58,380 results match your criteria Autism


Addressing pediatric mental health using telehealth during COVID-19 and beyond: A narrative review.

Acad Pediatr 2021 Jun 9. Epub 2021 Jun 9.

College of Human Medicine, Michigan State University, 15 Michigan Street NE, Grand Rapids, Michigan, 49503; Spectrum Health, Helen DeVos Children's Hospital, 100 Michigan Street NE, Grand Rapids, Michigan, 49503. Electronic address:

The pediatrician continues to serve as a frontline provider addressing patients' medical and mental health needs, yet COVID-19 is reshaping the way physicians deliver such care. Pediatricians are increasingly faced with the challenge of delivering healthcare, including mental health care, remotely. Given the rapidly evolving literature, we performed a narrative review of the use of telehealth for mental health care for pediatric populations during the COVID-19 pandemic. Read More

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Measuring Transactional Engagement Among Young Children with Elevated Likelihood for Later Autism Spectrum Disorder Diagnosis.

J Autism Dev Disord 2021 Jun 12. Epub 2021 Jun 12.

TEACCH Autism Program, The University of North Carolina At Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, NC, USA.

This analytical study documented the presence of transactions in parent-child engagement within a sample of young children at an elevated likelihood for an eventual diagnosis of autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Specifically, the study examined the establishment of transactional engagement through reciprocal behaviors between parents and their young children at-risk for ASD. In the study sample, established transactional engagement occurred at a higher rate than other levels of engagement. Read More

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Vitamin D deficiency exacerbates UV/endorphin and opioid addiction.

Sci Adv 2021 Jun 11;7(24). Epub 2021 Jun 11.

Cutaneous Biology Research Center, Department of Dermatology and Cancer Center, Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USA.

The current opioid epidemic warrants a better understanding of genetic and environmental factors that contribute to opioid addiction. Here we report an increased prevalence of vitamin D (VitD) deficiency in patients diagnosed with opioid use disorder and an inverse and dose-dependent association of VitD levels with self-reported opioid use. We used multiple pharmacologic approaches and genetic mouse models and found that deficiencies in VitD signaling amplify exogenous opioid responses that are normalized upon restoration of VitD signaling. Read More

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Balanced Growth project: a protocol of a single-centre observational study on the involvement of the vestibular system in a child's motor and cognitive development.

BMJ Open 2021 Jun 11;11(6):e049165. Epub 2021 Jun 11.

Department of Rehabilitation Sciences, Ghent University Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Ghent, Belgium.

Introduction: The involvement of the vestibular system in the motor and higher (cognitive) performances of typically developing or vestibular-impaired children is currently unknown or has only scarcely been explored. Interestingly, arguments for an interaction between vestibular, motor and cognitive functions in children can also be supported by research on children known for their difficulties in motor and/or cognitive processing (eg, children with neurodevelopmental disorders (NDD)), as they often present with vestibular-like characteristics. Therefore, in order to elucidate this interaction, and to increase the understanding of the pathophysiology and symptomatology of vestibular disorders and NDD in children, the Balanced Growth project was developed. Read More

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Maternal Psychiatric Conditions, Treatment With Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors, and Neurodevelopmental Disorders.

Biol Psychiatry 2021 Apr 14. Epub 2021 Apr 14.

Division of Research, Kaiser Permanente Northern California, Oakland, California.

Background: This study aims to clarify relationships of maternal psychiatric conditions and selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) use during preconception and pregnancy with risk of neurodevelopmental disorders in offspring.

Methods: We used data from the Study to Explore Early Development, a multisite case-control study conducted in the United States among children born between 2003 and 2011. Final study group classifications of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) (n = 1367), developmental delays or disorders (DDs) (n = 1750), and general population controls (n = 1671) were determined by an in-person standardized developmental assessment. Read More

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An analysis of the reading habits of autistic adults compared to neurotypical adults and implications for future interventions.

Res Dev Disabil 2021 Jun 8;115:104003. Epub 2021 Jun 8.

