetics & Hunan Provincial Key Laboratory of Medical Genetics, School of Life Sciences, Central South University, Changsha, Hunan, China.

SHANK3 has been identified as the causative gene of 22q13.3 microdeletion syndrome phenotype. De novo mutations (DNMs) of SHANK3 were subsequently identified in patients with several neurodevelopmental disorders, including autism spectrum disorders (ASDs), schizophrenia (SCZ), a Rett syndrome-like phenotype, and intellectual disability (ID). Read More

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December 2018

Putative contributions of the sex chromosome proteins SOX3 and SRY to neurodevelopmental disorders.

Am J Med Genet B Neuropsychiatr Genet 2018 Dec 9. Epub 2018 Dec 9.

LIM23, Instituto de Psiquiatria, Hospital das Clinicas HCFMUSP, Faculdade de Medicina, Universidade de Sao Paulo, Sao Paulo, SP, Brazil.

The male-biased prevalence of certain neurodevelopmental disorders and the sex-biased outcomes associated with stress exposure during gestation have been previously described. Here, we hypothesized that genes distinctively targeted by only one or both homologous proteins highly conserved across therian mammals, SOX3 and SRY, could induce sexual adaptive changes that result in a differential risk for neurodevelopmental disorders. ChIP-seq/chip data showed that SOX3/SRY gene targets were expressed in different brain cell types in mice. Read More

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December 2018

A Systematic Literature Review of Empirical Research on Postsecondary Students with Autism Spectrum Disorder.

J Autism Dev Disord 2018 Dec 8. Epub 2018 Dec 8.

Department of Educational Studies, Faculty of Human Sciences, Macquarie University, North Ryde, NSW, 2109, Australia.

The findings from a systematic literature review of 24 empirical studies of interventions for post-secondary students with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) are reported in this study. A diverse range of interventions were examined, many of which appeared feasible and high rates of participant satisfaction were also reported. Differing responses within and among interventions may point to the possible need for individualized supports. Read More

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December 2018

Addressing a Gap in Healthcare Access for Transition-Age Youth with Autism: A Pilot Educational Intervention for Family Nurse Practitioner Students.

J Autism Dev Disord 2018 Dec 8. Epub 2018 Dec 8.

Departments of Family Medicine & Community Health and Psychiatry, University of Massachusetts Medical School, 55 Lake Avenue North, Worcester, MA, 01655, USA.

A mixed-methods randomized controlled trial pilot study evaluated an educational curriculum focused on the medical needs of transition-age youth (TAY) with autism (ASD) for family nurse practitioner students. Fourteen out of a cohort of 16 (87.5%) nursing students consented to participate in the study and were randomly assigned to either a waitlist control group (WLC) (n = 8) or an intervention group (INT) (n = 6). Read More

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December 2018

Attentional Patterns to Emotional Faces Versus Scenes in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders.

J Autism Dev Disord 2018 Dec 8. Epub 2018 Dec 8.

Faculty of Psychology, University of Valencia, Valencia, Spain.

Previous research has shown attentional biases in children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) when processing distressing information. This study examined these attentional patterns as a function of the type of stimulus (scenes and faces) and the stimulus valence (happy, sad, threatening, neutral) using a within-subject design. A dot-probe was applied to ASD (n = 24) and typically developing (TD) children (n = 24). Read More

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December 2018

Discrepancies When Assessing Interpersonal Problem-Solving Skills in Autism Spectrum Disorder: A Diagnostic Indicator.

J Autism Dev Disord 2018 Dec 8. Epub 2018 Dec 8.

Centro de Investigación Mente, Cerebro y Comportamiento (CIMCYC), Facultad de Psicología, Universidad de Granada, Granada, Spain.

In children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), there are often discrepancies between direct assessment and third-party reports. We compared these children with groups with/without difficulties in interpersonal problem-solving skills in order to determine whether these discrepancies appear and if they could be a diagnostic indicator for ASD. There were 91 participants (ages 7-13): 28 children with ASD, 36 in a high family risk situation, and 27 typically developing children, all tested with direct measures and third-party reports. Read More

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December 2018

Parent-Reported Communication Abilities of Children with Sotos Syndrome: Evidence from the Children's Communication Checklist-2.

J Autism Dev Disord 2018 Dec 8. Epub 2018 Dec 8.

