121,877 results match your criteria Australian Journal Of Management[Journal]


Self-reported health, lifestyle and social circumstances of Australian adult cancer survivors: A propensity score weighted cross-sectional study.

Cancer Epidemiol 2020 Jun 29;67:101773. Epub 2020 Jun 29.

Department of Medical Oncology, Nelune Cancer Centre, Prince of Wales Hospital, Sydney, Australia.

Background: With the prevalence of cancer survivors increasing, their unique needs must be better understood. We examined the health, lifestyles and social circumstances of adults with and without a history of cancer.

Methods: We performed a cross-sectional study, using exposure and outcome data from the baseline survey (2006-2009) of participants in the 45 and Up Study, a prospective cohort study in New South Wales, Australia. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.canep.2020.101773DOI Listing

Hexaarylbiimidazoles(HABI)-functionalized lyotropic liquid crystalline systems as visible light-responsive materials.

J Colloid Interface Sci 2020 Jun 9;579:379-390. Epub 2020 Jun 9.

Drug Delivery, Disposition and Dynamics, Monash Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Monash University (Parkville Campus), 381 Royal Parade, Parkville, VIC 3052, Australia; ARC Centre of Excellence in Convergent Bio-Nano Science and Technology, Monash Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Monash University (Parkville Campus), 381 Royal Parade, Parkville, VIC 3052, Australia. Electronic address:

Hexaarylbiimidazoles (HABIs) are a promising class of photoswitchable molecule that have received little attention in the literature. Among them, (2,2'-dimethoxydiphenylimidazole)-1,1'-binaphthyl (HABI1) displays unusual negative photochromism and is responsive to green light. This study investigates the potential of HABIs to serve as photo-responsive actuators controlling the structure of lyotropic liquid crystalline (LLC) materials. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jcis.2020.06.006DOI Listing

Re-entrant swelling and redissolution of polyelectrolytes arises from an increased electrostatic decay length at high salt concentrations.

J Colloid Interface Sci 2020 Jun 20;579:369-378. Epub 2020 Jun 20.

Hefei National Laboratory for Physical Sciences at the Microscale, Key Laboratory of Surface and Interface Chemistry and Energy Catalysis of Anhui Higher Education Institutes, Department of Chemical Physics, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei 230026, PR China; Department of Applied Mathematics, Research School of Physics and Engineering, The Australian National University, Canberra, ACT 2601, Australia. Electronic address:

Hypothesis: A detailed understanding of the influence of electrolytes on the conformation of polyelectrolyte chains is an important goal made challenging by the strong coupling between electrostatic interactions and chain conformation. This challenge is particularly evident at moderate to high salt concentrations where mean-field theories of electrolytes are no longer applicable and are therefore unable to predict the interactions between neutral or like charged surfaces that leads to re-entrant swelling of DNA and other polyelectrolytes at high salt concentrations. Recent developments arising from studies of surface forces in ionic liquids that have been extended to include a wide variety of monovalent electrolytes reveal a hitherto unknown increase in the electrostatic decay length at high electrolyte concentrations. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jcis.2020.06.072DOI Listing

The effect of pH on the fat and protein within cream cheese and their influence on textural and rheological properties.

Food Chem 2020 Jun 15;332:127327. Epub 2020 Jun 15.

The Bio21 Molecular Science and Biotechnology Institute, The University of Melbourne, Parkville, Victoria 3010, Australia; The ARC Dairy Innovation Hub, The Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, The University of Melbourne, Parkville, Victoria 3010, Australia. Electronic address:

The effect of variation in acid gel pH during cream cheese production was investigated. The gel microstructure was denser and cheese texture firmer, as the pH decreased from pH 5.0 to pH 4. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2020.127327DOI Listing

High flow nasal cannula in the immediate post-operative period: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

Chest 2020 Jun 29. Epub 2020 Jun 29.

Department of Medicine, McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario, Canada; Department of Health Research Methods, Evidence and Impact, McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario, Canada. Electronic address:

Background: Recent studies have demonstrated that high flow nasal cannula (HFNC) prevents intubation in acute hypoxic respiratory failure when compared to conventional oxygen therapy (COT). However, the data examining routine HFNC use in the immediate post-operative period is less clear.

Research Question: Is routine HFNC use superior to COT or non-invasive ventilation (NIV) in preventing intubation in post-operative patients?

Study Design: and Methods: We comprehensively searched databases (MEDLINE, EMBASE, Web of Science) to identify randomized controlled trials (RCTs) that compared the effect of HFNC use to COT or NIV in the immediate post-operative period on reintubation, escalation of respiratory support, hospital mortality, ICU and hospital length of stay, post-operative hypoxemia and treatment complications. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.chest.2020.06.038DOI Listing

Non-invasive assessment of the cardiac effects of Chironex fleckeri and Carukia barnesi venoms in mice, using pulse wave doppler.

