107,682 results match your criteria Australian Mammalogy[Journal]


The return of the frogs: The importance of habitat refugia in maintaining diversity during a disease outbreak.

Mol Ecol 2019 Apr 23. Epub 2019 Apr 23.

College of Science and Engineering, James Cook University, Townsville, QLD, 4811, Australia.

Recent decades have seen the emergence and spread of numerous infectious diseases, often with severe negative consequences for wildlife populations. Nevertheless, many populations survive the initial outbreaks, and even undergo recoveries. Unfortunately, the long-term effects of these outbreaks on host population genetics are poorly understood; to increase this understanding, we examined the population genetics of two species of rainforest frogs (Litoria nannotis and Litoria serrata) that have largely recovered from a chytridiomycosis outbreak at two national parks in the Wet Tropics of northern Australia. Read More

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https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1111/mec.15108
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/mec.15108DOI Listing
April 2019
1 Read

Australian Aboriginal children have higher hospitalization rates for otitis media but lower surgical procedures than non-Aboriginal children: A record linkage population-based cohort study.

PLoS One 2019 23;14(4):e0215483. Epub 2019 Apr 23.

Wesfarmers Centre for Vaccines and Infectious Diseases, Telethon Kids Institute, The University of Western Australia, Perth, Western Australia, Australia.

Introduction: Otitis media (OM) is one of the most common infectious diseases affecting children globally and the most common reason for antibiotic prescription and paediatric surgery. Australian Aboriginal children have higher rates of OM than non-Aboriginal children; however, there are no data comparing OM hospitalization rates between them at the population level. We report temporal trends for OM hospitalizations and in-hospital tympanostomy tube insertion (TTI) in a cohort of 469,589 Western Australian children born between 1996 and 2012. Read More

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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0215483PLOS
April 2019
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Group B streptococcus prevalence, serotype distribution and colonization dynamics in Western Australian pregnant women.

J Med Microbiol 2019 Apr 23. Epub 2019 Apr 23.

1 The School of Medicine, Division of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, The University of Western Australia, Australia.

Purpose: Streptococcus agalactiae, or group B streptococcus (GBS), is a leading neonatal pathogen that causes sepsis, meningitis and pneumonia. Globally, strategies have been implemented to address vertical transmission, and in Western Australia (WA), culture-based screening at 35-37 weeks' gestation is part of routine care and guides antibiotic administration. Previous Australian studies have focused on other regions or included low sample-size representatives; we aimed to describe antenatal GBS colonization in WA. Read More

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https://www.microbiologyresearch.org/content/journal/jmm/10.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1099/jmm.0.000980DOI Listing
April 2019
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Application of Low-Frequency Raman Scattering Spectroscopy to Probe in Situ Drug Solubilization in Milk during Digestion.

J Phys Chem Lett 2019 Apr 23:2258-2263. Epub 2019 Apr 23.

Drug Delivery, Disposition and Dynamics, Monash Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences , Monash University (Parkville Campus) , 381 Royal Parade , Parkville , VIC 3052 , Australia.

We have recently shown that real-time monitoring of drug solubilization and changes to solid state of the drug during digestion of milk can be achieved using synchrotron small-angle X-ray scattering. A complementary laboratory-based method to explore such changes is low-frequency Raman spectroscopy, which has been increasingly used to characterize crystalline drugs and their polymorphs in powders and suspensions. This study investigates the use of this technique to monitor in situ drug solubilization in milk during the process of digestion, using a lipolysis model/flow-through configuration identical to that used previously for in situ synchrotron small-angle X-ray scattering studies. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.jpclett.9b00654DOI Listing

Extended-spectrum β-lactamase in the rectal flora of patients undergoing transrectal prostate biopsy: a study of the prevalence in a major metropolitan hospital.

BJU Int 2019 Apr 23. Epub 2019 Apr 23.

Department of Urology, Royal Melbourne Hospital, Parkville, Vic., Australia.

Objectives: To determine the prevalence of extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL) in patients undergoing transrectal prostate biopsy, to assess the incidence of postoperative sepsis, to correlate the development of sepsis with the presence of preoperative ESBL on rectal swabs, and to assess the adequacy of prophylactic antibiotic guidelines in the context of local ESBL prevalence.

Methods: Patients undergoing transrectal ultrasonography (TRUS)-guided biopsy at the Royal Melbourne Hospital between January 2012 and July 2016 had rectal swabs taken immediately prior to TRUS with specific cultures to identify the presence of ESBL. Patients were given a prophylactic antibiotic, 500 mg oral ciprofloxacin, 1 h before the TRUS procedure. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/bju.14745DOI Listing

A randomized controlled trial of a wearable technology-based intervention for increasing moderate to vigorous physical activity and reducing sedentary behavior in breast cancer survivors: The ACTIVATE Trial.