Department of Psychology, University of Sheffield, Sheffield, S1 2LT, UK.

Sotos syndrome is a congenital overgrowth syndrome associated with intellectual disability. This study investigated communicative abilities of children with Sotos syndrome (n = 31), using the Children's Communication Checklist, second edition. A cross-syndrome approach was used to establish the specificity of these abilities. Read More

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December 2018

An International Survey of Parental Attitudes to Technology Use by Their Autistic Children at Home.

J Autism Dev Disord 2018 Dec 11. Epub 2018 Dec 11.

Patrick Wild Centre, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, UK.

Capturing variability in use of commercial technologies by autistic children can inform future learning and support technology design. Survey data were collected from parents (n = 388) in the UK, Spain, and Belgium, and includes information about individuals with a range of ages and ability levels. We found a comparable pattern of access and usage across age groups, though higher reading and language ability was linked to use of more devices and interfaces. Read More

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December 2018

Are Children Severely Affected by Autism Spectrum Disorder Underrepresented in Treatment Studies? An Analysis of the Literature.

J Autism Dev Disord 2018 Dec 10. Epub 2018 Dec 10.

Developmental Disorders Program, Maine Behavioral Healthcare, 123 Andover Road, Westbrook, ME, 04092, USA.

Despite significant advances in autism research, experts have noted that children severely affected by autism spectrum disorder (ASD) appear to have been understudied. Rigorous analysis of this observation has been limited, and the representation of severity has not been well-described. We assessed three domains of severity (communication ability, cognitive functioning, and adaptive functioning) in 367 treatment studies of children with ASD published 1991-2013. Read More

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December 2018

Characterization of an Animal Model of Autism and Social Interaction.

Authors:
Keiko Iwata

Methods Mol Biol 2019 ;1916:149-155

Venetian Institute of Molecular Medicine, Padua, Italy.

Autism is a pervasive developmental disorder characterized by severe and sustained impairment of social interaction and communication, and restricted or stereotyped patterns of behavior and interest. Though multiple risk factors such as genetic and environmental components and interaction of these factors are suggested, the exact etiology is still not known. Many risk factors have been used to established animal models of psychiatric and neurodevelopmental disorders. Read More

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January 2019

Object Burying Test for Assessment of Obsessive Compulsive Behaviors in Mice.

Methods Mol Biol 2019 ;1916:81-85

Laboratory of Psychiatric Neuroscience, Australian Institute of Tropical Health and Medicine, James Cook University, Townsville, QLD, Australia.

Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) can occur in several psychiatric illnesses such as autism spectrum disorders (ASD) and it is more prevalent in children. This condition is characterized by repeated and apparently meaningless behaviors such as frequent hand washing, counting, tapping, and rocking. This can disrupt normal socialization and in some cases lead to self-harm. Read More

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January 2019

Sibling Recurrence Risk and Cross-aggregation of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder and Autism Spectrum Disorder.

JAMA Pediatr 2018 Dec 10. Epub 2018 Dec 10.

Department of Psychiatry, Oregon Health & Science University, Portland.

Importance: Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and autism spectrum disorder (ASD) are believed to partially share genetic factors and biological influences. As the number of children with these diagnoses rises, so does the number of younger siblings at presumed risk for ADHD and ASD; reliable recurrence risk estimates within and across diagnoses may aid screening and early detection efforts and enhance understanding of potential shared causes.

Objective: To examine within-diagnosis sibling recurrence risk and sibling cross-aggregation of ADHD and ASD among later-born siblings of children with either disorder. Read More

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December 2018

Evidence that ITGB3 promoter variants increase serotonin blood levels by regulating platelet serotonin transporter trafficking.

Hum Mol Genet 2018 Dec 7. Epub 2018 Dec 7.

Interdepartmental Program "Autism 0-90", "Gaetano Martino" University Hospital, University of Messina, Italy.

Elevated serotonin (5-HT) blood levels, the first biomarker identified in autism research, has been consistently found in 20-30% of patients with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD). Hyperserotonemia is mainly due to greater 5-HT uptake into platelets, mediated by the 5-HT transporter (SERT) located at the platelet plasma membrane. The protein complex involved in platelet SERT trafficking and externalization includes integrin β3, the beta subunit of the platelet membrane adhesive GP IIb/IIIa. Read More

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December 2018

Later Sibling Recurrence of Autism Spectrum Disorder and Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder: Clinical and Mechanistic Insights.