Toxicon 2020 Jun 29. Epub 2020 Jun 29.

Dept of Emergency Medicine, Cairns Hospital, Australia.

Both Chironex fleckeri venom (CFV) and Carukia barnesi venoms (CBV) are known to cause significant cardiac morbidity and mortality. Many animal studies have demonstrated cardiac dysfunction with these venoms. This study specifically examines the systolic and diastolic cardiac functions using non-invasive pulse wave doppler. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.toxicon.2020.06.018DOI Listing

Challenges and Opportunities of Evidence Use in Practice in Australian Children's Development Programs.

J Evid Based Soc Work (2019) 2020 Jul 2:1-18. Epub 2020 Jul 2.

Faculty of Education, Monash University , Melbourne, Australia.

This paper explores the role of evidence and its use in a cluster of Australian community-based child development programs. The paper draws on findings from a 2016-2017 study commissioned by a not-for-profit organization to review their programs' alignment with government evidence-based program expectations. Cunningham and Duffee's (2009) evidence-based practice style typology is utilized to examine how different purposes of use drive styles of and approaches to evidence sourcing, application, and reporting. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/26408066.2020.1781727DOI Listing

Increased glutaminyl cyclase activity in brain of Alzheimer's disease individuals.

J Neurochem 2020 Jul 2. Epub 2020 Jul 2.

Florey Institute of Neuroscience and Mental Health, The University of Melbourne, Parkville, Victoria, 3010, Australia.

Glutaminyl cyclases (QC) catalyze the formation of neurotoxic pGlu-modified amyloid-β peptides found in the brains of people with Alzheimer's disease (AD). Reports of several-fold increases in soluble QC (sQC) expression in the brain and peripheral circulation of AD individuals has prompted the development of QC inhibitors as potential AD therapeutics. There is however a lack of standardized quantitative data on QC expression in human tissues, precluding inter-laboratory comparison and validation. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jnc.15114DOI Listing

Utilisation of general practice health assessments around an aged care assessment is associated with lower mortality risk in older Australians.

Age Ageing 2020 Jul 2. Epub 2020 Jul 2.

Healthy Ageing Research Consortium, Registry of Senior Australians (ROSA), South Australian Health and Medical Research Institute (SAHMRI), Adelaide, South Australia, Australia.

Objective: (i) to describe the general practitioner utilisation of health assessments, management plans, coordination of team care arrangements and medication review item numbers within 6 months of an aged care eligibility assessment for home care packages (HCP) and (ii) investigate the impact of health assessments on the risk of mortality and entry into permanent residential aged care (PRAC) of individuals accessing HCP.

Design And Setting: retrospective cohort study utilising data from the Registry of Senior Australians (ROSA) was conducted.

Subjects: 75,172 individuals aged ≥75 years who received HCP between 2011 and 2015. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/ageing/afaa091DOI Listing

Development of a polygenic risk score to improve screening for fracture risk: A genetic risk prediction study.

PLoS Med 2020 Jul 2;17(7):e1003152. Epub 2020 Jul 2.

Centre for Clinical Epidemiology, Department of Medicine, Lady Davis Institute, Jewish General Hospital, McGill University, Montréal, Québec, Canada.

Background: Since screening programs identify only a small proportion of the population as eligible for an intervention, genomic prediction of heritable risk factors could decrease the number needing to be screened by removing individuals at low genetic risk. We therefore tested whether a polygenic risk score for heel quantitative ultrasound speed of sound (SOS)-a heritable risk factor for osteoporotic fracture-can identify low-risk individuals who can safely be excluded from a fracture risk screening program.

Methods And Findings: A polygenic risk score for SOS was trained and selected in 2 separate subsets of UK Biobank (comprising 341,449 and 5,335 individuals). Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pmed.1003152DOI Listing

Comorbid Depression and Obesity: Correlates and Synergistic Association With Noncommunicable Diseases Among Australian Men.

Prev Chronic Dis 2020 Jul 2;17:E51. Epub 2020 Jul 2.

Nossal Institute for Global Health, School of Population and Global Health, University of Melbourne, Melbourne, Australia.

Introduction: Obesity and depression are among the leading causes of disease worldwide. Their bidirectional relationship often results in comorbid depression and obesity, which further increases the risk of adverse health outcomes. Further evidence is needed on the correlates and synergistic association with other noncommunicable diseases. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.5888/pcd17.190420DOI Listing

Where are oral and dental adverse drug effects in product information?

Int J Pharm Pract 2020 Jul 2. Epub 2020 Jul 2.

School of Pharmacy, University of Queensland, Brisbane, Qld, Australia.