Department of Primary Care and Mental Health, University of Liverpool, Liverpool, UK.

Background: While research has consistently highlighted the usefulness of narrative texts for social development, this has not been fully explored with autistic adults. It has long been assumed that autistic individuals lack the social understanding to contemplate fiction, preferring non-fiction. This study aimed to explore the self-reported reading habits of autistic adults compared to neurotypical adults, accounting for higher education demands. Read More

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Timing and Intertemporal Choice Behavior in the Valproic Acid Rat Model of Autism Spectrum Disorder.

J Autism Dev Disord 2021 Jun 11. Epub 2021 Jun 11.

St. Lawrence University, Canton, USA.

Recently it has been proposed that impairments related to autism spectrum disorder (ASD) may reflect a more fundamental disruption in time perception. Here, we examined whether in utero exposure to valproic acid (VPA) can generate specific behavioral deficits related to ASD and time perception. Pups from control and VPA groups were tested using fixed-interval (FI) temporal bisection, peak interval, and intertemporal choice tasks. Read More

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MEG3 lncRNA is over-expressed in autism spectrum disorder.

Metab Brain Dis 2021 Jun 11. Epub 2021 Jun 11.

Department of Medical Genetics, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) comprise a group of regulatory transcripts which partake in the biological processes leading to development of neuropsychiatric disorders such as autism spectrum disorder (ASD). We measured circulatory levels of MEG3, GAS5, CYTOR, UCA1 lncRNAs and CRYBG3 gene in children with ASD and controls. Expression of MEG3 was remarkably higher in children with ASD when compared with controls (Posterior Beta = 2. Read More

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Genetic risk factors for autism-spectrum disorders: a systematic review based on systematic reviews and meta-analysis.

J Neural Transm (Vienna) 2021 Jun 11. Epub 2021 Jun 11.

Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, School of Public Health, Anhui Medical University, Hefei, 230032, China.

Background: Based on recent evidence, more than 200 susceptibility genes have been identified to be associated with autism until now. Correspondingly, cytogenetic abnormalities have been reported for almost every chromosome. While the results of multiple genes associated with risk factors for autism are still incomplete, this paper systematically reviews published meta-analyses and systematic reviews of evidence related to autism occurrence. Read More

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An elevated anxiety level among prepubertal autistic boys with non-treatment-seeking functional gastrointestinal disorders: A case-control study.

Autism Res 2021 Jun 11. Epub 2021 Jun 11.

Department of Psychology, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong SAR.

Children with autism commonly suffer from comorbid functional gastrointestinal disorders (FGID) and anxiety. The raised prevalence of both conditions in autism suggests complex reciprocal relationships, which are seldom explored in non-treatment-seeking FGID. The relationships between subtypes of FGID and anxiety are also unclear. Read More

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Telehealth and Autism Prior to and in the Age of COVID-19: A Systematic and Critical Review of the Last Decade.

Clin Child Fam Psychol Rev 2021 Jun 10. Epub 2021 Jun 10.

Department of Psychology, Louisiana State University, 236 Audubon Hall, Baton Rouge, LA, 70803, USA.

There has been growing interest in the use of telehealth; however, the COVID-19 pandemic and the subsequent isolation and restrictions placed on in-person services have fast-tracked implementation needs for these services. Individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) have been particularly affected due to the often-intensive service needs required by this population. As a result, the aim of this review was to examine the evidence base, methodology, and outcomes of studies that have used telehealth for assessment and/or intervention with children and adolescents with ASD as well as their families over the last decade. Read More

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Brief Report: Sex/Gender Differences in Adolescents with Autism: Socialization Profiles and Response to Social Skills Intervention.

J Autism Dev Disord 2021 Jun 10. Epub 2021 Jun 10.

Koegel Autism Center, Department of Counseling, Clinical, and School Psychology, Gevirtz Graduate School of Education, University of California Santa Barbara, Santa Barbara, CA, 93106-9490, USA.

