103,221 results match your criteria Australian and New Zealand Continence Journal [Journal]


Predicted short and long-term impact of deworming and water, hygiene, and sanitation on transmission of soil-transmitted helminths.

PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2018 Dec 6;12(12):e0006758. Epub 2018 Dec 6.

Research School of Population Health, College of Medicine, Biology and Environment, The Australian National University, Canberra, Australian Capital Territory, Australia.

Background: Regular preventive chemotherapy (PCT) targeting high-risk populations is an effective way to control STH in the short term, but sustainable long-term STH control is expected to require improved access to water, sanitation, and hygiene (WASH). However, experimental studies have not been able to conclusively demonstrate the benefit of WASH in preventing STH (re-)infections. We investigated the impact of WASH on STH infections during and after PCT using mathematical modelling. Read More

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December 2018
2 Reads

Expression of the neuropeptides RFamide and LWamide during development of the coral Acropora millepora in relation to settlement and metamorphosis.

Dev Biol 2018 Dec 3. Epub 2018 Dec 3.

Division of Ecology and Evolution, Bldg 46, Research School of Biology, Australian National University, Canberra, ACT 0200, Australia; ARC Centre of Excellence for Coral Reef Studies, James Cook University, Townsville, QLD 4811, Australia. Electronic address:

Neuropeptides play critical roles in cnidarian development. However, although they are known to play key roles in settlement and metamorphosis, their temporal and spatial developmental expression has not previously been characterized in any coral. We here describe Acropora millepora LWamide and RFamide and their developmental expression from the time of their first appearance, using in situ hybridization and FMRFamide immunohistochemistry. Read More

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December 2018
1 Read

Rapid and substantial increases in anticoagulant use and expenditure in Australia following the introduction of new types of oral anticoagulants.

PLoS One 2018 6;13(12):e0208824. Epub 2018 Dec 6.

National Centre for Epidemiology and Population Health, Australian National University, Canberra, Australia.

Objectives: To quantify changes in anticoagulant use in Australia since the introduction of Non-vitamin K antagonist anticoagulants (NOACs) and to estimate government expenditure.

Design: Interrupted-time-series analysis quantifying anticoagulant dispensing, before and after first Pharmaceutical Benefits Scheme (PBS) NOAC listing in August 2009 for venous thromboembolism prevention; and expanded listing for stroke prevention in non-valvular atrial fibrillation (AF) in August 2013, up to June 2016. Estimated government expenditure on PBS-listed anticoagulants. Read More

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December 2018

Identifying missed clinical opportunities for the earlier diagnosis of HIV in Australia, a retrospective cohort data linkage study.

PLoS One 2018 6;13(12):e0208323. Epub 2018 Dec 6.

Infectious Diseases, Prince of Wales Hospital, Sydney, NSW, Australia.

Background: Treatment as prevention approaches for HIV require optimal HIV testing strategies to reduce undiagnosed HIV infections. In most settings, HIV testing strategies still result in unacceptably high rates of missed and late diagnoses. This study aimed to identify clinical opportunities for targeted HIV testing in persons at risk to facilitate earlier HIV diagnosis in New South Wales, Australia; and to assess the duration between the diagnosis of specific conditions and HIV diagnosis. Read More

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December 2018

The Observational Physician and surGEon Automobile Response (TOP GEAR) survey.

Med J Aust 2018 Dec;209(11):503-505

The Royal Adelaide Hospital, Adelaide, SA.

Objective: To determine whether surgeons and junior doctors intending to pursue careers in surgery are more likely to purchase more expensive vehicles and to replace them sooner than colleagues of similar seniority pursuing non-surgical careers.

Design And Setting: Survey of practising medical officers at an Australian tertiary referral hospital.

Main Outcome Measures: Car value; proportion of doctors who bought their car new; median time to replacement of vehicle. Read More

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December 2018
1 Read

The emergence and characteristics of the Australian Mamil.

Med J Aust 2018 Dec;209(11):490-494

University of Sydney, Sydney, NSW.

Background: The Mamil (middle-aged man in Lycra) appears to be an emergent cycling-focused species.