JAMA Pediatr 2018 Dec 10. Epub 2018 Dec 10.

Centre for Brain and Cognitive Development, Birkbeck College, University of London, London, United Kingdom.

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December 2018

Risk for ASD in Preterm Infants: A Three-Year Follow-Up Study.

Autism Res Treat 2018 11;2018:8316212. Epub 2018 Nov 11.

Department of Psychology, The Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Mount Scopus, Jerusalem, 91905, Israel.

Background: The aim of this study was to examine the long-term risk for autism spectrum disorders (ASD) in individuals who are born preterm and full-term using both observational instruments and parental reports. Neonatal risk factors and developmental characteristics associated with ASD risk were also examined.

Method: Participants included 110 preterm children (born at a gestational age of ≤ 34 weeks) and 39 full-term children assessed at ages 18, 24, and 36 months. Read More

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November 2018

Anti- IgG Antibodies in Children With Autism Spectrum Disorders.

Front Psychiatry 2018 26;9:627. Epub 2018 Nov 26.

Department of Medical Microbiology and Immunology, and The Medical Investigation of Neurodevelopmental Disorders (M.I.N.D.) Institute, University of California, Davis, Davis, CA, United States.

The gut microbiota are known to have a profound influence on both mucosal and systemic immunity and are important for gastrointestinal (GI) function. In addition, new evidence shows that the microbiota significantly influence neurodevelopment and behavior. Immune dysfunction and GI distress are extremely common in individuals with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Read More

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November 2018

Support Vector Machines, Multidimensional Scaling and Magnetic Resonance Imaging Reveal Structural Brain Abnormalities Associated With the Interaction Between Autism Spectrum Disorder and Sex.

Front Comput Neurosci 2018 26;12:93. Epub 2018 Nov 26.

Laboratory of Neuro Imaging, Keck School of Medicine, USC Mark and Mary Stevens Neuroimaging and Informatics Institute, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA, United States.

Despite substantial efforts, it remains difficult to identify reliable neuroanatomic biomarkers of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) based on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI). Studies which use standard statistical methods to approach this task have been hampered by numerous challenges, many of which are innate to the mathematical formulation and assumptions of general linear models (GLM). Although the potential of alternative approaches such as machine learning (ML) to identify robust neuroanatomic correlates of psychiatric disease has long been acknowledged, few studies have attempted to evaluate the abilities of ML to identify structural brain abnormalities associated with ASD. Read More

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November 2018

Erratum: Two-Year Follow-up of Isolated Epileptiform Discharges in Autism: An Endophenotypic Biomarker?

Authors:

Indian J Psychol Med 2018 Nov-Dec;40(6):602

[This corrects the article on p. 219 in vol. 40, PMID: 29875528. Read More

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December 2018

The Role of the Eukaryotic Translation Initiation Factor 4E (eIF4E) in Neuropsychiatric Disorders.

Front Genet 2018 23;9:561. Epub 2018 Nov 23.

Centre for Discovery Brain Sciences, The University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, United Kingdom.

Protein synthesis in eukaryotic cells is a complex, multi-step and tightly regulated process. Translation initiation, the rate limiting step in protein synthesis, is dependent on the activity of eukaryotic translation Initiation Factor 4E (eIF4E). eIF4E is the cap-binding protein which, in synergy with proteins such as the helicase eIF4A and the scaffolding protein eIF4G, binds to mRNA, allowing the recruitment of ribosomes and translation initiation. Read More

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November 2018

Developing key performance indicators for guaranteeing right to health and access to medical service for persons with disabilities in Korea: Using a modified Delphi.

PLoS One 2018 7;13(12):e0208651. Epub 2018 Dec 7.

Department of Medical Education and Medical Humanities, Kyung Hee University School of Medicine, Dongdaemun-gu, Seoul, Korea.

Recently, the Act on Guarantee of Right to Health and Access to Medical Service for Persons with Disabilities was implemented to legally define the health care system for persons with disabilities (PWDs) and the guarantee of access to medical care in Korea. This study aimed to develop specific goals and performance indicators to establish a system to guarantee right to health and access to medical service for PWDs. The first procedure was the establishment of the performance indicators, and the second was the content validity verification of the established performance indicators. Read More

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December 2018

Identifying disease genes using machine learning and gene functional similarities, assessed through Gene Ontology.