Females with autism have unique socialization profiles, but less is known about sex/gender differences in the context of socialization interventions. This study utilized a combination of behavioral and survey measures to examine sex/gender differences in 32 autistic adolescents (10 females, 22 males) before and after participation in the 20-week START socialization program. At intake, males self-reported superior social skills use while parents endorsed that females demonstrated superior social competencies. Read More

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Brief Report: An Exploration of Cognitive Flexibility of Autistic Adolescents with Low Intelligence Using the Wisconsin Card Sorting Task.

J Autism Dev Disord 2021 Jun 10. Epub 2021 Jun 10.

Department of Educational and Counselling Psychology, Faculty of Education, McGill University, 3700 McTavish Street, Montreal, QC, H3A1Y2, Canada.

Cognitive flexibility (CF) is the ability to shift between concepts or rules. Difficulty with CF is associated with autism (i.e. Read More

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Microbiota and Microglia Interactions in ASD.

Front Immunol 2021 25;12:676255. Epub 2021 May 25.

Department of Physiology and Pharmacology, Snyder Institute of Chronic Diseases, Cumming School of Medicine, University of Calgary, Calgary, AB, Canada.

Autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are serious, highly variable neurodevelopmental disorders, commonly characterized by the manifestation of specific behavioral abnormalities, such as stereotypic behaviors and deficits in social skills, including communication. Although the neurobiological basis for ASD has attracted attention in recent decades, the role of microglial cells, which are the main resident myeloid cell population in the brain, is still controversial and underexplored. Microglia play several fundamental roles in orchestrating brain development and homeostasis. Read More

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Using Technology to Identify Children With Autism Through Motor Abnormalities.

Front Psychol 2021 25;12:635696. Epub 2021 May 25.

Department of Humanistic Studies, University of Naples Federico II, Naples, Italy.

Autism is a neurodevelopmental disorder typically assessed and diagnosed through observational analysis of behavior. Assessment exclusively based on behavioral observation sessions requires a lot of time for the diagnosis. In recent years, there is a growing need to make assessment processes more motivating and capable to provide objective measures of the disorder. Read More

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Children ASD Evaluation Through Joint Analysis of EEG and Eye-Tracking Recordings With Graph Convolution Network.

Front Hum Neurosci 2021 25;15:651349. Epub 2021 May 25.

School of Computer Science, Wuhan University, Wuhan, China.

Recent advances in neuroscience indicate that analysis of bio-signals such as rest state electroencephalogram (EEG) and eye-tracking data can provide more reliable evaluation of children autism spectrum disorder (ASD) than traditional methods of behavior measurement relying on scales do. However, the effectiveness of the new approaches still lags behind the increasing requirement in clinical or educational practices as the "bio-marker" information carried by the bio-signal of a single-modality is likely insufficient or distorted. This study proposes an approach to joint analysis of EEG and eye-tracking for children ASD evaluation. Read More

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Oxytocin-Trust Link in Oxytocin-Sensitive Participants and Those Without Autistic Traits.

Front Neurosci 2021 25;15:659737. Epub 2021 May 25.

Center for Infectious Disease Education and Research, Osaka University, Suita, Japan.

There have been numerous studies in which the biological role of oxytocin in trusting behavior has been investigated. However, a link between oxytocin and trust in humans was discovered only in one early study. We hypothesized that there is a large interindividual variation in oxytocin sensitivity, and that such variation is one reason for the doubt surrounding the role of oxytocin in trusting behavior. Read More

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PIGG variant pathogenicity assessment reveals characteristic features within 19 families.

Genet Med 2021 Jun 10. Epub 2021 Jun 10.

Sydney Children's Hospital, Centre for Clinical Genetics, Sydney Children's Hospital, High St, Randwick, UK.

Purpose: Phosphatidylinositol Glycan Anchor Biosynthesis, class G (PIGG) is an ethanolamine phosphate transferase catalyzing the modification of glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI). GPI serves as an anchor on the cell membrane for surface proteins called GPI-anchored proteins (GPI-APs). Pathogenic variants in genes involved in the biosynthesis of GPI cause inherited GPI deficiency (IGD), which still needs to be further characterized. Read More

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Aberrant dynamics of cognitive control and motor circuits predict distinct restricted and repetitive behaviors in children with autism.

