52,461 results match your criteria Autism


The role of 5-HTTLPR in autism spectrum disorder: New evidence and a meta-analysis of this polymorphism in Latin American population with psychiatric disorders.

PLoS One 2020 2;15(7):e0235512. Epub 2020 Jul 2.

Departamento de Ciencias Biológicas, Universidad de los Andes, Bogotá, Colombia.

The autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a complex disorder encompassing a broad phenotypic and genotypic variability. The short (S)/long (L) 5-HTTLPR polymorphism has a functional role in the regulation of extracellular serotonin levels and both alleles have been associated to ASD. Most studies including European, American, and Asian populations have suggested an ethnical heterogeneity of this polymorphism; however, the short/long frequencies from Latin American population have been under-studied in recent meta-analysis. Read More

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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0235512PLOS

Are the autism symptoms in neurofibromatosis type 1 actually autism?

Dev Med Child Neurol 2020 Jul 2. Epub 2020 Jul 2.

Department of Psychology, University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee, Milwaukee, WI, USA.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/dmcn.14597DOI Listing

[Changing software to understand and treat autism: replacing genetic reductionism by study of maternity and birth].

Authors:
Yehezkel Ben-Ari

Med Sci (Paris) 2020 Jun-Jul;36(6-7):547-549. Epub 2020 Jul 2.

Directeur de Recherche émérite à l'Inserm Fondateur de l'institut de neurobiologie de la méditerranée Inmed (Inserm) Fondateur et président du Fonds d'action à but non lucratif IBEN (et du futur institut IBEN) pour l'étude de la maternité et de la naissance Neurochlore, Batiment Beret Delage, Campus scientifique de Luminy, 163 route de Luminy, 13273 Marseille Cedex 09, France.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1051/medsci/2020084DOI Listing

[Autism spectrum symptoms in children with congenital blindness].

Z Kinder Jugendpsychiatr Psychother 2020 Jul;48(4):289-302

Lehr- und Forschungsgebiet Klinische Neuropsychologie des Kindes- und Jugendalters, Klinik für Kinder- und Jugendpsychiatrie und -psychotherapie, Universitätsklinikum der RWTH Aachen.

Autism spectrum symptoms in children with congenital blindness Previous studies reported increased rates of autistic symptoms in children with impaired visual abilities (IV). However, the application of existing screening questionnaires for autism spectrum disorders (ASD) proved problematic, as intact visual abilities are typically required. The current study examines the general applicability of three autism-screening questionnaires in children with congenital blindness. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1024/1422-4917/a000738DOI Listing

Use of Antipsychotics: The Experiences, Views, and Monitoring Practices of Child and Adolescent Psychiatrists in Turkey.

J Child Adolesc Psychopharmacol 2020 Jun 30. Epub 2020 Jun 30.

Department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, Manisa Celal Bayar University Faculty of Medicine, Manisa, Turkey.

The aim of this study is to evaluate the antipsychotics prescribed by child psychiatrists and their applications on the follow-up of these drugs. The universe of this research included consultant physicians and child psychiatry residents working in the field. A questionnaire has been created that assesses the use of antipsychotics and follow-up processes of physicians. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1089/cap.2020.0078DOI Listing

Adaptation of One-Session Treatment for Specific Phobias for Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder Using a Non-concurrent Multiple Baseline Design: A Preliminary Investigation.

J Autism Dev Disord 2020 Jul 1. Epub 2020 Jul 1.

Department of Psychology, Virginia Tech Child Study Center, Virginia Tech, Southwest, 460 Tuner St. NW, Blacksburg, VA, 24060, USA.

Anxiety disorders are among the most common co-occurring disorders for individuals with ASD. Several adaptations to cognitive behavioral approaches have been proposed for this population (Moree & Davis, 2010). The current study examined feasibility and preliminary efficacy of an ASD-specific adaptation of one-session treatment (OST) for specific phobia (SP). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10803-020-04582-5DOI Listing

The Effect of Visual Perceptual Load on Auditory Awareness of Social vs. Non-social Stimuli in Individuals with Autism.

J Autism Dev Disord 2020 Jul 1. Epub 2020 Jul 1.

Department of Language and Cognition, University College London, London, UK.