Cancer 2019 Apr 23. Epub 2019 Apr 23.

Cancer Epidemiology Division, Cancer Council Victoria, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia.

Background: The benefits of an active lifestyle after a breast cancer diagnosis are well recognized, but the majority of survivors are insufficiently active. The ACTIVATE Trial examined the efficacy of an intervention (use of the Garmin Vivofit 2 activity monitor coupled with a behavioral feedback and goal-setting session and 5 telephone-delivered health coaching sessions) to increase moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA) and reduce sedentary behavior in breast cancer survivors.

Methods: This randomized controlled trial recruited 83 inactive, postmenopausal women diagnosed with stage I-III breast cancer who had completed primary treatment. Read More

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https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1002/cncr.32143
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/cncr.32143DOI Listing
April 2019
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Maintenance of physical activity and sedentary behavior change, and physical activity and sedentary behavior change after an abridged intervention: Secondary outcomes from the ACTIVATE Trial.

Cancer 2019 Apr 23. Epub 2019 Apr 23.

Cancer Epidemiology Division, Cancer Council Victoria, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia.

Background: This brief report examines the maintenance of moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA) and sedentary behavior changes approximately 12 weeks after the delivery of the ACTIVATE Trial primary intervention (use of the Garmin Vivofit 2 activity tracker coupled with a behavioral feedback and goal-setting session and 5 telephone-delivered health coaching sessions). We also examine the efficacy of an abridged intervention (use of the Garmin Vivofit 2 only) in the waitlist control group.

Methods: A pre-post design was employed to examine the secondary aims of the ACTIVATE Trial (n = 80; mean age = 62 years). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/cncr.32142DOI Listing

Photochemical Etching of Carbonyl Groups from a Carbon Matrix: The (001) Diamond Surface.

Phys Rev Lett 2019 Jan;122(1):016802

MQ Photonics Research Centre, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Macquarie University, New South Wales 2109, Australia.

The surface of diamond is reported to undergo nonablative photochemical etching when exposed to ultraviolet (UV) radiation which allows controlled single and partial layer removal of lattice layers. Oxygen termination of surface dangling bonds is known to be crucial for the etching process; however, the exact mechanism of carbon ejection remains unclear. We investigate the interaction of UV laser pulses with oxygen-terminated diamond surfaces using atomic-scale surface characterization combined with first-principles time-dependent density functional theory calculations. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevLett.122.016802DOI Listing
January 2019

Foliar water uptake in Amazonian trees: evidence and consequences.

Glob Chang Biol 2019 Apr 23. Epub 2019 Apr 23.

Research School of Biology, The Australian National University, Canberra, 2601 ACT, Australia.

The absorption of atmospheric water directly into leaves enables plants to alleviate the water stress caused by low soil moisture, hydraulic resistance in the xylem and the effect of gravity on the water column, whilst enabling plants to scavenge small inputs of water from leaf wetting events. By increasing the availability of water, and supplying it from the top of the canopy (in a direction facilitated by gravity), foliar uptake (FU) may be a significant process in determining how forests interact with climate, and could alter our interpretation of current metrics for hydraulic stress and sensitivity. FU has not been reported for lowland tropical rain forests; we test whether FU occurs in six common Amazonian tree genera in lowland Amazônia, and make a first estimation of its contribution to canopy-atmosphere water exchange. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/gcb.14666DOI Listing

Noncoding Variations in the Gene Encoding Ceramide Synthase 6 are Associated with Type 2 Diabetes in a Large Indigenous Australian Pedigree.

Twin Res Hum Genet 2019 Apr 23:1-9. Epub 2019 Apr 23.

Diabetes Research Laboratories, School of Clinical Medicine Prince Charles Hospital Northside Clinical Unit, Faculty of Medicine,University of Queensland,Brisbane,Queensland,Australia.

Type 2 diabetes (T2D) is a chronic disease that disproportionately affects Indigenous Australians. We have previously reported the localization of a novel T2D locus by linkage analysis to chromosome 2q24 in a large admixed Indigenous Australian pedigree (Busfield et al. (2002). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/thg.2019.13DOI Listing

A systematic review of the approaches to multi-level learning in the general practice context, using a realist synthesis approach: BEME Guide No. 55.

Med Teach 2019 Apr 23:1-15. Epub 2019 Apr 23.

c Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences, University of Technology Sydney , Australia.

Background: Recent global increases in medical student numbers and shifts in medical education from teaching hospitals to community settings call for effective strategies to meet the demand for general practice teaching placements. It has been proposed that "multi-level learning" (MLL), in which learning and teaching are shared across different levels of learners, may provide teaching efficiencies and valuable experiences for learners and teachers.