PLoS One 2018 10;13(12):e0208626. Epub 2018 Dec 10.

LASIGE, Faculdade de Ciências, Universidade de Lisboa, Lisboa, Portugal.

Identifying disease genes from a vast amount of genetic data is one of the most challenging tasks in the post-genomic era. Also, complex diseases present highly heterogeneous genotype, which difficult biological marker identification. Machine learning methods are widely used to identify these markers, but their performance is highly dependent upon the size and quality of available data. Read More

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December 2018

Common-variant associations with fragile X syndrome.

Mol Psychiatry 2018 Dec 7. Epub 2018 Dec 7.

Department of Genetics, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, NC, USA.

Fragile X syndrome is rare but a prominent cause of intellectual disability. It is usually caused by a de novo mutation that occurs on multiple haplotypes and thus would not be expected to be detectible using genome-wide association (GWA). We conducted GWA in 89 male FXS cases and 266 male controls, and detected multiple genome-wide significant signals near FMR1 (odds ratio = 8. Read More

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December 2018
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Obstetrician-Gynecologists' Strategies to Address Vaccine Refusal Among Pregnant Women.

Obstet Gynecol 2018 Dec 4. Epub 2018 Dec 4.

Adult and Child Consortium for Health Outcomes Research and Delivery Science, the Department of Pediatrics, and the Department of Community and Behavioral Health, University of Colorado Anschutz Medical Campus, and Children's Hospital Colorado, Aurora, Colorado; the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists, Washington, DC; the National Center for Immunization and Respiratory Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia; and the Division of General Internal Medicine, Denver Health, Denver, Colorado.

Objective: To describe 1) obstetrician-gynecologists' (ob-gyns') perceptions of the frequency of vaccine refusal among pregnant patients and perceived reasons for refusal and 2) ob-gyns' strategies used when encountering vaccine refusal and perceived effectiveness of those strategies.

Methods: We conducted an email and mail survey among a nationally representative network of ob-gyns from March 2016 to June 2016.

Results: The response rate was 69% (331/477). Read More

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December 2018

Contactins in the central nervous system: role in health and disease.

Neural Regen Res 2019 Feb;14(2):206-216

Amsterdam UMC, VU University Medical Center, Department of Clinical Chemistry, Amsterdam Neuroscience, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.

Contactins are a group of cell adhesion molecules that are mainly expressed in the brain and play pivotal roles in the organization of axonal domains, axonal guidance, neuritogenesis, neuronal development, synapse formation and plasticity, axo-glia interactions and neural regeneration. Contactins comprise a family of six members. Their absence leads to malformed axons and impaired nerve conduction. Read More

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February 2019

Brivaracetam in adults with drug-resistant epilepsy and psychiatric comorbidities.

Epilepsy Behav 2018 Dec 7;90:129-131. Epub 2018 Dec 7.

Atkinson Morley Regional Neuroscience Centre, St George's University Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust, London, UK; Institute of Medical and Biomedical Education, St George's University of London, UK. Electronic address:

This is a case series of 25 patients with drug-resistant epilepsy and psychiatric comorbidities who started on brivaracetam (BRV) at St George's University Hospitals and Frimley Health in London. Median BRV dose was 150 mg for a median follow-up period of 8 months. Twenty had focal epilepsy, four had generalized epilepsies, and one had unclassified epilepsy; 76% had mood disorders (either depression or bipolar disorder), 12% intellectual disabilities with autism spectrum disorder and challenging behavior, and 12% psychoses. Read More

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December 2018

Efficacy of ABRACADABRA literacy instruction in a school setting for children with autism spectrum disorders.

Res Dev Disabil 2018 Dec 6;85:104-115. Epub 2018 Dec 6.

The University of Sydney, Australia.

Background: There is evidence indicating that instruction using ABRACADABRA (ABRA) - a free web application designed to promote literacy development - may benefit children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) when administered on an individualized basis in children's homes.

Aims: Here, we investigated the efficacy of ABRA instruction administered in small groups of children with ASD within a school setting.

Methods And Procedures: Children were aged 5. Read More

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December 2018

Efficacy of parent training incorporated in behavioral sleep interventions for children with autism spectrum disorder and/or intellectual disabilities: a systematic review.