This study examined the effect of increasing visual perceptual load on auditory awareness for social and non-social stimuli in adolescents with autism spectrum disorder (ASD, n = 63) and typically developing (TD, n = 62) adolescents. Using an inattentional deafness paradigm, a socially meaningful ('Hi') or a non-social (neutral tone) critical stimulus (CS) was unexpectedly presented under high and low load. For the social CS both groups continued to show high awareness rates as load increased. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10803-020-04587-0DOI Listing

Do Animals Engage Greater Social Attention in Autism? An Eye Tracking Analysis.

Front Psychol 2020 16;11:727. Epub 2020 Jun 16.

Child Sight Institute, Nimmagadda Prasad Children's Eye Care Centre, L V Prasad Eye Institute, GMRV Campus, Visakhapatnam, India.

Background: Visual atypicalities in autism spectrum disorder (ASD) are a well documented phenomenon, beginning as early as 2-6 months of age and manifesting in a significantly decreased attention to the eyes, direct gaze and socially salient information. Early emerging neurobiological deficits in perceiving social stimuli as rewarding or its active avoidance due to the anxiety it entails have been widely purported as potential reasons for this atypicality. Parallel research evidence also points to the significant benefits of animal presence for reducing social anxiety and enhancing social interaction in children with autism. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2020.00727DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7309441PMC

Role of Neuroinflammation in Autism Spectrum Disorder and the Emergence of Brain Histaminergic System. Lessons Also for BPSD?

Front Pharmacol 2020 16;11:886. Epub 2020 Jun 16.

Department of Pharmacology and Therapeutics, College of Medicine & Health Sciences, United Arab Emirates University, Al Ain, United Arab Emirates.

Many behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia (BPSD) share similarities in executive functioning and communication deficits with those described in several neuropsychiatric disorders, including Alzheimer's disease (AD), epilepsy, schizophrenia (SCH), and autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Numerous studies over the last four decades have documented altered neuroinflammation among individuals diagnosed with ASD. The purpose of this review is to examine the hypothesis that central histamine (HA) plays a significant role in the regulation of neuroinflammatory processes of microglia functions in numerous neuropsychiatric diseases, i. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fphar.2020.00886DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7309953PMC

Computational Modeling of Inhibitory Transsynaptic Signaling in Hippocampal and Cortical Neurons Expressing Intrabodies Against Gephyrin.

Front Cell Neurosci 2020 16;14:173. Epub 2020 Jun 16.

National Research Council, Institute of Biophysics, Palermo, Italy.

GABAergic transmission regulates neuronal excitability, dendritic integration of synaptic signals and oscillatory activity, thought to be involved in high cognitive functions. By anchoring synaptic receptors just opposite to release sites, the scaffold protein gephyrin plays a key role in these tasks. In addition, by regulating GABA receptor trafficking, gephyrin contributes to maintain, at the network level, an appropriate balance between Excitation (E) and Inhibition (I), crucial for information processing. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fncel.2020.00173DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7309579PMC

Magnesium Status in Children with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder and/or Autism Spectrum Disorder.

Soa Chongsonyon Chongsin Uihak 2020 Jan;31(1):41-45

Laboratory of Biotechnology and Applied Bioelementology, Yaroslavl State University, Yaroslavl, Russia.

Objective: The objective of this study was to assess serum, hair, and urinary magnesium (Mg) levels in children with attention-deficit/ hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), autism spectrum disorder (ASD), and both ASD and ADHD to reveal potential interactive effects.

Methods: A total of 148 boys aged 4-9 years old were enrolled in this study, including 44 children with ADHD, 40 pediatric patients with ASD, 32 patients with both ADHD and ASD, as well as 32 healthy neurotypical children. Hair, serum, and urinary Mg levels were assessed using inductively-coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.5765/jkacap.190036DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7324841PMC
January 2020

Development of a Battery to Assess Perceptual-Motor, Cognition, Language, and Scholastic Skills among Bengali Children with Neuro Developmental Disorders.

Indian J Psychol Med 2020 May-Jun;42(3):238-249. Epub 2020 Apr 25.

Speech and Language Pathologist, Speech Plus, 69/T3 Prince Baktiar Shah Road, Kolkata, West Bengal, India.

Background: School failure or poor academic performance is often found in neurodevelopmental disorders (NDD); however, there is a dearth of a comprehensive assessment tool to evaluate various underlying deficits, including perceptual-motor, cognitive, language, and scholastic skills of those who have NDD. The study aimed to develop a test to fill-up this gap.