Objectives: To explore the nature and distribution of the Mamilian species; to determine whether rates of cycling by middle-aged men in Australia have changed since the pre-Mamilian era.

Setting: Secondary analysis of representative population-based datasets. Read More

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December 2018
1 Read

The MJA-Lancet Countdown on health and climate change: Australian policy inaction threatens lives.

Med J Aust 2018 Dec;209(11):474

School of Public Health, University of Sydney, Sydney, NSW.

Climate plays an important role in human health and it is well established that climate change can have very significant impacts in this regard. In partnership with The Lancet and the MJA, we present the inaugural Australian Countdown assessment of progress on climate change and health. This comprehensive assessment examines 41 indicators across five broad sections: climate change impacts, exposures and vulnerability; adaptation, planning and resilience for health; mitigation actions and health co-benefits; economics and finance; and public and political engagement. Read More

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December 2018
1 Read

The Development of a Core Syllabus for Teaching Musculoskeletal Anatomy of the Vertebral Column and Limbs to Medical Students.

Clin Anat 2018 Dec 6. Epub 2018 Dec 6.

Department of Anatomy, School of Biomedical Sciences, University of Otago, Dunedin, New Zealand.

Introduction: The study of human anatomy is fundamental to medical education globally. Knowledge of musculoskeletal anatomy is essential for safe and effective clinical practice, yet this topic often receives insufficient medical programme time and perceptions differ regarding which knowledge is core. Given the lack of syllabuses specific to musculoskeletal anatomy, this paper aims to provide a detailed syllabus for the vertebral column and limbs relevant to medical students. Read More

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December 2018

Early surveillance is associated with less incidence and severity of breast cancer-related lymphedema compared with a traditional referral model of care.

Cancer 2018 Dec 6. Epub 2018 Dec 6.

Australian Lymphoedema Education, Research and Treatment (ALERT) Program, Department of Clinical Medicine, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Macquarie University, Sydney, New South Wales, Australia.

Background: Bioimpedance spectroscopy (BIS) has enabled the early identification of breast cancer-related lymphedema. In this study, differences in health service metrics and in the incidence of breast cancer-related lymphedema are evaluated in an early surveillance model of care compared with a traditional referral model of care.

Methods: In a retrospective analysis of data from 753 women who underwent BIS measures between January 1, 2007 and December 31, 2016, 188 women were assigned to the "early surveillance" group if they began lymphedema monitoring presurgery (n = 121) or within 90 days postsurgery (n = 67), and 285 women were assigned to the "traditional referral" group if they began monitoring after 90 days postsurgery. Read More

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December 2018
1 Read

Noninterleaved Metasurface for (2-1) Spin- and Wavelength-Encoded Holograms.

Nano Lett 2018 Dec 6. Epub 2018 Dec 6.

Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering , National University of Singapore , 4 Engineering Drive 3 , Singapore 117583 , Singapore.

Nanostructured metasurfaces demonstrate extraordinary capabilities to control light at the subwavelength scale, emerging as key optical components to physical realization of multitasked devices. Progress in multitasked metasurfaces has been witnessed in making a single metasurface multitasked by mainly resorting to extra spatial freedom, for example, interleaved subarrays, different angles. However, it imposes a challenge of suppressing the cross-talk among multiwavelength without the help of extra spatial freedom. Read More

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December 2018
4 Reads

Biallelic loss of function variants in PPP1R21 cause a neurodevelopmental syndrome with impaired endocytic function.

Hum Mutat 2018 Dec 6. Epub 2018 Dec 6.

Genome Research Division, Human Genetics department, Radboud University Medical Center Nijmegen and Radboud Institute for Molecular Life Sciences, Nijmegen, The Netherlands.

Next-generation sequencing has been instrumental in solving the genetic basis of rare inherited diseases, especially neurodevelopmental syndromes. However, functional workup is essential for precise phenotype definition and to understand the underlying disease mechanisms. Using whole exome and whole genome sequencing in 4 independent families with hypotonia, neurodevelopmental delay, facial dysmorphism, loss of white matter and thinning of the corpus callosum, we identified 4 previously unreported homozygous truncating PPP1R21 alleles: c. Read More

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December 2018

Solving for X: Evidence for sex-specific autism biomarkers across multiple transcriptomic studies.