Sleep Med 2018 Oct 11;53:141-152. Epub 2018 Oct 11.

National University of Ireland Galway, Galway, Ireland.

Objective: Behavioral sleep interventions are regularly used to improve sleep problems experienced by children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and/or intellectual disability (ID). Recent developments have seen the introduction of parent sleep education and healthy sleep practice training to sleep interventions. This article aims to systematically review the evidence on the efficacy of parent training that is incorporated within recent sleep interventions for children with ASD and/or ID. Read More

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October 2018

Oxidative and inflammatory mediators are upregulated in neutrophils of autistic children: Role of IL-17A receptor signaling.

Prog Neuropsychopharmacol Biol Psychiatry 2018 Dec 6. Epub 2018 Dec 6.

Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, College of Pharmacy, King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia.

Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is characterized by repetitive behaviors, impaired social communication and stereotyped interests, and often associated with dysregulations in innate/adaptive immune cells. IL-17A has been linked with abnormal behavioral patterns observed in autistic children and animal models of autism. However, it is yet to be investigated if IL-17A and its receptors are implicated in regulation of oxidative and inflammatory mediators in neutrophils of ASD patients. Read More

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December 2018

Developmental changes in EEG phenotypes in a mouse model of Fragile X Syndrome.

Neuroscience 2018 Dec 4. Epub 2018 Dec 4.

Neuroscience Graduate Program, University of California Riverside, Riverside, California, 92521, USA; Psychology Department and Psychology Graduate Program, University of California Riverside, Riverside, California, 92521, USA. Electronic address:

Fragile X Syndrome (FXS) is a leading genetic cause of autism and intellectual disabilities. Sensory processing deficits are common in humans with FXS and an animal model, the Fmr1 knockout (KO) mouse, manifesting in the auditory system as debilitating hypersensitivity and abnormal electroencephalographic (EEG) and event-related potential (ERP) phenotypes. FXS is a neurodevelopmental disorder, but how EEG/ERP phenotypes change during development is unclear. Read More

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December 2018

Clinical spectrum of PTEN mutation in pediatric patients. A bicenter experience.

Eur J Med Genet 2018 Dec 4. Epub 2018 Dec 4.

Pediatric Highly Intensive Care Unit, Department of Pathophysiology and Transplantation, Università degli Studi di Milano, Fondazione IRCCS Ca' Granda Ospedale Maggiore Policlinico, Milan, Italy.

Objective Of The Study: To give a full overview of the clinical presentation of PTEN mutations in pediatric patients and to propose a pediatric follow-up protocol.

Methods: Recruitment of 16 PTEN mutated children (age 6 months-11 years) from two pediatric centers in Milan (Italy) between 2006 and 2017. All the patients underwent clinical and neurologic evaluations, cognitive and behavioral tests, and brain MRI; they are currently following an oncologic follow-up. Read More

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December 2018

Procedural sedation in children with autism spectrum disorders in the emergency department.

Am J Emerg Med 2018 Oct 16. Epub 2018 Oct 16.

Wayne State University School of Medicine, Carman and Ann Adams Department of Pediatrics, Division of Emergency Medicine, Children's Hospital of Michigan, 3901 Beaubien Blvd, Detroit, MI 48201, United States of America.

Background And Objectives: Children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) present more frequently to the emergency department (ED) than children with normal development, and frequently have injuries requiring procedural sedation. Our objective was to describe sedation practice and outcomes in children with ASD in the ED.

Methods: We performed a retrospective chart review of children with ASD who underwent sedation at two tertiary care EDs between January 2009-December 2016. Read More

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October 2018

Individual Differences in Sensory Sensitivity: A Synthesising Framework and Evidence from Normal Variation and Developmental Conditions.

Authors:
Jamie Ward

Cogn Neurosci 2018 Dec 10. Epub 2018 Dec 10.

a School of Psychology , University of Sussex , Brighton , UK.

For some people, simple sensory stimuli (e.g. noises, patterns) may reliably evoke intense and aversive reactions. Read More

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December 2018

Functional connection between the stereotyped behavior and the motor front area in children with autism.

Br J Neurosurg 2018 Dec 11:1-4. Epub 2018 Dec 11.

a Department of Medical Imaging , Xi'an Children's Hospital , Xi'an , Shaanxi Province , P.R. China.