Objectives: Oral adverse drug reactions are common and are associated with some of our most frequently used medicines. It is important to identify and manage oral adverse drug effects promptly as they not only negatively impact dental health, but also adversely affect medication adherence, clinical outcomes and patient quality of life. This study assessed the location of oral drug-induced adverse effects in the registered drug company product information (PI) of the top 100 most commonly used drugs in Australia as dispensed on the Pharmaceutical Benefits Scheme in 2018. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/ijpp.12650DOI Listing

Validation of the Australian version of the Chronic Kidney Disease Self-Management instrument.

Int J Nurs Pract 2020 Jul 2:e12857. Epub 2020 Jul 2.

Kidney Health Service, Metro North Hospital and Health Service, Royal Brisbane and Women's Hospital, Brisbane, Queensland, Australia.

Aim: The aim of this study is to evaluate the validity and reliability of the modified Chronic Kidney Disease Self-Management instrument in an English-speaking population.

Background: There is growing evidence that self-management behaviours can improve outcomes for people with chronic kidney disease. However, there are few suitable instruments available. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/ijn.12857DOI Listing

Association of weather factors with the risk of pain exacerbations in people with hip osteoarthritis.

Scand J Rheumatol 2020 Jul 2:1-6. Epub 2020 Jul 2.

Institute of Bone and Joint Research, Kolling Institute, The University of Sydney , Sydney, NSW, Australia.

Objectives: Our objective was to evaluate the association of weather factors with the risk of pain exacerbations in people with symptomatic hip osteoarthritis (OA).

Method: Eligible participants with symptomatic hip OA were instructed to log on to the study website and complete questionnaires every 10 days and additionally whenever they considered they were experiencing a pain exacerbation (case period) during the 90 day follow-up. Pain exacerbation was defined as an increase of two points in pain intensity on an 11-point numeric rating scale (0-10) during the follow-up compared with baseline. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/03009742.2020.1760929DOI Listing

Relative Hypotension and Adverse Kidney-related Outcomes Among Critically Ill Patients with Shock- A Multicenter Prospective Cohort Study.

Am J Respir Crit Care Med 2020 Jul 2. Epub 2020 Jul 2.

The Canberra Hospital, Intensive Care Unit, Woden (Canberra) , Australian Capital Territory, Australia.

Rationale: There are no prospective observational studies exploring the relationship between relative hypotension and adverse kidney-related outcomes among critically ill patients with shock.

Objectives: To investigate the magnitude of relative hypotension during vasopressor-support among critically ill patients with shock, and to determine if such relative hypotension is associated with new significant acute kidney injury (AKI) or major adverse kidney event (MAKE) within 14 days of vasopressor-initiation.

Methods: At seven multidisciplinary ICUs, 302 patients, aged ≥40 years, requiring ≥4 hours of vasopressor-support for non-hemorrhagic shock, were prospectively enrolled. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1164/rccm.201912-2316OCDOI Listing

Mothers' and fathers' quantitative and qualitative parenting in relation to children's emotional adjustment: A between- and within-family investigation.

Dev Psychol 2020 Jul 2. Epub 2020 Jul 2.

Department of Public Administration and Sociology.

This longitudinal study of Australian families ( = 1,884, from age 6-12) examined how fathers' and mothers' quantitative involvement (time spent on childcare) and qualitative involvement (specific parenting behaviors) relate to children's emotional adjustment development. We used dynamic structural equation modeling to disentangle stable between-family differences from within-family fluctuations in qualitative parenting and emotional adjustment, allowing us to investigate the direction of effects between parents and children. Because fathers have been theorized to contribute uniquely to emotional adjustment development, we examined differences between mothers and fathers and the interplay between parent and child sex. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/dev0001042DOI Listing

Sublethal effects of contaminants on marine habitat-forming species: a review and meta-analysis.

Biol Rev Camb Philos Soc 2020 Jul 2. Epub 2020 Jul 2.

Centre for Marine Scince and Innovation, Evolution & Ecology Research Centre, School of Biological, Earth and Environmental Sciences, University of New South Wales, Sydney, New South Wales, 2052, Australia.

Contaminants may affect ecosystem functioning by reducing the fitness of organisms and these impacts may cascade through ecosystems, particularly if the sensitive organisms are also habitat-forming species. Understanding how sub-lethal effects of toxicants can affect the quality and functions of biogenic habitats is critical if we are to establish effective guidelines for protecting ecosystems. We carried out a global systematic review and meta-analysis critically evaluating contaminant effects on properties of habitat-formers linked to ecosystem functioning. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/brv.12630DOI Listing

Exploring the knowledge translation of domestic violence research: A literature review.

Health Soc Care Community 2020 Jul 2. Epub 2020 Jul 2.

Department of General Practice, The University of Melbourne, Melbourne, Vic, Australia.

