DEDJTR Victoria, Animal Health and Welfare, Bendigo, Victoria, Australia.
Case Report: Clinicopathological features of neuroaxonal dystrophy (NAD) in newborn, Merino-Border Leicester × Polled Dorset lambs are described. The affected lambs were unable to walk at birth and microscopic examination of brainstem and spinal cord sections revealed bilaterally symmetrical accumulations of axonal swellings (spheroids), the histological hallmark of primary NAD. The neurological deficit was also exacerbated by myelin loss and secondary axonal degeneration, particularly in the spinal cord and sciatic nerves, but also, to a more limited extent, in brainstem and spinal nerves. Read More
Sydney School of Veterinary Science The University of Sydney, Sydney, New South Wales, Australia.
Objective: Because of limited availability of chloramphenicol to veterinary suppliers, a preliminary study was performed to predict whether an analogue, florfenicol, is an efficacious treatment for chlamydiosis in koalas.
Methods: Florfenicol was administered to koalas with naturally occurring chlamydiosis at 20 mg/kg SC (n = 3) and at 5 mg/kg (n = 3) and 10 mg/kg (n = 3) IV. The estimated areas under the plasma concentration versus time curves (AUC) were compared with the minimum inhibitory concentration to inhibit Chlamydia pecorum. Read More
Objective: To review a large number of equine overground endoscopy (OGE) examinations to determine the incidence of dynamic upper airway obstructions (DUAO); correlations were explored with laryngeal endoscopy findings at rest and abnormal exercising respiratory noise.
Methods: Retrospective analysis of horses presenting for OGE because of perceived poor performance and/or history of abnormal exercising respiratory noise between 2010 and 2014. Signalment, history and examination findings during resting laryngeal endoscopy and OGE were reviewed. Read More
Faculty of Veterinary Science, School of Life and Environmental Sciences, The University of Sydney, Camden, NSW, Australia.
Objective: To determine the management practices utilised in automatic milking systems (AMS) that affect reproductive management and performance and how these compare with the management practices used in regionally proximal conventional milking systems (CMS).
Methods: This study examined demographic and management data from AMS and CMS dairy farms through a survey, with a specific focus on reproductive management procedures.
Results: Overall, responses from AMS and CMS dairy farms showed little difference in terms of respondent demographics, farm size, herd structure and most farm management strategies. Read More
Objective: To determine if insemination site or pre-ovulatory follicle diameter at fixed-time artificial insemination (FTAI) affects the odds of pregnancy when heifers are inseminated with sexed semen.
Methods: The study was conducted in 422 Holstein heifers enrolled into 531 inseminations. Inseminations were randomly allocated to 1 of 16 treatment combinations involving three variables: semen type (sexed vs non-sexed), insemination site (uterine horn vs uterine body) and one of four sires. Read More
Objective: The purpose of this study was to examine the efficacy of daily cabergoline administration on oestrus induction in bitches.
Methods And Results: Of 20 multiparous Beagle bitches, 15 were not mated with sires in their last oestrus and 5 bitches that had been mated whelped. All bitches were in early or mid-anoestrus and received 5 μg/kg/day cabergoline PO. Read More
Case Report: We describe the MRI appearance and surgical outcome of a rare neuroendodermal cyst in the fourth ventricle of a German Shorthaired Pointer. The dog presented with uncoordinated gait and occasional falling that increased when she became excited. The MRI appearance is shown and the surgical treatment described. Read More
School of Veterinary Science, The University of Queensland, Gatton, Queensland 4343, Australia.
Case Report: A 6-week-old Thoroughbred filly was presented for evaluation of an expansile mass overlying the right nasal passage and causing respiratory stertor. On skull radiographs, there was a loculated, soft tissue-opaque mass identified dorsal to the right upper premolars and effacing the right nasal cavity. Computed tomography (CT) revealed a locally extensive mass with relatively benign characteristics located centrally on the tooth root apices of the deciduous second premolar (506). Read More
Translational Research and Animal Clinical Trials (TRACTs) Group, Melbourne Veterinary School, Faculty of Veterinary and Agricultural Sciences, University of Melbourne, Princes Highway, Werribee 3030, Victoria, Australia.
Objective: To assess the chemical and physical stability of morphine and methadone stored in syringes for 12 months and of methadone when mixed with acepromazine, medetomidine or xylazine.
Methods: A high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) technique was developed and validated for the analysis of morphine and methadone. Morphine and methadone were dispensed into syringes and stored at 25°C/60% relative humidity (RH) and 40°C/75% RH. Read More
Objective: The aim of this research was to study the roles of the day 0 energy balance and gonadotrophin-releasing hormone (GnRH) and progesterone levels on dominant follicle (DF) and corpus luteum (CL) development during the first 7 days of a gonadotrophin-prostaglandin-gonadotrophin (GPG) + progesterone (P4) program in anoestrous dairy cows.