Object: Autism spectrum disorders (ASD) is characterized by stereotyped behavior, attention deficit and/or impaired sensory perception to external stimuli. Its neurobiological mechanisms remain unclear. In this study we examined the resting-state functional connectivity of the premotor area and investigated its correlation with behavioral variables to determine whether connectivity alterations can distinguish ASD from healthy controls. Read More

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December 2018

Early emergence of discrepancy in adaptive behavior and cognitive skills in toddlers with autism spectrum disorder.

Autism 2018 Dec 7:1362361318815662. Epub 2018 Dec 7.

2 Emory University School of Medicine, USA.

Individuals with autism spectrum disorder and average IQ exhibit a widening discrepancy between lagging adaptive skills relative to their cognitive potential, but it is unknown when this discrepancy emerges in development. To address this important question, we measured adaptive and cognitive skills longitudinally, from 12-36 months, in 96 low-risk typically developing infants and 69 high-risk siblings of children with autism spectrum disorder who at 36 months were diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder ( N = 21), the broader autism phenotype ( N = 19), or showed no concerns (unaffected; N = 29). Results indicate that both cognitive and adaptive communication skills remained stable over time for all four groups, but toddlers with autism spectrum disorder and the broader autism phenotype failed to keep pace with unaffected and typically developing toddlers with regard to adaptive socialization skills and, to a lesser extent, daily living skills. Read More

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December 2018

Growth mixture models of adaptive behavior in adolescents with autism spectrum disorder.

Autism 2018 Dec 7:1362361318815645. Epub 2018 Dec 7.

1 University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, USA.

This study examined growth trajectories of teacher-reported adaptive behavior in a diverse sample of adolescents with autism spectrum disorder. The participants were 244 adolescents between the ages of 14 and 21 years who were assessed at up to four time points across two and a half years of high school. Demographic variables (age, sex, race, maternal education), phenotypic characteristics (intelligence quotient, autism severity) and school factors (location of the school, school quality) were collected. Read More

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December 2018

Effects of coaching on the fidelity of parent implementation of reciprocal imitation training.

Autism 2018 Dec 7:1362361318816688. Epub 2018 Dec 7.

University of Washington, USA.

Imitation is an important early social communicative skill that is often impaired in young children with autism. Reciprocal imitation training is an easy-to-implement intervention that targets social imitation and can be taught to parents or other caregivers to implement at home and in the community. In this study, parents of children with autism were taught to implement reciprocal imitation training. Read More

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December 2018

Shared and unique variances of interpersonal callousness and low prosocial behavior.

Psychol Assess 2018 Dec 10. Epub 2018 Dec 10.

Department of Psychology, Institute of Psychiatry, Psychology & Neuroscience, King's College London.

Although low prosocial behavior (LPB) items have been incorporated into youth measures of callousness, it remains unclear from current factor analytic findings whether callous traits and LPB are best operationalized as a common construct, or distinct dimensions. Using data from a population-representative birth cohort (N = 5,463), this study compared 4 latent factor structures for interpersonal callousness (IC; 6 items) and LPB (5 items) at age 13: (a) unidimensional; (b) two-factor; (c) higher-order (with 2 subfactors); and (d) bifactor (1 general and 2 specific residual factors). Alternative models distinguishing positively and negatively worded items were tested for comparative purposes. Read More

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December 2018

Reduced neural sensitivity to rapid individual face discrimination in autism spectrum disorder.

Neuroimage Clin 2018 Nov 28. Epub 2018 Nov 28.

Center for Developmental Psychiatry, Department of Neurosciences, KU Leuven, Leuven, Belgium; Leuven Autism Research (LAuRes), KU Leuven, Leuven, Belgium. Electronic address:

Background: Individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) are characterized by impairments in social communication and interaction. Although difficulties at processing social signals from the face in ASD have been observed and emphasized for many years, there is a lot of inconsistency across both behavioral and neural studies.

Methods: We recorded scalp electroencephalography (EEG) in 23 8-to-12 year old boys with ASD and 23 matched typically developing boys using a fast periodic visual stimulation (FPVS) paradigm, providing objective (i. Read More

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November 2018

Mechanisms Underlying Microbial-Mediated Changes in Social Behavior in Mouse Models of Autism Spectrum Disorder.

Neuron 2018 Dec 3. Epub 2018 Dec 3.