There is growing recognition of the links between knowledge translation, policy and practice, particularly in the domestic violence research area. A literature review applying a systematic approach with a realist lens was the preferred methodology. The review answered the following question: What are the mechanisms of change in research networks which 'work' to support knowledge translation? A search of eight electronic databases for articles published between 1960 and 2018 was completed, with 2,999 records retrieved, 2,869 records excluded and 130 full-text articles screened for final inclusion in the review. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/hsc.13070DOI Listing

Withdrawal and Misuse Concerns of Consumers regarding Opioid Analgesic and Anxiolytic, Hypnotic and Sedative Medicines.

Subst Use Misuse 2020 Jul 2:1-13. Epub 2020 Jul 2.

School of Pharmacy, The University of Queensland, Woolloongabba, Queensland, Australia.

Opioid analgesic (OA) and anxiolytic, hypnotic and sedative (AHS) medicines use raise community concerns about risks of dependence: dose escalation, unintentional misuse. We aimed to identify common consumer OA and AHS information gaps and concerns that led to information seeking from a hotline. We conducted a retrospective, mixed-method observational study of consumers' OA and AHS-related calls to an Australian national medicines call center (September 2002-30 June 2010). Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10826084.2020.1784948DOI Listing

Next Steps for Elevating Health on Trade and Investment Policy Agendas Comment on "How Neoliberalism Is Shaping the Supply of Unhealthy Commodities and What This Means for NCD Prevention".

Authors:
Belinda Townsend

Int J Health Policy Manag 2020 Jul 1;9(7):312-314. Epub 2020 Jul 1.

School of Regulation and Global Governance, Australian National University, Canberra, ACT, Australia.

Despite intergovernmental calls for greater policy coherence to tackle rising non-communicable diseases (NCDs), there has been a striking lack of coherence internationally and nationally between trade and health sectors. In this commentary, I explore the arguments by Lenucha and Thow in relation to barriers for greater coherence for NCDs, apply them to regional trade agreements, and point to next steps in research and advocacy for greater attention to health and NCD prevention in government trade agendas. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.15171/ijhpm.2019.126DOI Listing

Physical functional limitations and psychological distress in people with and without colorectal cancer: findings from a large Australian study.

J Cancer Surviv 2020 Jul 2. Epub 2020 Jul 2.

National Centre for Epidemiology and Population Health, Research School of Population Health, Australian National University, Canberra, ACT, Australia.

Purpose: To quantify physical disability and psychological distress in people with and without colorectal cancer (CRC).

Methods: Questionnaire data (2006-2009) from 267,153 Australian general population members aged ≥ 45 years participating in the 45 and Up Study (n = 213,231 following exclusions) were linked to cancer registry and hospital admission data, to ascertain CRC status. Modified Poisson regression estimated adjusted prevalence ratios (PRs) for physical disability and psychological distress in participants with CRC versus those without. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11764-020-00901-yDOI Listing

Correction to: Osteoporosis medication use among Australian women over two decades.

Arch Osteoporos 2020 Jul 1;15(1):99. Epub 2020 Jul 1.

IMPACT, the Institute for Mental and Physical Health and Clinical Translation, School of Medicine, Deakin University, Geelong, Australia.

The original version of this article, published 06 May 2020, unfortunately contained a mistake. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11657-020-00772-xDOI Listing

Adjusting conventional FRAX estimates of fracture probability according to the recency of sentinel fractures.

Osteoporos Int 2020 Jul 1. Epub 2020 Jul 1.

Centre for Metabolic Bone Diseases, University of Sheffield Medical School, Beech Hill Road, Sheffield, S10 2RX, UK.

The risk of a recurrent fragility fracture is particularly high immediately following the fracture. This study provides adjustments to FRAX-based fracture probabilities accounting for the site of a recent fracture.

Introduction: The recency of prior fractures affects subsequent fracture risk. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00198-020-05517-7DOI Listing

Implementing a prospective surveillance and early intervention model of care for breast cancer-related lymphedema into clinical practice: application of the RE-AIM framework.

Support Care Cancer 2020 Jun 29. Epub 2020 Jun 29.

Vanderbilt University School of Nursing, Nashville, TN, USA.

Purpose: Chronic lymphedema following breast cancer (BC) affects individuals physically, functionally, psychologically, and financially. Despite national guidelines and evidence-based research supporting a prospective surveillance and early intervention model of care (PSM), bridging the gap between research and clinical practice has been difficult.

Method: As part of an international randomized controlled trial (RCT), Australian women with BC from four hospitals were recruited, monitored for lymphedema at regular intervals over a 3-year period, and were provided a compression garment if intervention was triggered. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00520-020-05597-5DOI Listing

3-Year effect of weight loss via severe versus moderate energy restriction on body composition among postmenopausal women with obesity - the TEMPO Diet Trial.

Heliyon 2020 Jun 24;6(6):e04007. Epub 2020 Jun 24.

School of Human Sciences, Faculty of Science, The University of Western Australia, Crawley, Western Australia, Australia.

