148,077 results match your criteria Australian Journal Of Soil Research[Journal]


Species variation in the hydrogen isotope composition of leaf cellulose is mostly driven by isotopic variation in leaf sucrose.

Plant Cell Environ 2022 May 24. Epub 2022 May 24.

Department of Environmental Science - Botany, University of Basel, Schönbeinstrasse 6, 4056, Basel, Switzerland.

Experimental: approaches to isolate drivers of variation in the carbon-bound hydrogen isotope composition (δ H) of plant cellulose are rare and current models are limited in their application. This is in part due to a lack in understanding of how H-fractionations in carbohydrates differ between species. We analysed, for the first time, the δ H of leaf sucrose along with the δ H and δ O of leaf cellulose and leaf and xylem water across seven herbaceous species and a starchless mutant of tobacco. Read More

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Collective behaviour: Jackdaws vote to leave with their voice.

Authors:
Damien R Farine

Curr Biol 2022 May;32(10):R467-R469

Department of Evolutionary Biology and Environmental Studies, University of Zurich, Winterthurerstrasse 190, 8057 Zürich, Switzerland; Department of Collective Behavior, Max Planck Institute of Animal Behavior, Universitätsstraße 10, 78464 Konstanz, Germany; Division of Ecology and Evolution, Research School of Biology, Australian National University, 46 Sullivans Creek Road, Canberra, ACT 2600, Australia. Electronic address:

Making a decision as a group requires not only choosing where to go but also when to go. A new study provides experimental evidence that, in jackdaws, vocalisations facilitate synchronous early morning departures from communal roosts. Read More

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Interval cancers as related to frequency of recall to assessment in the South Australian population-based breast screening program: An exploratory study.

Cancer Epidemiol 2022 May 21;79:102183. Epub 2022 May 21.

Allied Health and Human Performance, University of South Australia, Adelaide, South Australia, Australia. Electronic address:

Australian accreditation standards specify upper limits for percentages of women recalled for further assessment following screening mammography. These limits have been unchanged since national screening commenced circa 1990, although screening target ages have changed, and technology from analogue to digital mammography. This study compared 2804 women with interval cancers diagnosed since national screening began (cases) with 14,020 cancer-free controls (5 controls per case), randomly selected after matching by age, round, screen type and calendar year of screening episode, to determine the odds of interval cancer by differences in clinic recall to assessment percentages. Read More

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Ancient proteins resolve controversy over the identity of eggshell.

Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2022 May 24:e2109326119. Epub 2022 May 24.

Institute of Arctic and Alpine Research, University of Colorado, Boulder, CO 80309.

SignificanceThe controversy over the taxonomic identity of the eggs exploited by Australia's first people around 50,000 y ago is resolved. The birds that laid these eggs are extinct, and distinguishing between two main candidates, a giant flightless "mihirung" and a large megapode , had proven impossible using morphological and geochemical methods. Ancient DNA sequencing remains inconclusive because of the age and burial temperature of the eggshell. Read More

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Protocol for a Delphi consensus study to select indicators of high-quality general practice to achieve Quality Equity and Systems Transformation in Primary Health Care (QUEST-PHC) in Australia.

PLoS One 2022 24;17(5):e0268096. Epub 2022 May 24.

School of Medicine, Western Sydney University, Sydney, NSW, Australia.

Background: High-quality general practice has been demonstrated to provide cost-effective, equitable health care and improve health outcomes. Yet there is currently not a set of agreed comprehensive indicators in Australia. We have developed 79 evidence-based indicators and their corresponding 129 measures of high-quality general practice. Read More

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Risk of variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease transmission by blood transfusion in Australia.

Vox Sang 2022 May 24. Epub 2022 May 24.

Australian Red Cross Lifeblood, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia.

Background And Objectives: Most of the 233 worldwide cases of variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (vCJD) have been reported in the United Kingdom and 3 have been associated with transfusion-transmission. To mitigate the potential vCJD risk to blood safety, Australian Red Cross Lifeblood imposes restrictions on blood donation from people with prior residency in, or extended travel to, the United Kingdom during the risk period 1980-1996. We have modified a previously published methodology to estimate the transfusion-transmission risk of vCJD associated with fresh component transfusion in Australia if the UK residence deferral was removed. Read More

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Nickel and Palladium Complexes of a PP(O)P Pincer Ligand Based upon a -Substituted Acenaphthyl Scaffold and a Secondary Phosphine Oxide.

Inorg Chem 2022 May 24. Epub 2022 May 24.