Materials And Methods: The study followed three phases: the construction of an assessment battery in both Bengali and English languages, separately, incorporating tasks on perceptual-motor, cognitive, language, and scholastic skills; doing a pilot study, and finally, standardization. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/IJPSYM.IJPSYM_198_19DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7320737PMC

The Impact of Autism Spectrum Disorder in Comparison with Other Neuro-Developmental Disorders in Children on the Family: Single Centre Experience.

Indian J Psychol Med 2020 May-Jun;42(3):233-237. Epub 2020 Apr 25.

Developmental Pediatrics unit, Christian Medical College and Hospital, Vellore, Tamil Nadu, India.

Background: Neurodevelopmental disorders (NDD), especially autism spectrum disorder (ASD), have a substantial impact on the family, with a consequent decrease in the quality of life. The current study was undertaken to understand if having ASD contributed to a higher impact on families compared to other NDD and to understand additional factors impacting families of children with either disorder in a low-middle income country (LMIC) setting.

Methods: Impact of ASD and other NDD along with sociodemographic factors was examined, by a retrospective analysis, among 540 children in a tertiary care center in South India. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/IJPSYM.IJPSYM_376_19DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7320731PMC

Stress and Coping Styles in Mothers of Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder.

Indian J Psychol Med 2020 May-Jun;42(3):225-232. Epub 2020 Apr 25.

Department of Psychiatry, PSG Institute of Medical Sciences and Research (PSGIMSR), Coimbatore, Tamil Nadu, India.

Background: Children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) require well-balanced care and a comprehensive therapeutic approach. Mental health problems often go unnoticed in mothers of children with ASD due to the focus on training for the children. The presence of stress and depressive symptoms in mothers can interfere with the quality of care and therapy given to the child. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/IJPSYM.IJPSYM_333_19DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7320725PMC

Cross-Disciplinary Appraisal of Knowledge and Beliefs Regarding the Diagnosis of Autism Spectrum Disorders in India: A Cross-Sectional Survey.

Indian J Psychol Med 2020 May-Jun;42(3):219-224. Epub 2020 Apr 25.

Department of Clinical Psychology, Manipal College of Health Professions, Manipal Academy of Higher Education, Manipal, Karnataka, India.

Background: Many healthcare professionals, including pediatricians, psychiatrists, Clinical Psychologists (CPs), Occupational Therapists (OTs), and Speech-Language Pathologists (SLPs), are involved in the identification and intervention of Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) in children. Distinctive training backgrounds and professional exposure can result in contrasting ideas regarding the assessment, diagnosis, and treatment of ASD. Only a few studies have addressed the cross-disciplinary perspective of knowledge, belief, and awareness about diagnostic criteria required for diagnosing ASD. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/IJPSYM.IJPSYM_163_19DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7320733PMC

Case 3: Cytopenias and Myelopathy in a 15-year-old Boy with Autism.

Pediatr Rev 2020 Jul;41(7):365-368

Blood Research Institute, Blood Center of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, WI; Division of Hematology/Oncology, Departments of Medicine and Pediatrics, Medical College of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, WI.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1542/pir.2018-0092DOI Listing

Reduced auditory steady state responses in autism spectrum disorder.

Mol Autism 2020 Jul 1;11(1):56. Epub 2020 Jul 1.

Aston Neuroscience Institute, School of Life and Health Sciences, Aston University, Birmingham, B4 7ET, UK.

Background: Auditory steady state responses (ASSRs) are elicited by clicktrains or amplitude-modulated tones, which entrain auditory cortex at their specific modulation rate. Previous research has reported reductions in ASSRs at 40 Hz for autism spectrum disorder (ASD) participants and first-degree relatives of people diagnosed with ASD (Mol Autism. 2011;2:11, Biol Psychiatry. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13229-020-00357-yDOI Listing

Abnormal Social Interactions in a Mutant of an Autism Candidate Gene: .

Int J Mol Sci 2020 Jun 29;21(13). Epub 2020 Jun 29.

Department of Biology, Faculty of Science, Western University, London, ON N6A 5B7, Canada.