We have previously shown that a severely energy-restricted diet leads to greater loss of weight, fat, lean mass and bone mineral density (BMD) at 12 months in postmenopausal women with obesity than a moderately energy-restricted diet. We now aim to evaluate whether these effects are sustained longer term (ie, at 36 months). 101 postmenopausal women were randomized to either 12 months of moderate (25 to 35%) energy restriction with a food-based diet (moderate intervention), or 4 months of severe (65 to 75%) energy restriction with a total meal replacement diet followed by moderate energy restriction for 8 months (severe intervention). Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.heliyon.2020.e04007DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7322133PMC

An Exploration of Knowledge and Attitudes of Medical Students and Rheumatologists to Placebo and Nocebo Effects: Threshold Concepts in Clinical Practice.

J Med Educ Curric Dev 2020 Jan-Dec;7:2382120520930764. Epub 2020 Jun 22.

Sydney Health Ethics, Faculty of Medicine and Health, University of Sydney, and Department of Haematology, Royal North Shore Hospital, NSW, Australia.

Introduction: Understanding placebo and nocebo responses (context/meaning effects [CMEs]) is fundamental to physician agency. Specific instruction in CMEs is often lacking in medical education. Patient-practitioner interactions may challenge medical students' understanding of biomedical causality and the nexus between this, practical ethics and professionalism across various conceptual and applied aspects of CMEs. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/2382120520930764DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7309386PMC

Targeting Nuclear LSD1 to Reprogram Cancer Cells and Reinvigorate Exhausted T Cells via a Novel LSD1-EOMES Switch.

Front Immunol 2020 16;11:1228. Epub 2020 Jun 16.

Gene Regulation and Translational Medicine Laboratory, QIMR Berghofer Medical Research Institute, Brisbane, QLD, Australia.

Lysine specific demethylase 1 (LSD1) is a key epigenetic eraser enzyme implicated in cancer metastases and recurrence. Nuclear LSD1 phosphorylated at serine 111 (nLSD1p) has been shown to be critical for the development of breast cancer stem cells. Here we show that circulating tumor cells isolated from immunotherapy-resistant metastatic melanoma patients express higher levels of nLSD1p compared to responders, which is associated with co-expression of stem-like, mesenchymal genes. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fimmu.2020.01228DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7309504PMC

Preferential retention of algal carbon in benthic invertebrates: Stable isotope and fatty acid evidence from an outdoor flume experiment.

Freshw Biol 2020 Jul 2;65(7):1200-1209. Epub 2020 Mar 2.

WasserCluster Lunz - Inter-University Center for Aquatic Ecosystems Research Lunz am See Austria.

According to the River Continuum Concept, headwater streams are richer in allochthonous (e.g. terrestrial leaves) than autochthonous (e. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/fwb.13492DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7317824PMC

Genome-wide patterns of differentiation over space and time in the Queensland fruit fly.

Sci Rep 2020 Jul 1;10(1):10788. Epub 2020 Jul 1.

Applied BioSciences, Macquarie University, Sydney, NSW, 2109, Australia.

The Queensland fruit fly, Bactrocera tryoni, is a major pest of Australian horticulture which has expanded its range in association with the spread of horticulture over the last ~ 150 years. Its distribution in northern Australia overlaps that of another fruit fly pest to which some authors accord full species status, Bactrocera aquilonis. We have used reduced representation genome-wide sequencing to genotype 359 individuals taken from 35 populations from across the current range of the two taxa, plus a further 73 individuals from six of those populations collected 15-22 years earlier. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-020-67397-5DOI Listing

Quantum correlations between light and the kilogram-mass mirrors of LIGO.

Nature 2020 Jul 1;583(7814):43-47. Epub 2020 Jul 1.

LIGO, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA, USA.

The measurement of minuscule forces and displacements with ever greater precision is inhibited by the Heisenberg uncertainty principle, which imposes a limit to the precision with which the position of an object can be measured continuously, known as the standard quantum limit. When light is used as the probe, the standard quantum limit arises from the balance between the uncertainties of the photon radiation pressure applied to the object and of the photon number in the photoelectric detection. The only way to surpass the standard quantum limit is by introducing correlations between the position/momentum uncertainty of the object and the photon number/phase uncertainty of the light that it reflects. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41586-020-2420-8DOI Listing

Parasite infection directly impacts escape response and stress levels in fish.

J Exp Biol 2020 Jul 1. Epub 2020 Jul 1.

ARC Centre of Excellence for Coral Reef Studies, James Cook University, Townsville, Queensland 4811, Australia.

Parasites can account for a substantial proportion of the biomass in marine communities. As such, parasites play a significant ecological role in ecosystem functioning via host interactions. Unlike macropredators, such as large piscivores, micropredators rarely cause direct mortality. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1242/jeb.230904DOI Listing

Developmental outcomes following vaccine-proximate febrile seizures in children.

Neurology 2020 Jul 1. Epub 2020 Jul 1.