Aims: To identify, evaluate and synthesize the evidence related to the types, benefits, challenges, and facilitators of MLL in community-based general practice, and the underlying mechanisms and associated contexts to explain the reported outcomes. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/0142159X.2019.1595554DOI Listing

Outcomes of universal germline testing for men with prostate cancer in an Australian tertiary center.

Asia Pac J Clin Oncol 2019 Apr 22. Epub 2019 Apr 22.

Kinghorn Cancer Centre, St. Vincent's Hospital, Darlinghurst, NSW, Australia.

Aim: The role of germline testing in prostate cancer is evolving and knowledge of an individual's genetic profile may be used to guide not only an assessment of their familial risk but also have prognostic and therapeutic implications. Although international guidelines have incorporated recommendations for germline testing in prostate cancer, there is little Australian data to guide referrals. The aim of this study is to review the frequency of relevant pathogenic mutations in an Australian center, their associated clinical factors and clinical impact. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/ajco.13148DOI Listing

Experiences and perceptions of residential and home care services among older lesbian women and gay men in Australia.

Health Soc Care Community 2019 Apr 22. Epub 2019 Apr 22.

National LGBTI Health Alliance, Sydney, NSW, Australia.

The needs of older lesbian and gay people regarding access and use of aged-care services remain underresearched. This paper reports the findings of 33 qualitative interviews with older lesbian women and gay men about their perceptions and experiences of residential aged-care and home-based aged-care services in Australia. The focus of this paper is their preparedness for using aged-care services. Read More

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https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1111/hsc.12760
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/hsc.12760DOI Listing
April 2019
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Interleukin-22: friend or foe?

Immunol Cell Biol 2019 Apr;97(4):355-357

Inflammatory Bowel Disease Group, Mater Research institute-The University of Queensland, Translational Research Institute, Brisbane, QLD, Australia.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/imcb.12249DOI Listing

Educator as Diagnostician, Judge and Confidant: a positioning analysis of medical student support encounters.

Adv Health Sci Educ Theory Pract 2019 Apr 22. Epub 2019 Apr 22.

Department of Medical Education, Melbourne Medical School, University of Melbourne, Parkville, VIC, 3052, Australia.

Medical schools, programs and educators are increasingly expected to address medical student stress and wellbeing, yet also ensure student competence and fitness to practice. Educators play a central role in supporting students when evaluating a student's concerns and in deciding whether support and/or sanction should be offered. It is not known how educators approach or resolve such potentially contradictory responses. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10459-019-09892-7DOI Listing

Financial capacity in frontotemporal dementia and related presentations.

J Neurol 2019 Apr 22. Epub 2019 Apr 22.

Department of Clinical Neurological Sciences, Schulich School of Medicine and Dentistry, Parkwood Institute, Lawson Health Research Institute, University of Western Ontario, 550 Wellington Rd, London, ON, Canada.

Background: Changes in financial judgement and skills can herald a neurodegenerative dementia and are a common reason for referral for cognitive neurologic assessment. However, patients with neurodegenerative diseases affecting the frontal or temporal lobes may perform well on standard cognitive tests, complicating clinical determinations about their diagnosis and financial capacity.

Methods: Forty-five patients with possible or probable FTD or Alzheimer's disease and 22 healthy controls completed two financial assessment batteries, the FACT and the FCAI. Read More

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http://link.springer.com/10.1007/s00415-019-09317-w
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00415-019-09317-wDOI Listing
April 2019
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Platelet function testing at low platelet counts: When can you trust your analysis?

Res Pract Thromb Haemost 2019 Apr 19;3(2):285-290. Epub 2019 Mar 19.

Department of Clinical Chemistry and Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine Linköping University Linköping Sweden.

Background: Although flow cytometry is often brought forward as a preferable method in the setting of thrombocytopenia, the relative effects of low sample counts on results from flow cytometry-based platelet function testing (FC-PFT) in comparison with light transmission aggregometry (LTA) and multiple electrode aggregometry (MEA) has not been reported.

Objectives: To compare the effects of different sample platelet counts (10, 50, 100, and 200 × 10 L) on platelet activation measured with FC-PFT, LTA, and MEA using the same anticoagulant and agonist concentrations as for the commercial MEA test.

Methods: Platelets were stimulated with two commonly used platelet agonists (ADP [6. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/rth2.12193DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6462761PMC

The mode of anesthesia influences outcome in mouse models of arterial thrombosis.

Res Pract Thromb Haemost 2019 Apr 15;3(2):197-206. Epub 2019 Feb 15.

Australian Centre for Blood Diseases Central Clinical School Monash University Alfred Hospital Melbourne Vic. Australia.