Am J Med Genet B Neuropsychiatr Genet 2018 Dec 6. Epub 2018 Dec 6.

Centre for Pattern Recognition and Data Analytics (PRaDA), Deakin University, Geelong, Australia.

Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a markedly heterogeneous condition with a varied phenotypic presentation. Its high concordance among siblings, as well as its clear association with specific genetic disorders, both point to a strong genetic etiology. However, the molecular basis of ASD is still poorly understood, although recent studies point to the existence of sex-specific ASD pathophysiologies and biomarkers. Read More

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December 2018
1 Read

Comprehensive blood group antigen profile predictions for Western Desert Indigenous Australians from whole exome sequence data.

Transfusion 2018 Dec 6. Epub 2018 Dec 6.

Clinical Services and Research, Australian Red Cross Blood Service, Kelvin Grove, Queensland, Australia.

Background: The distribution of RBC antigens, which define blood group types, differs among populations. In contrast to many world populations, blood group profiles for Indigenous Australians have not been well studied. As it is now possible to predict comprehensive blood group antigen profiles from genomic data sets, we aimed to apply this for Indigenous Australians and to provide a comparison to other major world populations. Read More

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December 2018

Testosterone therapy to prevent type 2 diabetes mellitus in at-risk men (T4DM): Design and implementation of a double-blind randomised controlled trial.

Diabetes Obes Metab 2018 Dec 5. Epub 2018 Dec 5.

Medical School, University of Western Australia, and Department of Endocrinology and Diabetes, Fiona Stanley Hospital, Perth, Western Australia, Australia.

Background: Low circulating testosterone is associated with an increased risk of developing type 2 diabetes (T2DM) in overweight men with impaired glucose tolerance (IGT).

Aim: To determine in a multi-centre, double-blinded placebo-controlled randomised trial, whether testosterone treatment combined with lifestyle intervention (Weight Watchers®) relative to lifestyle intervention alone, reduces T2DM incidence and improves glucose tolerance at 2 years.

Study Population: Overweight or obese men aged 50-74 years with a serum testosterone of ≤14nmol/L and IGT or newly diagnosed T2DM established by an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT). Read More

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December 2018
1 Read

Influence of dietary restriction and low-intensity exercise on weight loss and insulin sensitivity in obese equids.

J Vet Intern Med 2018 Dec 5. Epub 2018 Dec 5.

Melbourne Veterinary School, Faculty of Veterinary and Agricultural Sciences, The University of Melbourne, Werribee, Victoria, Australia.

Background: The importance of including exercise with dietary modification for the management of obese equids is not clearly understood.

Objectives: To evaluate the effect of a practical low-intensity exercise regimen, in addition to dietary restriction, on indices of insulin sensitivity (SI) and plasma adipokine concentrations in obese equids.

Animals: Twenty-four obese (body condition score [BCS] ≥ 7/9) horses and ponies. Read More

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December 2018
2 Reads

Characteristic "neck collar" injuries in Australian sea lions (Neophoca cinerea) caused by marine debris.

Forensic Sci Med Pathol 2018 Dec 5. Epub 2018 Dec 5.

Australian Marine Wildlife Research and Rescue Organization (AMWRRO), Adelaide, South Australia, 5000, Australia.

An adult male Australian sea lion (Neophoca cinerea) presented with a deep, almost circumferential, incised wound around the neck caused by a noose formed by a single strand of green nylon rope. The wound extended 4-5 cm deeply through the skin and blubber into skeletal muscle, predominantly on the dorsal surface and left side, but had not involved the airway or major vessels. The edges of the wound were sharply incised and oozing blood with a granulating infected base. Read More

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December 2018
1 Read

Examining Cellular Responses to Kinase Drug Inhibition Through Phosphoproteome Mapping of Substrates.

Methods Mol Biol 2019 ;1888:141-152

Department of Molecular Sciences, ARC Training Centre for Molecular Technology in the Food Industry, Macquarie University, Sydney, Australia.