Methods: Cows (n = 81) were allocated to one of the three treatments: (1) GPG + P4 (days 0 and 9, 100 µg GnRH; day 0-7, intravaginal P4 device; day 7, 500 µg PGF2α ); (2) GPG (as for treatment 1 but excluding the P4 device) and (3) prostaglandin + GnRH + P4 (as for treatment 1, but excluding day 0 GnRH). DF and CL size, plasma concentrations of insulin, insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) and non-esterified fatty acid (NEFA) were measured on days 0 and 7. Read More
Objective: To determine the prophylactic and therapeutic efficacy of Australian-registered insecticide formulations against Old World screwworm (OWS) myiases for potential use in screwworm containment and eradication programs.
Methods: The longevity of protection provided by six insecticidal formulations (subcutaneous ivermectin, doramectin and abamectin, a topically applied aqueous formulation of spinosad, ivermectin controlled-release capsule and a dicyclanil spray-on formulation) was tested using implants of 1st-instar OWS larvae on Javanese thin-tail sheep. Therapeutic efficacy of four formulations (topical ivermectin, chlorfenvinphos/cypermethrin mixture, aerosol spinosad formulation and a formulation containing propetamphos and eucalyptus oil) was tested against 2- and 4-day-old OWS strikes. Read More
Disclosure of affected breed without disclosure of major progenitors has been the usual practice in scientific papers reporting recessive heritable disorders of cattle. Before molecular genetics, carrier identity could not be used by breeders to control causal mutations because phenotypically normal heterozygotes among genetically related animals could not be detected other than by test mating. Accurate, low-cost DNA tests fundamentally changed this situation. Read More
Objectives: To determine the proportion of first-milking colostrum samples produced on four northern-Victorian dairy farms that meet industry standards in terms of immunoglobulin G (IgG) concentration and to identify risk factors that affect colostrum quality.
Methods: Colostrum IgG concentrations from 442 dairy cows on four farms were estimated using a Brix refractometer and risk factors for colostrum IgG concentration were determined using multivariable logistic regression.
Results: Only 39% of samples met the definition of high quality. Read More
Faculty of Veterinary and Agricultural Sciences, The University of Melbourne, Werribee, Victoria, Australia.
Objective: To describe outbreaks of sarcoptic mange caused by Sarcoptes scabiei in free-ranging koalas in Victoria (December 2008 to November 2015) and South Australia (October 2011 to September 2014).
Methods: Koalas affected by mange-like lesions were reported by wildlife carers, veterinary practitioners or State Government personnel to the Faculty of Veterinary and Agricultural Sciences at The University of Melbourne and the School of Animal and Veterinary Sciences at The University of Adelaide. Skin scrapings were taken from live and dead koalas and S. Read More
Background: Olfactory neuroblastoma is a rare malignancy of the nasal cavity in dogs that is thought to arise from specialised sensory neuroendocrine olfactory cells derived from the neural crest.
Case Report: An 8-year-old dog was presented for reclusiveness and pacing. On CT and MRI, a contract-enhancing mass was disclosed within the rostral fossa, extending caudally from the cribriform plate into the left nasal sinus. Read More
Translational Research and Animal Clinical Trial Study (TRACTS) group, Faculty of Veterinary and Agricultural Science, 250 Princes Hwy, Werribee 3030, Victoria, Australia.
Case Report: An 11-year-old male neutered Miniature Poodle was investigated for ptyalism, weight loss and anorexia. Cricopharyngeal dysphagia was diagnosed using fluoroscopy, and non-inflammatory salivary disease was diagnosed using a combination of cytology and computed tomography. The dog was successfully managed with phenobarbitone. Read More
Case Report: Six Gilbert's potoroos (Potorous gilbertii) in a captive colony, five of which were closely related, died or were euthanased with severe renal disease. Clinical signs were mostly non-specific. Renal calculi were seen on ultrasound of two affected potoroos and oxalate crystalluria was seen in two of three affected potoroos that had urine samples examined. Read More
Virology Laboratory, Elizabeth Macarthur Agriculture Institute, Private Mail Bag 4008, Narellan 2567, New South Wales, Australia.
Background: This study investigated the ability of a commercial rabbit haemorrhagic disease virus (RHDV) vaccine (Cylap®) to protect rabbits from disease caused by two different strains of the virus (v351 and K5) that are used or proposed to be used for wild rabbit control in Australia. These strains of the RHDV1 genotype belong to the 'classical RHDV' and 'antigenic variant RHDVa' subtypes, respectively.
Methods: Vaccinated rabbits were exposed to very high doses of the virus either by direct oral dosing or by exposure to infected rabbit livers. Read More
Objectives: To examine the prevalence of Theileria orientalis in the Gloucester area of New South Wales and its effect on individual animals.
Methods: Blood samples (EDTA and clotted blood) were collected from a total of 55 calves and their dams from 6 properties over a 16-week period. A total of 202 and 190 blood samples were collected from the calves and dams, respectively, and were examined via blood film for the presence of intraerythrocytic T. Read More
Objective: Approximately 140,000 unwanted dogs and cats are culled in Australia annually. There is a paucity of information linking sources of pet acquisition with subsequent euthanasia, which may inform evidence-based strategies to reduce euthanasia rates. This pilot study aimed to determine whether there is a higher risk of euthanasia related to the source of acquisition for pets surrendered to an animal shelter. Read More
Objective: To determine what veterinary students in Australia and New Zealand consider important competences in companion animal welfare and ethics (AWE) required on their first day of practice, and to explore how their priorities relate to gender and stage of study.