Background: Arterial thrombosis models are important for preclinical evaluation of antithrombotics but how anesthetic protocol can influence experimental results is not studied.

Objectives: We studied how three most commonly used rodent anesthetics affect the induction of thrombosis and thrombus resolution with antiplatelet agent integrilin (Eptifibatide).

Methods: The Folts, electrolytic, and FeCl models of carotid artery thrombosis were evaluated. Read More

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http://doi.wiley.com/10.1002/rth2.12184
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/rth2.12184DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6462741PMC
April 2019
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Two cases of penetrating left ventricular cardiac trauma: Pre-hospital ultrasound and direct to theatre.

Trauma Case Rep 2019 Jun 13;21:100189. Epub 2019 Apr 13.

CareFlight Rapid Response Helicopter (CRRH), CareFlight, Locked Bag 2002, Wentworthville, NSW 2145, Australia.

Left ventricular (LV) Cardiac penetrating trauma is a rare and grave injury. In cases of penetrating cardiac trauma, pre-hospital Ultrasound by flight doctors can assist identify specific pathology. This pre-hospital triage has now been linked to a change in both pre-hospital and in-hospital management. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.tcr.2019.100189DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6463218PMC

Impact of an Australian state-wide active travel campaign targeting primary schools.

Prev Med Rep 2019 Jun 5;14:100866. Epub 2019 Apr 5.

Deakin University, Institute for Physical Activity and Nutrition (IPAN), School of Exercise and Nutrition Sciences, Geelong, Australia.

Active travel can have health and environmental benefits. This study evaluated the impact of a month-long (October 2015) campaign encouraging primary school children in Victoria, Australia to engage in active school travel. With support from local councils, schools participated in the campaign by monitoring active school travel and delivering promotional activities. Read More

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https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S22113355193005
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.pmedr.2019.100866DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6462773PMC
June 2019
1 Read

Increased Serum C-reactive Protein and Corpus Callosum Alterations in Older Adults.

Aging Dis 2019 Apr 1;10(2):463-469. Epub 2019 Apr 1.

1INSERM, Univ Montpellier, Neuropsychiatry, Epidemiological and Clinical Research, Montpellier, France.

Chronic systemic low-grade inflammation is associated with aging, but little is known on whether age-related inflammation affects brain structure, particularly white matter. The current study tested the hypothesis that in older adults without dementia, higher serum levels of high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) are associated with reduced corpus callosum (CC) areas. French community-dwelling subjects (ESPRIT study) aged 65 and older (N=101) underwent hs-CRP testing and structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.14336/AD.2018.0329DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6457060PMC

Long-range interactions between topologically associating domains shape the four-dimensional genome during differentiation.

Nat Genet 2019 Apr 22. Epub 2019 Apr 22.

Department of Molecular Medicine, Institute of Basic Medical Sciences, Faculty of Medicine, University of Oslo, Oslo, Norway.

Genomic information is selectively used to direct spatial and temporal gene expression during differentiation. Interactions between topologically associating domains (TADs) and between chromatin and the nuclear lamina organize and position chromosomes in the nucleus. However, how these genomic organizers together shape genome architecture is unclear. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41588-019-0392-0DOI Listing

Should I Stay or Go: Rural Ageing, a Time for Reflection.

Geriatrics (Basel) 2018 Aug 3;3(3). Epub 2018 Aug 3.

College of Medicine & Dentistry, James Cook University, Townsville 4811, Australia.

(1) Background: Studies have shown that older people prefer to continue living in their own home and community as they age; however this is dependent upon available services and social support. In Australia about two thirds of people will age at home. The Australian Government provides home care packages to support ageing in place yet in rural areas not all services are available. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/geriatrics3030049DOI Listing

Information infrastructure and quality person-centred support in supported accommodation: An integrative review.

Patient Educ Couns 2019 Mar 22. Epub 2019 Mar 22.

Graduate School of Health, University of Technology, Sydney, Australia. Electronic address:

Objectives: To integrate findings on the information infrastructure for people with intellectual or developmental disability (I/DD) living in supported accommodation, to understand how documentation use impacts person-centred support.

Methods: We conducted an integrative literature review. Following screening by two independent reviewers, we included English language peer-reviewed empirical studies (n = 34) on documentation use for people with I/DD in domestic-scale supported accommodation. Read More

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https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S07383991183077
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.pec.2019.03.008DOI Listing
March 2019
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Contrasting responses of the coral Acropora tenuis to moderate and strong light limitation in coastal waters.

Mar Environ Res 2019 Apr 12. Epub 2019 Apr 12.

Australian Institute of Marine Science, PMB #3, Townsville MC, QLD, 4810, Australia.