From the National Centre for Immunisation Research and Surveillance (L.D., N.W., K.M.), Children's Hospital Education Research Institute (B.B.), and Kids Neuroscience Centre (B.B.), The Children's Hospital at Westmead; University of Sydney Children's Hospital Westmead Clinical School (L.D., N.W., K.M., B.B.); Discipline of Paediatrics (M.G.), School of Medicine, Women's and Children's Hospital, University of Adelaide; Department of Paediatrics (N.C.), University of Melbourne, Royal Children's Hospital; Murdoch Children's Research Institute (N.C., J.B.), Parkville; Infection and Immunity (J.B.), Monash Children's Hospital, Department of Paediatrics, Monash Centre for Health Care Research and Implementation, Monash University, Clayton; Wesfarmer's Centre of Vaccines and Infectious Disease (P.R.), Telethon Kids Institute, West Perth; and School of Paediatrics and Child Health (P.R.), University of Western Australia, Perth, Australia.

Objective: To compare the developmental and behavioral outcomes of children experiencing an initial vaccine-proximate (VP) febrile seizure (FS) to those having a non-VP-FS (NVP-FS) and controls who have not had a seizure.

Methods: In this prospective multicenter cohort study, children with their first FS before 30 months of age between May 2013 and April 2016 were recruited from 4 Australian pediatric hospitals and classified as having VP-FS or NVP-FS. Similar-aged children with no seizure history were recruited as controls. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1212/WNL.0000000000009876DOI Listing

Against the use and publication of contemporary unethical research: the case of Chinese transplant research.

J Med Ethics 2020 Jul 1. Epub 2020 Jul 1.

Sydney Health Ethics, The University of Sydney, Sydney, New South Wales, Australia.

Recent calls for retraction of a large body of Chinese transplant research and of Dr Jiankui He's gene editing research has led to renewed interest in the question of publication, retraction and use of unethical biomedical research. In Part 1 of this paper, we briefly review the now well-established consequentialist and deontological arguments for and against the use of unethical research. We argue that, while there are potentially compelling justifications for use under some circumstances, these justifications fail when unethical practices are ongoing-as in the case of research involving transplantations in which organs have been procured unethically from executed prisoners. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/medethics-2019-106044DOI Listing

Rates of PRN Medication Administration in Australian Residential Aged Care.

J Am Med Dir Assoc 2020 Jun 28. Epub 2020 Jun 28.

Centre for Medicine Use and Safety, Faculty of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Monash University, Melbourne, Australia. Electronic address:

Objective: To investigate administration of pro re nata (PRN) medications and nurse-initiated medications (NIMs) in Australian aged care services over a 12-month period.

Design: Twelve-month longitudinal audit of medication administrations.

Setting And Participants: Three hundred ninety-two residents of 10 aged care services in regional Victoria, Australia. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jamda.2020.04.033DOI Listing

Three-dimensional printing versus conventional machining in the creation of a meatal urethral dilator: development and mechanical testing.

Biomed Eng Online 2020 Jul 1;19(1):55. Epub 2020 Jul 1.

Science and Engineering Faculty, Queensland University of Technology, Brisbane, Australia.

Background: Three-dimensional (3D) printing is a promising technology, but the limitations are often poorly understood. We compare different 3D printing methods with conventional machining techniques in manufacturing meatal urethral dilators which were recently removed from the Australian market.

Methods: A prototype dilator was 3D printed vertically orientated on a low-cost fused deposition modelling (FDM) 3D printer in polylactic acid (PLA) and acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS). Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12938-020-00799-8DOI Listing

Working together in Aboriginal health: a framework to guide health professional practice.

BMC Health Serv Res 2020 Jul 1;20(1):601. Epub 2020 Jul 1.

College of Nursing and Health Sciences, Flinders University, GPO Box 2100, Adelaide, South Australia, 5001, Australia.

Background: Working effectively with Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people is important for maximising the effectiveness of a health care interaction between and Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander patients and a health professional. This paper presents a framework to guide health professional practice in Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander health.

Methods: This qualitative study was based in a social constructionist epistemology and was guided by a critical social research methodology. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12913-020-05462-5DOI Listing

Treatment outcomes of patients with tuberculosis in war affected region of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan.

BMC Infect Dis 2020 Jul 1;20(1):463. Epub 2020 Jul 1.

Department of Epidemiology and Health Statistics, School of Public Health, Southeast University, Nanjing, 210009, China.

Background: Globally, tuberculosis (TB) remains the leading cause of death from a single infectious disease. TB treatment outcome is an important indicator for the effectiveness of a national TB control program. This study aimed to assess treatment outcomes of TB patients and its determinants in Batkhela, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12879-020-05184-3DOI Listing

Health-education to prevent COVID-19 in schoolchildren: a call to action.

Infect Dis Poverty 2020 Jul 1;9(1):81. Epub 2020 Jul 1.

Infectious Diseases Division, QIMR Berghofer Medical Research Institute, Brisbane, Australia.