Institut für Anorganische Chemie und Kristallographie, Universität Bremen, Leobener Straße 3 & 7, 28359 Bremen, Germany.

A PP(O)P pincer ligand based upon a -substituted acenaphthyl (Ace) scaffold and a secondary phosphine oxide, (5-PhP-Ace-6-)P(O)H, was prepared and fully characterized including a neutron diffraction study. The reaction with [Ni(HO)]Cl and PdCl produced ionic metal(II) complexes [κ-,,((5-PhP-Ace-6-)P(OH))MCl]Cl, which upon addition of EtN gave rise to zwitterionic metal(II) complexes κ-,,((5-PhP-Ace-6-)P(O))MCl (M = Ni, Pd). The reaction with Ni(COD) (COD = cyclooctadiene) provided the η-cyclooctenyl Ni(II) complex κ-,,((5-PhP-Ace-6-)P(O))Ni(η-CH). Read More

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Progressive Resistance Training for Concomitant Increases in Muscle Strength and Bone Mineral Density in Older Adults: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

Sports Med 2022 May 24. Epub 2022 May 24.

Institute for Health and Sport (IHeS), Victoria University, Footscray Park Campus, Melbourne, VIC, 3134, Australia.

Background: Older adults experience considerable muscle and bone loss that are closely interconnected. The efficacy of progressive resistance training programs to concurrently reverse/slow the age-related decline in muscle strength and bone mineral density (BMD) in older adults remains unclear.

Objectives: We aimed to quantify concomitant changes in lower-body muscle strength and BMD in older adults following a progressive resistance training program and to determine how these changes are influenced by mode (resistance only vs. Read More

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The Effect of a Liberal Approach to Glucose Control in Critically Ill Patients with Type 2 Diabetes: A multicenter, parallel-group, open-label, randomized clinical trial.

Am J Respir Crit Care Med 2022 May 24. Epub 2022 May 24.

The University of Melbourne, 2281, Centre for Integrated Critical Care , Melbourne, Victoria, Australia.

Rationale Blood glucose concentrations affect outcomes in critically ill patients but the optimal target blood glucose range in those with type 2 diabetes is unknown. Objective To evaluate the effects of a 'liberal' approach to targeted blood glucose range during intensive care unit (ICU) admission. Methods This mutlicenter, parallel-group, open-label, randomized clinical trial included 419 adult patients with type 2 diabetes expected to be in the ICU on at least three consecutive days. Read More

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Epidemiology of ascites fluid infections in patients with cirrhosis in Queensland, Australia from 2008 to 2017: A population-based study.

Medicine (Baltimore) 2022 May 20;101(20):e29217. Epub 2022 May 20.

Centre for Liver Disease Research, Faculty of Medicine, the University of Queensland, Brisbane, QLD, Australia.

Abstract: Spontaneous bacterial peritonitis (SBP), a common infection in patients with cirrhosis and ascites, is associated with high morbidity and mortality. The aim of this study was to investigate changes in the epidemiology of ascites fluid infections over time in an Australian population, including patient demographics, trends in mortality, length of hospital stay and the nature and antibiotic resistance profile of causative organisms.An observational descriptive population-based epidemiological study of patients with cirrhosis admitted to public hospitals in Queensland during 2008-2017 was performed, linking demographic/clinical and microbiology data. Read More

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Collectively learning to talk about personal concerns in a peer-led youth program: A field study of a community of practice.

Health Soc Care Community 2022 May 24. Epub 2022 May 24.

Sydney School of Health Sciences, Faculty of Medicine and Health, University of Sydney, Australia.

Youth peer-support is an increasingly established approach to youth work. Drawing on Wenger's theory of a 'community of practice', this study explored social learning processes in an Australian community-based and peer-led youth program for young people from disadvantaged backgrounds. Social learning was conceptualised as arising from processes of 'negotiated meaning', which Wenger described as a duality of 'participation' and 'reification'. Read More

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Patients with treated indolent lymphomas immunized with BNT162b2 have reduced anti-spike neutralizing IgG to SARS-CoV-2 variants, but preserved antigen-specific T cell responses.

Am J Hematol 2022 May 24. Epub 2022 May 24.

Haematology Department, Concord Repatriation General Hospital, Sydney, NSW, Australia.