This chapter provides a detailed description for mass spectrometry-based phosphoproteomics analysis. We describe sample preparation, phosphopeptide enrichment, mass spectrometry acquisition, label-free data analysis and statistical analysis. This technique can be employed to characterize cell signaling networks, and is particularly useful to monitor cellular responses to kinase drug inhibitors. Read More

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January 2019

Policy Impacts of the Australian National Perinatal Depression Initiative: Psychiatric Admission in the First Postnatal Year.

Adm Policy Ment Health 2018 Dec 5. Epub 2018 Dec 5.

Chair Perinatal & Women's Mental Health, University of New South Wales & St John of God Health Care, Sydney, NSW, Australia.

This paper helps to quantify the impact of the Australian National Perinatal Depression Initiative (NPDI) on postnatal inpatient psychiatric hospitalisation. Based on individual hospital admissions data from New South Wales and Western Australia, we found that the NPDI reduced inpatient psychiatric hospital admission by up to 50% [0.9% point reduction (95% CI 0. Read More

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December 2018
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Cost-effectiveness of continuity of midwifery care for women with complex pregnancy: a structured review of the literature.

Health Econ Rev 2018 Dec 5;8(1):32. Epub 2018 Dec 5.

Menzies Health Institute Queensland, Griffith University, Gold Coast, Queensland, 4222, Australia.

Background: Critical evaluation of the cost-effectiveness and clinical effectiveness of continuity of midwifery care models for women experiencing complex pregnancy is an important consideration in the review and reform of maternity services. Most studies either focus on women who experience healthy pregnancy or mixed risk samples. These results may not be generalised across the childbearing continuum to women with risk factors. Read More

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December 2018

Evaluating the Longitudinal Item and Category Stability of the SF-36 Full and Summary Scales Using Rasch Analysis.

Biomed Res Int 2018 4;2018:1013453. Epub 2018 Nov 4.

The University of Newcastle, School of Medicine and Public Health, Callaghan, New South Wales, Australia.

Introduction: The Medical Outcome Study Short Form 36 (SF-36) is widely used for measuring Health-Related Quality of Life (HRQoL) and has undergone rigorous psychometric evaluation using Classic Test Theory (CTT). However, Item Response Theory-based evaluation of the SF-36 has been limited with an overwhelming focus on individual scales and cross-sectional data.

Purpose: This study aimed to examine the longitudinal item and category stability of the SF-36 using Rasch analysis. Read More

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November 2018

Multimorbidity rehabilitation versus disease-specific rehabilitation in people with chronic diseases: a pilot randomized controlled trial.

Pilot Feasibility Stud 2018 29;4:181. Epub 2018 Nov 29.

1Department of Physiotherapy/Community Services, Western Health, 176 Furlong Road, St Albans, Victoria 3021 Australia.

Background: Multimorbidity (the co-existence of two or more chronic conditions in an individual) is a growing healthcare burden internationally; however, healthcare and disease management, including rehabilitation, is often delivered in single-disease siloes. The aims of this study were to (1) evaluate the safety and feasibility of multimorbidity rehabilitation compared to a disease-specific rehabilitation program in people with multimorbidity and (2) gather preliminary data regarding clinical outcomes and resource utilization to inform the design of future trials.

Methods: A pilot feasibility randomized controlled trial with concealed allocation, assessor blinding, and intention-to-treat analysis. Read More

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November 2018

Orchid diversity: Spatial and climatic patterns from herbarium records.

Ecol Evol 2018 Nov 30;8(22):11235-11245. Epub 2018 Oct 30.

Department of Biological Sciences Macquarie University Sydney New South Wales Australia.

Aim: We test for spatial and climatic patterns of diversification in the Orchidaceae, an angiosperm family characterized by high levels of species diversity and rarity. Globally, does orchid diversity correlate with land area? In Australia, does diversity correlate with herbarium collecting effort, range size, or climate niche breadth? Where are Australia's orchids distributed spatially, in protected areas, and in climate space?

Location: Global, then Australia.

Methods: We compared orchid diversity with land area for continents and recognized orchid diversity hotspots. Read More

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November 2018

Ice ages and butterflyfishes: Phylogenomics elucidates the ecological and evolutionary history of reef fishes in an endemism hotspot.