Coastal water quality and light attenuation can detrimentally affect coral health. This study investigated the effects of light limitation and reduced water quality on the physiological performance of the coral Acropora tenuis. Branches of individual colonies were collected in 2 m water depth at six inshore reefs at increasing distances from major river sources in the Great Barrier Reef, along a strong water quality gradient in the Burdekin and a weak gradient in the Whitsunday region. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.marenvres.2019.04.003DOI Listing

Temporal shifts in the distribution of murine rodent body size classes at Liang Bua (Flores, Indonesia) reveal new insights into the paleoecology of Homo floresiensis and associated fauna.

J Hum Evol 2019 May 14;130:45-60. Epub 2019 Mar 14.

Australian Research Council Centre of Excellence for Australian Biodiversity and Heritage, University of Adelaide, Adelaide, South Australia 5005, Australia; School of Biological Sciences, Environment Institute, and Centre for Applied Conservation Science, University of Adelaide, Adelaide, South Australia 5005 Australia.

Liang Bua, the type locality of Homo floresiensis, is a limestone cave located in the western part of the Indonesian island of Flores. The relatively continuous stratigraphic sequence of the site spans the past ∼190 kyr and contains ∼275,000 taxonomically identifiable vertebrate skeletal elements, ∼80% of which belong to murine rodent taxa (i.e. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jhevol.2019.02.002DOI Listing

Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander preferences for healthcare settings: effective use of design images in survey research.

Aust Health Rev 2019 Apr 23. Epub 2019 Apr 23.

The aim of this study was to develop an effective digital survey instrument incorporating images to investigate Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander preferences for health clinics and hospitals, design of healthcare settings and the differences between inner regional and remote locations.Design-related constructs developed from qualitative interviews informed the construction of healthcare setting images. These images were embedded in an online survey instrument to elicit data on design preferences and an area-based recruitment strategy ensured participation by Indigenous Australians from three Queensland locations. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1071/AH18196DOI Listing

Development and characterization of 17 polymorphic microsatellite markers for the reef manta ray (Mobula alfredi).

BMC Res Notes 2019 Apr 22;12(1):233. Epub 2019 Apr 22.

School of Biomedical Science, The University of Queensland, Brisbane, Australia.

Objective: Limited sample sizes are often a problem for species of conservation concern when using genetic tools to make population assessments. Lack of analytical power from small sample sizes can be compensated for by use of a large marker set. Here we report on development and characterization of 17 novel microsatellite markers for the reef manta ray (Mobula alfredi). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13104-019-4270-8DOI Listing

Interdisciplinary User Groups and the Design of Healthcare Facilities.

Authors:
Jane Carthey

HERD 2019 Apr 22:1937586719843877. Epub 2019 Apr 22.

1 Faculty of Creative Industries, Queensland University of Technology, Brisbane, Queensland, Australia.

Aim: This Australian research explores how "user group" participants from diverse professional discipline backgrounds understand, define, perform their roles, and assess the outcomes of the healthcare design process.

Background: Part of the design process in Australia and New Zealand, the purpose of interdisciplinary user group consultation is to design the best healthcare facilities possible within the parameters set by project clients and funding bodies.

Method: An online survey was used to explore how user group participants viewed the process, including how well informed they felt they were about their role/s in it, its success in achieving specific outcomes for their project, and how they felt their project client, owner, or funding body assessed these same issues. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1937586719843877DOI Listing

The Keeping on Track Study: Exploring the Activity Levels and Utilization of Healthcare Services of Acute Coronary Syndrome (ACS) Patients in the First 30-Days after Discharge from Hospital.

Med Sci (Basel) 2019 Apr 19;7(4). Epub 2019 Apr 19.

Monash University, Clayton, Victoria 3168, Australia.

The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of bedside discharge education on activity levels and healthcare utilization for patients with acute coronary syndrome (ACS) in the first 30 days post-discharge. Knowledge recall and objective activity and location data were collected by global positioning systems (GPS). Participants were asked to carry the tracking applications (apps) for 30⁻90 days. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/medsci7040061DOI Listing

Social Support-A Protective Factor for Depressed Perinatal Women?

Int J Environ Res Public Health 2019 Apr 21;16(8). Epub 2019 Apr 21.

Parent-Infant Research Institute, Heidelberg West, Victoria 3081, Australia.

Social support before and after childbirth is a possible protective factor for perinatal depression. Currently, there is a lack of longitudinal studies beyond the first year postpartum exploring the relationship of social support with depression and anxiety. Social support is also a possible protective factor for adverse child development, which is a known consequence of perinatal depression. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16081426DOI Listing

Discounting health and money: New evidence using a more robust method.

J Risk Uncertain 2018 9;56(2):117-140. Epub 2018 May 9.

5IRD, AP-HM, SSA, VITROME, IHU-Méditerranée Infection, Aix-Marseille University, 13005 Marseille, France.