Patients with indolent lymphoma undertaking recurrent or continuous B cell suppression are at risk of severe COVID-19. Patients and healthy controls (HC; N=13) received 2 doses of BNT162b2: Follicular Lymphoma (FL; N=35) who were treatment naïve (TN; N=11) or received immunochemotherapy (ICT; N=23) and Waldenström's Macroglobulinemia (WM; N=37) including TN (N=9), ICT (N=14), or treated with Bruton's Tyrosine Kinase inhibitors (BTKi; N=12). Anti-spike IgG was determined by a high-sensitivity flow-cytometric assay, in addition to live-virus neutralization. Read More

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Increased context adjustment is associated with auditory sensitivities but not with autistic traits.

Autism Res 2022 May 24. Epub 2022 May 24.

Australian Research Council Centre of Excellence for Integrative Brain Function, Clayton, Victoria, Australia.

Bayesian models of autism suggest that alterations in context-sensitive prediction error weighting may underpin sensory perceptual alterations, such as hypersensitivities. We used an auditory oddball paradigm with pure tones arising from high or low uncertainty contexts to determine whether autistic individuals display differences in context adjustment relative to neurotypicals. We did not find group differences in early prediction error responses indexed by mismatch negativity. Read More

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De novo truncating NOVA2 variants affect alternative splicing and lead to heterogeneous neurodevelopmental phenotypes.

Hum Mutat 2022 May 24. Epub 2022 May 24.

Department of Neurosciences, Rehabilitation, Ophthalmology, Genetics, Maternal and Child Health, University of Genoa, Genoa, Italy.

Alternative splicing (AS) is crucial for cell-type specific gene transcription and plays a critical role in neuronal differentiation and synaptic plasticity. De novo frameshift variants in NOVA2, encoding a neuron-specific key splicing factor, have been recently associated with a new neurodevelopmental disorder (NDD) with hypotonia, neurological features, and brain abnormalities. We investigated eight unrelated individuals by exome sequencing (ES) and identified seven novel pathogenic NOVA2 variants, including two with a novel localization at the KH1 and KH3 domains. Read More

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The magnitude and correlates of internalized stigma among people with mental illness attending the outpatient department of Amanuel Mental Specialized Hospital, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.

Heliyon 2022 May 14;8(5):e09431. Epub 2022 May 14.

Hawassa University, College of Medicine and Health Sciences, Department of Midwifery, Ethiopia.

Introduction: Internalized stigma is an ongoing process of psychological assimilation of the community labels towards mental illness, in which people with mental illness (PWMI) gradually lose their current positive belief and confidence in themselves and their future wishes. It affects the treatment and help-seeking behavior which leads to poor drug adherence, social marginalization, unemployment, socio-economic devastation, and poor quality of life for PWMI. Therefore, the current study aimed to determine the magnitude and correlates of high internalized stigma among People with Mental Illness (PWMI) attending the outpatient department of Amanuel mental specialized hospital, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. Read More

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Unencumbered and still unequal? Work hour - Health tipping points and gender inequality among older, employed Australian couples.

SSM Popul Health 2022 Jun 13;18:101121. Epub 2022 May 13.

Research School of Population Health, Australian National University, Canberra, Australia.

Could working into older age offer women an opportunity to 'catch up' their careers and redress their financial disadvantage in retirement? This is a period of relative 'unencumbrance' from childrearing, potentially freeing women's time for more paid work. Here, we examine whether women aged 50 to 70 are able to increase their workhours, and what happens to their mental health, vitality and wealth. We used a representative household-based panel of employed older Australians (the HILDA survey). Read More

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Detection of Brucella spp. during a serosurvey of pig-hunting and regional pet dogs in eastern Australia.

Aust Vet J 2022 May 23. Epub 2022 May 23.

School of Veterinary and Animal Science, Charles Sturt University, Wagga Wagga, New South Wales, Australia.

Brucellosis is a zoonotic disease with worldwide distribution. Brucella suis serotype 1 is thought to be maintained in the Australian feral pig population, with disease prevalence higher in Queensland (Qld) than New South Wales (NSW). Pig hunting is a popular recreational activity in rural Qld and NSW, with feral pigs in these states thought to carry B. Read More

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One-Pot Synthesis of Block Copolymers by Orthogonal Ring-Opening Polymerization and PET-RAFT Polymerization at Ambient Temperature.

ACS Macro Lett 2016 Apr 17;5(4):444-449. Epub 2016 Mar 17.

Centre for Advanced Macromolecular Design (CAMD) and Australian Centre for NanoMedicine (ACN), School of Chemical Engineering, University of New South Wales, Sydney, NSW 2052, Australia.