Ecol Evol 2018 Nov 23;8(22):10989-11008. Epub 2018 Oct 23.

Red Sea Research Center, Division of Biological and Environmental Science and Engineering King Abdullah University of Science and Technology Thuwal Saudi Arabia.

For tropical marine species, hotspots of endemism occur in peripheral areas furthest from the center of diversity, but the evolutionary processes that lead to their origin remain elusive. We test several hypotheses related to the evolution of peripheral endemics by sequencing ultraconserved element (UCE) loci to produce a genome-scale phylogeny of 47 butterflyfish species (family Chaetodontidae) that includes all shallow water butterflyfish from the coastal waters of the Arabian Peninsula (i.e. Read More

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November 2018

The disproportionate importance of long-unburned forests and woodlands for reptiles.

Ecol Evol 2018 Nov 17;8(22):10952-10963. Epub 2018 Oct 17.

Fenner School of Environment and Society The Australian National University Acton ACT Australia.

Our understanding of the impacts of time since fire on reptiles remains limited, partly because there are relatively few locations where long-term, spatially explicit fire histories are available. Such information is important given the large proportion of some landscapes that are managed with frequent prescribed fire to meet fuel management objectives. We conducted a space-for-time study across a landscape in southeastern Australia where the known fire history spanned 6 months to at least 96 years. Read More

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November 2018
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Postpartum family-planning barriers and catalysts in Burkina Faso and the Democratic Republic of Congo: a multiperspective study.

Open Access J Contracept 2018 9;9:63-74. Epub 2018 Nov 9.

Institut de Recherche en Sciences de la Santé, Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso.

Purpose: To address the high unmet need for postpartum family planning (PPFP) in resource-limited settings, particularly in sub-Saharan Africa, this study aimed to identify PPFP-related barriers and catalysts to inform policies and programs to increase access to postpartum contraception.

Methods: Using qualitative methodology, we explored the perspectives of women, adolescent girls, men, religious and community leaders, service providers, and decision makers from three rural communities in Burkina Faso and three rural-urban communities in the Democratic Republic of Congo. Both countries have high unmet need for PPFP and are priority countries of the French Muskoka Fund for Maternal and Child Health. Read More

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November 2018

Marine probiotics: increasing coral resistance to bleaching through microbiome manipulation.

ISME J 2018 Dec 5. Epub 2018 Dec 5.

Institute of Microbiology, Federal University of Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

Although the early coral reef-bleaching warning system (NOAA/USA) is established, there is no feasible treatment that can minimize temperature bleaching and/or disease impacts on corals in the field. Here, we present the first attempts to extrapolate the widespread and well-established use of bacterial consortia to protect or improve health in other organisms (e.g. Read More

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December 2018

Vascular changes in fetal growth restriction: clinical relevance and future therapeutics.

J Perinatol 2018 Dec 5. Epub 2018 Dec 5.

Anatomical Pathology, ACT Pathology, The Canberra Hospital and the Australian National University Medical School, College of Health and Medicine, Canberra, ACT, Australia.

Fetal growth restriction (FGR) affects about 5-10% pregnancies and is associated with poorer outcomes in the perinatal period. Additionally, long standing epidemiological data support its association with chronic diseases such as hypertension and diabetes. Cardiac and vascular adaptations in response to chronic hypoxemia due to utero-placental insufficiency are hallmarks of fetal adaptations. Read More

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December 2018
1 Read

Simple multi-wavelength imaging of birefringence:case study of silk.

Sci Rep 2018 Dec 5;8(1):17652. Epub 2018 Dec 5.

Tokyo Institute of Technology, Meguro-ku, Tokyo, 152-8550, Japan.

Polarised light imaging microscopy, with the addition of a liquid crystal (LC) phase retarder, was used to determine the birefringence of silk fibres with high (∼1 μm) spatial resolution. The measurement was carried out with the silk fibres (the optical slow axis) and the slow axis of the LC-retarder set at parallel angles. The direct fit of the transmission data allowed for high fidelity determination of the birefringence Δn ≈ 1. Read More

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December 2018

Metformin-induced glucagon-like peptide-1 secretion contributes to the actions of metformin in type 2 diabetes.