Nat Commun 2021 06 10;12(1):3537. Epub 2021 Jun 10.

Department of Psychiatry & Behavioral Sciences, Stanford University, Stanford, CA, USA.

Restricted and repetitive behaviors (RRBs) are a defining clinical feature of autism spectrum disorders (ASD). RRBs are highly heterogeneous with variable expression of circumscribed interests (CI), insistence of sameness (IS) and repetitive motor actions (RM), which are major impediments to effective functioning in individuals with ASD; yet, the neurobiological basis of CI, IS and RM is unknown. Here we evaluate a unified functional brain circuit model of RRBs and test the hypothesis that CI and IS are associated with aberrant cognitive control circuit dynamics, whereas RM is associated with aberrant motor circuit dynamics. Read More

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Zinc.

Adv Food Nutr Res 2021 24;96:251-310. Epub 2021 May 24.

IM Sechenov First Moscow State Medical University (Sechenov University), Moscow, Russia; Yaroslavl State University, Yaroslavl, Russia. Electronic address:

Since the discovery of manifest Zn deficiency in 1961, the increasing number of studies demonstrated the association between altered Zn status and multiple diseases. In this chapter, we provide a review of the most recent advances on the role of Zn in health and disease (2010-20), with a special focus on the role of Zn in neurodegenerative and neurodevelopmental disorders, diabetes and obesity, male and female reproduction, as well as COVID-19. In parallel with the revealed tight association between ASD risk and severity and Zn status, the particular mechanisms linking Zn and ASD pathogenesis like modulation of synaptic plasticity through ProSAP/Shank scaffold, neurotransmitter metabolism, and gut microbiota, have been elucidated. Read More

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"There's nothing here": Perspectives from rural parents promoting safe active recreation for children living with autism spectrum disorders.

Res Dev Disabil 2021 Jun 7;115:103998. Epub 2021 Jun 7.

University of British Columbia, Okanagan, 3333 University Way, Kelowna, BC, V1V 1V7, Canada; School of Nursing, University of British Columbia, Okanagan, Canada.

Background: Children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and their families experience challenges and barriers at multiple levels that influence their activity participation. The purpose of this study was to develop understanding about factors influencing how families can promote safe, active recreation for their children 3-12 years living with ASD across rural settings and how supports for these families can be enhanced.

Methods: This qualitative study used an interpretive descriptive approach. Read More

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Clinical presentations of social communication disorder: A case series.

Asian J Psychiatr 2021 May 31;62:102718. Epub 2021 May 31.

Department of Developmental Psychiatry, Institute of Mental Health, Child Guidance Clinic, 03-01, 3 Second Hospital Avenue, Health Promotion Board Building, 168937, Singapore.

Social Communication Disorder (SCD) is a new DSM-5 diagnostic category poorly understood by clinicians. We describe a case series of four individuals diagnosed with SCD to identify common characteristics and differences in presentations of the disorder. All cases had deficits in the area of social communication, and sub-threshold level of restricted and repetitive behaviours, not sufficient to meet criteria for Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD). Read More

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The role of PTEN signaling in synaptic function: implications in autism spectrum disorder.

Neurosci Lett 2021 Jun 7:136015. Epub 2021 Jun 7.

Laboratory of Molecular and Functional Neurobiology, Department of Pharmacology, Institute of Biomedical Sciences, University of São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil. Electronic address:

Phosphatase and tensin homolog deleted on chromosome 10 (PTEN) regulates several cellular processes including survival, proliferation, and metabolism. In the brain, PTEN is a key modulator of synaptic function, and is involved in regulating synaptogenesis, connectivity, and synaptic plasticity. Herein we discuss how alterations in PTEN can disturb these mechanisms, thus compromising normal synaptic function and consequently contributing to behavioral and cognitive phenotypes observed in autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Read More

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Emotional response bias, autistic traits and paranormal beliefs in patients with Obsessive Compulsive Disorder.