Well-defined poly(ε-caprolactone)--poly(methyl acrylate) (PCL--PMA) block copolymers were synthesized at ambient temperature by one-pot combination of diphenyl phosphate (DPP)-catalyzed ring-opening polymerization (ROP) and photoinduced electron/energy transfer-reversible addition-fragmentation chain transfer (PET-RAFT) polymerization. Full orthogonality of PET-RAFT polymerization and DPP-catalyzed ROP was confirmed by kinetic studies, which allowed facile synthesis of PCL--PMA block copolymers without a specific polymerization sequence. The resulting PCL--PMA block copolymers synthesized by either sequential or simultaneous ROP and PET-RAFT polymerization showed remarkably low molecular weight distributions (≤1. Read More

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Construction of a 3-Miktoarm Star from Cyclic Polymers.

ACS Macro Lett 2012 Jun 8;1(6):780-783. Epub 2012 Jun 8.

Australian Institute for Bioengineering and Nanotechnology, University of Queensland, Brisbane 4072, Australia.

Cyclic polymers have intriguing physical properties, including those found in biological membranes for greater temperature, salt and acid stability. Although, many unique and complex synthetic cyclic structures have been prepared, there are no reports of ABC miktoarm stars constructed of three cyclic polymers with very different chemical compositions. We report such a structure in one pot at 25 °C by modulating the copper catalyst activity using combinations of solvents and ligands. Read More

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Selective Postmodification of Copolymer Backbones Bearing Different Activated Esters with Disparate Reactivities.

ACS Macro Lett 2013 Oct 25;2(10):912-917. Epub 2013 Sep 25.

Monash Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Monash University, Melbourne, VIC 3052, Australia.

In this communication, we report an easy method for introducing functional groups into polymer structures by successively reacting two different activated ester functionalities (pentafluorophenyl (PFP) ester and azlactone (AZ)) with different functional amine compounds. By exploiting the difference in reactivity of the two activated esters (PFP and AZ) toward different amino compounds, we demonstrate, for the first time, a selective modification of the different activated ester groups, thereby introducing functional groups to the polymer backbone in a controlled manner. Statistical and block copolymers of vinyl dimethyl azlactone (VDM) and pentafluorophenyl acrylate (PFPA), i. Read More

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October 2013

Sieve tube structural variation in Austrobaileya scandens and its significance for lianescence.

Plant Cell Environ 2022 May 23. Epub 2022 May 23.

Department of Organismic and Evolutionary Biology, Harvard University, 16 Divinity Avenue, Cambridge, MA, 02138, USA.

Lianas combine large leaf areas with slender stems, features that require an efficient vascular system. The only extant member of the Austrobaileyaceae is an endemic twining liana of the tropical Australian forests with well-known xylem hydraulics, but the vascular phloem continuum aboveground remains understudied. Microscopy analysis across leaf vein orders and stems of A. Read More

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Development and testing of an instrument to measure contextual factors influencing self-care decisions among adults with chronic illness.

Health Qual Life Outcomes 2022 May 23;20(1):83. Epub 2022 May 23.

University of Pennsylvania School of Nursing, Philadelphia, PA, US.

Background: Decisions about how to manage bothersome symptoms of chronic illness are complex and influenced by factors related to the patient, their illness, and their environment. Naturalistic decision-making describes decision-making when conditions are dynamically evolving, and the decision maker may be uncertain because the situation is ambiguous and missing information. Contextual factors, including time stress, the perception of high stakes, and input from others may facilitate or complicate decisions about the self-care of symptoms. Read More

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Enabling uptake and sustainability of supervision roles by women GPs in Australia: a narrative analysis of interviews.

BMC Med Educ 2022 May 23;22(1):398. Epub 2022 May 23.

General Practice Supervisors Australia, Bendigo, Victoria, 3550, Australia.

Background: Worldwide, the proportion of women entering careers in medicine is increasing. To ensure diversity and capacity in the general practice ("GP") supervision workforce, a greater understanding from the perspective of women GPs engaged in or considering the clinical supervision of trainee doctors is important. This narrative inquiry aims to explore the uptake and sustainability of supervision roles for women GPs in the Australian context. Read More

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Empathy and burnout in medical staff: mediating role of job satisfaction and job commitment.

BMC Public Health 2022 May 23;22(1):1033. Epub 2022 May 23.

School of Management, Tianjin University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Tianjin, 301617, China.

Background: Burnout is a growing problem among medical staff worldwide and empathy has been described as an essential competence to attenuate burnout. Previous studies found job satisfaction and job commitment were affected by the empathy and associated with burnout. This study explores the effect and mechanism of empathy on burnout on medical staff and investigates the mediating role of job satisfaction and job commitment in the relationship between empathy and burnout among medical staff. Read More

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Conventional MRI features can predict the molecular subtype of adult grade 2-3 intracranial diffuse gliomas.