Background: There is currently considerable international debate around school closures/openings and the role of children in the transmission of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Whilst evidence suggests that children are not impacted by COVID-19 as severely as adults, little is still known about their transmission potential, and with a lot of asymptomatic cases they may be silent transmitters (i.e. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s40249-020-00695-2DOI Listing

Incidence and factors associated with geographical relocation in patients receiving renal replacement therapy.

BMC Nephrol 2020 Jul 1;21(1):249. Epub 2020 Jul 1.

Renal Unit, Wollongong Hospital, Locked Bag 8808, South Coast Mail Centre, Wollongong, NSW, 2521, Australia.

Background: Renal replacement therapy (RRT) places a burden on patients, and geographical relocation for easier access to healthcare facilities is a necessity for some. Incidence and factors associated with relocation has not been comprehensively examined at a national level. We aimed to determine proportion, incidence, characteristics of RRT patients who relocate and relocation rate by remoteness of residence and dialysis modality. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12882-020-01887-6DOI Listing

Synchronization of extreme rainfall during the Australian summer monsoon: Complex network perspectives.

Chaos 2020 Jun;30(6):063117

Helmholtz-Zentrum Potsdam, Deutsches GeoForschungsZentrum GFZ, Telegrafenberg, 14473 Potsdam, Germany.

Monsoon rains are an important fresh water supply for agricultural activity, while extreme rainfalls during a monsoon season frequently cause flash floods. In this study, a nonlinear causation measure of event synchronization is used to set complex networks of extreme rainfall during the Australian summer monsoon (ASM) development between 1st November and 1st March. We adopted Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission-based satellite rain rate estimates from 1998 to 2015. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1063/1.5144150DOI Listing

The Langmuir probe system in the Wendelstein 7-X test divertor.

Rev Sci Instrum 2020 Jun;91(6):063505

Max-Planck-Institut für Plasmaphysik, 17491 Greifswald, GermanyAustralian National University, Canberra, ACT 2600, Australia.

The design and evaluation of the Langmuir probe system used in the first divertor operation phase of Wendelstein 7-X is described. The probes are integrated into the target plates and have individually facetted surfaces to keep the angle of incidence of the magnetic field within an appropriate range for different magnetic configurations. Multiple models for the derivation of plasma parameters from current-voltage characteristics are introduced. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1063/1.5143013DOI Listing

Overcoming Barriers to Applying Systems Thinking Mental Models in Policy-Making Comment on "What Can Policy-Makers Get Out of Systems Thinking? Policy Partners' Experiences of a Systems-Focused Research Collaboration in Preventive Health".

Authors:
Sobia Khan

Int J Health Policy Manag 2020 Apr 8. Epub 2020 Apr 8.

The Center for Implementation, Toronto, ON, Canada.

Systems thinking provides the health system with important theories, models and approaches to understanding and assessing complexity. However, the utility and application of systems thinking for solution-generation and decision-making is uncertain at best, particularly amongst health policy-makers. This commentary aims to elaborate on key themes discussed by Haynes and colleagues in their study exploring policy-makers' perceptions of an Australian researcher-policy-maker partnership focused on applications of systems thinking. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.34172/ijhpm.2020.50DOI Listing

What Can Health Services Researchers Offer Health Systems? Developing Meaningful Partnerships Between Academics and Health System Workers Comment on "Experience of Health Leadership in Partnering with University-Based Researchers in Canada - A Call to 'Re-imagine' Research".

Int J Health Policy Manag 2020 Jan 22. Epub 2020 Jan 22.

Australian Institute of Health Innovation, Macquarie University, Sydney, NSW, Australia.

As healthcare researchers, we know very well our own experiences on the challenges of partnering with those in the health system to do collaborative, internationally-regarded studies aiming for impact. Bowen and colleagues' study in Canada empirically examines these issues from the other side, interviewing health system leaders about their perspectives of us researchers, research collaborations and the challenges and opportunities these pose. Based on their findings, they propose a need to re-imagine the contours of research. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.15171/ijhpm.2020.07DOI Listing
January 2020

What Generates Attention to Health in Trade PolicyMaking? Lessons From Success in Tobacco Control and Access to Medicines: A Qualitative Study of Australia and the (Comprehensive and Progressive) Trans-Pacific Partnership.

Int J Health Policy Manag 2020 Jun 7. Epub 2020 Jun 7.

Institute of Population Health, University of Ottawa, Ottawa, ON, Canada.

Background: Despite greater attention to the nexus between trade and investment agreements and their potential impacts on public health, less is known regarding the political and governance conditions that enable or constrain attention to health issues on government trade agendas. Drawing on interviews with key stakeholders in the Australian trade domain, this article provides novel insights from policy actors into the range of factors that can enable or constrain attention to health in trade negotiations.