Methods: Undergraduate students at all veterinary schools in Australia and New Zealand were sent an online survey. A subset of questions required participants to rank the importance of preselected AWE topics pertaining to companion animals. Read More
Case Report: A case of lowland copperhead snake (Austrelaps superbus) envenomation in a dog is described. The dog developed severe and prolonged neuromuscular paralysis, including ventilatory failure. The dog was treated successfully with antivenom, intravenous fluids and mechanical ventilation. Read More
Case Report: A newborn foal was referred for evaluation because it had not passed meconium, despite the administration of four enemas. Abdominal radiographs and ultrasound scans showed generalised gaseous distension of the intestine and there was no observable meconium in the colon. Positive contrast colography showed contrast medium extending to the transverse colon. Read More
Case Report: A 7-year-old female spayed Labrador Retriever was managed for suspected carbamate toxicosis after confirmed ingestion of a large amount of methiocarb. Therapy included decontamination, supportive care and management for aspiration pneumonia. On the third day of hospitalisation, after an initial clinical improvement, the dog developed respiratory muscle weakness, inspiratory dyspnoea and pronounced cervical muscle weakness. Read More
Case Report: A 4-month-old female intact American Pit Bull Terrier was presented for right pelvic limb lameness 1 day after the dog had been hit by an all-terrain vehicle. Orthogonal radiographs of the right stifle revealed a Salter-Harris type IV fracture through the proximal tibial physis extending caudodistally through the proximal tibial metaphysis. The distal tibia was markedly displaced cranially, laterally and proximally, resulting in complete overriding of the fracture segments. Read More
Case Report: A male Domestic Short-hair cat was presented for chronic weight loss, lethargy and hyporexia. Complete haematological examination revealed non-regenerative anaemia, neutropenia and thrombocytopenia, as well as Howell-Jolly bodies, anisocytosis, polychromasia and macrocytosis on blood smear evaluation. Histopathological evaluation of bone marrow biopsy disclosed hypocellularity consistent with bone marrow failure. Read More
Objective: To determine whether known loss-of-function alleles of the acidic α-glucosidase gene (GAA) are present in the Droughtmaster breed and, if so, whether the clinical signs and pathology of generalised glycogenosis (Pompe's disease) previously reported in other affected cattle are also seen in homozygous Droughtmasters.
Design: Existing genomic and other diagnostic tests developed for generalised glycogenosis in cattle were used to test for the presence of the three known loss-of-function alleles of GAA in a herd of Droughtmaster cattle. Two calves with clinical signs of generalised glycogenosis were submitted for necropsy. Read More
Objective: To identify risk factors for canine lymphoma in dogs from New South Wales, Australia, and to compare factors affecting remission duration.
Methods: Client-owned dogs diagnosed with lymphoma presented to the University Veterinary Teaching Hospital (UVTH), University of Sydney, between 2001 and 2009 (n = 134) were compared with a control population of dogs seen in that period of time with a diagnosis other than lymphoma to evaluate association of explanatory variables (breed, age and sex) with the outcome (case or control status).
Results: The Australian Cattle Dog (odds ratio (OR) = 4. Read More
Objective: Collagen cross-linking is an attractive therapeutic route aimed at supplementing natural collagen stabilisation. In this study the toxicity of the cross-linker genipin (GP) was examined in avascular (tendon) and vascular (dermis) tissue.
Methods: High doses of GP were injected intratendinously into three yearling horses and evaluated at various time points up to 30 days. Read More
Objective: Develop a multiplex quantitative PCR assay to investigate the prevalence and shedding of Escherichia coli O157/O145, Salmonella spp. and Campylobacter spp. in sheep at sale yards and abattoirs. Read More
Case Report: Cystic urolithiasis is the most common form of urolithiasis reported in horses. In contrast to the gelding or stallion, clinical disease is less common in the mare and manual removal techniques are possible because of their shorter, wider urethral anatomy. However, these manual removal techniques can be traumatic and are limited by the size of the urolith. Read More
Case Report: Cases of bilateral anterior nasal atresia, sometimes referred to as arhinia or partial arhinia, are extremely rare in cattle and have only been reported as single events. This report describes the birth of 16 Holstein Friesian calves over a 3-month period, all affected with bilateral atresia of the nares and anterior nasal cavity, with 2 calves having additional severe deviation of the nasomaxillary bones and nasal septum. One affected calf was born with an anatomically normal twin. Read More
Objective: To determine the influence of farm-level and animal-level factors on the seroprevalence of antibodies to Neospora caninum and associations between seropositivity and reproductive outcomes.
Methods: A questionnaire for a cross-sectional survey was posted to the 63 properties with a herd size ≥50 beef breeding cows that had participated in a previous seroprevalence study. Correspondence analysis, which does not appear to have been used previously in any Australian studies of livestock diseases, was used in conjunction with logistic regression to analyse the data. Read More