Department of Neuroscience, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, TX 77030, USA; Memory and Brain Research Center, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, TX 77030, USA; Department of Molecular & Human Genetics, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, TX 77030, USA. Electronic address:

Currently, there are no medications that effectively treat the core symptoms of Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD). We recently found that the bacterial species Lactobacillus (L.) reuteri reverses social deficits in maternal high-fat-diet offspring. Read More

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December 2018

Metabolome-wide association study of anti-epileptic drug treatment during pregnancy.

Toxicol Appl Pharmacol 2018 Dec 4;363:122-130. Epub 2018 Dec 4.

Clinical Biomarkers Laboratory, Division of Pulmonary, Allergy, and Critical Care Medicine, Emory University School of Medicine, Atlanta, GA, United States. Electronic address:

Pregnant women with epilepsy (PWWE) require continuous anti-epileptic drug (AED) treatment to avoid risk to themselves and fetal risks secondary to maternal seizures, resulting in prolonged AED exposure to the developing embryo and fetus. The objectives of this study were to determine whether high-resolution metabolomics is able to link the metabolite profile of PWWE receiving lamotrigine or levetiracetam for seizure control to associated pharmacodynamic (PD) biological responses. Untargeted metabolomic analysis of plasma obtained from 82 PWWE was completed using high-resolution mass spectrometry. Read More

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December 2018
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Application of the Communication Complexity Scale in Peer and Adult Assessment Contexts for Preschoolers With Autism Spectrum Disorders.

Am J Speech Lang Pathol 2018 Dec 6:1-14. Epub 2018 Dec 6.

Schiefelbusch Institute for Life Span Studies, The University of Kansas, Lawrence.

Purpose: The purpose of this study was to measure changes in communication of preschoolers with autism using the Communication Complexity Scale (CCS; Brady et al., 2012) and to examine the utility of the CCS in measuring pretreatment and posttreatment changes within peer and adult assessment contexts.

Method: The CCS was used to code preassessment and postassessment for 23 children with autism randomly assigned to a treatment that incorporated a peer-mediated approach and a speech-generating device and 22 assigned to a business-as-usual condition with untrained peers. Read More

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December 2018

Treatment-resistant and multi-therapy-resistant criteria for bipolar depression: consensus definition.

Br J Psychiatry 2018 Dec 6:1-9. Epub 2018 Dec 6.

Clinical Senior Lecturer in Mood Disorders and Consultant Psychiatrist,National Affective Disorders Service; Academic Psychiatry Training Programme Lead,Institute of Psychiatry,Psychology and Neuroscience,King's College London,South London and Maudsley NHS Foundation Trust (SLaM); andCRN South London Lead for Mental Health,Centre for Affective Disorders, Institute of Psychiatry,Psychology and Neuroscience,King's College London,South London and Maudsley NHS Foundation Trust (SLaM),UK.

Background: Most people with bipolar disorder spend a significant percentage of their lifetime experiencing either subsyndromal depressive symptoms or major depressive episodes, which contribute greatly to the high levels of disability and mortality associated with the disorder. Despite the importance of bipolar depression, there are only a small number of recognised treatment options available. Consecutive treatment failures can quickly exhaust these options leading to treatment-resistant bipolar depression (TRBD). Read More

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December 2018
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Solving for X: Evidence for sex-specific autism biomarkers across multiple transcriptomic studies.

Am J Med Genet B Neuropsychiatr Genet 2018 Dec 6. Epub 2018 Dec 6.

Centre for Pattern Recognition and Data Analytics (PRaDA), Deakin University, Geelong, Australia.

Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a markedly heterogeneous condition with a varied phenotypic presentation. Its high concordance among siblings, as well as its clear association with specific genetic disorders, both point to a strong genetic etiology. However, the molecular basis of ASD is still poorly understood, although recent studies point to the existence of sex-specific ASD pathophysiologies and biomarkers. Read More

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December 2018
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Multilevel diffusion tensor imaging classification technique for characterizing neurobehavioral disorders.

Brain Imaging Behav 2018 Dec 5. Epub 2018 Dec 5.

Institute for Biological and Medical Engineering, Schools of Engineering, Biology and Medicine, Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile, Santiago, Chile.