JCI Insight 2018 Dec 6;3(23). Epub 2018 Dec 6.

Clinical Metabolic Physiology, Steno Diabetes Center Copenhagen, Gentofte Hospital, Hellerup, Denmark.

Background: Metformin reduces plasma glucose and has been shown to increase glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) secretion. Whether this is a direct action of metformin on GLP-1 release, and whether some of the glucose-lowering effect of metformin occurs due to GLP-1 release, is unknown. The current study investigated metformin-induced GLP-1 secretion and its contribution to the overall glucose-lowering effect of metformin and underlying mechanisms in patients with type 2 diabetes. Read More

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December 2018

Combating escalating harms associated with pharmaceutical opioid use in Australia: the POPPY II study protocol.

BMJ Open 2018 Dec 4;8(12):e025840. Epub 2018 Dec 4.

National Drug and Alcohol Research Centre, UNSW Sydney, Sydney, New South Wales, Australia.

Introduction: Opioid prescribing has increased 15-fold in Australia in the past two decades, alongside increases in a range of opioid-related harms such as opioid dependence and overdose. However, despite concerns about increasing opioid use, extramedical use and harms, there is a lack of population-level evidence about the drivers of long-term prescribed opioid use, dependence, overdose and other harms.

Methods And Analysis: We will form a cohort of all adult residents in New South Wales (NSW), Australia, who initiated prescribed opioids from 2002 using Pharmaceutical Benefits Scheme dispensing records. Read More

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December 2018
1 Read

Minimally invasive McKeown's vs open oesophagectomy for cancer: A meta-analysis.

Eur J Surg Oncol 2018 Nov 24. Epub 2018 Nov 24.

Division of Surgery, The Canberra Hospital, Garran, ACT, Australia. Electronic address:

Background: The effectiveness of minimally invasive oesophagectomy (MIO) compared to open oesophagectomy (OO) remains controversial. Various techniques for performing MIO are currently used, but the evidence for them is lacking. The objective of this meta-analysis was to compare the safety, efficacy and oncological outcomes of McKeown's minimally invasive oesophagectomy (McKeown's-MIO) to OO. Read More

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November 2018

Economic evaluation of the NET intervention versus guideline dissemination for management of mild head injury in hospital emergency departments.

Implement Sci 2018 Dec 5;13(1):147. Epub 2018 Dec 5.

School of Public Health and Preventive Medicine, Monash University, Melbourne, Australia.

Background: Evidence-based guidelines for the management of mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) in the emergency department (ED) are now widely available, and yet, clinical practice remains inconsistent with the guidelines. The Neurotrauma Evidence Translation (NET) intervention was developed to increase the uptake of guideline recommendations and improve the management of minor head injury in Australian emergency departments (EDs). However, the adoption of this type of intervention typically entails an upfront investment that may or may not be fully offset by improvements in clinical practice, health outcomes and/or reductions in health service utilisation. Read More

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December 2018

Social isolation, cognitive reserve, and cognition in older people with depression and anxiety.

Aging Ment Health 2018 Dec 6:1-10. Epub 2018 Dec 6.

a Centre for Research in Ageing and Cognitive Health (REACH) , School of Psychology, University of Exeter , Exeter , United Kingdom.

Objectives: Poor social connections may be associated with poor cognition in older people who are not experiencing mental health problems, and the trajectory of this association may be moderated by cognitive reserve. However, it is unclear whether this relationship is the same for older people with symptoms of depression and anxiety. This paper aims to explore social relationships and cognitive function in older people with depression and anxiety. Read More

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December 2018

Optimising the treatment of doctors with mental illness.

Aust N Z J Psychiatry 2018 Dec 5:4867418818358. Epub 2018 Dec 5.

3 Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, SUNY Downstate Medical Center, Brooklyn, NY, USA.

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December 2018

Is the reported increase in young female hospital-treated intentional self-harm real or artefactual?

Aust N Z J Psychiatry 2018 Dec 5:4867418815977. Epub 2018 Dec 5.

1 School of Medicine and Public Health, Faculty of Health and Medicine, University of Newcastle, Callaghan, NSW, Australia.