Social interactions are typically impaired in neuropsychiatric disorders such as autism, for which the genetic underpinnings are very complex. Social interactions can be modeled by analysis of behaviors, including social spacing, sociability, and aggression, in simpler organisms such as . Here, we examined the effects of mutants of the autism-related gene () on fly social and non-social behaviors. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijms21134601DOI Listing

The inherited methylome landscape is directly altered with paternal aging and associated with offspring neurodevelopmental disorders.

Aging Cell 2020 Jul 1:e13178. Epub 2020 Jul 1.

Fertility Labs of Colorado, Lone Tree, CO, USA.

Paternal aging and the prevalence of neurodevelopmental disorders in offspring are well documented. Yet, the underlying mechanism and the mode of inheritance have not been conclusively established. Advancing paternal age is a subtle and varying phenotype. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/acel.13178DOI Listing

Vcp Overexpression and Leucine Supplementation Increase Protein Synthesis and Improve Fear Memory and Social Interaction of Nf1 Mutant Mice.

Cell Rep 2020 Jun;31(13):107835

Institute of Molecular Biology, Academia Sinica, Taipei, 11529, Taiwan, Republic of China. Electronic address:

Neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) is a dominant genetic disorder manifesting, in part, as cognitive defects. Previous study indicated that neurofibromin (NF1 protein) interacts with valosin-containing protein (VCP)/P97 to control dendritic spine formation, but the mechanism is unknown. Here, using Nf1 mice and transgenic mice overexpressing wild-type Vcp/p97, we demonstrate that neurofibromin acts with VCP to control endoplasmic reticulum (ER) formation and consequent protein synthesis and regulates dendritic spine formation, thereby modulating contextual fear memory and social interaction. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.celrep.2020.107835DOI Listing

A Chromatin Accessibility Atlas of the Developing Human Telencephalon.

Cell 2020 Jun 24. Epub 2020 Jun 24.

Department of Psychiatry, Langley Porter Psychiatric Institute, UCSF Weill Institute for Neurosciences, University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco, CA, USA. Electronic address:

To discover regulatory elements driving the specificity of gene expression in different cell types and regions of the developing human brain, we generated an atlas of open chromatin from nine dissected regions of the mid-gestation human telencephalon, as well as microdissected upper and deep layers of the prefrontal cortex. We identified a subset of open chromatin regions (OCRs), termed predicted regulatory elements (pREs), that are likely to function as developmental brain enhancers. pREs showed temporal, regional, and laminar differences in chromatin accessibility and were correlated with gene expression differences across regions and gestational ages. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cell.2020.06.002DOI Listing

Stability of Variables Derived From Measures of Multisensory Function in Children With Autism Spectrum Disorder.

Am J Intellect Dev Disabil 2020 Jul;125(4):287-303

Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Frist Center for Autism and Innovation, Vanderbilt Brain Institute, and Vanderbilt Kennedy Center.

Children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) display differences in multisensory function as quantified by several different measures. This study estimated the stability of variables derived from commonly used measures of multisensory function in school-aged children with ASD. Participants completed: a simultaneity judgment task for audiovisual speech, tasks designed to elicit the McGurk effect, listening-in-noise tasks, electroencephalographic recordings, and eye-tracking tasks. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1352/1944-7558-125.4.287DOI Listing

Corrigendum to: Patterns of Cortical Folding Associated with Autistic Symptoms in Carriers and Noncarriers of the 22q11.2 Microdeletion.

Cereb Cortex 2020 Jul 1. Epub 2020 Jul 1.

Department of Forensic and Neurodevelopmental Sciences, and the Sackler Institute for Translational Neurodevelopmental Sciences, Institute of Psychiatry, Psychology and Neuroscience, King's College, London, UK.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/cercor/bhaa194DOI Listing

Homeostatic plasticity fails at the intersection of autism-gene mutations and a novel class of common genetic modifiers.

Elife 2020 Jul 1;9. Epub 2020 Jul 1.

Department of Biochemistry and Biophysics, University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco, United States.

We identify a set of common phenotypic modifiers that interact with five independent autism gene orthologs (, , , , ) causing a common failure of presynaptic homeostatic plasticity (PHP) in . Heterozygous null mutations in each autism gene are demonstrated to have normal baseline neurotransmission and PHP. However, PHP is sensitized and rendered prone to failure. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.55775DOI Listing

Salivary cortisol and alpha-amylase daily profiles and stress responses to an academic performance test and a moral cognition task in children with neurodevelopmental disorders.