This study compares discounting for money and health in a field study. We applied the direct method, which measures discounting independent of utility, in a representative French sample, interviewed at home by professional interviewers. We found more discounting for money than for health. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11166-018-9279-1DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6445504PMC

Characterizing the role of tissue-type plasminogen activator in a mouse model of Group A streptococcal infection.

Microbes Infect 2019 Apr 19. Epub 2019 Apr 19.

Illawarra Health and Medical Research Institute and School of Chemistry and Molecular Bioscience, Molecular Horizons, University of Wollongong, Wollongong, New South Wales, Australia. Electronic address:

Plasmin(ogen) acquisition is critical for invasive disease initiation by Streptococcus pyogenes (GAS). Host urokinase plasminogen activator (uPA) plays a role in mediating plasminogen activation for GAS dissemination, however the contribution of tissue-type plasminogen activator (tPA) to GAS virulence is unknown. Using novel tPA-deficient ALBPLG1 mice, our study revealed no difference in mouse survival, bacterial dissemination or the pathology of GAS infection in the absence of tPA in AlbPLG1/tPA mice compared to AlbPLG1 mice. Read More

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https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S12864579193005
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.micinf.2019.04.004DOI Listing
April 2019
1 Read

The EXACT protocol: a multi-centre, single-blind, randomised, parallel-group, controlled trial to determine whether early oxygen titration improves survival to hospital discharge in adult OHCA patients.

Resuscitation 2019 Apr 19. Epub 2019 Apr 19.

Department of Epidemiology and Preventive Medicine, Monash University, Australia; Prehospital, Resuscitation and Emergency Care Research Unit, Curtin University, Australia; Alfred Hospital, Australia; Ambulance Victoria, Australia; Department of Community Emergency Health and Paramedic Practice, Monash University, Australia; SA Ambulance Service, Australia; Flinders University, Australia; St John Ambulance Western Australia, Australia; Warwick University, United Kingdom.

Background: Experimental and observational research suggests hyperoxia following resuscitation from cardiac arrest is associated with neurological injury and worse clinical outcomes. This paper describes the rationale and design of the EXACT trial. EXACT aims to determine whether reducing oxygen in the acute phase of post-resuscitation care for out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) improves survival. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.resuscitation.2019.04.023DOI Listing

The first complete mitochondrial genome of a cyclophorid land snail, with implications for architaenioglossan relationships (Mollusca, Caenogastropoda, Cyclophoroidea).

Int J Biol Macromol 2019 Apr 19. Epub 2019 Apr 19.

School of Life Sciences, Nanchang University, Nanchang 330031, China. Electronic address:

Herein, we described the complete mitochondrial genome ('mitogenome') of the Chinese land snail Cyclophorus martensianus, which is the first published mitogenome for the caenogastropod family Cyclophoridae. This mitogenome is 15,308 bp long consisting of 37 genes: 13 protein-coding genes (PCG's), 22 tRNA genes and two rRNA genes. The A + T content (69. Read More

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https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S01418130193103
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijbiomac.2019.04.138DOI Listing
April 2019
1 Read

Comparison of the Moral Sensitivity, Judgment, and Actions of Australian and Turkish Veterinary Students in Relation to Animal Ethics Issues.

J Vet Med Educ 2019 Apr 22:1-10. Epub 2019 Apr 22.

Veterinarians regularly face animal ethics conflicts, and research has identified the moral reasoning methods that they utilize to solve these. It is unclear whether students' sensitivity to animal ethics conflicts influences their reasoning methods, and the recent development of appropriate tests allows this to be assessed. We compared the moral reasoning methods, intended action and sensitivity of 112 first-year veterinary students in two contrasting veterinary schools, in Australia and Turkey. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3138/jvme.1117-178r1DOI Listing

Physiological Factors Which Influence Cognitive Performance in Military Personnel.

Hum Factors 2019 Apr 22:18720819841757. Epub 2019 Apr 22.

University of Canberra, Australian Capital Territory, Australia.

Objective: To identify and detail physiological factors that influence cognition in military personnel.

Background: Maintenance of cognitive and task performance is important under several scenarios, none more so than in a military context. Personnel are prepared for and trained to tolerate many of the stressors they encounter; however, consideration of stressors typically extends only as far as the physical, psychological, and environmental requirements of a given task. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0018720819841757DOI Listing

A bibliometric study of the top 100 most-cited randomized controlled trials, systematic reviews, and meta-analyses published in endodontic journals.

Int Endod J 2019 Apr 22. Epub 2019 Apr 22.

Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, School of Dental Sciences, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Kelantan, Malaysia.

Aim: To identify and analyse the main features of the top 100 most-cited randomized controlled trials, systematic reviews, and meta-analyses published in endodontic journals from 1961 to 2018.