Background:: The Australian Institute of Health and Welfare has reported an increased rate of hospital-treated intentional self-harm in young females (2000-2012) in Australia. These reported increases arise from institutional data that are acknowledged to underestimate the true rate, although the degree of underestimation is not known.

Objective:: To consider whether the reported increase in young females' hospital-treated intentional self-harm is real or artefactual and specify the degree of institutional underestimation. Read More

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December 2018

It Is Time to Make Policy for Healthier Food Environments in Australian Universities.

Nutrients 2018 Dec 4;10(12). Epub 2018 Dec 4.

The Boden Institute of Obesity, Nutrition, Exercise & Eating Disorders, Charles Perkins Centre, The University of Sydney, Sydney, NSW 2006, Australia.

The obesogenic food environment is likely driving excessive weight gain in young adults. Our study aimed to investigate the nutritional quality of current food and drink offerings in an Australian university. This cross-sectional study included baseline environmental audits of 30 food outlets and 62 vending machines across campus. Read More

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December 2018
2 Reads

Research Engagement and Activity in an Allied Health Workforce Insights into Departmental and Organisational Strategies.

J Allied Health 2018 ;47(4):265-271

Centre for Functioning and Health Research, PO Box 6053, Buranda, QLD 4102, Australia. Tel 07 33963131, fax 07 34062267.

Objective: Clinical environments that support and encourage research assist the development of research capacity and engagement amongst staff. Unfortunately, little information exists regarding departmental- and organisational-level strategies being used to encourage research capacity building within the allied health (AH) workforce. The current study used a qualitative approach to examine the nature of research engagement and activity occurring across AH departments within a large Australian public hospital and health service. Read More

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January 2018

Correlates of nocturnal sleep duration, nocturnal sleep variability, and nocturnal sleep problems in toddlers: results from the GET UP! Study.

Sleep Med 2018 Oct 11;53:124-132. Epub 2018 Oct 11.

Early Start, Faculty of Social Sciences, University of Wollongong, NSW, Australia; Illawarra Health and Medical Research Institute, NSW, Australia; Research Centre in Physical Activity, Health and Leisure, University of Porto, Porto, Portugal. Electronic address:

Objective: To explore the correlates of nocturnal sleep duration, nocturnal sleep variability, and nocturnal sleep problems in a sample of Australian toddlers.

Methods: Participants were 173 toddlers (average age 19.7 ± 4. Read More

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October 2018

Tracking antigen specific T-cells: Technological advancement and limitations.

Biotechnol Adv 2018 Nov 30. Epub 2018 Nov 30.

Centre for Personalised Nanomedicine, Australian Institute for Bioengineering and Nanotechnology, The University of Queensland, QLD 4072, Australia; School of Chemistry and Molecular Biosciences, The University of Queensland, QLD 4072, Australia. Electronic address:

Assessing T-cell mediated immune status can help to understand the body's response to disease and also provide essential diagnostic information. However, detection and characterization of immune response are challenging due to the rarity of signature biomolecules in biological fluid and require highly sensitive and specific assay technique for the analysis. Until now, several techniques spanning from flow cytometry to microsensors have been developed or under investigation for T-cell mediated immune response monitoring. Read More

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November 2018

Do active video games improve motor function in people with developmental disabilities? A meta-analysis of randomized-controlled trials.

Arch Phys Med Rehabil 2018 Nov 30. Epub 2018 Nov 30.

Department of Rehabilitation, Nutrition and Sport, School of Allied Health, La Trobe University, Melbourne.

Objective: To conduct a meta-analysis to examine the effectiveness of active video games (AVGs) interventions on motor function in people with developmental disabilities.

Data Sources: An electronic search of seven databases (Pubmed, EbscoHost, Informit, Scopus, ScienceDirect, Proquest, and PsychInfo) was conducted for randomized controlled trials (RCTs) evaluating active video games to improve motor function in people with developmental disability, published through to May 2018.

Study Selection: Only articles in a peer-reviewed journal in English were selected, and screened by two independent reviewers for RCTs that compared AVGs to conventional therapy. Read More

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November 2018
1 Read

Heteroatom-doped MoSe2 nanosheets with enhanced hydrogen evolution kinetics for alkaline water splitting.