Stress Health 2020 Jul 1. Epub 2020 Jul 1.

Laboratory of Developmental Psychophysiology and Stress Research, Unit of Developmental and Behavioral Pediatrics, First Department of Pediatrics, School of Medicine, National and Kapodistrian University of Athens, "Aghia Sophia" Children's Hospital, Athens, Greece.

There is evidence that children with neurodevelopmental disorders may exhibit atypical responses to stress and alterations in concentrations and diurnal secretion of stress hormones. We assessed diurnal profiles and stress responses of salivary cortisol and α-amylase (sAA) in children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), autism spectrum disorder (ASD), and specific learning disorder (SLD) compared to typically developing children (TD). A total of 157 children of both sexes, aged between 6 and 12 years old, took part in the study distributed into four groups: ADHD (N=34), ASD (N=56), SLD (N=43), TD (N=24). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/smi.2971DOI Listing

Sexual Crime Against Schoolchildren With Disabilities: A Nationwide Prospective Birth Cohort Study.

J Interpers Violence 2020 Jul 1:886260520934442. Epub 2020 Jul 1.

VIVE-The Danish Center for Social Science Research, Copenhagen K, Denmark.

Numerous studies have shown that the rate of sexual victimization against children with disabilities is higher than the rate for children without disabilities. The study focuses on examining sexual crime against children with disabilities and explaining differences in victimization to elucidate to what extent types of disability, family disadvantages, gender, high-risk behavior, and location influence adolescents' risk of sexual victimization. Data are based on a national study of reported sexual crime against children in Denmark aged between 7 and 18 years using total birth cohorts ( = 679,683). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0886260520934442DOI Listing

A randomised clinical pilot trial to test the effectiveness of parent training with video modelling to improve functioning and symptoms in children with autism spectrum disorders and intellectual disability.

J Intellect Disabil Res 2020 Jun 30. Epub 2020 Jun 30.

Social Cognition Clinic - TEAMM, Department of Psychiatry, Universidade Federal de São Paulo (UNIFESP), Sao Paulo, Brazil.

Background: Poor eye contact and joint attention are early signs of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and important prerequisites for developing other socio-communicative skills. Teaching parents evidence-based techniques to improve these skills can impact the overall functioning of children with ASD. We aimed to analyse the impact of conducting a group parent-training intervention with video modelling to improve the intelligent quotient (IQ), social and communication functioning and to minimise symptoms in children with ASD and intellectual disability (ID). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jir.12759DOI Listing

Neuronal αδ proteins and brain disorders.

Pflugers Arch 2020 Jun 30. Epub 2020 Jun 30.

Institute of Physiology, Medical University Innsbruck, 6020, Innsbruck, Austria.

αδ proteins are membrane-anchored extracellular glycoproteins which are abundantly expressed in the brain and the peripheral nervous system. They serve as regulatory subunits of voltage-gated calcium channels and, particularly in nerve cells, regulate presynaptic and postsynaptic functions independently from their role as channel subunits. αδ proteins are the targets of the widely prescribed anti-epileptic and anti-allodynic drugs gabapentin and pregabalin, particularly for the treatment of neuropathic pain conditions. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00424-020-02420-2DOI Listing

"I'm Proud to be a Little Bit Different": The Effects of Autistic Individuals' Perceptions of Autism and Autism Social Identity on Their Collective Self-esteem.

J Autism Dev Disord 2020 Jun 30. Epub 2020 Jun 30.

Department of Psychology, University of Bath, Claverton Down, Bath, BA2 7AY, UK.

This study aimed to identify the attributes that autistic people perceive as positively and negatively impacting on their identity and wellbeing. In Study 1, we recruited 140 autistic participants for an online survey. Participants completed autism social identification and collective self-esteem measures and listed attributes they associated with autism. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10803-020-04575-4DOI Listing

The Meaning of Diagnosis for Different Designations in Talking About Autism.

Authors:
Ralf Tepest

J Autism Dev Disord 2020 Jun 30. Epub 2020 Jun 30.

Psychiatry and Psychotherapy, University of Cologne, Faculty of Medicine and University Hospital Cologne, Kerpener Str. 62, 50937, Köln, Germany.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10803-020-04584-3DOI Listing

Reply to Comment on "Association Between DCC Polymorphisms and Susceptibility to Autism Spectrum Disorder".