Methods: A qualitative case study was chosen focused on Australia's participation in the Trans-Pacific Partnership (TPP) negotiations and the domestic agenda-setting processes that shaped the government's negotiating mandate. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.34172/ijhpm.2020.80DOI Listing

Financing Maternity and Early Childhood Healthcare in The Australian Healthcare System: Costs to Funders in Private and Public Hospitals Over the First 1000 Days.

Int J Health Policy Manag 2020 May 12. Epub 2020 May 12.

Children's Hospital at Westmead Clinical School, Faculty of Medicine and Health, University of Sydney, Sydney, NSW, Australia.

Background: Maternity care is a significant contributor to overall healthcare expenditure, and private care is seen as a mechanism to reduce the cost to public funders. However, public funders may still contribute to part of the cost of private care. The paper aims to quantify (1) the cost to different funders of maternal and early childhood healthcare over the first 1000 days for both women giving birth in private and public hospitals; (2) any variation in cost to different funders by birth type; and (3) the cost of excess caesarean sections in public and private hospitals in Australia. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.34172/ijhpm.2020.68DOI Listing

"It's Not Smooth Sailing": Bridging the Gap Between Methods and Content Expertise in Public Health Guideline Development.

Int J Health Policy Manag 2020 Aug 1;9(8):335-343. Epub 2020 Aug 1.

Charles Perkins Centre, Faculty of Medicine and Health, School of Pharmacy, The University of Sydney, Sydney, NSW, Australia.

Background: The development of reliable, high quality health-related guidelines depends on explicit and transparent processes, methods aimed at minimising risks of bias and the inclusion of all relevant expertise and perspectives. While the methodological aspects of guidelines have been a focus to improve their quality, less is known about the social processes involved, for example, how guideline group members interact and communicate with one another, and how the evidence is considered in informing recommendations. With this in in mind, we aimed to empirically examine the perspectives and experiences of the key participants involved in developing public health guidelines for the Australian National Health and Medical Research Council (NHMRC). Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.15171/ijhpm.2019.137DOI Listing

Approaches to Facilitate Improved Recruitment, Development, and Retention of the Rural and Remote Medical Workforce: A Scoping Review Protocol.

Int J Health Policy Manag 2020 Mar 10. Epub 2020 Mar 10.

The Rural Clinical School of WA, School of Medicine, Faculty of Health and Medical Sciences, The University of Western Australia, Perth, WA, Australia.

Background: Medical workforce scarcity in rural and remote communities is a global problem, severely challenging healthcare delivery and health equity. Both developed and developing countries report geographically uneven distributions of the medical workforce. This scoping review synthesizes evidence from peer-reviewed and grey literature concerning approaches implemented to improve the recruitment, development, and retention of the rural medical workforce in both developed and developing countries. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.34172/ijhpm.2020.27DOI Listing

It Is Not All About Being Sweet: Differences in Floral Traits and Insect Visitation among Hybrid Carrot Cultivars.

Insects 2020 Jun 29;11(7). Epub 2020 Jun 29.

Tasmanian Institute of Agriculture, University of Tasmania, Churchill Ave, Hobart 7005, Australia.

Cytoplasmically male-sterile (CMS) carrot cultivars suffer from low pollination rates. In this study, insect visitation varied more than eightfold between 17 CMS carrot cultivars in a field-based cultivar evaluation trial. The visitation rates of honey bees, nectar scarabs, muscoid flies, and wasps each significantly differed among these cultivars. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/insects11070402DOI Listing

Genebank Phenomics: A Strategic Approach to Enhance Value and Utilization of Crop Germplasm.

Plants (Basel) 2020 Jun 29;9(7). Epub 2020 Jun 29.

Australian Grains Genebank, Agriculture Victoria, 110 Natimuk Road, Horsham, Victoria 3400, Australia.

Genetically diverse plant germplasm stored in ex-situ genebanks are excellent resources for breeding new high yielding and sustainable crop varieties to ensure future food security. Novel alleles have been discovered through routine genebank activities such as seed regeneration and characterization, with subsequent utilization providing significant genetic gains and improvements for the selection of favorable traits, including yield, biotic, and abiotic resistance. Although some genebanks have implemented cost-effective genotyping technologies through advances in DNA technology, the adoption of modern phenotyping is lagging. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/plants9070817DOI Listing

The Australian Roadkill Reporting Project-Applying Integrated Professional Research and Citizen Science to Monitor and Mitigate Roadkill in Australia.

Animals (Basel) 2020 Jun 29;10(7). Epub 2020 Jun 29.

Sydney School of Veterinary Science, University of Sydney, Sydney, NSW 2006, Australia.

Australia has no national roadkill monitoring scheme. To address this gap in knowledge, a roadkill reporting application (app) was developed to allow members of the public to join professional researchers in gathering Australian data. The app is used to photograph roadkill and simultaneously records the GPS location, time and date. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ani10071112DOI Listing