Methodology: The Clarivate Analytics' Web of Science 'All Databases' was used to search and analyse the 100 most frequently cited randomized controlled trials, systematic reviews, and meta-analyses having "randomized", "randomised", "randomized controlled", "randomised controlled", "randomized controlled trial", "randomized controlled trials", "clinical trial", "systematic", "systematic review", "meta-analysis", and "meta-analyses" in the title section. The "International Endodontic Journal", "Journal of Endodontics", "Oral Surgery Oral Medicine Oral Pathology Oral Radiology and Endodontology", "Australian Endodontic Journal", "Endodontics & Dental Traumatology", "Endo-Endodontic Practice Today", and "European Endodontic Journal" were included in the publication name section. Read More

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https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1111/iej.13131
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/iej.13131DOI Listing
April 2019
1 Read

Effect of Albuterol Premedication vs Placebo on the Occurrence of Respiratory Adverse Events in Children Undergoing Tonsillectomies: The REACT Randomized Clinical Trial.

JAMA Pediatr 2019 Apr 22. Epub 2019 Apr 22.

Telethon Kids Institute, Perth, Australia.

Importance: Tonsillectomy is a common pediatric procedure for the treatment of sleep-disordered breathing and chronic tonsillitis. Up to half of children having this procedure experience a perioperative respiratory adverse event.

Objective: To determine whether inhaled albuterol sulfate (salbutamol sulfate) premedication decreases the risk of perioperative respiratory adverse events in children undergoing anesthesia for tonsillectomy. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/jamapediatrics.2019.0788DOI Listing

Real-time Live-cell Flow Cytometry to Investigate Calcium Influx, Pore Formation, and Phagocytosis by P2X7 Receptors in Adult Neural Progenitor Cells.

J Vis Exp 2019 Apr 3(146). Epub 2019 Apr 3.

Florey Institute of Neuroscience and Mental Health, University of Melbourne;

Live-cell flow cytometry is increasingly used among cell biologists to quantify biological processes in a living cell culture. This protocol describes a method whereby live-cell flow cytometry is extended upon to analyze the multiple functions of P2X7 receptor activation in real-time. Using a time module installed on a flow cytometer, live-cell functionality can be assessed and plotted over a given time period to explore the kinetics of calcium influx, transmembrane pore formation, and phagocytosis. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3791/59313DOI Listing

Fresh Red Cells for Transfusion in Critically Ill Adults: An Economic Evaluation of the Standard Issue Transfusion versus Fresher Red-Cell Use in Intensive Care (TRANSFUSE) Clinical Trial.

Crit Care Med 2019 Apr 18. Epub 2019 Apr 18.

Australian and New Zealand Intensive Care Research Centre, School of Public Health and Preventive Medicine, Monash University, Melbourne, VIC, Australia.

Objectives: Trials comparing the effects of transfusing RBC units of different storage durations have considered mortality or morbidity as outcomes. We perform the first economic evaluation alongside a full age of blood clinical trial with a large population assessing the impact of RBC storage duration on quality-of-life and costs in critically ill adults.

Design: Quality-of-life was measured at 6 months post randomization using the EuroQol 5-dimension 3-level instrument. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/CCM.0000000000003781DOI Listing
April 2019
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Patients' and Doctors' Perceptions of a Mobile Phone-Based Consultation Service for Maternal, Neonatal, and Infant Health Care in Bangladesh: A Mixed-Methods Study.

JMIR Mhealth Uhealth 2019 Apr 22;7(4):e11842. Epub 2019 Apr 22.

National Centre for Epidemiology and Population Health, Research School of Population Health, The Australian National University, Canberra, Australia.

Background: A mobile-based consultation service, or telehealth, can be used for remote consultations with health care professionals for screening, self-care management, and referral. In rural Bangladesh, where there is high demand for scarce male and even scarcer female doctors, remote consultations may help women seeking maternal and child health care. Aponjon is a mHealth service in Bangladesh that provides weekly voice or text messages to pregnant women, new mothers, and family members on various aspects of maternal, neonatal, and infant health. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.2196/11842DOI Listing
April 2019
1 Read

Cognitive control and capacity for prospective memory in complex dynamic environments.

J Exp Psychol Gen 2019 Apr 22. Epub 2019 Apr 22.

School of Psychological Science.

Performing deferred actions in the future relies upon Prospective Memory (PM). Often, PM demands arise in complex dynamic tasks. Not only can PM be challenging in such environments, the processes required for PM may affect the performance of other tasks. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/xge0000599DOI Listing

Floral colour structure in two Australian herbaceous communities: it depends on who is looking.

Ann Bot 2019 Apr 22. Epub 2019 Apr 22.