J Autism Dev Disord 2020 Jun 30. Epub 2020 Jun 30.

Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, School of Public Health, Jilin University, Changchun, 130021, China.

The comments from Dr. Meisami about our article "Association between DCC polymorphisms and Susceptibility to Autism Spectrum Disorder", and we wish to respond to several points. First, 100% of detection rate for each SNP genotype cannot be obtained. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10803-020-04585-2DOI Listing

Sensory Processing and Gastrointestinal Manifestations in Autism Spectrum Disorders: No Relation to Clostridium difficile.

J Mol Neurosci 2020 Jun 30. Epub 2020 Jun 30.

Department of Pediatrics, Faculty of Medicine, Alexandria University, Alexandria, 21321, Egypt.

The role of the gut microbiota in triggering autism is a rapidly emerging field of research. Gut microbiota have been incriminated because autistic children often have gastrointestinal symptoms. Pathogenic gut bacteria in children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) have been reported. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12031-020-01636-2DOI Listing

Prevalence of Autism Spectrum Disorder in China: A Nationwide Multi-center Population-based Study Among Children Aged 6 to 12 Years.

Neurosci Bull 2020 Jun 30. Epub 2020 Jun 30.

Department of Neurology, Children's Hospital of Fudan University, Shanghai, 201102, China.

This study aimed to obtain the first national estimate of the prevalence of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) in Chinese children. We targeted the population of 6 to 12-year-old children for this prevalence study by multistage convenient cluster sampling. The Modified Chinese Autism Spectrum Rating Scale was used for the screening process. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12264-020-00530-6DOI Listing

Effects of EEG examination and ABA-therapy on resting-state EEG in children with low-functioning autism.

AIMS Neurosci 2020 5;7(2):153-167. Epub 2020 Jun 5.

Research Centre for Medical Genetics, 1 Moskvorechye St., Moscow 115522, Russia.

Objective: We aimed to study the effects of EEG examination and ABA-therapy on resting-state EEG in children with low-functioning autism and tactile defensiveness.

Methods: We have performed this study with three cohorts of preschoolers: children with autistic spectrum disorder (ASD) who needed applied behavior analysis (ABA) therapy due to their tactile defensiveness; children with ASD who didn't need ABA therapy; and the control group of healthy children. Number of microstates was determined in the initial and final parts of the resting-state EEGs. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3934/Neuroscience.2020011DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7321768PMC

Subthreshold Autism Spectrum in a Patient with Anorexia Nervosa and Behçet's Syndrome.

Case Rep Psychiatry 2020 15;2020:6703979. Epub 2020 Jun 15.

Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, University of Pisa, Pisa, Italy.

Recently, increasing research stressed the presence of subthreshold autistic traits in patients with other psychiatric conditions. In this framework, a significant relationship between anorexia nervosa (AN) and the autism spectrum has been frequently reported, in particular among female samples, to the point that AN has been hypothesized to be a female phenotype of autism spectrum disorder (ASD). On the other hand, among subjects with ASD has been reported a higher prevalence of immune diseases and altered immune functions. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2020/6703979DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7313151PMC

Multi-trait analysis for genome-wide association study of five psychiatric disorders.

Transl Psychiatry 2020 Jun 30;10(1):209. Epub 2020 Jun 30.

Department of Psychiatry, The Affiliated Brain Hospital of Nanjing Medical University, 264 Guangzhou Road, Nanjing, China.

We conducted a cross-trait meta-analysis of genome-wide association study on schizophrenia (SCZ) (n = 65,967), bipolar disorder (BD) (n = 41,653), autism spectrum disorder (ASD) (n = 46,350), attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) (n = 55,374), and depression (DEP) (n = 688,809). After the meta-analysis, the number of genomic loci increased from 14 to 19 in ADHD, from 3 to 10 in ASD, from 45 to 57 in DEP, from 8 to 54 in BD, and from 64 to 87 in SCZ. We observed significant enrichment of overlapping genes among different disorders and identified a panel of cross-disorder genes. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41398-020-00902-6DOI Listing

Barriers and facilitators to primary health care for people with intellectual disabilities and/or autism: an integrative review.

BJGP Open 2020 Jun 30. Epub 2020 Jun 30.

University of Central Lancashire, Preston, UK.