This proposed novel method consists of three levels of analyses of diffusion tensor imaging data: 1) voxel level analysis of fractional anisotropy of white matter tracks, 2) connection level analysis, based on fiber tracks between specific brain regions, and 3) network level analysis, based connections among multiple brain regions. Machine-learning techniques of (Fisher score) feature selection, (Support Vector Machine) pattern classification, and (Leave-one-out) cross-validation are performed, for recognition of the neural connectivity patterns for diagnostic purposes. For validation proposes, this multilevel approach achieved an average classification accuracy of 90% between Alzheimer's disease and healthy controls, 83% between Alzheimer's disease and mild cognitive impairment, and 83% between mild cognitive impairment and healthy controls. Read More

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December 2018
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Altered Global mRNA Expressions of Pain and Aggression Related Genes in the Blood of Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders.

J Mol Neurosci 2018 Dec 5. Epub 2018 Dec 5.

Department of Medical Genetics, Erciyes University Medical Faculty, 38039, Kayseri, Turkey.

Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is characterized by repetitive stereotypic behaviors, restricted interests, social withdrawal, and communication deficits. Aggression and insensitivity to pain are largely unexplained in these cases. We analyzed nine mRNA expressions of the candidate genes related to aggression and insensitivity to pain in the peripheral blood of patients with ASD. Read More

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December 2018
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Autism Spectrum Disorder: Incidence and Time Trends Over Two Decades in a Population-Based Birth Cohort.

J Autism Dev Disord 2018 Dec 5. Epub 2018 Dec 5.

Department of Health Sciences Research, Mayo Clinic, 200 First Street SW, Rochester, MN, 55905, USA.

We retrospectively identified autism spectrum disorder (ASD) incident cases among 31,220 individuals in a population-based birth cohort based on signs and symptoms uniformly abstracted from medical and educational records. Inclusive and narrow research definitions of ASD (ASD-R and ASD-R, respectively) were explored, along with clinical diagnoses of ASD (ASD-C) obtained from the records. The incidence of ASD-R ASD-R, and ASD-C increased significantly from 1985 to 1998, then ASD-R and ASD-R plateaued while the rate of ASD-C continued to increase during 1998-2004. Read More

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December 2018
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Prevalence of autism traits and attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder symptoms in a clinical sample of children and adolescents with chronic pain.

J Pain Res 2018 8;11:2827-2836. Epub 2018 Nov 8.

Functional Area Medical Psychology/Functional Unit Behavior Medicine, Karolinska University Hospital, Stockholm, Sweden,

Purpose: Recent research has suggested that autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) may be comorbid to pediatric chronic pain, but the empirical support is yet scarce. Therefore, the current study aimed to investigate the occurrence of traits and symptoms consistent with clinically significant ASD and ADHD in a group of children and adolescents with chronic debilitating pain and examine potential differences in pain and demographic variables between children with and without clinically significant traits and symptoms of ASD and ADHD.

Patients And Methods: This cross-sectional study included 146 parent-child dyads (102 girls, 111 mothers, children 8-17 years) consecutively referred to a tertiary pain clinic. Read More

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November 2018
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Aripiprazole in acute treatment of children and adolescents with autism spectrum disorder: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

Neuropsychiatr Dis Treat 2018 12;14:3063-3072. Epub 2018 Nov 12.

Department of Psychiatry, Faculty of Medicine, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai, Thailand,

Background: Recent randomized controlled trials indicated that aripiprazole was the effective treatment for children and adolescents with autism spectrum disorder (ASD).

Objective: This study systematically reviewed the efficacy, acceptability and tolerability of aripiprazole in treatment of ASD children and adolescents.

Data Sources: Electronic search of databases including, Scopus, PubMed, CINAHL and Cochrane Controlled Trials Register was performed in July 2017. Read More

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November 2018
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High unbound bilirubin for age: a neurotoxin with major effects on the developing brain.

Pediatr Res 2018 Dec 5. Epub 2018 Dec 5.

Keck School of Medicine of University of Southern California, Division of Neonatology, Department of Pediatrics, LAC+USC Medical Center, Los Angeles, CA, USA.

Neonatal hyperbilirubinemia is one of the most frequent diagnoses made in neonates. A high level of unconjugated bilirubin that is unbound to albumin is neurotoxic when the level exceeds age-specific thresholds or at lower levels in neonates with neurotoxic risk factors. Lower range of unbound bilirubin results in apoptosis, while moderate-to-high levels result in neuronal necrosis. Read More

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December 2018
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