School of Biological Sciences, Monash University, Melbourne, Australia.

Background And Aims: Pollinator-mediated interactions between plant species may affect the composition of angiosperm communities. Floral colour signals should play a role in these interactions, but the role will arise from the visual perceptions and behavioural responses of multiple pollinators. Recent advances in the visual sciences can be used to inform our understanding of these perceptions and responses. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/aob/mcz043DOI Listing

Response of photosynthesis, growth and water relations of a savannah-adapted tree and grass grown across high to low CO2.

Ann Bot 2019 Apr 22. Epub 2019 Apr 22.

Department of Animal and Plant Sciences, University of Sheffield, Sheffield, UK.

Background And Aims: By the year 2100, atmospheric CO2 concentration ([CO2]a) could reach 800 ppm, having risen from ~200 ppm since the Neogene, beginning ~24 Myr ago. Changing [CO2]a affects plant carbon-water balance, with implications for growth, drought tolerance and vegetation shifts. The evolution of C4 photosynthesis improved plant hydraulic function under low [CO2]a and preluded the establishment of savannahs, characterized by rapid transitions between open C4-dominated grassland with scattered trees and closed forest. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/aob/mcz048DOI Listing

Left atrial appendage closure with WATCHMAN in Asian patients: 2 year outcomes from the WASP registry.

Int J Cardiol Heart Vasc 2019 Jun 9;23:100358. Epub 2019 Apr 9.

National Heart Institute, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.

Background: Left atrial appendage closure is a non-pharmacological alternative for stroke prevention in high-risk non-valvular atrial fibrillation patients, but has not been widely studied in Asian patients. The prospective WASP registry assessed real-world outcomes for patients undergoing WATCHMAN implant in the Asia-Pacific region.

Methods: Data were collected from consecutive patients across 9 centres. Read More

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https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S23529067193002
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijcha.2019.100358DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6458488PMC
June 2019
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Traditional plant functional groups explain variation in economic but not size-related traits across the tundra biome.

Glob Ecol Biogeogr 2019 Jan 16;28(2):78-95. Epub 2018 Nov 16.

Environmental Biology, Department Institute of Environmental Sciences, CML, Leiden University Leiden The Netherlands.

Aim: Plant functional groups are widely used in community ecology and earth system modelling to describe trait variation within and across plant communities. However, this approach rests on the assumption that functional groups explain a large proportion of trait variation among species. We test whether four commonly used plant functional groups represent variation in six ecologically important plant traits. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/geb.12783DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6472633PMC
January 2019

Chronic pain, pain severity and analgesia use in Australian women of reproductive age.

Women Birth 2019 Apr 7;32(2):e272-e278. Epub 2018 Jul 7.

Menzies Institute for Medical Research, University of Tasmania, Hobart, Australia. Electronic address:

Background: The increasing prevalence and adverse outcomes associated with opioid analgesia use in women of reproductive age have become a significant public health issue internationally, with use during pregnancy potentially affecting maternal and infant health outcomes.

Objective: This study aims to provide national estimates of chronic pain, pain severity and analgesia use in Australian women of reproductive age by pregnancy status.

Method: Data were obtained from the Australian Bureau of Statistics 2011-12 National Health Survey (n=20,426). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.wombi.2018.06.013DOI Listing

Health literacy training for Australian home care workers: Enablers and barriers.

Home Health Care Serv Q 2019 Apr 20:1-16. Epub 2019 Apr 20.

a Faculty of Health , University of Technology Sydney , Broadway , NSW , Australia.

The rapidly expanding Australian home care workforce represents an untapped resource for improving health literacy (HL) and health outcomes of their clients. Nine home care workers (HCWs) were interviewed for this study to gain data around their experiences of providing HL support to their clients, key HL needs and priorities, and training that would best these needs. Findings indicate that HCWs are providing HL support, and identify a number of enablers and barriers to providing this support. Read More

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https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.1080/01621424.2019.1
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/01621424.2019.1604458DOI Listing
April 2019
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"It's not just the wheelchair, it's everything else": Australian parents' perspectives of wheelchair prescription for children with neuromuscular disorders.

Disabil Rehabil 2019 Apr 21:1-10. Epub 2019 Apr 21.

b Discipline of Paediatrics, School of Women's and Children's Health , UNSW Medicine, UNSW Sydney , Sydney , NSW , Australia.

Purpose: Standards of care for neuromuscular disorders recommend timely provision of wheelchair equipment to support independent and spontaneous movement, age-appropriate participation, and psychological, social, cognitive and communication skills. Parental engagement is crucial to initiating wheelchair prescription. No studies have investigated parents' perceptions of this process or their experiences of their child's transition to wheelchair equipment. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/09638288.2019.1595749DOI Listing