Neuroradiology 2022 May 24. Epub 2022 May 24.

Department of Radiology, The Royal Melbourne Hospital, Parkville, VIC, Australia.

Purpose: Molecular biomarkers are important for classifying intracranial gliomas, prompting research into correlating imaging with genotype ("radiogenomics"). A limitation of the existing radiogenomics literature is the paucity of studies specifically characterizing grade 2-3 gliomas into the three key molecular subtypes. Our study investigated the accuracy of multiple different conventional MRI features for genotype prediction. Read More

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Nutrition and Health Claims: Consumer Use and Evolving Regulation.

Curr Nutr Rep 2022 May 24. Epub 2022 May 24.

School of Medical, Indigenous and Health Sciences, Faculty of Science, Medicine and Health, University of Wollongong, Wollongong, NSW, 2522, Australia.

Purpose Of Review: The value of nutrition and health claims (N&HC) depends on how consumers use them and the regulatory framework that enables them. This paper aims to explore the impact of claims on consumer behaviour and identify evolving regulatory challenges, using the Australian experience as a reference point.

Recent Findings: N&HC can influence consumer food purchasing and consumption, but how consumers interpret and act on specific claims is less well understood, and regulatory frameworks are evolving. Read More

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Signal requirement for cortical potential of transplantable human neuroepithelial stem cells.

Nat Commun 2022 May 23;13(1):2844. Epub 2022 May 23.

Lunenfeld-Tanenbaum Research Institute, Mount Sinai Hospital, Toronto, ON, Canada.

The cerebral cortex develops from dorsal forebrain neuroepithelial progenitor cells. Following the initial expansion of the progenitor cell pool, these cells generate neurons of all the cortical layers and then astrocytes and oligodendrocytes. Yet, the regulatory pathways that control the expansion and maintenance of the progenitor cell pool are currently unknown. Read More

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Attainment of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol goals in patients treated with combination therapy: A retrospective cohort study in primary care.

J Clin Lipidol 2022 May 11. Epub 2022 May 11.

School of Public Health and Preventive Medicine, Monash University, Melbourne, Australia (Marquina, Talic, Zomer, Vargas-Torres, Petrova, Wolfe, Abushanab, Ofori-Asenso, Liew, and Ademi); Centre for Medicine Use and Safety, Faculty of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Monash University, Australia (Ademi). Electronic address:

Background: The attainment of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) therapeutic goals in real-world settings among patients receiving combination lipid-lowering therapy (LLT, statins plus non-statins) is not well characterised.

Objective: To evaluate LDL-C levels and LDL-C goal attainment in patients treated with combination LLT in real-world primary care settings.

Methods: A retrospective cohort study of patients treated with combination LLT. Read More

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Engineering kesterite based photocathode for photoelectrochemical ammonia synthesis from NO reduction.

Adv Mater 2022 May 23:e2201670. Epub 2022 May 23.

School of Chemical Engineering, UNSW Sydney, Sydney, NSW, 2052, Australia.

Ammonia is a key chemical feedstock for industry as well as future carbon-free fuel and transportable vector for renewable energy. Photoelectrochemical (PEC) ammonia synthesis from NO reduction reaction (NO RR) provides not only a promising alternative to the energy-intensive Haber-Bosch process through direct solar-to-ammonia conversion, but a sustainable solution for balancing the global nitrogen cycle by restoring ammonia from wastewater. In this work, we, for the first time, demonstrated selective ammonia synthesis from PEC NO RR by kesterite (Cu ZnSnS (CZTS)) photocathode through loading defect-engineered TiO cocatalyst on CdS/CZTS photocathode (TiO /CdS/CZTS). Read More

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Integrating General Practice Into the Australian COVID-19 Response: A Description of the General Practitioner Respiratory Clinic Program in Australia.

Ann Fam Med 2022 May-Jun;20(3):273-276

Australian National University, Canberra, Acton, Australia.

Integrating primary care with the health response is key to managing pandemics and other health emergencies. In recognition of this, the Australian Government established a network of respiratory clinics led by general practitioners in response to the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic as part of broader measures aimed at supporting primary care. General practitioner (GP) respiratory clinics provide holistic face-to-face assessment and treatment to those with respiratory symptoms in an environment with strict protocols for infection prevention and control. Read More

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February 2021