Background: Globally, people with intellectual disabilities and/or autism experience health inequalities. Death occurs at a younger age and the prevalence of long-term morbidities is higher than in the general population. Despite this, their primary healthcare access rates are lower than the general population, their health needs are often unmet, and their views and experiences are frequently overlooked in research, policy, and practice. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3399/bjgpopen20X101030DOI Listing

A case of co-occuring synesthesia, autism, prodigious talent and strong structural brain connectivity.

BMC Psychiatry 2020 Jun 30;20(1):342. Epub 2020 Jun 30.

Center of Neurodevelopmental Disorders (KIND), Centre for Psychiatry Research; Department of Women's and Children's Health, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm Health Care Services, Region Stockholm, Stockholm, Sweden.

Background: Synesthesia is a sensory phenomenon where certain domain-specific stimuli trigger additional sensations of e.g. color or texture. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12888-020-02722-wDOI Listing

Reelin Functions, Mechanisms of Action and Signaling Pathways During Brain Development and Maturation.

Authors:
Yves Jossin

Biomolecules 2020 Jun 26;10(6). Epub 2020 Jun 26.

Laboratory of Mammalian Development & Cell Biology, Institute of Neuroscience, Université Catholique de Louvain, 1200 Brussels, Belgium.

During embryonic development and adulthood, Reelin exerts several important functions in the brain including the regulation of neuronal migration, dendritic growth and branching, dendritic spine formation, synaptogenesis and synaptic plasticity. As a consequence, the Reelin signaling pathway has been associated with several human brain disorders such as lissencephaly, autism, schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, depression, mental retardation, Alzheimer's disease and epilepsy. Several elements of the signaling pathway are known. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/biom10060964DOI Listing

Effect of 900-MHz Electromagnetic Field on the Cerebellum: A Histopathological Investigation.

Sisli Etfal Hastan Tip Bul 2018 1;52(2):129-134. Epub 2018 Jun 1.

Department of Histology and Embryology, Recep Tayyip Erdogan University Faculty of Medicine, Rize, Turkey.

Objectives: The currently widely used technological devices give rise to electromagnetic fields (EMFs) at various frequencies. Recent studies have reported that EMFs damage the central nervous system. The cerebellum is of considerable importance to human life due to its involvement in motor control, language, and cognitive-sensory functions. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.14744/SEMB.2018.42275DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7315063PMC

A Validation Study of the Korean Child Behavior Checklist 1.5-5 in the Diagnosis of Autism Spectrum Disorder and Non-Autism Spectrum Disorder.

Soa Chongsonyon Chongsin Uihak 2019 Jan;30(1):9-16

Department of Child Welfare and Studies, Sookmyung Women's University, Seoul, Korea.

Objectives: The purpose of this study was to analyze the discriminant validity and the clinical cut off scores of the Child Behavior Checklist 1.5-5 (CBCL 1.5-5) in the diagnosis of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and non-ASD. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.5765/jkacap.180018.1DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7289494PMC
January 2019

Autism Spectrum Disorder Diagnosis in Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders-5 Compared to Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders-IV.

Soa Chongsonyon Chongsin Uihak 2018 Oct;29(4):178-184

Department of Psychiatry, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Asan Medical Center, Seoul, Korea.

Objectives: The objective of this study was to investigate the concordance of Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-IV and DSM-5) diagnostic criteria for autism spectrum disorder (ASD).

Methods: We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of 170 subjects (age range: 3-23, 140 boys) with developmental delay or social deficit from January 2011 to July 2016 at the Department of Psychiatry of Asan Medical Center. The Autism Diagnostic Interview-Revised (ADI-R), the Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule (ADOS), and intelligence tests were performed for each subject. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.5765/jkacap.180016DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7289465PMC
October 2018

Comparison of the Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule and Childhood Autism Rating Scale in the Diagnosis of Autism Spectrum Disorder: A Preliminary Study.

Soa Chongsonyon Chongsin Uihak 2018 Oct;29(4):172-177

Department of Psychiatry, Seoul National University Hospital, Seoul, Korea.

Objectives: We examined the agreement between the Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule (ADOS) and the Childhood Autism Rating Scale (CARS) in the diagnosis of autism spectrum disorder.

Methods: The ADOS and CARS scores of 78 children were retrospectively collected from a chart review. A correlation analysis was performed to examine the concurrent validity between the two measures. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.5765/jkacap.180015DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7289466PMC
October 2018

Discriminative Effects of Social Skills Training on Facial Emotion Recognition among Children with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder and Autism Spectrum Disorder.