Chem Asian J 2018 Dec 3. Epub 2018 Dec 3.

Institute for Superconducting and Electronic Materials, ISEM, Wollongong, 2519, Wollongong, AUSTRALIA.

Electrochemical water splitting for hydrogen generation is a vital part for the prospect of future energy system, however, the practical utilization relies on the development of highly active and earth-abundant catalysts to boost the energy conversion efficiency as well as reduce the cost. Molybdenum diselenide (MoSe2) is a promising nonprecious metal-based electrocatalyst for hydrogen evolution reaction (HER) in acidic media, but it exhibits inferior alkaline HER kinetics in great part due to the sluggish water adsorption/dissociation process. Herein, the alkaline HER kinetics of MoSe2 is substantially accelerated by heteroatom doping with transition metal ions. Read More

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December 2018
2 Reads

Pathways for translating behavioral medicine research to practice and policy.

Authors:
James F Sallis

Transl Behav Med 2018 Dec 3. Epub 2018 Dec 3.

Department of Family Medicine and Public Health, University of California San Diego, La Jolla, CA, USA.

The diversity of behavioral medicine, including investigators' disciplines, health conditions, settings, and intervention approaches, creates challenges for promoting the translation of research to practice and policy. Most papers on research translation focus on one pathway, so there is a need for a model that considers multiple pathways of research translation. The purpose is to propose a model of translating research to practice and policy that is broad enough to apply to many behavioral medicine scenarios and suggests options for behavioral medicine investigators to become engaged in research translation. Read More

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December 2018

Pregnancy And Neonatal Diabetes Outcomes in Remote Australia: the PANDORA study-an observational birth cohort.

Int J Epidemiol 2018 Nov 30. Epub 2018 Nov 30.

Clinical and Population Health, Baker Heart and Diabetes Institute, Melbourne, Australia.

Background: In Australia's Northern Territory, 33% of babies are born to Indigenous mothers, who experience high rates of hyperglycemia in pregnancy. We aimed to determine the extent to which pregnancy outcomes for Indigenous Australian women are explained by relative frequencies of diabetes type [type 2 diabetes (T2DM) and gestational diabetes (GDM)].

Methods: This prospective birth cohort study examined participants recruited from a hyperglycemia in pregnancy register. Read More

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November 2018

Part-time in general practice-a remedy to a time-based problem?

Fam Pract 2018 Dec 1. Epub 2018 Dec 1.

Research School of Population Health, The Australian National University, Canberra, Australia.

Background: Increasing numbers of GPs are reducing the hours they work in clinical practice. The reasons for and implications of this are not well-understood.

Objective: To investigate how the demands of general practice, especially new time pressures, impact GPs' professional and personal lives and work hour choices. Read More

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December 2018

The Alleged Health-Protective Effects of Coffee.

JAMA Intern Med 2018 Dec;178(12):1725

Australian Center for Precision Health, University of South Australia Cancer Research Institute, Adelaide, Australia.

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December 2018

Multiple indicators of rice remains and the process of rice domestication: A case study in the lower Yangtze River region, China.

PLoS One 2018 3;13(12):e0208104. Epub 2018 Dec 3.

Key Laboratory of Cenozoic Geology and Environment, Institute of Geology and Geophysics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China.

The process of rice domestication has been studied for decades based on changing morphological characteristics in assemblages of both macroremains, such as charred seeds and spikelet bases, and microremains, such as phytoliths, esp. bulliform and double-peaked phytoliths. The applicability of these indicators in determining if a specific assemblage is wild or domesticated, however, is rarely discussed. Read More

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December 2018

Prediction of ICU Delirium: Validation of Current Delirium Predictive Models in Routine Clinical Practice.

Crit Care Med 2018 Nov 30. Epub 2018 Nov 30.

Department of Intensive Care Medicine, Peninsula Health, Frankston, VIC, Australia.

Objectives: To investigate the ability of available delirium risk assessment tools to identify patients at risk of delirium in an Australian tertiary ICU.

Design: Prospective observational study.

Setting: An Australian tertiary ICU. Read More

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November 2018