J Pak Med Assoc 2021 Jun;71(6):1596-1600

Government College University, Lahore Clinical Psychology Unit, Lahore, Pakistan.

Objective: To find the relationship involving autistic traits, paranormal beliefs and emotional response bias in obsessive compulsive disorder patients.

Method: The cross-sectional quasi-experimental study was conducted from November 2017 to November 2018 at the Government College University, Lahore, Pakistan, and comprised patients with obsessive compulsive disorder and healthy controls from the general population aged 20-40 years. Data was collected using the self-reporting Autism Spectrum Quotient, the Revised Paranormal Belief Scale, the Emotional Recognition Task and the Obsessive Compulsive Disorder symptom checklist. Read More

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The Association of Prenatal Vitamins and Folic Acid Supplement Intake with Odds of Autism Spectrum Disorder in a High-Risk Sibling Cohort, the Early Autism Risk Longitudinal Investigation (EARLI).

J Autism Dev Disord 2021 Jun 10. Epub 2021 Jun 10.

Department of Public Health Sciences and The MIND Institute, School of Medicine, University of California-Davis, UC Davis School of Medicine - Medical Sciences 1C, Suite 123, Davis, CA, 95616, USA.

We examined maternal prenatal vitamin use or supplemental folic acid intake during month one of pregnancy for association with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) in the Early Autism Risk Longitudinal Investigation, an enriched-risk pregnancy cohort. Total folic acid intake was calculated from monthly prenatal vitamins, multivitamins, and other supplement reports. Clinical assessments through age 3 years classified children as ASD (n = 38) or non-ASD (n = 153). Read More

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Collateral Child and Parent Effects of Function‑Based Behavioral Interventions for Sleep Problems in Children and Adolescents with Autism.

J Autism Dev Disord 2021 Jun 10. Epub 2021 Jun 10.

Department of Special Education, Center for Autism Research, Evaluation, and Support, Texas State University, San Marcos, TX, USA.

This study follows McLay et al., Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, (2020) to investigate whether the function-based behavioral sleep interventions received by 41 children and adolescents with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) produced collateral improvements in ASD severity, internalizing and externalizing symptoms and parent relationship quality, ratings of depression, anxiety and stress, and personal sleep quality. Concomitant with reduced sleep problem severity, improvements were found in children's internalizing and externalizing behavior and ASD symptom severity. Read More

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Adaptive Behavior Profiles of Intellectually Gifted Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder.

J Dev Behav Pediatr 2021 Jun-Jul 01;42(5):374-379

Department of Psychiatry, University of Colorado Anschutz Medical Campus, Aurora, CO.

Objective: The purpose of this study is to identify whether the well-described pattern of declining adaptive functioning across age among children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) also exists among intellectually gifted children with ASD because their cognitive abilities might serve as a protective factor.

Methods: Data from the Simons Simplex Collection were used to identify 51 participants with full-scale intelligence (IQ) scores of 130 or above with this group labeled as the intellectually gifted range (IGR). Two comparison samples of children with IQs in the intellectual disability range (IDR; < 70 Standard Score [SS]) and average range (AR; 85-115 SS) were created based on matching of age (±2 years), maternal education level, and sex. Read More

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"Intolerance of uncertainty" mediates the relationship between social profile and anxiety in both Williams syndrome and autism.

Autism Res 2021 Jun 10. Epub 2021 Jun 10.

Centre for Developmental Disorders, Durham University, Durham, UK.

Anxiety is the most significant mental health concern for both Williams syndrome (WS) and autism. Whilst WS and autism are characterized by some syndrome-specific social differences, less is known about cross-syndrome profiles of anxiety symptoms. Previous research has shown that Intolerance of Uncertainty (IU) is a core mechanism of anxiety maintenance for clinically anxious populations and for autistic children, adolescents, and adults. Read More

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