Soa Chongsonyon Chongsin Uihak 2018 Oct;29(4):150-160

Department of Psychiatry, Jeju National University School of Medicine, Jeju, Korea.

Objectives: This study investigated the effect of social skills training (SST) on facial emotion recognition and discrimination in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and autism spectrum disorder (ASD).

Methods: Twenty-three children aged 7 to 10 years participated in our SST. They included 15 children diagnosed with ADHD and 8 with ASD. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.5765/jkacap.180010DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7289464PMC
October 2018

Autism and Beauty: Neural Correlates of Aesthetic Experiences in Autism Spectrum Disorder.

Soa Chongsonyon Chongsin Uihak 2018 Jul;29(3):101-113

Division of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, Department of Psychiatry, Seoul National University Bundang Hospital, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seongnam, Korea.

Objectives: The purpose of this study was to investigate whether the neural activity of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) patients is different from that of normal individuals when performing aesthetic judgments.

Methods: We recruited typical ASD patients without savant skills (ASD group, n=17) and healthy controls (HC group, n=19) for an functional magnetic resonance imaging study. All subjects were scanned while performing aesthetic judgment tasks on two kinds of artwork (magnificent landscape images and fractal images). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.5765/jkacap.170031DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7289455PMC

Reliability and Validity of the Korean Translation of Quantitative Checklist for Autism in Toddlers: A Preliminary Study.

Soa Chongsonyon Chongsin Uihak 2018 Apr;29(2):80-85

Department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, National Center for Mental Health, Seoul, Korea.

Objectives: We aimed to assess the test-retest reliability, internal consistency, and validity of the Korean version of the Quantitative Checklist for Autism in Toddlers (Q-CHAT).

Methods: The Korean version of the Q-CHAT and the Korean version of the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL) 1.5-5 were completed by parents of 24 toddlers and preschoolers with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and 80 unselected toddlers and preschoolers. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.5765/jkacap.2018.29.2.80DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7298897PMC

Validity and Reliability of Korean Version of Behavior Problems Inventory in Autism Spectrum Disorder and/or Intellectual Developmental Disorder.

Soa Chongsonyon Chongsin Uihak 2018 Jan;29(1):7-13

Department of Psychiatry, Eulji General Hospital, Eulji University School of Medicine, Seoul, Korea.

Objectives: Problem behaviors pose a great obstacle to daily functioning in children with neurodevelopmental deficits and are an important target for treatment. In this study, we translated the Behavior Problems Inventory (BPI)-01 into Korean language and tested its psychometric properties.

Methods: We attained the approval of the BPI author and performed standard translation-back translation. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.5765/jkacap.2018.29.1.7DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7289484PMC
January 2018

Locus-Specific Differential DNA Methylation and Urinary Arsenic: An Epigenome-Wide Association Study in Blood among Adults with Low-to-Moderate Arsenic Exposure.

Environ Health Perspect 2020 Jun 30;128(6):67015. Epub 2020 Jun 30.

Department of Environmental Health Science, Columbia University, New York, New York, USA.

Background: Chronic exposure to arsenic (As), a human toxicant and carcinogen, remains a global public health problem. Health risks persist after As exposure has ended, suggesting epigenetic dysregulation as a mechanistic link between exposure and health outcomes.

Objectives: We investigated the association between total urinary As and locus-specific DNA methylation in the Strong Heart Study, a cohort of American Indian adults with low-to-moderate As exposure [total urinary As, creatinine: 11. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/EHP6263DOI Listing

Putative shared mechanisms in autism spectrum disorders and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, a systematic review of the role of oxidative stress.

Acta Neurobiol Exp (Wars) 2020 ;80(2):129-138

Department of Neurosciences and Mental Health, Faculty of Medicine of the University of Porto, Portugal.

Oxidative stress is now believed to play a crucial role for neurodevelopment disorders such as autism spectrum disorders (ASD) and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). To review the most recent literature regarding the role of oxidative stress for the pathophysiology of ASD and ADHD, we conducted a systematic search of the relevant literature and further discuss the clinical and research implications of this knowledge. A systematic search in PubMed database retrieved 132 articles, of which 33 were included in the review. Read More

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January 2020